Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2688 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (229 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (237 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (176 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1325 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (56 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (98 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (115 journals)

ENGINEERING (1325 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 601 - 800 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
International Journal of Quality Assurance in Engineering and Technology Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Quality Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Quantum Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Rapid Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT     Open Access  
International Journal of Reliability, Quality and Safety Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Science and Innovative Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Science Engineering and Advance Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Service Science, Management, Engineering, and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Signal and Imaging Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Six Sigma and Competitive Advantage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Social Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Space Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Speech Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Spray and Combustion Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Student Project Reporting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Surface Engineering and Interdisciplinary Materials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Surface Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Sustainable Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sustainable Lighting     Open Access  
International Journal of Sustainable Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Systems and Service-Oriented Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Technoethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Turbomachinery, Propulsion and Power     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Ultra Wideband Communications and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Vehicle Autonomous Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Vehicle Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Vehicle Information and Communication Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Vehicle Noise and Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Vehicle Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Virtual Technology and Multimedia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Wavelets, Multiresolution and Information Processing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal on Artificial Intelligence Tools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems     Open Access  
International Nano Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
International Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 122)
International Scientific and Vocational Studies Journal     Open Access  
International Scientific Journal of Engineering and Technology (ISJET)     Open Access  
Inventions     Open Access  
Inventum     Open Access  
Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Investiga : TEC     Open Access  
Ionics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IPTEK The Journal for Technology and Science     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Optimization     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A : Science     Hybrid Journal  
IRBM News     Full-text available via subscription  
Ironmaking & Steelmaking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ISA Transactions     Full-text available via subscription  
ISSS Journal of Micro and Smart Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IT Professional     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Iteckne     Open Access  
J-ENSITEC : Journal Of Engineering and Sustainable Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Johnson Matthey Technology Review     Open Access  
Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management     Open Access  
Journal of Advanced Joining Processes     Open Access  
Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Aerosol Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Journal of Alloys and Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Journal of Applied Research and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Architectural and Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Architectural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Automation and Control     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Biological Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Biomolecular NMR     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Pathology and Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Catalyst & Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Central South University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of China Coal Society     Open Access  
Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Cleaner Production     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Coastal and Riverine Flood Risk (JCRFR)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Cold Regions Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Combinatorial Designs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Computational and Nonlinear Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Computational Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Computational Design and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Computational Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Computational Multiphase Flows     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Coupled Systems and Multiscale Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Dairy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Delta Urbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Display Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Dynamical and Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Elasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electroceramics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Electronic Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electronics Cooling and Thermal Control     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Electrostatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Energy Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Energy Resources Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Engineering and Applied Science     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Engineering Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Engineering Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Engineering Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Engineering Research and Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering Technology and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Engineering, Project, and Production Management     Open Access  
Journal of Environmental & Engineering Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Environmental Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Fire Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Flood Risk Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Flow Control, Measurement & Visualization     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fluids Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Fourier Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Functional Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Geological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Geotechnical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Geovisualization and Spatial Analysis     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Global Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University     Open Access  
Journal of Hazardous Materials Advances     Open Access  
Journal of Healthcare Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Journal of Humanitarian Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Hydraulic Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Industrial and Production Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Industrial Safety Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Inequalities and Applications     Open Access  
Journal of Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Infrastructure Preservation and Resilience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Institute of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent Systems : Theory and Applications     Open Access  
Journal of International Maritime Safety, Environmental Affairs, and Shipping     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Iron and Steel Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of King Saud University - Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of KONBiN     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Management in Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Manufacturing Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Mechanical Design and Testing     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Mechatronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Mega Infrastructure & Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Metallurgy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Mining Institute     Open Access  
Journal of Motor Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Multivariate Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Nanoengineering and Nanomanufacturing     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanoparticle Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nanoscience     Open Access  
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of NanoScience, NanoEngineering & Applications     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

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Journal of Engineering
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.194
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2314-4904 - ISSN (Online) 2314-4912
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [339 journals]
  • Investigation of Forming Behaviour of Metal-Polymer Sandwich Composite
           through Limit Dome Height Test Simulations

    • Abstract: Metal-polymer-metal (MPM) sandwich composites are in the class of proficient engineering materials which give outstanding strength-to-weight ratios because of their comparatively low density. These materials are vital constituents within the automobile, aerospace, marine, and civil construction industries as substitutes for sheet metals that considerably reduce weight while not compromising functionality. Moreover, these materials have supplementary qualities like sound dampening and thermal insulation capabilities. For these materials to be utilized within the aforesaid industries, they need to bear numerous forming processes that are essential in product manufacturing. This paper investigated formability analysis of metal-polymer sandwich composites made of “AW 6082-PVC-AW 6082 (APA)” and “galvanized steel-PVC-galvanized steel (GPG)” sandwich sheets, considering epoxy structural adhesives as the binding agent, via FEA simulation. All the FEA simulations were performed using Altair HyperWorks software. For evaluating the formability, the actual limit dome height (LDH)—biaxial strain path—tests were simulated using FEM software. The results analyzed are forming limit diagram (FLD), punch force distribution, and a dome height at diverse conditions of punch velocity and friction. A comparison is made to represent the best combinations for formability of the sandwich composites. Maximum formability and dome height are attained at low friction conditions and forming speed. It has also been observed that LDH simulations are very sensitive to friction, and it has a substantial impact on the test outputs. Maximum thinning (or fracture) generally moves away from the apex of the dome towards the die corner radius as the friction increases from zero upwards.
      PubDate: Fri, 13 May 2022 07:35:00 +000
  • Compilation of Smart Cities Attributes and Quantitative Identification of
           Mismatch in Rankings

