Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2918 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (259 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (255 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (182 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1464 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (476 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (60 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (101 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (121 journals)

ENGINEERING (1464 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 448)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Nova     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advanced Engineering Research     Open Access  
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Quantum Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Natural Sciences : Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Al-Nahrain Journal for Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
Al-Qadisiya Journal for Engineering Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annual Journal of Technical University of Varna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applications in Energy and Combustion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applications in Engineering Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Applied Engineering Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Arctic     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ArtefaCToS : Revista de estudios sobre la ciencia y la tecnología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
AURUM : Mühendislik Sistemleri ve Mimarlık Dergisi = Aurum Journal of Engineering Systems and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Autocracy : Jurnal Otomasi, Kendali, dan Aplikasi Industri     Open Access  
Automotive and Engine Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Automotive Experiences     Open Access  
Automotive Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingenierías     Open Access  
Avances: Investigación en Ingeniería     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Batteries & Supercaps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Beyond : Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Black Sea Journal of Engineering and Science     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers Droit, Sciences & Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Calphad     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Carbon Resources Conversion     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Carpathian Journal of Electronic and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cell Reports Physical Science     Open Access  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Population, Resources and Environment     Open Access  
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coastal Engineering Proceedings : Proceedings of the International Conference on Coastal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 334)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 275)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 311)
Composites Part C : Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 245)
Comptes Rendus : Mécanique     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 20)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Biomedical Engineering Letters
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.332
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 5  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2093-9868 - ISSN (Online) 2093-985X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2658 journals]
  • Bias-generating factors in biofluid amyloid-β measurements for
           Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis

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      Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most prevalent cause of dementia worldwide, yet the dearth of readily accessible diagnostic biomarkers is a substantial hindrance towards progressing to effective preventive and therapeutic approaches. Due to a long delay between cerebral amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation and the onset of cognitive impairments, biomarkers that reflect Aβ pathology and enable routine screening for disease progression are of urgent need for application in the clinical diagnosis of AD. According to accumulating evidences, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma offer windows to the brain as they allow monitoring of biochemical changes in the brain. Considering the high availability and accuracy in depicting Aβ deposition in the brain, Aβ levels in CSF and plasma are regarded as promising fluid biomarkers for the diagnosis of AD patients at an early stage. However, clinical data with intra- and interindividual variations in the concentrations of CSF and plasma Aβ implicate the need to reevaluate current Aβ detection methods and establish a standardized operating procedure. Therefore, this review introduces three bias-generating factors in biofluid Aβ measurement that may hamper the accurate Aβ quantification and how such complications can be overcome for the widespread implementation of fluid Aβ detection in clinical practice.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
       
  • Micro/nanotechnology-inspired rapid diagnosis of respiratory infectious
           diseases

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      Abstract: Humans have suffered from a variety of infectious diseases since a long time ago, and now a new infectious disease called COVID-19 is prevalent worldwide. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has led to research of the effective methods of diagnosing respiratory infectious diseases, which are important to reduce infection rate and help the spread of diseases be controlled. The onset of COVID-19 has led to the further development of existing diagnostic methods such as polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Furthermore, this has contributed to the further development of micro/nanotechnology-based diagnostic methods, which have advantages of high-throughput testing, effectiveness in terms of cost and space, and portability compared to conventional diagnosis methods. Micro/nanotechnology-based diagnostic methods can be largely classified into (1) nanomaterials-based, (2) micromaterials-based, and (3) micro/nanodevice-based. This review paper describes how micro/nanotechnologies have been exploited to diagnose respiratory infectious diseases in each section. The research and development of micro/nanotechnology-based diagnostics should be further explored and advanced as new infectious diseases continue to emerge. Only a handful of micro/nanotechnology-based diagnostic methods has been commercialized so far and there still are opportunities to explore.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
       
  • Technological advances in electrochemical biosensors for the detection of
           disease biomarkers

