Abstract: The energy-momentum relationship in the special theory of relativity (STR) holds in an isolated system in free space. However, this relationship is not applicable to an electron in a hydrogen atom where there is potential energy. Using three types of methods, the author has already derived an energy-momentum relationship applicable to an electron in a hydrogen atom. In the past, Dirac asserted that Einstein’s relationship has negative solutions. This paper too obtains negative solutions (energy) from the derived relationship using Dirac’s reasoning. However, the discontinuity peculiar to the micro world is not incorporated into that solution. Thus discontinuity is incorporated into the solution by using a new quantum condition already derived by the author. Next, the orbital radius of an electron with negative energy in an absolute sense is found, and that radius is compared with the orbital radius of an electron in an ordinary hydrogen atom. A search is conducted for experiments supporting the DM model advocated by this paper. A hydrogen atom at this ultra-low energy level is formed from an atomic nucleus (proton) with positive mass, and a single electron with negative mass existing near that. In this paper, this unknown type of matter will be called a dark hydrogen atom (DHA). This paper also points out that DHA accounts for part of the true nature of dark matter (DM), the mysterious material whose true nature is currently unknown. Although this differs from the conventional interpretation, this paper holds that the experiment which demonstrates the existence of DHA is triplet production. The paper points out that one of the two electrons produced in a triplet production experiment is the electron which forms a DHA. If the DM model advocated by this paper is correct, then DM has already been discovered. PubDate: Fri, 21 Jan 2022 01:33:50 +000

Abstract: The electron magnetic moment anomaly (ae), is normally derived from the fine structure constant using an intricate method requiring over 13,500 evaluations, which is accurate to 11dp. This paper advances the derivation using the fine structure constant and a spherical geometric model for the charge of the electron to reformulate the equation for ae. This highly accurate derivation is also based on the natural log eπ, and the zero-order spherical Bessel function. This determines a value for the electron magnetic moment anomaly accurate to 13 decimal places, which gives a result which is 2 orders of magnitude greater in accuracy than the conventional derivation. Thus, this derivation supersedes the accuracy of the conventional derivation using only a single evaluation. PubDate: Fri, 07 Jan 2022 00:56:36 +000

Abstract: The bicubic equation of particle limiting velocity formalism yields three solutions c1, c2 and c3, (primary, secondary and tertiary) limiting velocities in terms of the congruent parameter which is defined in terms of m, v, and E, respectively being particle mass, velocity and energy. The bicubic equation discriminant D is given in terms of the congruent parameter z(m). When one has z2(m) ≤ 1 with the discriminant satisfying D ≤ 0 then we are talking about limiting velocities of ordinary particles. Good examples are the relativistic particles such as electron, neutrino,etc., with luminal limiting velocity c3 = c and calculated superluminal c2, and imaginary superluminal c1, all corresponding to the real particle energy. On the specific level, the situations like these, we discuss in the muon neutrino velocities with the OPERA detector and the electron velocities from the 2010 Grab Nebula Flare. The z(m) = 1 value separates the ordinary particles from novel particles, associated with D ⪰ 0 and z2 ⪰ 1 with new novel particle limiting velocity solutions c1, c2 and c3 which depend, in addition to z(m), also on the congruent angle α(m), nonlinearly related to z(m). These solutions are discussed on the newly defined sterile neutrino which here is modeled as an ordinary particle with z2 ⪯ 1 spontaneously transiting via z(m) = 1 into the modeled novel sterile neutrino with z2 ⪰ 1. All ordinary and novel particles limiting velocities carry real particle energies; the ordinary particle limiting velocity solutions being in quadratic forms, while the novel particle limiting velocity solutions being respectively, in quadratic complex form, linear complex form, and just congruent angle α complex quadratic form. PubDate: Fri, 17 Dec 2021 08:16:07 +000

Abstract: The current paper presents an alternative hypothesis for the termination of cosmic inflation based on Huang’s model of spacetime involving the movement of a superfluid through a random resistor network. Using this model, we previously derived a mathematical relationship between the velocity of a reference frame and the probability that a random bond is intact. As an extension of this finding, the permutations of open and closed bonds are now shown to represent potential microstates, thus providing a means of relating motion within the network to binary entropy. Applying this concept to cosmic inflation, termination of this process is an expected consequence of the changes in binary entropy associated with the increasing velocity of expansion. PubDate: Tue, 14 Dec 2021 07:39:45 +000

Abstract: This study deals with comparison between Dakar station ionospheric F2 layer critical frequency (foF2) data and both subroutines (CCIR and URSI) of IRI-2016 model predictions. Dakar station is located near the crest of the African Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) region. Comparisons are made for very quiet activity during the four seasons (spring, summer, autumn and winter) over both solar cycles 21 and 22. The quietest days per season are determined by taking the five days with the lowest aa. The relative standard deviation of modeled foF2 values is used to assess the quality of IRI model prediction. Model predictions are suitable with observed data by day than by night. The accuracy is better during spring season and poor during winter season. During all seasons, both model subroutines don’t express the signature of the observed vertical drift E×B. But they express an intense counter electrojet at the place of mean intensity or high electrojet. PubDate: Fri, 12 Nov 2021 02:44:43 +000