Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2918 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (259 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (255 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (182 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1464 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (476 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (60 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (101 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (121 journals)

ENGINEERING (1464 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 448)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Nova     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advanced Engineering Research     Open Access  
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Quantum Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Natural Sciences : Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Al-Nahrain Journal for Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
Al-Qadisiya Journal for Engineering Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annual Journal of Technical University of Varna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applications in Energy and Combustion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applications in Engineering Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Applied Engineering Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Arctic     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ArtefaCToS : Revista de estudios sobre la ciencia y la tecnología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
AURUM : Mühendislik Sistemleri ve Mimarlık Dergisi = Aurum Journal of Engineering Systems and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Autocracy : Jurnal Otomasi, Kendali, dan Aplikasi Industri     Open Access  
Automotive and Engine Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Automotive Experiences     Open Access  
Automotive Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingenierías     Open Access  
Avances: Investigación en Ingeniería     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Batteries & Supercaps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Beyond : Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Black Sea Journal of Engineering and Science     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers Droit, Sciences & Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Calphad     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Carbon Resources Conversion     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Carpathian Journal of Electronic and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cell Reports Physical Science     Open Access  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Population, Resources and Environment     Open Access  
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coastal Engineering Proceedings : Proceedings of the International Conference on Coastal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 334)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 276)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 311)
Composites Part C : Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 245)
Comptes Rendus : Mécanique     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 20)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.482
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 28  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Online) 2156-3950
Published by IEEE Homepage  [228 journals]
  • IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology
           publication information

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      Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: Sept. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2021)
       
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      PubDate: Sept. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2021)
       
  • IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society
           information for authors

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      Abstract: These instructions give guidelines for preparing papers for this publication. Presents information for authors publishing in this journal.
      PubDate: Sept. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2021)
       
  • IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society
           Information

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: Sept. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2021)
       
  • Foreword Special Section on “Advances in Electrical Modeling and
           Validation of Electronic Packaging and Systems”

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      Authors: Kemal Aygun;Xu Chen;
      Pages: 1315 - 1316
      Abstract: In a time where the demands for electronic systems and components are rising in an unprecedented fashion, the complexity for designing these components and systems is increasing at a similar pace. From wearable and handheld devices to autonomous vehicles to data centers and supercomputers, the growing amount of integration and the demand for more efficient access to ever-increasing data are pushing the state-of-art design methods to their limits. In this environment, innovative research is necessary to push the capability of electrical modeling and validation methods in order to equip the electronic design community with the most adequate tools to tackle the emerging challenges.
      PubDate: Sept. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2021)
       
  • High-Dimensional Uncertainty Quantification via Tensor Regression With
           Rank Determination and Adaptive Sampling

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      Authors: Zichang He;Zheng Zhang;
      Pages: 1317 - 1328
      Abstract: Fabrication process variations can significantly influence the performance and yield of nanoscale electronic and photonic circuits. Stochastic spectral methods have achieved great success in quantifying the impact of process variations, but they suffer from the curse of dimensionality. Recently, low-rank tensor methods have been developed to mitigate this issue, but two fundamental challenges remain open: how to automatically determine the tensor rank and how to adaptively pick the informative simulation samples. This article proposes a novel tensor-regression method to address these two challenges. We use an $ell _{q}/ ell _{2}$ group-sparsity regularization to determine the tensor rank. The resulting optimization problem can be efficiently solved via an alternating minimization solver. We also propose a two-stage adaptive sampling method to reduce the simulation cost. Our method considers both exploration and exploitation via the estimated Voronoi cell volume and nonlinearity measurement, respectively. The proposed model is verified with synthetic and some realistic circuit benchmarks, on which our method can well capture the uncertainty caused by 19–100 random variables with only 100–600 simulation samples.
      PubDate: Sept. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2021)
       
  • Error-Controlled Static Layered-Medium Green’s Function Computation via
           hp-Adaptive Spectral Differential Equation Approximation Method