    • Abstract: One practical way to define a “smart city” is to look at the specific qualities listed in a ranking study about smart cities. Such method gives de facto guidelines for classifying a city as being smart or not. Building upon this rationale, the current work in its first objective presents features adopted in evaluating the “smartness” of cities in seven evaluations and in its second objective arranges them in a suggested structure of six scopes with forty-three keywords. With these two objectives, the current study serves as a summary of various ranking studies in terms of being a collection place of many evaluation criteria. Four of the considered studies are the 2018 and 2019 annual editions from two sources, and comparing these criteria shows some changes over one year, and these updates are highlighted. A third objective of this study considers analyzing assigned ranks and utilizing a normalized score (limited to a maximum of unity) derived from the raw scores given in six ranking studies (out of the seven considered, with one ranking study excluded as it does not give raw numerical scores) to the six cities that commonly appear in all of them. This part shows with details the existence of mismatch not just in a one-time ranking, but also in a year-to-year trend, where a city appears to be improving according to one evaluator while appears to be degrading according to another evaluator. As a fourth objective, statistical analysis of the evaluation results was conducted, with quantitative assessment of rankings mismatch.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 May 2022 03:20:00 +000
  • Fabrication Process Stochastic Model for Yield Estimation in Microwave
           Semiconductor Devices Production

    • Abstract: This paper presents a new methodology for simulation of production processes in order to determine device parametric yield. The elaborated methodology is focused on capturing stochastic relations between every parameter of the subsequent processes that are impossible to determine directly. The current state-of-the-art together with the gaps in the knowledge regarding yield modelling is presented. A novel approach to the important issue of effective yield modelling that allows the overcoming of current challenges is presented. The methodology’s usefulness is validated with the example of the fabrication process of AlGaN/GaN HEMT (high electron mobility transistor) for application in high-frequency electronics. Fabrication of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs is a complex process due to the large number of technological stages required, most of which are still the subject of ongoing research. Most importantly, the approach presented in this paper could be easily applied to the modelling of any complex production process in every case where it is necessary to examine relations between the final product parameters distribution and the values of the involved process parameters.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Apr 2022 03:20:00 +000
  • Performance Analysis and Optimization of Built-In Permanent Magnet and
           Salient-Pole Electromagnetic Hybrid Excitation Generators for Vehicles

    • Abstract: To solve the problems of the low power density of pure electric excitation generator and nonadjustable magnetic field of pure permanent magnet (PM) generator, a salient-pole hybrid excitation generator (HEG) was proposed in this paper. The designed generator realized coexcitation of two magnetic fields by changing the shape of the pole shoes and embedding the combined-pole PM steels. Compared with other HEGs, it had the advantages of high power density, less excitation loss, and small volume. The paper deduced the analytical expressions of the main magnetic field and armature reaction magnetic field of the HEG and analyzed the armature reaction magnetic circuit, the main influencing parameters, and the influence law of each parameter on the generator output performance to complete the parameter matching of the whole machine. The prototype was trial manufactured and tested with the optimized parameters. The results show that the designed HEG has a low voltage regulation rate, good no-load characteristics, and regulation characteristics. It can ensure the regulated output voltage under rated load conditions and meet the application requirement.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Apr 2022 04:50:02 +000
  • Ethiopian Water Hyacinth Leaf Extract as a Potential Tannery Effluent
           Treatment Material