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      Abstract: With an increasing focus on health in contemporary society, interest in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases has grown rapidly. Accordingly, the demand for biosensors for the early diagnosis of disease is increasing. However, the measurement range of existing electrochemical sensors is relatively high, which is not suitable for early disease diagnosis, requiring the detection of small amounts of biocomponents. Various attempts have been made to overcome this and amplify the signal, including binding with various labeling molecules, such as DNA, enzymes, nanoparticles, and carbon materials. Efforts are also being made to increase the sensitivity of electrochemical sensors, and the combination of nanomaterials, materials, and biotechnology offers the potential to increase sensitivity in a variety of ways. Recent studies suggest that electrochemical sensors can be a powerful tool in providing comprehensive insights into the targeting and detection of disease-associated biomarkers. Significant advances in nanomaterial and biomolecule approaches for improved sensitivity have resulted in the development of electrochemical biosensors capable of detecting multiple biomarkers in real time in clinically relevant samples. In this review, we have discussed the recent studies on electrochemical sensors for detection of diseases such as diabetes, degenerative diseases, and cancer. Further, we have highlighted new technologies to improve sensitivity using various materials, including DNA, enzymes, nanoparticles, and carbon materials.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
       
  • Recent advances in magnetic nanoparticle-based microfluidic devices for
           the pretreatment of pathogenic bacteria

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      Abstract: Rapid and sensitive detection of pathogenic bacteria in various samples, including food and drinking water, is important to prevent bacterial diseases. Most bacterial solutions contain only a small number of bacteria in complex matrices with impurities; hence, pretreatment is necessary to separate and concentrate target bacteria before sensing. Among various pretreatment methods, iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle (MNP)-based pretreatment has drawn attention owing to the unique properties of MNP, such as high magnetic susceptibility, superparamagnetism, and biocompatibility. After target bacteria are captured by recognition molecule-functionalized MNPs, bacteria–MNP complexes can be easily separated and enriched by applying an external magnetic field. Various devices, such as optical, electrochemical, and magnetoresistance sensors, can be used to detect target bacteria, and their detection principles have been discussed in numerous review papers. Herein, we focus on recent research advances and challenges in magnetic pretreatment of pathogenic bacteria using microfluidic devices, which offer the advantages of process automation and miniaturization.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
       
  • Cellular and biomolecular detection based on suspended microchannel
           resonators

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      Abstract: Suspended microchannel resonators (SMRs) have been developed to measure the buoyant mass of single micro-/nanoparticles and cells suspended in a liquid. They have significantly improved the mass resolution with the aid of vacuum packaging and also increased measurement throughput by fast resonance frequency tracking while target objects travel through the microchannel without stopping or even slowing down. Since their invention, various biological applications have been enabled, including simultaneous measurements of cell growth and cell cycle progression, and measurements of disease associated physicochemical change, to name a few. Extension and advancement towards other promising applications with SMRs are continuously ongoing by adding multiple functionalities or incorporating other complementary analytical metrologies. In this paper, we will thoroughly review the development history, basic and advanced operations, and key applications of SMRs to introduce them to researchers working in biological and biomedical sciences who mostly rely on classical and conventional methodologies. We will also provide future perspectives and projections for SMR technologies.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
       
  • Assessment of structural, biological and drug release properties of
           electro-sprayed poly lactic acid-dexamethasone coating for biomedical
           applications

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      Abstract: The efficacy of an implant is highly depends on its coating characteristics mainly determined by polymer properties and coating technique. Electro-spraying is an inexpensive and versatile coating technique with various advantages for biomedical application. In this study, the efficacy of electro-sprayed (ES) poly lactic acid (PLA)-dexamethasone (DEX) coatings for medical implants was evaluated and compared with spin-coated samples as control. Structural properties of coatings were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Confocal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle measurement and nanoindentation tests were used to study surface properties. Coating degradation rate and drug release profile were studied for 40 days. Cell viability experiments were also performed on human endothelial (HUVEC) and smooth muscle cells (HUASMC) using MTT assay and SEM. XRD and DSC analysis showed electro-spraying significantly reduce PLA and DEX crystallinity. Surface studies showed ES coatings has significantly higher hydrophobicity and roughness with microbead-nanofiber morphology vs. micro-nanoporous structure of spin-coated samples. Initial burst release of DEX was 22% and 10% after 6 h and total release was 71% and 46% after 40 days for ES and spin-coated samples, respectively. HUVEC viability of ES samples was higher than spin-coated ones after 1 and 4 days. However, dexamethasone release profile reduced HUASMC proliferation in ES PLA-DEX samples in comparison to spin-coated after 1 and 3 days. In conclusion, in vitro results showed potential of ES PLA-DEX as a biocompatible and efficient anti-inflammatory coating with suitable drug release profile for future applications such as coronary drug eluting stents.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
       