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      Authors: Xinbo Li;Ian Jeffrey;Mohammed Al-Qedra;Vladimir I. Okhmatovski;
      Pages: 1329 - 1342
      Abstract: A numerically robust and computationally efficient approach for evaluating a planar layered substrate’s static Green’s function is developed based on the adaptive form of the spectral differential equation approximation method. The method uses a $p$ th-order finite element method (FEM) solution of the 1-D ordinary differential equation governing the spectrum of the layered-media Green’s function with spatial $h$ -adaptive meshing. The resulting pole-residue form of the Green’s function spectrum enables analytic evaluation of the pertinent Sommerfeld integrals providing $O(h^{p})$ error control of the spatial layered-medium Green’s function in near, intermediate, and far zones. The detailed error analysis is presented enabling automation of the 1-D FEM mesh refinement, which guarantees a prescribed accuracy of the solution depending on the distance between the source and observation locations. The method is well suited for computing Green’s function databases used by method of moments capacitance and inductance extractors.
      PubDate: Sept. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2021)
       
  • Pin Impedance-Based Figure of Merit With Mutual Coupling (PMC-FOM) for
           Assessment of a Decoupling Capacitor on Polygonal Parallel Plates

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      Authors: Ihsan Erdin;Ramachandra Achar;
      Pages: 1343 - 1354
      Abstract: A novel pin impedance-based figure of merit with mutual coupling (PMC-FOM) is proposed for effectiveness assessment of a decoupling capacitor. The algorithm is based on the relative location of the capacitor on parallel plates and takes into account mutual coupling by extending the existing scalar expressions to matrix relations. New analytical relations are developed for the calculation of derivatives as required for the iterative solution of the problem. The relations for resonant parallel plates of regular shapes are extended to the practical case of polygonal shapes. It is demonstrated that a capacitor’s effective zone can hardly be delimited with a simple circle when mutual interaction with other capacitors is considered. In fact, the presence of other capacitors deforms the circular zone to an irregular contour. The proposed method is analyzed with several benchmark examples and the results are validated for efficiency and accuracy by comparing with alternate methods including a commercial electromagnetic (EM) simulator.
      PubDate: Sept. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2021)
       
  • Fast Simulation of Analog Circuit Blocks Under Nonstationary Operating
           Conditions

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      Authors: Tommaso Bradde;Stefano Grivet-Talocia;Pedro Toledo;Anton V. Proskurnikov;Alessandro Zanco;Giuseppe C. Calafiore;Paolo Crovetti;
      Pages: 1355 - 1368
      Abstract: This article proposes a black-box behavioral modeling framework for analog circuit blocks (CBs) operating under small-signal conditions around nonstationary operating points. Such variations may be induced either by changes in the loading conditions or by event-driven updates of the operating point for system performance optimization, e.g., to reduce power consumption. An extension of existing data-driven parameterized reduced-order modeling techniques is proposed, which considers the time-varying bias components of the port signals as nonstationary parameters. These components are extracted at runtime by a low-pass filter and used to instantaneously update the matrices of the reduced-order state-space model realized as a SPICE netlist. Our main result is a formal proof of quadratic stability of such linear parameter varying (LPV) models, enabled by imposing a specific model structure and representing the transfer function in a basis of positive functions whose elements constitute a partition of unity. The proposed quadratic stability conditions are easily enforced through a finite set of small-size linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), used as constraints during model construction. Numerical results on various CBs, including voltage regulators, confirm that our approach not only ensures the model stability but also provides speedup in runtime up to two orders of magnitude with respect to full transistor-level circuits.
      PubDate: Sept. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2021)
       
  • Comparative Study of Surrogate Modeling Methods for Signal Integrity and
           Microwave Circuit Applications