    • Abstract: Industrial effluents have a serious problem on our ecosystem. Tannery effluent contains a huge amount of pollutant compounds such as toxic substances which need to be treated using either synthetic or natural products. The present study focussed on the treatment of tannery effluents using water hyacinth plant leaf extract. Though some researchers have tried to use this extract for the same, the researchers have experimented only to treat that of Cr3+ and there are a bit of difference in the methodology they followed. In addition, the scope of this research was wider. In this study, fresh raw WH leaves were collected from around Lake Tana, Ethiopia, cleaned and made to powder and then extraction was performed using different solvents. The solvent effects were examined using the ANOVA test. The tannery wastewater was treated with the extracts and parts of the effluents were kept as a control for comparison. Treated and untreated tannery effluents were compared using standard methods such as SLC 22, SLC 8, APHA 2540C, APHA 2540D, and Hack LCK 139 to determine Cr6+, Cr3+, TDS, TSS, and TKN, respectively. The highest amount of Cr6+, Cr3+, and TKN were removed at 30% water hyacinth leaves extracted by distilled water solvent and that of the least was found at hyacinth leaves extract by ethanol solvent but by acetone in BOD and COD treatment. In addition, though it was out of the permissible limit, by using the same amount of the material extracted by distilled water solvent some amounts of BOD and TDS were removed from the wastes compared to that of untreated tannery effluents. Generally, water hyacinth leaf extract is found effective material for the treatment of tannery effluents and can be used in the sector industries. Future studies may be required for setting the most optimum extract concentration for better results.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Apr 2022 15:49:15 +000
  • Experimental Investigation on Impact of EGR Configuration on Exhaust
           Emissions in Optimized PCCI-DI Diesel Engine

    • Abstract: The main objective of this work is to analyse the impact of different EGR configurations (no EGR, cold EGR, and hot EGR) on exhaust emissions of PCCI-DI engine. Methanol port injection, dieseline direct injection, advanced injection timing, and different EGR rates were adapted and optimized on the baseline engine. A hybrid algorithm of grey relational analysis with the Taguchi method was implemented for optimization. Results were compared among the PCCI-DI combustion strategy with the baseline using cold EGR, hot EGR, and no EGR configurations. Both cold and hot EGR configurations resulted in lower emission of NOx plus smoke at different loads. At low loads, hot EGR showed promising results of lower HC and CO than the cold EGR with a difference of 18.33% and 33.3%, respectively. NOx and smoke reductions simultaneously and better trade-offs were obtained using cold EGR configuration.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Apr 2022 13:35:03 +000
  • Managing the Conflict between Economic and Social Factors in a Lean

    • Abstract: The Lean approach has been a huge success in various public and private entities throughout the world over the last few decades. However, there are still expected needs regarding the social climate to improve working conditions of the employees. This paper presents the conflict between economic and social factors, which has a huge effect on staff involvement and motivation. This article is based on a descriptive investigation that involved 130 people. According to survey data, more than 60% of individuals believe that Lean degrades social factors, particularly in impoverished nations. A case study was conducted to present a real-life example of Lean’s negative effects on working conditions. This example clearly demonstrates the influence of Lean on ergonomics, safety, and environment (ESE). This paper allows for a better understanding of the negative effects of Lean on social factors and business performance.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Mar 2022 02:20:01 +000
  • Evaluation of Compressive and Tensile Strength of Self-Curing Concrete by
           Adding Crushed Bricks as Additive Material

    • Abstract: Curing is an essential stage in the production of concrete because it controls cement hydration and strength evolution. One of the methods of curing is the internal or self-curing which can be achieved by using materials of specific characteristics inside concrete to provide moisture from within the concrete as opposed to outside of it. This water should not affect the water-cement ratio. Lightweight coarse or fine aggregate or using absorbent polymer particles with an ability to keep water inside the concrete mixture can be used for this purpose. This study presents the use of crushed brick as a curing agent and evaluate its effects on the compressive and tensile strengths of concrete at different ages. Four mixes were used: M0, M10, M20, and M30. All the aggregates in mix M0 are natural gravel, while mixes M10, M20, and M30 contain 10%, 20%, and 30% crushed bricks, respectively, as replacement of coarse aggregate. The tests results showed that using crushed brick as a self-curing agent gave compressive strength up to 87.8% and splitting tensile strength up to 169% compared to water-cured concrete.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Mar 2022 04:20:13 +000
  • Effects of Different Target Solar Fractions on Providing Heat Required for
           Space Heating, Sanitary Hot Water, and Swimming Pool in Iran: A Case Study
           in Cold Climate

    • Abstract: Due to limited fossil fuel resources, population growth, and the need to save energy and prevent the emission of pollutants, solar heating is of great importance as a strategic solution. Due to these cases, in the present work, for the first time, the use of flat plate solar water heaters (SWHs) in Shahrekord located in the cold climate of Iran has been studied. The aim is to supply heating for space, sanitary hot water, and swimming pool of a residential apartment. Also, technical-economic-energy-environmental analyses have been done. Three low, medium, and high solar fraction scenarios have been selected for evaluations, and one-year dynamic analysis has been performed by TSOL 2018 commercial software. The required climatic data have been extracted by Meteonorm 7.3 software. The results showed that in most cases of heat supply, i.e., high solar fraction scenario, the percentage of solar heat supply for sanitary hot water, space heating, and swimming pool is 97.8%, 22.3%, and 44.3%, respectively, and the total solar fraction is 41%. Also, in this case, the release of more than 4 tons of CO2 pollutants has been prevented. Energy balance diagrams for different scenarios showed that 60% of losses are optical and thermal and also the highest rate of losses was related to the swimming pool. The lowest cost of heat generated and the lowest payback time were $ 0.028/kWh and 11.4 years, respectively, which were related to the high solar fraction scenario.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Mar 2022 09:35:01 +000
  • Conjugate Natural Convection: A Study of Optimum Fluid Flow and Heat
           Transfer in Eccentric Annular Channels

