Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2844 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (259 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (255 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (182 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1420 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (454 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (60 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (101 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (113 journals)

ENGINEERING (1420 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 452)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Nova     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advanced Engineering Research     Open Access  
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Quantum Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Natural Sciences : Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Al-Nahrain Journal for Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
Al-Qadisiya Journal for Engineering Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annual Journal of Technical University of Varna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applications in Energy and Combustion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applications in Engineering Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Applied Engineering Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Arctic     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ArtefaCToS : Revista de estudios sobre la ciencia y la tecnología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
AURUM : Mühendislik Sistemleri ve Mimarlık Dergisi = Aurum Journal of Engineering Systems and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Autocracy : Jurnal Otomasi, Kendali, dan Aplikasi Industri     Open Access  
Automotive and Engine Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Automotive Experiences     Open Access  
Automotive Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingenierías     Open Access  
Avances: Investigación en Ingeniería     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Batteries & Supercaps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Beyond : Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Black Sea Journal of Engineering and Science     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers Droit, Sciences & Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Calphad     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Carpathian Journal of Electronic and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cell Reports Physical Science     Open Access  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Population, Resources and Environment     Open Access  
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coastal Engineering Proceedings : Proceedings of the International Conference on Coastal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 335)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 279)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 312)
Composites Part C : Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 247)
Comptes Rendus : Mécanique     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 21)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

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Journal Cover
Applied Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.303
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2076-3417
Published by MDPI Homepage  [238 journals]
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9625: Peri-Implant Tissue Behaviour Next
           to Different Titanium Surfaces: 16-Year Post-Trial Follow-Up

    • Authors: Francesca Delucchi, Enrico Pozzetti, Francesco Bagnasco, Paolo Pesce, Domenico Baldi, Francesco Pera, Nicolò Di Tullio, Paolo Pera, Maria Menini
      First page: 9625
      Abstract: The present post-trial follow-up investigated the influence of titanium implants with different surface treatments on clinical behavior of soft and hard peri-implant tissues. Each of the 18 included patients received at least two adjacent implants: one control implant with a dual acid-etched (DAE) surface in their apical portion and a machined coronal part, and one test implant with a DAE surface up to its coronal portion. Peri-implant bone level change (BLC), probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP) and plaque index (PI) were recorded. A total of 42 implants was inserted. The mean follow-up period was 9.3 years (range: 5–16 years) and there were six dropouts. No implant failed. Moderate crestal bone remodeling occurred during the first year after implant insertion, with lower bone loss next to test implants compared to control ones (0.80 vs. 1.39 mm; p = 0.002). This difference was also detected at the 5- (p = 0.011), 6- (p = 0.008) and 7-year follow-up appointment (p = 0.027). No statistically significant differences were found in bone resorption between implants rehabilitated with ceramic vs. composite resin veneering material. No statistically significant differences were detected between test and control implants for BOP, PI, and PD at any time point. The results of the present study suggest that DAE surfaces reduce peri-implant bone loss in the initial phase of healing compared to machined surfaces, while they do not significantly affect soft peri-implant tissue and bone maintenance in the long-term. In conclusion, the minimally rough surfaces favour peri-implant bone maintenance and their effect is greater in the first year post implant insertion.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209625
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9629: Using Homemade Pressure Device to
           Improve Plantar Pressure—A Case Study on the Patient with Lower Limb
           Lymphedema

    • Authors: Jong-Chen Chen, Yao-Te Wang, Ying-Sheng Lin
      First page: 9629
      Abstract: Feet play a very important and indispensable role in people’s lives. Patients with lymphedema often suffer from collapsed (or even deformed) foot arches as a result of lower extremity edema. This result will change the normal pressure distribution on the soles of their feet, which will affect their mobility and physical health. When the patient does not know that the distribution of pressure on the sole of the foot has changed significantly, the deformation of the sole of the foot will become severe. In response to this problem, this research team hopes to use a set of self-made sensor insoles to help to understand the plantar pressure points in different situations or actions. The subject invited in this study was a patient with lower extremity edema. The entire study was carried out with the consent of the patient, the guidance of the physician and the approval of the Ethics Committee of National Taiwan University Hospital (No: 201805068 RINB, date: 18 June 2018). This study uses this self-made sensor insole to analyze the plantar pressure distribution of the patient before and after the operation of lower extremity edema. The results show that the operation can effectively improve the high foot pressure in the center and rear of the foot area during different sports (standing, walking and biking). This not only increases its stability when standing and walking, but also significantly and effectively improves its walking speed and step distance.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209629
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9636: Applying Wearable Technology and a
           Deep Learning Model to Predict Occupational Physical Activities