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      Authors: Thong Nguyen;Bobi Shi;Hanzhi Ma;Er-Ping Li;Xu Chen;Andreas C. Cangellaris;José Schutt-Ainé;
      Pages: 1369 - 1379
      Abstract: With a short product cycle as we see today, fast and accurate modeling methods are becoming crucial for the development of new generation of electronics devices. Furthermore, increased complexity in circuitry and integration compounds design iteration and the associated, high-dimensional sensitivity analysis and performance optimization studies. Therefore, black-box surrogate models replacing the actual circuitry offer an attractive alternative for more efficient design iteration, optimization, and even direct Monte Carlo analysis. In this article, surrogate models built using nonparametric Gaussian process (GP) are presented. A robust framework based on probabilistic programming is used for training GP models. Other methods, such as partial least-square regression, support vector regression, and polynomial chaos, are used to compare with the performance of GP. Three design applications, a high-speed channel, a millimeter-wave filter, and a low-noise amplifier are used to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed GP-based surrogate models.
      PubDate: Sept. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2021)
       
  • Impact of Measurement Uncertainty on Correlation Quality for High-Speed
           Interconnects

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      Authors: Cemil S. Geyik;Michael J. Hill;Zhichao Zhang;Kemal Aygün;James T. Aberle;
      Pages: 1380 - 1390
      Abstract: The ever-increasing demand for higher bandwidth and lower loss makes the predictability of high-speed interconnect performance increasingly challenging. Validating models against measurements of manufactured test structures requires not only accurate methodology but also understanding of the uncertainty impact. S-parameter measurements, characterization of materials, manufacturing processes, and models constructed based on measured inputs all cause uncertainty in the performance metrics of interest. Therefore, it is critical to anticipate the results with the associated uncertainty to assess the correlation quality more objectively. This article investigates the reproducibility of measurements required for high-speed package interconnect validation through rigorous analysis and presents a methodology to quantify the impact of measurement uncertainty on commonly used performance metrics.
      PubDate: Sept. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2021)
       
  • A State-Space-Based Method to Model Vccin Feedthrough Noise in
           Microprocessors With Fully Integrated Voltage Regulators

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      Authors: Srinivasan Govindan;Krishna Bharath;Srikrishnan Venkataraman;Dipanjan Gope;
      Pages: 1391 - 1401
      Abstract: Modern high-performance server microprocessors need to integrate multiple intellectual property (IP) blocks in a single chip to achieve higher performance. Due to the diverse supply voltage requirements of these IP blocks, their supply voltages are generated locally on the chip using fully integrated voltage regulators (FIVRs). FIVR is designed using on-chip power bridges, bridge drivers, control circuits, on-chip metal–insulator–metal (MIM) capacitors, package inductors, and package power planes. The input power supply (Vccin) of all the FIVRs is shared to minimize the platform cost and is generated using a voltage regulator module (VRM) on the motherboard. The noise coupling between FIVRs due to the common input supply is referred to as the Vccin feedthrough noise. The existing method of modeling the Vccin feedthrough noise is based on circuit simulation. Circuit models are highly complex as different components such as the FIVR power bridges, bridge drivers, MIM capacitors, package inductors, package power planes, and the Vccin network need to be modeled. Convergence issues are very frequent in full chip circuit simulations and it typically takes many iterations. Hence design optimization is difficult to carry out using circuit simulations. In this article, a state-space-based time-domain method is proposed to model the Vccin feedthrough noise based on G-parameters and S-parameters of the FIVR and the Vccin network. The state-space models are generated using the vector-fitting algorithm. The proposed method simplifies the construction of the Vccin feedthrough models and improves the convergence time.
      PubDate: Sept. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2021)
       
