Authors:Philbert Modest Luhunga, Agnes Kijazi, Ladislaus Chang a, Chuki A Sangalugembe, Doreen Mwara Anande, Hashim Ng ong olo, Habiba Mtongori First page: 1 Abstract: The work of this paper is a first step of the new paradigm, to use the Moist Potential Vorticity Vector (MPVV) as a diagnostic variable of rainfall events in Tanzania. The paper aims at computing and assessing the usefulness of MPVV in the diagnosis of rainfall events that occurred on 08th and 09th May 2017 over different regions in Tanzania. The relative contributions of horizontal, vertical components and the magnitude of MPVV on diagnosis of rainfall events are assessed. Hourly dynamic and thermodynamic variables of wind speed, temperature, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity from the numerical output generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, running at Tanzania Meteorological Agency (TMA) are used in computation of MPVV. The computed MPVV is then compared with WRF model forecasts and observed rainfall. It is found that in most parts of the country, particularly over coastal areas and North-Eastern Highlands, MPVV exhibited positive values in the lower troposphere (925hPa) and (850hPa) indicating local instability possibly associated with topographic effects, and continent/ocean contrast. MPVV is mostly positive with slightly negative values indicating instabilities (due to possible convective instability). Moreover, MPVV provides remarkably accurate tracking of the locations received rainfall, suggesting its potential use as a dynamic diagnostic variable of rainfall events in Tanzania. PubDate: 2017-08-20 DOI: 10.5539/apr.v9n5p1 Issue No:Vol. 9, No. 5 (2017)

Authors:Leonardo Golubovic, Steven Knudsen First page: 12 Abstract: The physics of manmade celestial scale objects, such as Space Elevators connecting the Earth with outer space, has recently attracted increased attention of diverse researchers. In this article we review basic physics of celestial scale dumbbells such as the Analemma Tower suspended from an asteroid orbiting the Earth (Clouds, 2017). Celestial dumbbells involve two large masses (top and bottom) connected by strings. The two masses move geosynchronously with the Earth, with the bottom mass remaining close to the Earth and the top mass moving above the Earth’s geosynchronous satellite orbit. Appealing examples of celestial scale dumbbells are untied Rotating Space Elevators (RSE) (Knudsen & Golubovic, 2015). Physics of untied rotating space elevators. European Physical Journal Plus 130, 243.]. Celestial scale dumbbells exhibit rich and interesting nonlinear dynamics caused by instabilities of dumbbell geosynchronous motion discussed in this review article. We also point out that celestial scale dumbbells are physically feasible (in terms of nowadays available materials strengths) on dwarf planets in the main asteroid belt of the Solar system such as Ceres. PubDate: 2017-08-21 DOI: 10.5539/apr.v9n5p12 Issue No:Vol. 9, No. 5 (2017)

Authors:Valery Vasiliev First page: 29 Abstract: The paper is concerned with the spherically symmetric static problem of the General Relativity Theory. The classical solution of this problem found in 1916 by K. Schwarzschild for a particular metric form results in singular space metric coefficient and provides the basis of the objects referred to as Black Holes. A more general metric form applied in the paper allows us to obtain the solution which is not singular. The critical radius of the fluid sphere, following from this solution does not coincide with the traditional gravitational radius. For the spheres with radii that are less than the critical value, the solution of GRT problem does not exist. PubDate: 2017-08-21 DOI: 10.5539/apr.v9n5p29 Issue No:Vol. 9, No. 5 (2017)

Authors:Emma Georgina ZORO-DIAMA, Adama Penetjiligue SORO, Kedro Siriki DIOMANDE, Kouadio DIAN, Amara KAMATE, Adjo Viviane ADOHI-KROU First page: 36 Abstract: Water is the key nutritional element for the optimal development of plants. A water deficiency leads to lower crop productivity. As the health status of a plant influences the photosynthesis process, a photosynthetic diagnosis of a plant can be carried by laser induced chlorophyll fluorescence, a reliable and fast method that is non-destructive to the sample. In this study, we show that it is possible to detect the water deficiency of rubber tree hevea brasiliensis from the chlorophyll fluorescence ratio. The fluorescence ratio used in this study is called the effective ratio and it corresponds to the both fluorescence peaks ratio. We noticed that the water deficient plants fluorescence ratios were higher than those of normally watered plants. Moreover, the stressed plants' ratios are greater than a threshold value which depends on the duration of water deprivation application. PubDate: 2017-08-22 DOI: 10.5539/apr.v9n5p36 Issue No:Vol. 9, No. 5 (2017)