    • Authors: Yishu Yan, Hao Fan, Yibin Li, Elias Hoeglinger, Alexander Wiesinger, Alan Barr, Grace D. O’Connell, Carisa Harris-Adamson
      First page: 9636
      Abstract: Many workers who engage in manual material handling (MMH) jobs experience high physical demands that are associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). Quantifying the physical demands of a job is important for identifying high risk jobs and is a legal requirement in the United States for hiring and return to work following injury. Currently, most physical demand analyses (PDAs) are performed by experts using observational and semi-quantitative methods. The lack of accuracy and reliability of these methods can be problematic, particularly when identifying restrictions during the return-to-work process. Further, when a worker does return-to-work on modified duty, there is no way to track compliance to work restrictions conflating the effectiveness of the work restrictions versus adherence to them. To address this, we applied a deep learning model to data from eight inertial measurement units (IMUs) to predict 15 occupational physical activities. Overall, a 95% accuracy was reached for predicting isolated occupational physical activities. However, when applied to more complex tasks that combined occupational physical activities (OPAs), accuracy varied widely (0–95%). More work is needed to accurately predict OPAs when combined into simulated work tasks.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209636
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9638: Coupled Flexural-Electrical
           Evaluation of Additively Manufactured Multifunctional Composites at
           Ambient Temperature

    • Authors: Ritesh Ghimire, Frank Liou
      First page: 9638
      Abstract: Multifunctional composites offer a higher strength to weight ratio, electrical properties, etc., thereby providing possible solutions for replacing the physical electrical wirings in aircraft. The lack of research on the coupled multifunctional characterization of 3D printed composites flexural-electrical properties is the main reason for its unsuitability in aerospace applications. The proposed method evaluates multifunctional flexural-electrical properties of 3D printed multifunctional carbon fiber composites. Traditional methods for conducting structural and electrical analyses for aircraft certification do not accommodate new technologies that are not yet proven. Such technologies are additive manufacturing (AM) techniques, multifunctional composite structures, and the certification requirements for 3D printed multifunctional carbon fiber composites for use in aircraft. In this study, the multifunctional 3D printed specimens were concurrently evaluated for flexural-electrical properties using three-point bending and electrical conductivity tests. The results showed that the multifunctional properties included the maximum flexural strength of 271 MPa and the maximum electrical resistance of 55.1 G Ohms, with the failure modes and mechanisms found to be consistent with the traditional composites. Due to its infancy, the existing AM techniques, and the use of the multifunctional carbon fiber composites manufactured using those AM technologies, are not implemented on a large commercial scale.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209638
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9639: Economic Analysis of a Zero-Water
           Solar Power Plant for Energy Security

    • Authors: Eduardo de la Rocha Camba, Fontina Petrakopoulou
      First page: 9639
      Abstract: Water dependency of power plants undermines energy security by making power generation susceptible to water scarcity. This study evaluates the economic performance of a novel dry-cooling system for a water-independent solar power plant. The proposed cooling system is based on the concept of earth–air heat exchangers, approaching zero environmental impact. The viability of the proposed design is discussed based on both costs and benefits, and it is compared to both conventional dry- and wet-cooling systems. The installation costs of the plant are found to be EUR 13,728/kW, resulting in the substantial levelized cost of electricity of EUR 505.97/MWh. The net present value of the studied design assuming a water-cost saving of EUR 1/m3 is found to be MEUR –139.59. Significantly higher water prices in the future might eventually make the proposed system economically attractive when compared to water-cooling systems. However, the new system would require drastic modifications to become more attractive when compared to existing dry-cooling systems. Specific possibilities to improve it for zero-water use in thermoelectric power plants are further discussed.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209639
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9640: Impact of the Mining Dimensions on
           the Stability of Backfilled Pier-Columns