  • Toward Fully Automated High-Dimensional Parameterized Macromodeling

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      Authors: Alessandro Zanco;Stefano Grivet-Talocia;
      Pages: 1402 - 1416
      Abstract: This article presents a fully automated algorithm for the extraction of parameterized macromodels from frequency responses. The reference framework is based on a frequency-domain rational approximation combined with a parameter-space expansion into Gaussian radial basis functions (RBFs). An iterative least-squares fitting with positivity constraints is used to optimize model coefficients, with a guarantee of uniform stability over the parameter space. The main novel contribution of this work is a set of algorithms, supported by strong theoretical arguments with associated proofs, for the automated determination of all the hyperparameters that define model orders, placement, and width of RBFs. With respect to standard approaches, which tune these parameters using time-consuming tentative model extractions following a trial-and-error strategy, the presented technique allows much faster tuning of the model structure. The numerical results show that models with up to ten independent parameters are easily extracted in few minutes.
      PubDate: Sept. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2021)
       
  • Digital Process Chain for Processing of Bend-Sensitive Functional
           Structures on a Flexible Substrate

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      Authors: Rafat Saleh;Ferdinand Mohn;Maximilian Barth;Wolfgang Eberhardt;André Zimmermann;
      Pages: 1417 - 1425
      Abstract: System-in-foil technology continues to realize relevance in industry and research. In this article, a digital process chain for the fabrication of bend-sensitive sensor structures on a flexible polyimide foil is described. This means that none of the steps in this process chain requires the manufacturing of a structured mask or cliché. Therefore, an arbitrary layout can be manufactured and easily be changed without major effort. Patterning of the sensor layout is realized by direct imaging of a laminated dry film photoresist. The sensor structure is fabricated by a liftoff process using sputtering of a NiCr layer. Finally, the sensor structures are characterized by a static bending test.
      PubDate: Sept. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2021)
       
  • The Influence and Application of Bond Wires Failure on Electrothermal
           Characteristics of IGBT Module

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      Authors: Jie Chen;Erping Deng;Peng Liu;Shaohua Yang;Yongzhang Huang;
      Pages: 1426 - 1434
      Abstract: The bond wires failure is one of the most common failure modes of the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) module, which will cause an increase in the overall ON-state voltage drop $V_{mathrm {CE}}$ , and it is generally believed to not affect the junction-to-case thermal resistance $R_{mathrm {th}jc}$ . The measured $V_{mathrm {CE}}$ mainly consists of two parts: the voltage drop of the IGBT chip $V_{mathrm {CE_{}Chip}}$ and that of the bond wire $V_{mathrm {CE_{}wire}}$ ; the influence of bond wires failure on $V_{mathrm {CE}}$ should be discussed and explained in two parts. However, these actual measurement parameters are not considered before. In this article, the impact mechanism of bond wires failure on electrothermal characteristics of the IGBT module is analyzed with the help of realistic simulation models and experiment verification. The results show that the bond wires failure only affects $V_{mathrm {CE_{}wire}}$ , and the impact on $V_{mathrm {CE_{}Chip}}$ is small, which can be ignored. Meanwhile, the increase in the virtual junction temperature is not caused by the increase in the power loss of the IGBT chip but by the increase in the current density of bond feet, which is caused by the decrease in the effective contact area. Besides, the measured $R_{mathrm {th}jc}$ is not the intr-nsic thermal resistance but slightly smaller than the intrinsic thermal resistance, and it decreases as the bond wires failure. Furthermore, the proposed mechanism can provide method guidance for the separation strategy of concurrent failure modes of IGBT modules only by monitoring the ON-state voltage drop.
      PubDate: Sept. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2021)
       
  • An Adaptive Machine Learning Method Based on Finite Element Analysis for
           Ultra Low-k Chip Package Design

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      Authors: Weishen Chu;Paul S. Ho;Wei Li;
      Pages: 1435 - 1441
      Abstract: Machine learning (ML) is widely used for building data-driven models that are highly useful for optimization. In this study, a finite element model-based adaptive ML method is presented for chip package reliability prediction and design optimization. This ML method employs a validated multi-scale finite element model for training data generation. An adaptive sampling scheme is developed to optimize the training process with a steepest descent algorithm. The developed method was used to optimize ultra low-k chip package design. The effects of ten key design parameters on chip packaging reliability were considered. Multiple ML algorithms were evaluated for model development. It is shown that the adaptive sampling method performs much better than existing sequential sampling methods and that the finite element-based ML model can be used to achieve improved prediction accuracy for chip package design optimization.
      PubDate: Sept. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2021)
       
