Authors:Josip Soln First page: 1 Abstract: The primary, obscure and normal particles with respective limiting velocities c1, c2 and c3,solutions from bicubic equation, offer comfortable venues to tackle the newly emergent dark matter particles. Particular emphasis is given to particles with velocities of O(10-3c) ( with c the velocity of light) and whose energies are from 1eV to over 100GeV for which the congruent parameter z = 3p3mv2/2E assumes values of 10-6 and 10-7. At z = 10-6 with mc2 = 100GeV one can have E = 260GeV or with E = 1eV one can have mc2 = 0:38eV; while at z = 10-7 with mc2 = 100GeV one can have E = 2:6TeV or with E = 1eV one can have mc2 = 0:038eV. The small values of the congruent parameter z allow the limiting velocities c1, c2 and c3 as well as the resulting energy expressions be written down perturbatevly in terms of the congruent parameter z. It is shown that for mc2 = 100GeV particle in the MilkyWay Dark Matter Velocity Profile (Laha, 2016), the derived limiting velocities of primary, obscure and normal particles as dark matter particles are: c1 = 1; 7c (z = 10-7), 1:34c; 2:15c (z = 10-6); c2 = +-i1; 7c (z = 10-7), +-i1:34c; +-i2:15c (z = 10-6), and c3 = v (z = 10-7; 10-6). Perturbatively, for a very small common primary and obscure particle velocity v compared to the absolute values of their limiting velocities, one shows that the obscure particle acquires (-mv2) intrinsic negative energy with respect to the primary particle,with m being their common mass. PubDate: 2017-05-10 DOI: 10.5539/apr.v9n3p1 Issue No:Vol. 9, No. 3 (2017)

Authors:Luciano Rota First page: 8 Abstract: The duality waves/particle and the dynamic of propagation of electromagnetic emanations suggest the existence of a natural kind of waves, which differently from de classic ones, are originating by kinetic thrust and propagating, also though vacuum, by inertial force. The model taken into consideration, to which has been given the name of “kinetic waves” is, like the classic one, a concretely existing natural phenomenon which can also be visually perceived if produced on molecular scale. Results suggest, by giving consistent mathematical proof, that kinetic waves offer many more points of similarity, in dynamic and behavior, than the classic ones, which were taken, since the discovery of electromagnetic waves, as basic model.Applying the obtained results relatively to this model, to the astrophysical red-shift, taking as example the quasar 3C-273 and the recently found, most far galaxy GN-z11, we could find a mathematical sustainable and logic answer about still unsolved problems with regard to the origin and the dynamic of the universe.In the appendix, a suggested and accurately described experiment on base of Radar Astronomy to possibly confirm the validity of this model. PubDate: 2017-05-11 DOI: 10.5539/apr.v9n3p8 Issue No:Vol. 9, No. 3 (2017)

Authors:David Zareski First page: 21 Abstract: In previous publications, we showed that Maxwell’s equations are an approximation to those of General Relativity when V<<c, where V is the velocity of the particle submitted to the electromagnetic field. This was demonstrated by showing that the Lienard-Wiechert potential four-vector A_u created by an electric charge is the equivalent of the gravitational four-vector G_u created by a massive neutral point when V<<c. In the present paper, we generalize these results for V non-restricted to be small. To this purpose, we show first that the exact Lagrange-Einstein function of an electric charge q submitted to the field due an immobile charge q_0 is of the same form as that of a particle of mass m submitted to the field created by an immobile particle of mass m_0. Maxwell’s electrostatics is then generalized as a case of the Einstein’s general relativity. In particular, it appears that an immobile q_0 creates also an electromagnetic horizon that behaves like a Schwarzschild horizon. Then, there exist ether gravitational waves constituted by gravitons in the same way as the electromagnetic waves are constituted by photons. Now, since A_u and G_u, are equivalent, and as we show, G_u produces the approximation, for V<<c, of g_u4 created by m_0 mobile, where the g_uv are the components of Einstein’s fundamental tensor, it follows that A_u+u_u produces the approximation, for V<<c, of Bet_u4 , where the Bet_uv created by m_0 and by q_0, generalize the g_uv. PubDate: 2017-05-12 DOI: 10.5539/apr.v9n3p21 Issue No:Vol. 9, No. 3 (2017)

Authors:Koshun Suto First page: 31 Abstract: In this paper, consider a rod A (inertial frame A) and rod B (inertial frame B) moving at constant velocity relative to each other. Assume that the lengths of two rods are equal when they are stationary. According to the STR, when length in the direction of motion of rod B, moving at constant velocity, is measured from inertial frame A, the rod contracts in the direction of motion. Also, the time which elapses on clock in inertial frame B is delayed compared to the time which elapses on clock in inertial frame A. If, conversely, inertial frame A is measured from inertial frame B, rod A contracts in the direction of motion, and the time which elapses on clock is delayed. However, according to classical common sense, if rod B contracts when measured from inertial frame A, then rod A measured from rod B must be longer than rod B. Thus, this paper discusses the symmetry of rod contraction, and elucidates this problem. It is found, based on the discussion in this paper, that the contraction of a rod includes true physical contraction, and relativistic contraction obtained due to measurement using the method indicated by Einstein. However, in the STR, any two inertial frames are equivalent, and therefore is not possible to accept points such as the fact that reasons for contraction are different. This paper concludes that STR is not a theory which describes the objective state of reality. PubDate: 2017-05-31 DOI: 10.5539/apr.v9n3p31 Issue No:Vol. 9, No. 3 (2017)

Authors:Jiri Stavek First page: 40 Abstract: In the history of physics trigonometric functions played several times a very critical role at crossroads. This time we are at a crossroads with the interpretation of correlation events of entangled particles. In this approach we propose to describe the experimental data of Alice and Bob using not so known trigonometric functions. Claudius Theorem (based on the trigonometric family of Sagitta and Cosagitta) evalutes the probabilistic occurrence of correlated and anticorrelated events. David Theorem (based on the trigonometric family of Hacoversine) describes the probability of the following identical events and gaps between the following identical events. In this trigonometric concept the Team of Alice, Bob, Claudius and David formulated a camouflage legend for Eve – “spooky action at a distance”. Merlin (with unbounded computational ability) should verify the truth of this statement. Trent (a trusted arbitrator, who acts as a neutral third party) should analyze these data and this trigonometric concept. Victor (a verifier) should make his decision which way we should continue in our future research: either through the Niels Bohr avenue or through the Albert Einstein sidewalk. PubDate: 2017-05-31 DOI: 10.5539/apr.v9n3p40 Issue No:Vol. 9, No. 3 (2017)

Authors:Carmine Cataldo First page: 46 Abstract: This paper aims to qualitatively summarize the results up until now obtained in investigating the compatibility between the absoluteness of time and several well-known phenomena, such as the alleged increase of the mean lifetime of muons and the so-called relativistic corrections for GPS, whose explanation is commonly provided by resorting to Einstein’s Relativity. To make the discussion more flowing, we have herein preferred to completely avoid the writing of equations. All the analytical solutions, as well as several explicative figures, can be found in the first six articles cited in the references, drafted by the same author of this manuscript. PubDate: 2017-05-31 DOI: 10.5539/apr.v9n3p46 Issue No:Vol. 9, No. 3 (2017)