    • Authors: Jianlin Xie, Weibing Zhu, Jialin Xu, Xiaozhen Wang, Limin Wang
      First page: 9640
      Abstract: Owing to alternate mining of the new and old mining areas on sites, the mining thickness and width of the working face for pier-column backfilling varies. Thus, there is an urgent need to determine the impact on the bearing performance of the backfilled pier-column after changing the mined dimensions. This study consisted of three-dimensional numerical simulations, physical experiments, and field testing. These methods were performed to study the impact on the stability of the backfilled pier-column after changing the dimensions of the working face. The numerical and physical simulation results revealed that the mining thickness has a greater impact on the stability of the backfilled pier-columns than the width. Field testing results proved that the designed parameters for the backfilled pier-column in situ satisfy the bearing requirements; thus, it can effectively support the overlying strata of the goaf after mining. When increasing the mining thickness, the stress borne by the pier-column increased, and its stability decreased. Upon increasing the mining width, the variation in the stress exerted onto the pier-column was remarkably small, and the change of the elastoplastic zone of the pier-column was also minimal.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209640
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9641: Prototyping, Testing, and Redesign
           of a Three-Wheel Trekking Wheelchair for Accessible Tourism Applications

    • Authors: Gabriele Baronio, Ileana Bodini, Barbara Motyl, Stefano Uberti
      First page: 9641
      Abstract: This work is part of the project called “Gölem project”, started in 2017, about special devices developed to enable the so-called Accessible Tourism. This project aims to design and develop a trekking wheelchair for people with impaired mobility. After an initial phase of design and prototyping, the testing phase has now begun. The objective is to validate several aspects of the design, concerning basic kinematics and dynamics, passenger comfort and physical effort of the carriers. This paper describes the development of qualitative tests for drivability and balance validation of this first prototype. At this stage, a list of features to be investigated was made, suitable trekking paths were chosen, and qualitative experimental field tests were performed. Then, the design of the prototype was modified according to these first experimental results, to improve the wheelchair characteristics. The prototype is now undergoing the modification phase, then further testing will be performed with the use of specific instrumental devices to evaluate the wheelchair itself and to perform the kinematic, dynamical, and comfort characterization.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209641
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9642: Mirau-Based CSI with Oscillating
           Reference Mirror for Vibration Compensation in In-Process Applications

    • Authors: Hüseyin Serbes, Pascal Gollor, Sebastian Hagemeier, Peter Lehmann
      First page: 9642
      Abstract: We present a Mirau-type coherence scanning interferometer (CSI) with an oscillating reference mirror and an integrated interferometric distance sensor (IDS) sharing the optical path with the CSI. The IDS works simultaneously with the CSI and measures the distance changes during the depth scanning process with high temporal resolution. The additional information acquired by the IDS is used to correct the CSI data disturbed by unwanted distance changes due to environmental vibrations subsequent to the measurement. Due to the fixed reference mirror in commercial Mirau objectives, a Mirau attachment (MA) comprising an oscillating reference mirror is designed and built. Compared to our previous systems based on the Michelson and the Linnik interferometer, the MA represents a novel solution that completes the range of possible applications. Due to its advantages, the Mirau setup is the preferred and most frequently used interferometer type in industry. Therefore, the industrial use is ensured by this development. We investigate the functioning of the system and the capability of the vibration compensation by several measurements on various surface topographies.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209642
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9643: Protective Effects of Annatto
           Tocotrienol and Palm Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction on Chondrocytes Exposed to
           Monosodium Iodoacetate