  • Novel Calorimetric Approach for Thermal Analysis of Microelectronic
           Devices

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      Authors: Jorge M. Cruz-Duarte;Juan Gabriel Avina-Cervantes;Arturo Garcia-Perez;Jose A. Andrade-Lucio;Rodrigo Correa;Alexandru M. Morega;
      Pages: 1442 - 1451
      Abstract: This article presents a novel alternative for measuring the heat power generated by microelectronic devices during their designing stages. The proposed system is comprised of an uncommon geometry and a signal-processing measuring strategy based on the calorimetric principle and natural convection. The calorimeter is nonconventional compared to others proposed in the literature because it does not require an external power supply or internal moving parts. Therefore, this device features a low-cost operation. In addition, the calorimeter’s geometry and design make able to be implemented at any place, as well as enhancement-adaptable. Furthermore, the thermal behavior is studied based on experimental data and numerical simulations to characterize the system properly. Thus, the calorimeter is modeled as a Cauchy problem by an ordinary differential equation to find the transient time constant. Several testing devices ranging from 1 to 20 W were used. Therefore, an algorithm was developed to determine the net heat power in a reduced time. The slowest procedure identified using the proposed algorithm is a 1-W device with less than a half-time constant. Finally, the time reduction when employing devices with power dissipation higher than 20 W is also discussed.
      PubDate: Sept. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2021)
       
  • Experimental Study of Arc Motion Near Splitter Plates in Low-Voltage
           Switching Devices

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      Authors: Dongkyu Shin;Thomas G. Bull;John W. McBride;
      Pages: 1452 - 1460
      Abstract: Switching performance of a low-voltage switching device (LVSD) is determined by limiting current and stopping re-ignition. This is strongly influenced by how the arc moves inside the LVSD quenching chamber during the switching process. Improved switching performance is achieved when the arc quickly enters and stays inside the splitter plates of the LVSD, with the arc attached to the surface of the plates. This article studies arc motion around splitter plates in LVSDs and the correlation with arc voltage. Arc motion is investigated using a high-speed optical arc imaging system (AIS). It is observed that the arc fluctuates as it enters the splitter plates, with periods inside the plates followed by sudden re-strikes of the arc roots outside the plates. The AIS system allows the measurement of arc displacement and a correlation with the arc voltage. The results show two phases, with a narrow correlation while the arc in the chamber out of the splitter plates and a distributed correlation while in the splitter plates. Further, a new performance parameter the splitter time (ST) ratio is defined. The influence of the ST ratio on the chamber vent design is investigated. It is found that with wider and well-distributed vent apertures, the ST ratio is higher than with a closed vent, and arc motion on entry to the plates is improved.
      PubDate: Sept. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2021)
       
  • Heat Dissipation Derivation and Optimization of the Fan-Out 3-D Package
           Model

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      Authors: Jinfeng Huang;Zhenzhi He;Hector Gutierrez;Libo Zhao;Xiangning Lu;
      Pages: 1461 - 1470
      Abstract: Heat dissipation of the fan-out (FO) package is a primary concern in advanced electronic packaging. It is a challenge to characterize the thermal performance using the actual geometry of the FO package due to the complex structure and time-consuming calculations. A simplified FO model was constructed based on the equivalent material principle and the mathematical FO model was validated by using the finite element (FE) simulation. Then FO-package thermal resistance network (FO-TRN) was established to evaluate the thermal performance, which was proven efficient and accurate by the simulation of FE models. The influence of the critical dimension (CD) of redistribution line (RDL), the thermal conductivity of molding material, and the printed circuit board (PCB) area were also investigated by using the FE simulation and FO-TRN calculation. The results demonstrated that the smaller the CD of RDLs, the greater the thermal resistance of the FO package. The high thermal conductivity of the molding compound and large PCB area is beneficial for heat dissipation. The simplified FO model and FO-TRN are practicable and effective for thermal characterization and management.
      PubDate: Sept. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2021)
       