    • Abstract: Laminar natural convection-conduction heat transfer in vertically positioned annular channels with inherent eccentricity is investigated for optimum solid-fluid thermal conductivity ratio and optimum cylinder walls thicknesses allowing maximum induced fluid flow rate and heat transfer under varying geometry parameters, i.e., annulus eccentricity and radius ratio. A finite-difference technique is employed to solve the coupled momentum and energy equations for the cylindrical annulus walls and the annular fluid with Prandtl number 0.7. As part of the results, fluctuations in the induced fluid flow rate and heat transfer in the eccentric annular channel due to the conjugate effect, governed by the ratios of the solid and fluid thermal conductivities and thicknesses of outer and inner circular cylinder walls, are obtained for the boundary conditions of one wall heated isothermally and the other kept adiabatic. Commonly encountered ratios of the solid and fluid thermal conductivities and cylinder walls thicknesses are utilized in the present analysis. Results reveal that the optimum conductivity ratio and cylinder walls thicknesses increase nonlinearly with eccentricity and radius ratio. Such results can be very useful in effectively designing the heat transfer equipment for optimum performance.
      PubDate: Fri, 04 Mar 2022 07:20:02 +000
  • Behavior of Multispan Extradosed Bridge Subjected to Variation of
           Cable-Free Segment Length

    • Abstract: Based on the main bridge of the Paira Bridge in Bangladesh, this paper studies the behavior of multispan extradosed bridge subjected to variation of cable-free segment length. First, a finite element simulation model was established, and linear analysis was performed. The accuracy of the finite element model was verified by comparing the measured data with the finite element analysis. Then the influences of the cable-free segment length in the midspan and the pylon root on the horizontal displacement of the pylon top, the vertical deflection of the midspan, and the bending moment of the main girder were analyzed, respectively. The results showed that the variation of the cable-free segment length put a significant impact on the horizontal displacement of the pylon top and the vertical displacement of the middle of each span. The increase of positive moment was greater than negative moment when the cable-free segment length in the middle of the span increased. However, when the cable-free segment length of the pylon root increased, the negative bending moment of the main girder increased more than the positive bending moment.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Feb 2022 07:05:00 +000
  • Effect of the Imperfection of Open-End Yarn (Thin, Thick, and Nep Place)
           on Air Permeability of Plain Woven Fabric

    • Abstract: Wearing clothes is an intermediate channel by exchange of air released from human bodies and environments to bring breathing stability and to control body temperature. Air permeability is an expression describing the properties of a fabric that permit the passage of air through the fabric’s interstices. It has been found that there are many factors that can affect the air permeability of a fabric comfort. Several early studies of air permeability of different materials showed that different factors affect air permeability and breathability of fabrics, and some of them are imperfections of yarns (thick, thin, and nep place) which are introduced on the surface of the fabric that originated from the appearance of the yarn. In this experiment, the yarn and fabric samples are collected from five different spinning mills which have an identical warp yarn linear density of 20 Ne regardless of the weft linear density, and the fabric was constructed from those selected yarns by using the thread set of 28 ends per centimeter and 20 picks per centimeter. The experiment was conducted by measuring the imperfection of each code of yarn on USTER statistics and air permeability of the fabric with respect to the thin, thick, and nep place/km of the yarn and fabric cover. The impacts of each factor were analyzed, and the relationships of each parameter were stated on the graph. The results were discussed by using the design of the experiment by quadratic and linear models to the response of air permeability and fabric cover, respectively, and the results showed that there is a direct impact of thin, thick, and neps of the yarn on the ability of the fabric to permeate air.
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Feb 2022 03:35:01 +000
  • Wireless Sensor Network Cluster Head Selection and Short Routing Using
           Energy Efficient ElectroStatic Discharge Algorithm