    • Authors: Kok-Lun Pang, Norzana Abd Ghafar, Ima Nirwana Soelaiman, Kok-Yong Chin
      First page: 9643
      Abstract: Background: This study aimed to compare the chondroprotective efficacy and mechanism of annatto tocotrienol (AnTT) and palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (PT3) using SW1353 chondrocytes treated with monosodium iodoacetate (MIA). Methods: The chondrocytes were incubated with AnTT or PT3 in advance or concurrently with MIA for 24 h. The viability of the cells was tested with an MTT assay. The 8-isoprostane F2-α, extracellular matrix proteins, metalloproteinase and sex-determining region Y box protein 9 (SOX9) levels were determined using immunoassays. Results: AnTT and PT3 reversed an MIA-induced decrease in chondrocyte viability when incubated together with MIA (p < 0.05). Prior incubation with both mixtures did not produce the same effects. AnTT and PT3 cotreatment could suppress 8-isoprostane F2-α level in chondrocytes exposed to MIA (p < 0.01). Co-exposure to tocotrienols and MIA increased the type II collagen/type I collagen ratio in chondrocytes (p < 0.01). In addition, the co-exposure of AnTT and MIA for 24 h significantly upregulated SOX9, type II collagen and aggrecan levels (p < 0.05), which was not observed with co-exposure of PT3 and MIA, AnTT or PT3 exposure alone. Conclusion: AnTT and PT3 could prevent a reduction in chondrocyte viability following MIA exposure by reducing oxidative stress. In addition, AnTT might induce self-repair and anabolic activities in chondrocytes challenged with MIA.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209643
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9644: Concept Drift Adaptation with
           Incremental–Decremental SVM

    • Authors: Honorius Gâlmeanu, Răzvan Andonie
      First page: 9644
      Abstract: Data classification in streams where the underlying distribution changes over time is known to be difficult. This problem—known as concept drift detection—involves two aspects: (i) detecting the concept drift and (ii) adapting the classifier. Online training only considers the most recent samples; they form the so-called shifting window. Dynamic adaptation to concept drift is performed by varying the width of the window. Defining an online Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier able to cope with concept drift by dynamically changing the window size and avoiding retraining from scratch is currently an open problem. We introduce the Adaptive Incremental–Decremental SVM (AIDSVM), a model that adjusts the shifting window width using the Hoeffding statistical test. We evaluate AIDSVM performance on both synthetic and real-world drift datasets. Experiments show a significant accuracy improvement when encountering concept drift, compared with similar drift detection models defined in the literature. The AIDSVM is efficient, since it is not retrained from scratch after the shifting window slides.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209644
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9645: Research on Wind Field
           Characteristics Measured by Lidar in a U-Shaped Valley at a Bridge Site

    • Authors: Jun Wang, Jiawu Li, Feng Wang, Guang Hong, Song Xing
      First page: 9645
      Abstract: Currently, research on wind fields of U-shaped valleys is rarely reported, and anemometers or wind observation towers are usually used for field measurement, but the measured position is limited and the cost is high. In order to study the wind characteristics in a mountainous U-shaped valley, a long-range, all-weather, high-precision Wind3D 6000 lidar was placed at a bridge site located in a U-shaped valley. Then, according to the data effective ratio and wind speed, nearly 6 months of original data ranging from 0 m to 810 m were analyzed statistically. It was found that the spatio-temporal distribution of wind speed and direction is obviously not uniform, and the wind parameters are correlated among different virtual wind towers (VWTs). By classification, the effective data of midspan position is taken as the research object, and the wind speed profile is divided into three categories. Type-1 shows disorderly characteristics; Type-2 shows a linear relationship; and Type-3 shows a nonlinear relationship. The wind direction is consistent with the main wind direction at the bridge site and the average wind direction of different VWTs has a high consistency. The concept of wind-direction deflection rate is put forward to describe the variation of wind direction with height. These measured wind parameters could be used as a reference for bridge wind-resistant design.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209645
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9646: Measuring Avalanche Properties on
           RC4 Stream Cipher Variants

    • Authors: Evaristo José Madarro-Capó , Carlos Miguel Legón-Pérez , Omar Rojas, Guillermo Sosa-Gómez
      First page: 9646
      Abstract: In the last three decades, the RC4 has been the most cited stream cipher, due to a large amount of research carried out on its operation. In this sense, dissimilar works have been presented on its performance, security, and usability. One of the distinguishing features that stand out the most is the sheer number of RC4 variants proposed. Recently, a weakness has been reported regarding the existence of statistical dependence between the inputs and outputs of the RC4, based on the use of the strict avalanche criterion and the bit independence criterion. This work analyzes the influence of this weakness in some of its variants concerning RC4. The five best-known variants of RC4 were compared experimentally and classified into two groups according to the presence or absence of such a weakness.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209646
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9647: Durability and Abrasion Resistance
           of Innovative Recycled Pervious Concrete with Recycled Coarse Aggregate of
           Different Quality under Sulfate Attack