  • Effect of Solar Irradiation on Thermal Performance of Heatsink—Numerical
           and Experimental Study

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      Authors: Dhanushkodi Ganesan;Velraj Ramalingam;
      Pages: 1471 - 1479
      Abstract: The reliability of electronics systems primarily depends on the temperature of the electronics components. The development of cost-effective thermal management solutions to cater to the cooling of next-generation electronics systems is the need of the hour. The extended surface is the most reliable, convenient, and cost-effective heat transfer technology to remove the heat generated by the electronics components. Power amplifiers are the critical devices used for outdoor communications which generate high heat flux during their operation. Since the communication systems are installed outdoors, the average solar irradiation falling on the system during sunny days is 600 W/m2. A computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) model of a heatsink with a base area of 100 mm $times100$ mm exposed to solar irradiation is developed to dissipate the heat generated by the power amplifier. The fin height is varied from 5 to 30 mm, fin thickness is varied from 2 to 3 mm and the spacing between the fins is varied from 4 to 6 mm. Surface properties such as emissivity and solar absorptivity of the fin surface are varied from 0.1 to 0.9 to study the effect of solar irradiation on the efficiency of the fin. For 30 mm fin height and emissivity 0.1, the heatsink base temperature increases from 57.8 °C to 66.1 °C and the fin efficiency reduces from 97.5% to 94.3% when the solar absorptivity of the fin surface is increased from 0.1 to 0.9. Similarly, for fin height 5 mm and emissivity 0.9, the heatsink base temperature increases from 63.9 °C to 77.7 °C and the computed fin efficiencies are 96.4% and 93.2% for solar absorptivity 0.1 and 0.9, respectively. Experiments are conducted to measure the base temperature of a heatsink to validate the CFD results. The contou-s of thermal resistance of heatsink for various configurations are plotted and an electronics cooling designer can choose an appropriate heatsink by knowing the geometric and surface properties of the heatsink.
      PubDate: Sept. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2021)
       
  • Thermal Design, Optimization, and Packaging of Planar Magnetic Components

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      Authors: Ercan M. Dede;Yucheng Gao;Yuqing Zhou;Vivek Sankaranarayanan;Feng Zhou;Dragan Maksimović;Robert W. Erickson;
      Pages: 1480 - 1488
      Abstract: This article is focused on the thermal design and three-dimensional (3-D) package optimization of planar magnetic components (PMCs), including transformers and inductors for application in an electric vehicle composite boost dc–dc converter. Each PMC comprises electrical windings in printed circuit board (PCB) form in combination with a ferrite core. Multiple features of each PMC package are thermally optimized for the proposed device configurations with given core size, core loss distribution, number of turns in the PCB winding, winding copper thickness, and winding loss distribution. These heuristically optimized features include a lower level cold plate structure with a conformal base for enhanced convective heat transfer, an upper level PMC cap structure for doubled-sided cooling through conductive heat flow to the cold plate, the implementation of functionally distributed copper thermal and electrothermal vias in the PCB winding for improved cross-plane thermal conductance, and judicious implementation of select materials at various locations and interfaces within the package. Detailed numerical modeling reveals the combined effect of this 3-D packaging strategy with a 79.3 °C and 48.5 °C maximum temperature reduction in the core and PCB winding, respectively, relative to a baseline device configuration. Select PMC experimental validation confirms the expected thermal performance of an optimized PCB design. The thermal design approach is relevant for a range of high-power-density electronics PMC packaging applications.
      PubDate: Sept. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2021)
       
  • On the Junction Temperature Extraction Approach With a Hybrid Model of
           Voltage-Rise Time and Voltage-Rise Loss