    • Abstract: Wireless sensor networks attract so much attention in current IoT-enabled industrial and domestic applications having either homogeneous or heterogeneous sensors deployed to acquire information of intent. WSNs are designed to operate using self-powered sensor nodes as their choice of application is geographic critical. Such nodes must support energy efficiency so that network longevity becomes high. Cluster head selection plays a crucial stage in a WSN architecture which mainly focuses on the minimization of network energy consumption. It groups sensor nodes in such a way that a sophisticated network cluster is formed to have enhanced life time besides a low power consumption. A popular clustering technique, known as LEACH and its variants, is found to be energy efficient compared to its counterparts. The authors propose a novel fully connected energy efficient clustering (FCEEC) mechanism using the electrostatic discharge algorithm to establish a fully connected network with shortest path routing from sensor nodes (SNs) to cluster head (CH) in a multihop environment. The proposed electrostatic discharge algorithm (ESDA) enhances network life time while attaining energy efficient full connectivity between sensor nodes. As a result of ESD, the dead node count is reduced significantly so that the network longevity is increased. In the end, simulation results exhibited improved performance metrics such as energy efficiency, dead node count, packet delivery, and network latency compared to certain conventional CH selection approach.
      PubDate: Sat, 12 Feb 2022 06:20:00 +000
  • Designing and Sensitivity Analysis of an Off-Grid Hybrid Wind-Solar Power

    • Abstract: Because of the lack of transmission and distribution grid of electricity in remote and inaccessible areas due to the high cost of construction of the transmission line along with the unsuitable geographical conditions and taking into account the factors affecting sustainable energy production, renewable energy seems like a sensible solution. Therefore, in this paper, considering the solar and wind potential of Turkalan village located in East Azerbaijan Province, the combined solar-wind-diesel generator system with battery bank and independent of the grid was evaluated. Sensitivity analysis and optimal measurement of the studied system were performed by HOMER software. Sensitivity analysis was performed on the parameters of solar radiation, light reflection from the environment, and wind speed. The goal was to supply 22 kWh/d of energy with a maximum load demand of 2.5 kW. The four hybrid systems proposed by the software considering the total net present cost (NPC) were solar-generator-battery, solar-wind-generator-battery, solar-battery, and solar-wind-battery, respectively. The studies were conducted to determine which of the systems is more suitable for the area.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2022 05:20:01 +000
  • Optimum Design of Fully Composite, Unstiffened, Built-Up, Hybrid Steel
           Girder Using GRG, NLR, and ANN Techniques

    • Abstract: Composite steel beams are commonly used element in multistorey steel buildings to enhance floor economy and serviceability and provide more clear height. Due to the low level of stress in the webs of such beams, hybrid sections are used where the flanges have higher strength than the webs. A lot of earlier research was carried out to optimize the design of the hybrid and nonhybrid composite steel beams under both static loading and dynamic behavior. However, there is still a need to develop a more practical optimization method. The aim of this research is to develop simple and practical equations to determine the optimum cross section dimensions for both shored and unshored, simply supported, hybrid and nonhybrid, composite steel beam under static loads. To achieve that goal, a research program of two phases was carried out. The first phase was generating a database of 504 composite beams with different steel grades for flanges and webs, subjected to different values of bending moment. The cross section of each beam in the database was optimized using GRG technique to minimize the cost considering the unit price of each steel grade. In the second phase, the generated database was divided into training and validation subsets and used to develop two predictive models using Nonlinear Regression (NLR) technique and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technique to predict the optimum cross section dimensions and hence the optimum weight and cost. The accuracies of the developed models were measured in terms of average error percent. NLR and ANN models showed average error percent of 16% and 11%, respectively.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Feb 2022 11:05:01 +000
  • Numerical Modeling of a Hot Plate Stove for Peanut Roasting

    • Abstract: Heat treatment, especially roasting, is known to reduce harmful fungal species and mycotoxin formation to a great extent. Experiments were conducted for heat treatment and the effects of introducing different fin configurations. ANSYS Fluent 14.5 was used to simulate the three-dimensional (3D) roaster geometry. The effect of the addition of different fins at the bottom of the hot plate was then studied. It was observed that maximum surface temperatures of 133°C, 153.25°C, 310.63°C, and 265.07°C were obtained after 180 minutes (three hours) for the experimental (without fins), predicted (without fins), predicted (with rod fins), and predicted (with honeycomb fins), respectively. The addition of honeycomb and rod fins to the roster’s plate increased temperatures by 115.34% and 143.03% of the original roaster hot plate. Thus, a design with rod fins added to the hot plate could improve its thermal performance and hence reduce the harmful effects of possible fungal species and mycotoxin contamination.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Feb 2022 06:50:02 +000
  • Location of Emergency Escape Ramps on Two-Lane Rural Highways Based on the
           Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision-Making Method