  • Stabilizing breathing pattern using local mechanical vibrations:
           comparison of deterministic and stochastic stimulations in rodent models
           of apnea of prematurity

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      Abstract: Mechanical stimulation has been shown to reduce apnea of prematurity (AOP), a major concern in preterm infants. Previous work suggested that the underlying mechanism is stochastic resonance, amplification of a subthreshold signal by stochastic stimulation. We hypothesized that the mechanism behind the reduction of apnea length may not be a solely stochastic phenomenon, and suggest that a purely deterministic, non-random mechanical stimulation could be equally as effective. Mice and rats were anesthetized, tracheostomized, and mechanically ventilated to halt spontaneous breathing. Two miniature motors controlled by a microcontroller were attached around the abdomen. Ventilation was paused, stimulations were applied, and the time to the rodent’s first spontaneous breath (T) was measured. Six spectrally different signals were compared to one another and the no-stimulation control in mice. The most successful deterministic stimulation (D) at reducing apnea was then compared to a pseudo-random noise (PRN) signal of comparable amplitude and frequency. CO2%, CO2 stabilization time (Ts), O2 saturation (SpO2%), and T were also measured. D significantly reduced T compared to no stimulation for medium and high amplitudes. PRN also reduced T, without  a difference between D and PRN. Furthermore, both stimulations significantly reduced Ts with no significant differences between the respective stimulations. However, there was no effect of D or PRN on SpO2%. The lack of differences between D and PRN led to an additional series of experiment comparing the same D to a band-limited white noise (WN) signal in young rats. Both D and WN were shown to significantly reduce T, with D showing statistical superiority in reduction of apnea. We further speculate that both deterministic and stochastic mechanical stimulations induce some form of mechanotransduction which is responsible for their efficacy, and our findings suggest that mechanical stimulation may be effective in treating AOP.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
       
  • Nanostructures in non-invasive prenatal genetic screening

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      Abstract: Prenatal screening is an important issue during pregnancy to ensure fetal and maternal health, as well as preventing the birth of a defective fetus and further problems such as extra costs for the family and society. The methods for the screening have progressed to non-invasive approaches over the recent years. Limitations of common standard screening tests, including invasive sampling, high risk of abortion and a big delay in result preparation have led to the introduction of new rapid and non-invasive approaches for screening. Non-invasive prenatal screening includes a wide range of procedures, including fetal cell-free DNA analysis, proteome, RNAs and other fetal biomarkers in maternal serum. These biomarkers require less invasive sampling than usual methods such as chorionic villus sampling, amniocentesis or cordocentesis. Advanced strategies including the development of nanobiosensors and the use of special nanoparticles have provided optimization and development of NIPS tests, which leads to more accurate, specific and sensitive screening tests, rapid and more reliable results and low cost, as well. This review discusses the specifications and limitations of current non-invasive prenatal screening tests and introduces a novel collection of detection methods reported studies on nanoparticles’ aided detection. It can open a new prospect for further studies and effective investigations in prenatal screening field.
      PubDate: 2021-10-11
       
  • Challenges in delivery systems for CRISPR-based genome editing and
           opportunities of nanomedicine

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      Abstract: The CRISPR-based genome editing technology has opened extremely useful strategies in biological research and clinical therapeutics, thus attracting great attention with tremendous progress in the past decade. Despite its robust potential in personalized and precision medicine, the CRISPR-based gene editing has been limited by inefficient in vivo delivery to the target cells and by safety concerns of viral vectors for clinical setting. In this review, recent advances in tailored nanoparticles as a means of non-viral delivery vector for CRISPR/Cas systems are thoroughly discussed. Unique characteristics of the nanoparticles including controllable size, surface tunability, and low immune response lead considerable potential of CRISPR-based gene editing as a translational medicine. We will present an overall view on essential elements in CRISPR/Cas systems and the nanoparticle-based delivery carriers including advantages and challenges. Perspectives to advance the current limitations are also discussed toward bench-to-bedside translation in engineering aspects.
      PubDate: 2021-08-01
       
  • Recent advances in hybrid system of porous silicon nanoparticles and
           biocompatible polymers for biomedical applications