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      Authors: Lingfeng Shao;Guoqing Xu;Yi Hu;
      Pages: 1489 - 1496
      Abstract: Temperature sensitive electrical parameter (TSEP) approaches are widely employed in the junction temperature ( $T_{j}$ ) detection and prediction of power devices, especially the switching parameter. In this article, the voltage-rise time and its loss during the turn-off process are used as the TSEP index for the detection of junction temperature because of the coupling relationship with the maximum junction temperature. In addition, the effect of junction temperature on the current-fall time and its loss is compared. The theoretical analysis is verified by SABER simulation and H-bridge inverter circuit platform. It is established that the model based on voltage-rise time ( $t_{mathrm {rv}}$ ) and voltage-rise loss ( $E_{mathrm {rv}}$ ) is a viable model with good linearity, fixed sensitivity, and offers nondestructive insulated gate bipolar translator (IGBT) junction temperature extraction.
      PubDate: Sept. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2021)
       
  • A Fast Technique for Realization of Lumped-Element Values Into 3-D
           Physical Layout on LTCC

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      Authors: Aref Pourzadi;Arash Adibi;S. Hassan Mousavi;Ammar Kouki;
      Pages: 1497 - 1505
      Abstract: This article proposes a methodology for the fast translation of ideal lumped-element values to the form of a 3-D physical layout using low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) dielectric. It is explained how this approach is implemented without requiring complex formulas and uses a simulation-based process which leads to consume less optimization/tuning processing time. The proposed methodology is applied to the design of a dual-band bandpass filter (D-BPF) operating at center frequencies 2.4 and 5.2 GHz and its layout is realized in the form of 3-D physical layout. The two commercial simulators, advanced design system (ADS) and high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS), are used to simulate ideal lumped-element schematics and perform electromagnetic (EM) simulations on the LTCC layout, respectively.
      PubDate: Sept. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2021)
       
  • Laser Ablation Cutting-Based Metal Patterning Technique Enabling
           3D-Printed Broadband Antennas for Sub-6 GHz Wireless Communications
           Applications

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      Authors: Sinan Aksimsek;Ekin Asim Ozek;Hurrem Ozpinar;
      Pages: 1506 - 1513
      Abstract: This article introduces a novel method of laser ablation patterning-based additive manufacturing (AM) to develop a broadband planar antenna for sub-6 GHz wireless communications applications. The presented technique consists of fused deposition modeling (FDM) and the laser ablation cutting-based metal patterning. The metal layer is transferred to a thermoplastic-based ABS substrate without any postprocessing. FDM and metal patterning are independent operations in our procedure and therefore the proposed prototyping is time-efficient compared to the current AM techniques. The 3-D printed antenna is in the form of the single-layer ABS substrate–metal radiator fed by a coplanar waveguide (CPW). The antenna is also printed on an FR-4 substrate using printed circuit board (PCB) technology, and the radiation skills of the 3-D printed antenna are benchmarked with its PCB counterpart. The numerical results obtained with a full-wave analysis tool are verified by the experimental results. The proposed antenna operates on a broadband covering 2.54–5.84-GHz band with the peak gain around 4 dBi and meets the requirements of the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) and wireless local area network (WLAN) band applications. The fabricated 3D-printed antenna is loaded to human body, and the reflection coefficients are measured for off-body communication links. The calculated electromagnetic power density profiles on the human phantom are demonstrated for various operating frequencies.
      PubDate: Sept. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2021)
       
  • Corrections to “A Fully Integrated Arbitrary Power Divider on Printed
           Circuit Board by a Novel SMD-Resistor-Free Isolation Network” [Nov 20
           1889-1901]

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      Authors: Siang Chen;Tzong-Lin Wu;
      Pages: 1514 - 1514
      Abstract: In the above article [1], Figs. 22 and 24 were mistakenly reproduced in Figs. 25 and 21, respectively. The correct versions of Figs. 21 and 25 are provided here.
      PubDate: Sept. 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2021)
       
 
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