    • Abstract: Today, the lack of practical research is one of the most important concerns worldwide, and location, which is an important issue in most projects, has received less attention from experts. In this study, the location criteria of emergency escape ramps were examined, and according to the Myers formula, the temperature-distance diagram along the route was obtained. Also, the speed of vehicles entering the escape ramp was examined according to the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in the proposed options that were obtained from the experts. Then, 3 general criteria and 16 subcriteria were classified, and finally, the importance of criteria was examined by the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (F-AHP), and the high-priority options were illustrated using the fuzzy technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (F-TOPSIS). The proposed options were evaluated and prioritized for an emergency escape ramp on the two-lane rural highways of Salavat Abad village pass of Sanandaj city, Kurdistan Province, Iran. The results showed that the technical criteria with more than 69% among the general criteria and subcriteria of the percentage of longitudinal slope, longitudinal slope length, and vehicle design speed were the most important factors influencing the location of an emergency escape ramp. Moreover, among the proposed options, the four options 3, 4, 5, and 6 had the highest score, and option 6 (Kurkur turn (2)) was identified as the most priority location for implementing the emergency escape ramp.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Feb 2022 05:50:01 +000
  • Applications of Convolutional Neural Network for Classification of Land
           Cover and Groundwater Potentiality Zones

    • Abstract: In the field of groundwater engineering, a convolutional neural network (CNN) has become a great role to assess the spatial groundwater potentiality zones and land use/land cover changes based on remote sensing (RS) technology. CNN can be offering a great potential to extract complex spatial features with multiple high levels of generalization. However, geometric distortion and fuzzy entity boundaries as well as a huge data preparation severance may be the main constraint and affect the spatial potential of CNN application for land cover classification. This study aims to recognize the proficiency of deep learning algorithms, i.e., CNN, for spatial assessment of groundwater potential zones and land cover. Among the groundwater influencing factors, classification of land cover (agriculture, built-up, water bodies, forests, and bare land) has been reported by several researchers for different purposes and they approved the CNN capability for the prediction of spatial groundwater potentiality zones like very high, high, moderate, poor, and very poor areas. In this study, CNN is recommended as a very essential algorithm for the identification of groundwater potential zones and classification of land use/land cover change. CNN gives a better option for scholars regarding when the limited data sets are available for validation.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Jan 2022 07:35:06 +000
  • Fully Isolated Quad-Port Electric Energy Routing Converter with Medium-
           and High-Voltage Grid Connection Capability

    • Abstract: Aiming at the demand for medium- and high-voltage port access capability in energy router, this study proposes a quad-port DC/DC converter topology scheme based on modular multilevel converter (QP-M2DC). Compared with the traditional multiterminal energy routing converter, it has the advantages of high modularity, strong flexibility, and high power density. In addition, for the modular structure on the medium- and high-voltage sides, this study proposes a narrow phase-shift cyclic modulation strategy, which reduces the system need for voltage balance control and simplifies the overall system control. This study comprehensively introduces and analyses the QP-M2DC topology, working principle, high-frequency link equivalent, and power characteristics, then establishes an equivalent model of system control, and proposes a control scheme for a multiterminal energy routing converter. Finally, a simulation model of the system is established through PLECS, and the simulation results show that in such a narrow phase-shift modulation strategy, the proposed topology can have stable operation in a variety of patterns, reduce the capacitance, and achieve better voltage balance at the same time. The experimental results show the converter efficiency of up to 97.8%. It further shows the superiority of the proposed topology structure and the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed control schemes.
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Jan 2022 16:35:01 +000
  • Verification of a Torsional Behaviour Prediction Model for Reinforced
           Recycled Aggregate Concrete Beams

    • Abstract: This study shows the torsional conduct of aggregate streaming beams of reinforced concrete recycling. Pure torsion was perceived for 15 reinforced concrete beams containing recycled concrete aggregates. The beams were grouped into five lengths and cross-sectional groups. The study’s principal parameters were the various percentages of longitudinal steel reinforcement and the proportions of recycled aggregates. The beams were purely twisted until failure and investigated for torsional and crack behaviour. The findings show that the beams with maximum steel enhancement and standard aggregate exhibited maximum cracking power and ultimate torsional strength. Recycled aggregates increased the presence of splitting and the ultimate strength, and the effects of steel strengthening in recycled beams were apparent. In a second analysis, the whole torsional reaction of the beams was analytically predicted. A soft truss model was used and matched with test results for standard beams. A strong compromise was generally reached.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Jan 2022 16:50:02 +000
  • Corrigendum to “A Comparative Study of Compact Multiband Bio-Inspired
           Asymmetric Microstrip Fed Antennas (BioAs-MPAs) for Wireless

    • PubDate: Mon, 10 Jan 2022 13:05:01 +000
  • Beneficiation of Commiphora africana Plant: Extraction and Application of
           Green Softener on Cotton Fabric