Authors:Ogaba Philip Obande First page: 42 Abstract: The fundamental physical constants (FCs) are parametrized. The results reveal that: 1) FCs are field coupling constants. With the exception of ratio of identities such as μ = mp/me, there are no dimensionless constants – all FCs, including Alpha and pi, are dimensional. 2) The constant k = 1.6022 x 10-19 implicates: i) atomic unit of torque, it causes matter’s intrinsic rotation on all (atomic to cosmic) scales; ii) motion of unrestricted bodies through free space and random thermal (Brownian) motion in condensed matter; iii) superluminal space expansion, i.e., Hubble effect is not an acceleration but tangential velocity (pi c) of free space; and iv) common parametric definition of radioactivity and stellar explosion/supernova. 3) Newtonian gravitation comprises two potentials, a spherical pneumatic torque field G1 acts to inflate the gravitational envelope and a combination of force fields G2 impacts an acute hydrostatic pressure on the individual and common envelopes of the gravitating bodies; the two contrary force fields function to create a coherent rigid system in dynamic equilibrium. 4) The bosonic unit mass gravitational acceleration constant, gw = 7.9433 x 1059 m s-2 kg-1 is associated with the strong nuclear force (SNF), it binds matter on all (atomic to cosmic) scales. 5) Although the classical electron radius (CER) formulation re = e2/mec2 yields correct value, it is nonetheless fortuitous as me deviates from the theoretical value by twenty orders of magnitude and theory does not link spatial dimension to electrostatics charge quantum. 6) Successful evaluation of re by three alternative methods implies that an attempt to relegate the CER as currently obtains in the Standard Model seeks to re-engineer reality. 7) Electron bosonic radius identifies with the astronomical unit, it accounts for “spooky” action at a distance and “entanglement” effects. 8) Planck length fails to relate to atomic spatial dimension indicating that Planck space does not refer to the atom. 9) Electric, magnetic and gravitational effects are all motivated by torque but its magnitude differs according to the order: electrical (N m) > magnetic (N m)0.75 > gravitational (N m)0.25. It is submitted that even if the atom degraded with cosmological epoch, values of the FCs would remain fixed because they are parametric relative quantities. PubDate: 2017-08-30 DOI: 10.5539/apr.v9n5p42 Issue No:Vol. 9, No. 5 (2017)

Authors:Ogaba Philip Obande First page: 62 Abstract: We show that the chemical periodic group is geometric and that the fundamental constant FC is an intrinsic physical property of the atom, it is geometric, an invariant 3-D slice of spacetime that constitutes internal structure of the atom. PubDate: 2017-08-30 DOI: 10.5539/apr.v9n5p62 Issue No:Vol. 9, No. 5 (2017)

Authors:Do Tan Si First page: 73 Abstract: We show that a sum of powers on an arithmetic progression is the transform of a monomial by a differential operator and that its generating function is simply related to that of the Bernoulli polynomials from which consequently it may be calculated. Besides, we show that it is obtainable also from the sums of powers of integers, i.e. from the Bernoulli numbers which in turn may be calculated by a simple algorithm.By the way, for didactic purpose, operator calculus is utilized for proving in a concise manner the main properties of the Bernoulli polynomials. PubDate: 2017-09-05 DOI: 10.5539/apr.v9n5p73 Issue No:Vol. 9, No. 5 (2017)

Authors:Alexander L. Dmitriev First page: 87 Abstract: Concept of gravitational induction the essence of which is in the change of gravitation force affecting test mass due to influence of gravitational field on this mass by other masses has been considered. Evaluation of coefficient of induced increase of the gravity in the titanium sample has been shown based on the measurement of weight of nonmagnetic metal rod by its vertical and horizontal orientation. PubDate: 2017-09-10 DOI: 10.5539/apr.v9n5p87 Issue No:Vol. 9, No. 5 (2017)

Authors:Gordon Liu First page: 90 Abstract: In present paper, we have proposed an alternative theory on the spacetime of non-inertial reference frame (NRF) which bases on the requirement of general completeness (RGC) and the principle of equality of all reference frames (PERF). The RGC is that the physical equations used to describe the dynamics of matter and/or fields should include the descriptions that not only the matter and/or fields are at rest, but also they move relative to this reference frame, and the structure of the spacetime of reference frame has been considered. The PERF is that any reference frame can be used to describe the motion of matter and/or fields. The spacetime of NRF is inhomogeneous and deformed caused by the accelerating motion of the reference frame. The inertial force is the manifestation of deformed spacetime. The Riemann curvature tensor of the spacetime of NRF equals zero, but the Riemann-Christoffel symbol never vanishs no matter what coordinate system is selected in the NRF. The physical equations satisfied the RGC remain covariance under the coordinate transformation between the reference frames. Mach’s principle is incorrect. The problem of spacetime of NRF can be solved without considering gravitation. PubDate: 2017-09-10 DOI: 10.5539/apr.v9n5p90 Issue No:Vol. 9, No. 5 (2017)