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      Abstract: Hybrid systems of nanoparticles and polymers have emerged as a new material in the biomedical field. To date, various kinds of hybrid systems have been introduced and applied to drug delivery, regenerative medicine, therapeutics, disease diagnosis, and medical implantation. Among them, the hybridization of nanostructured porous silicon nanoparticles (pSiNPs) and biocompatible polymers has been highlighted due to its unique biological and physicochemical properties. This review focuses on the recent advances in the hybrid systems of pSiNPs and biocompatible polymers from an engineering aspect and its biomedical applications. Representative hybrid formulations, (i) Polymer-coated pSiNPs, (ii) pSiNPs-embedded polymeric nanofibers, are outlined along with their preparation methods, biomedical applications, and future perspectives. We believe this review provides insight into a new hybrid system of pSiNPs and biocompatible polymers as a promising nano-platform for further biomedical applications. Graphic abstract Recently developed and representative hybrid systems of porous silicon nanoparticles and biocompatible polymers and their biomedical applications are introduced.
      PubDate: 2021-08-01
       
  • Hidden Markov model-based heartbeat detector using electrocardiogram and
           arterial pressure signals

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      Abstract: The automatic detection of a heartbeat is commonly performed by detecting the QRS complex in the electrocardiogram (ECG), however, various noise sources and missing data can jeopardize the reliability of the ECG. Therefore, there is a growing interest in combining the information from many physiological signals to accurately detect heartbeats. To this end, hidden Markov models (HMMs) are used in this work to jointly exploit the information from ECG, arterial blood pressure (ABP) and pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) signals in order to conceive a heartbeat detector. After preprocessing the physiological signals, a sliding window is used to extract an observation sequence to be passed through two HMMs (previously trained on a training dataset) in order to obtain the log-likelihoods of observation and signals a detection if the difference of log-likelihoods exceeds an adaptive threshold. Several HMM-based heartbeat detectors were conceived to exploit the information from the ECG, ABP and PAP signals from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia, PhysioNet Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2014, and MGH/MF Waveform databases. A grid search methodology was used to optimize the duration of the observation sequence and a multiplicative factor to form the adaptive threshold. Using the optimal parameters found on a training database through 10-fold cross-validation, sensitivity and positive predictivity above 99% were obtained on the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia and PhysioNet Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2014 databases, while they are above 95% in the MGH/MF waveform database using ECG and ABP signals. Our detector approach showed detection performances comparable with the literature in the three databases.
      PubDate: 2021-08-01
       
  • Engineered immune cells with nanomaterials to improve adoptive cell
           therapy

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      Abstract: Cell-based cancer immunotherapy is mainly performed to re-stimulate or boost the anti-tumor immunity by leveraging the anti-tumoral functions of infused cells. Although conventional adoptive cell therapy with T cells and DC vaccines had potentiated the use of ex vivo engineered cells for cancer immunotherapy, these approaches had a low success rate and some off-target side effects. Recent developments on this intervention are adopting nanoengineering to overcome limitations imposed by the environment the therapeutic cells would be in and the natural characteristics of the cells; thus, enhancing the efficacy of therapies. For this purpose, T cells, NK cells, DCs, and macrophages are engineered to either maintain anti-tumoral phenotypes, target tumor efficiently, or improve the innate functionalities and viability.
      PubDate: 2021-08-01
       
  • CNN based classification of motor imaginary using variational mode
           decomposed EEG-spectrum image

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      Abstract: A novel approach of preprocessing EEG signals by generating spectrum image for effective Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) based classification for Motor Imaginary (MI) recognition is proposed. The approach involves extracting the Variational Mode Decomposition (VMD) modes of EEG signals, from which the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) of all the modes are arranged to form EEG spectrum images. The EEG spectrum images generated are provided as input image to CNN. The two generic CNN architectures for MI classification (EEGNet and DeepConvNet) and the architectures for pattern recognition (AlexNet and LeNet) are used in this study. Among the four architectures, EEGNet provides average accuracies of 91.37%, 94.41%, 85.67% and 90.21% for the four datasets used to validate the proposed approach. Consistently better results in comparison with results in recent literature demonstrate that the EEG spectrum image generation using VMD-STFT is a promising method for the time frequency analysis of EEG signals.
      PubDate: 2021-08-01
       