    • Abstract: This paper aims at the extraction and application of eco- and user-friendly natural gum obtained from Commiphora Africana tree. The result obtained is also compared with fabric treated with a commercial softener of the same concentration. The gum was extracted by puncturing the stem of the plant and the extracted gum was applied directly to 100% cotton fabric through a padding process with different concentrations of extracted gum (i.e., 20 gram per litre (g/l), 25 g/l, and 30 g/l). Another similar fabric sample was treated with a silicon softener of the same concentration. The fabric samples treated with both natural gum and silicon softener were tested for their stiffness, crease recovery, and drapability. The results show that the change in fabric softness depends on the concentration of softener used in both cases. As the concentration of the softener increased, there was a decrease in bending length and drape coefficient for both fabric samples. The drape coefficient of fabric sample treated with natural gum has a comparable result with fabric treated with silicon/commercial softener. Maximum increases in recovery angle were seen in fabric treated with natural gum at a concentration of 30 g/l.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Dec 2021 11:20:03 +000
  • Regulation of Temperature on Multitrays in an Indirect Solar Dryer (ISD)
           with Energy Storage and Three Airflow Modes

    • Abstract: This work presents the regulation of temperature in an indirect multitrays solar dryer with oriented flux under the irradiance fluctuation. The temperature regulator using a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) as a sensor and fans is designed, and a similar device is also used to measure humidity through a sensor. Inlet and outlet dryer temperature and temperature on the three trays have been recorded with the regulation system according to different airflow modes. Irradiance and humidity have also been recorded. The model of outlet temperature with energy storage was given by using heat transfer equations. The results have shown that in the linking airflow mode, the average temperature on the three trays is 51.3 ± 1.5a°C, 52.18 ± 1.4a°C, and 51.9 ± 1.2a°C, respectively, with 52°C as setpoint temperature and NTC fixed on tray number 2. With temperature sensor in the same tray and 51°C as setpoint temperature, the average temperatures on the three trays are 51.86 ± 1.54°C, 51.60 ± 1.16°C, and 50.42 ± 1.13°C, respectively, in mixed mode, whereas in crossing airflow mode, the temperature gradient does not allow regulation on all trays. The regulation is possible when the temperature in the dryer chamber exceeds the set point temperature by more than 5%. The proportional type corrector is suitable for the temperature controller in indirect solar dryers. When the energy source is unstable, humidity which is a variable parameter is used to mark the end of drying instead of time.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Dec 2021 17:20:02 +000
  • Quality Evaluation of Ethiopian 100% Cotton Carded Ring Spun Yarn with
           Respect to USTER Standards

    • Abstract: Yarn quality influences both fabric production processes efficiency and export market. One method used to gauge competitiveness of an industry is to study its product quality. The aim of this research work is to evaluate the quality of Ethiopian textile spinning mills’ 100% cotton carded ring spun yarns in terms of its evenness (coefficient of mass variation, CVm), imperfections (thick and thin places, neps), and tensile properties with USTER Statistics 2018. Five spinning mills (B3, A0, A2, A4, and K3) of 15N, 20Ne, 25Ne, 30Ne, 35Ne, and 40Ne nominal yarn counts have been selected for the study. The yarn evenness and imperfections were measured using USTER tester 5 and tensile using a STATIMAT tester. The USTER statistical results showed 20.3Ne (mill B3), 32Ne (mill A4), and 36.2Ne (mill A2) had better overall quality, respectively. It was observed that most selected spinning mills had low evenness, imperfections, yarn strength, and good yarn elongation. Tensile properties of A2 (32.85Ne and 36.2Ne) had fallen under 5% USTER statistics percentile which indicates excellent yarn strength. Generally, from studied mills, it was seen that 61.5% of cotton yarn CVm and thin places falls at above 95% and 15% of yarn tenacity falls at ≤5% of Uster statistical percentile.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Nov 2021 09:50:02 +000
  • An Algorithm for Improving Email Security on the Android Operating System
           in the Industry 4.0 Era

    • Abstract: The world is attesting a tremendous change today, which is remarkably coined as industry 4.0. With several technologies shaping industry 4.0 epoch, notably, its cybersecurity entails the security of communication and network operations activities. The most common form of communication in organisations and business today is electronic mails (email). One of the major threats to email communication is the lack of confidentiality for emails accessed via Android mobile devices due to the weaknesses of the Android operating system (OS) platform. In this study, an algorithm was designed and implemented on an Android application that allows an email sender to compose an email and set the time the email stays in the receiver inbox before it automatically wipes off. Primary data were collected from email users using tightly structured questionnaires and respondents comprised of those with email technical background and typical email users, while secondary data from scholarly journals and articles informed the study design. The designed algorithm was tested and evaluated through expert opinion. The result of the study indicates that the autowipe algorithm addresses the confidentiality issues and threats on Android email clients.
      PubDate: Sat, 20 Nov 2021 10:35:00 +000
  • A Comparative Study of the Multistage Solar Stills with Stacked Stages

    • Abstract: The current work conducts a comparative study of the waterbed multistage solar still with stacked stages (MSS-SS) and the vapour-based MSS-SS. Various experimental test results obtained from the vapour-based MSS-SS are briefly discussed in comparison with the waterbed MSS-SS reported in the literature. Based on the experimental observations and tests, the stage tray requires no maintenance and upper stages can operate even when the lower stages are nonoperational. About 0.8–41.3% distillate yield dropped from the upper stages when lower stages were exposed to the atmosphere. The upper stages increased their productivity by 7.1–15.4% when the lower stages were shut off completely. The waterbed-based MSS-SS preserves and reuses thermal energy much better even during off sunshine hours than the vapour-based system. The vapour-based MSS-SS is only productive during sunshine hours, and about 97-98% of the distillate is produced during daytime. Furthermore, the vapour based was able to produce 6.3 kg/day on average on the selected days.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Nov 2021 08:50:01 +000
  • Analytical Solution for One-Dimensional Nonlinear Consolidation of
           Saturated Double-Layered Soil Subjected to Cyclic Loadings

    • Abstract: Cyclic loading-induced consolidation behavior of soft soil is of great interest for the analysis of offshore and onshore structures. In this study, an analytical solution for one-dimensional (1D) nonlinear consolidation of saturated double-layered soil under various types of cyclic loadings such as trapezoidal cyclic loading, rectangular cyclic loading, and triangular cyclic loading was derived. The proposed solution was subsequently degenerated into solutions for special cases and compared to the existing solutions. The degenerate solutions show good agreement with the existing results, which proves that the proposed solutions are more general ones for 1D nonlinear consolidation of saturated soils under time-dependent loading. Finally, a comprehensive parametric study was conducted to investigate the influences of different layer parameters, drainage conditions, and loading parameters on nonlinear consolidation of saturated double-layered soil under cyclic loadings.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Nov 2021 09:35:01 +000
  • A Nonlinear Fatigue Damage Model Based on Equivalent Transformation of

    • Abstract: It is rather difficult for engineers to apply many of the fatigue damage models for requiring a knee point, material-dependent coefficient, or extensive testing, and some of them are only validated by a fatigue test of two-stage loading rather than higher-stage loading. In this paper, we propose a new model of fatigue cumulative damage in variable amplitude loading, which just requires the information of the S-N curve determined from the fatigue experiment. Specifically, the proposed model defines a stress equivalent transformation way to translate the damage of one stress to another stress through simple calculation. Experimental data of fatigue including two-, three-, and four-block loading verify the superiority of the proposed model by comparing it with the Miner model and Manson model. The results show that the proposed model can be generalized to any type of loading and presents a better prediction. Therefore, the advantage of the proposed model can be easily used by an engineer.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Nov 2021 08:50:01 +000
  • Estimating the Ultimate Bearing Capacity for Strip Footing Near and within
           Slopes Using AI (GP, ANN, and EPR) Techniques

    • Abstract: Numerical and computational analyses surrounding the behavior of the bearing capacity of soils near or adjacent to slopes have been of great importance in earthwork constructions around the globe due to its unique nature. This phenomenon is encountered on pavement vertical curves, drainages, and vertical infrastructure foundations. In this work, multiple data were collected on the soil and footing interface parameters, which included width of footing, depth of foundation, distance of slope from the footing edge, soil bulk density, slope and frictional angles, and bearing capacity factors of cohesion and overburden pressure determined for the case of a foundation on or adjacent to a slope. The genetic programming (GP), evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR), and artificial neural network (ANN) intelligent techniques were employed to predict the ultimate bearing capacity of footing on or adjacent to a slope. The performance of the models was evaluated as well as compared their accuracy and robustness with the findings of Prandtl. The results were observed to show the superiority of GP, EPR, and ANN techniques over the computational works of Prandtl. In addition, the ANN outclassed the other artificial intelligence methods in the exercise.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Nov 2021 08:35:02 +000
  • A Review of Peridynamics (PD) Theory of Diffusion Based Problems

    • Abstract: The study of heat conduction phenomena using peridynamic (PD) theory has a paramount significance on the development of computational heat transfer. This is because PD theory has got an interesting feature to deal with the inherent nonlocal nature of heat transfer processes. Since the revolutionary work on PD theory by Silling (2000), extensive investigations have been devoted to PD theory. This paper provides a survey on the recent developments of PD theory mainly focusing on diffusion based peridynamic (PD) formulation. Both the bond-based and state-based PD formulations are revisited, and numerical examples of two-dimensional problems are presented.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Oct 2021 09:50:01 +000
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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