  • Synthetic CT generation from weakly paired MR images using
           cycle-consistent GAN for MR-guided radiotherapy

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      Abstract: Although MR-guided radiotherapy (MRgRT) is advancing rapidly, generating accurate synthetic CT (sCT) from MRI is still challenging. Previous approaches using deep neural networks require large dataset of precisely co-registered CT and MRI pairs that are difficult to obtain due to respiration and peristalsis. Here, we propose a method to generate sCT based on deep learning training with weakly paired CT and MR images acquired from an MRgRT system using a cycle-consistent GAN (CycleGAN) framework that allows the unpaired image-to-image translation in abdomen and thorax. Data from 90 cancer patients who underwent MRgRT were retrospectively used. CT images of the patients were aligned to the corresponding MR images using deformable registration, and the deformed CT (dCT) and MRI pairs were used for network training and testing. The 2.5D CycleGAN was constructed to generate sCT from the MRI input. To improve the sCT generation performance, a perceptual loss that explores the discrepancy between high-dimensional representations of images extracted from a well-trained classifier was incorporated into the CycleGAN. The CycleGAN with perceptual loss outperformed the U-net in terms of errors and similarities between sCT and dCT, and dose estimation for treatment planning of thorax, and abdomen. The sCT generated using CycleGAN produced virtually identical dose distribution maps and dose-volume histograms compared to dCT. CycleGAN with perceptual loss outperformed U-net in sCT generation when trained with weakly paired dCT-MRI for MRgRT. The proposed method will be useful to increase the treatment accuracy of MR-only or MR-guided adaptive radiotherapy.
      PubDate: 2021-08-01
       
  • Nanomaterials-assisted thermally induced neuromodulation

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      Abstract: Neuromodulation, as a fast-growing technique in neuroscience, has been a great tool in investigation of the neural pathways and treatments for various neurological disorders. However, the limitations such as constricted penetration depth, low temporal resolution and low spatial resolution hindered the development and clinical application of this technique. Nanotechnology, which refers to the technology that deals with dimension under 100 nm, has greatly influenced the direction of scientific researches within recent years. With the recent advancements in nanotechnology, much attention is being given at applying nanomaterials to address the limitations of the current available techniques in the field of biomedical science including neuromodulation. This mini-review aims to introduce the current state-of-the-art stimuli-responsive nanomaterials used for assisting thermally induced neuromodulation.
      PubDate: 2021-08-01
       
  • Sepsis diagnosis and treatment using nanomaterials

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      Abstract: Sepsis is a life-threatening reaction that occurs when the body’s severe response to an infection damages the host’s own tissues. Sepsis has been globally recognized as a fatal disease. Rapid treatment of sepsis requires prompt identification, administering antibiotics, careful hemodynamic support, and treating the cause of the infection. Clinical outcomes of sepsis depend on early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Unfortunately, current sepsis diagnosis and treatment, such as polymerase chain reaction-based assay, blood culture assay, and antibiotic therapy, are ineffective; consequently, sepsis-related mortality remains high and increases antimicrobial resistance. To overcome this challenge, nanotechnology, which involves engineering at a nanoscale, is used for diagnosing and treating sepsis. Preclinical models have shown protective effects and potential utility in managing septic shock. Furthermore, nanotechnology treatments based on diverse materials result in the effective treatment of sepsis, improving the survival rate. In this review, we present an overview of the recent research advancements in nanotechnology to diagnose and treat sepsis with a brief introduction to sepsis.
      PubDate: 2021-08-01
       
  • Recent advances with liposomes as drug carriers for treatment of
           neurodegenerative diseases

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      Abstract: A major challenge in treating neurogenerative diseases is delivering drugs across the blood–brain barrier (BBB). In this review, we summarized the development of liposome-based drug delivery system with enhanced BBB penetration for efficient brain drug delivery. We focused on the liposome-based therapeutics targeting Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease because they are most common types of adult chronic neurodegenerative disorders. A variety of liposome with surface modification of BBB-targeting ligands have been created to cross the BBB via transcytosis to the therapeutic efficacy of Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease drugs. Recent advances in liposome are providing alternatives to overcome BBB for more efficient therapeutic strategy. To improve the BBB penetration of liposomes, we need to completely understand the pathophysiological changes at the BBB.
      PubDate: 2021-08-01
       
  • Gaussian process-based kernel as a diagnostic model for prediction of type
           

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      Abstract: The main objective of the study was to develop a low-cost, non-invasive diagnostic model for the early prediction of T2DM risk and validation of this model on patients. The model was designed based on the machine learning classification technique using non-linear Heart rate variability (HRV) features. The electrocardiogram of the healthy subjects (n = 35) and T2DM subjects (n = 100) were recorded in the supine position for 15 min, and HRV features were extracted. The significant non-linear HRV features were identified through statistical analysis. It was found that Poincare plot features (SD1 and SD2) can differentiate the T2DM subject data from healthy subject data. Several machine learning classifiers, such as Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Quadratic Discriminant Analysis, Naïve Bayes, and Gaussian Process Classifier (GPC), have classified the data based on the cross-validation approach. A GP classifier was implemented using three kernels, namely radial basis, linear, and polynomial kernel, considering the ability to handle the non-linear data. The classifier performance was evaluated and compared using performance metrics such as accuracy(AC), sensitivity(SN), specificity(SP), precision(PR), F1 score, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve(AUC). Initially, all non-linear HRV features were selected for classification, but the specificity of the model was the limitation. Thus, only two Poincare plot features were used to design the diagnostic model. Our diagnostic model shows the performance using GPC based linear kernel as AC of 92.59%, SN of 96.07%, SP of 81.81%, PR of 94.23%, F1 score of 0.95, and AUC of 0.89, which are more extensive compared to other classification models. Further, the diagnostic model was deployed on the hardware module. Its performance on unknown/test data was validated on 65 subjects (healthy n = 15 and T2DM n = 50). Considering the desirable performance of the diagnostic model, it can be used as an initial screening test tool for a healthcare practitioner to predict T2DM risk.
      PubDate: 2021-08-01
       
  • A review of BioFET’s basic principles and materials for biomedical
           applications

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      Abstract: Interest in biomolecular sensors for diagnosis of early diseases and prognosis of the diseases is increasing day by day. Among them, FET-based sensors are very useful in that of their versatile operating characteristics using various materials. Herein, after addressing the basic principles of BioFET, we conduct an overall review of BioFET on two of the main structural elements: transducing materials and probes. Transducing materials were classified into graphene, carbon nanotube, silicon, MOF, etc., and probes were classified into antibodies, enzymes, aptamers, etc.. The important elements in designing BioFETs, such as electrical properties of each material, Debye length, and fabrication process are introduced along with their respective structures and materials. After the review of each of these structures and characteristics, examples are discussed along with sensitivity, selectivity, and limit of detection. In addition to the operating aspects of the senser, novel processes, treatments, and materials that can be considered for various purposes are also introduced. Based on the understanding, an overview of diverse examples is given by dividing the applications of BioFET into three main types: antigen sensing, biomarker sensing, and drug effect monitoring. Focusing on these general reviews, we conclude how the future direction of development will move forward and what the main challenge is.
      PubDate: 2021-05-01
       
  • Deep convolutional neural networks based ECG beats classification to
           diagnose cardiovascular conditions

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      Abstract: Medical practitioners need to understand the critical features of ECG beats to diagnose and identify cardiovascular conditions accurately. This would be greatly facilitated by identifying the significant features of frequency components in temporal ECG wave-forms using computational methods. In this study, we have proposed a novel ECG beat classifier based on a customized VGG16-based Convolution Neural Network (CNN) that uses the time-frequency representation of temporal ECG, and a method to identify the contribution of interpretable ECG frequencies when classifying based on the SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) values. We applied our model to the MIT-BIH arrhythmia dataset to classify the ECG beats and to characterise of the beats frequencies. This model was evaluated with two advanced time-frequency analysis methods. Our results indicated that for 2-4 classes our proposed model achieves a classification accuracy of 100% and for 5 classes it achieves a classification accuracy of 99.90%. We have also tested the proposed model using premature ventricular contraction beats from the American Heart Association (AHA) database and normal beats from Lobachevsky University Electrocardiography database (LUDB) and obtained a classification accuracy of 99.91% for the 5-classes case. In addition, SHAP value increased the interpretability of the ECG frequency features. Thus, this model could be applicable to the automation of the cardiovascular diagnosis system and could be used by clinicians.
      PubDate: 2021-05-01
       
 
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