    • Authors: Minqi Hua, Bo Chen, Yun Liu, Hui Liu, Pinghua Zhu, Chunhong Chen, Xinjie Wang
      First page: 9647
      Abstract: Construction and demolition wastes (C&DWs) have raised a large number of ecological and environmental problems. Recycling C&DWs into arecycled concrete aggregate (RCA) will help save natural resources effectively and reduce the negative impact of C&DW on the environment. Innovative pervious concrete (IPC) can mitigate extreme weather disasters, such as rainstorms, and overcome the low strength and poor durability of traditional pervious concrete. In this study, innovative recycled pervious concrete (IRPC) is prepared by combining RCA with IPC, which has broad application prospects and ecological friendliness. This study investigates the effect of RCA quality grades and replacement rates on the mechanical property, permeability, sulfate resistance and abrasion resistance of IRPC. IRPC mixtures were prepared with three different quality grades (high, medium and low qualities) of aggregates named as NA, RCA1 and RCA2. Moreover, the replacement rate of RCA for NA varied as 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%. The IRPC specimens were tested for compressive strength, mass loss and abrasion resistance after different sulfate wetting-drying cycles of 0, 30 and 60. The results exhibited that the initial compressive strength of all types of IRPC was more than 40 MPa. The compressive strength and mass of most IRPC increased first and then decreased slightly with the passage of a number of sulfate wetting-drying cycles, indicating IRPC has good resistance to sulfate attack. Sulfate attack and the addition of RCA will reduce the abrasion resistance of IRPC. However, when the replacement rate is lower than 50%, and the RCA quality is better (attached mortar content < 25%), the abrasion resistance of IRPC will be improved under sulfate attack. The experimental results might be useful as a reference and design methodology for employing IRPC in pavement applications in the future.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209647
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9648: Converting Biomedical Text
           Annotated Resources into FAIR Research Objects with an Open Science
           Platform

    • Authors: Alexandros Kanterakis, Nikos Kanakaris, Manos Koutoulakis, Konstantina Pitianou, Nikos Karacapilidis, Lefteris Koumakis, George Potamias
      First page: 9648
      Abstract: Today, there are excellent resources for the semantic annotation of biomedical text. These resources span from ontologies, tools for NLP, annotators, and web services. Most of these are available either in the form of open source components (i.e., MetaMap) or as web services that offer free access (i.e., Whatizit). In order to use these resources in automatic text annotation pipelines, researchers face significant technical challenges. For open-source tools, the challenges include the setting up of the computational environment, the resolution of dependencies, as well as the compilation and installation of the software. For web services, the challenge is implementing clients to undertake communication with the respective web APIs. Even resources that are available as Docker containers (i.e., NCBO annotator) require significant technical skills for installation and setup. This work deals with the task of creating ready-to-install and run Research Objects (ROs) for a large collection of components in biomedical text analysis. These components include (a) tools such as cTAKES, NOBLE Coder, MetaMap, NCBO annotator, BeCAS, and Neji; (b) ontologies from BioPortal, NCBI BioSystems, and Open Biomedical Ontologies; and (c) text corpora such as BC4GO, Mantra Gold Standard Corpus, and the COVID-19 Open Research Dataset. We make these resources available in OpenBio.eu, an open-science RO repository and workflow management system. All ROs can be searched, shared, edited, downloaded, commented on, and rated. We also demonstrate how one can easily connect these ROs to form a large variety of text annotation pipelines.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209648
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9649: Arrays of Sub-Terahertz Cryogenic
           Metamaterial

    • Authors: Mikhail Tarasov, Aleksandra Gunbina, Artem Chekushkin, Vyacheslav Vdovin, Aleksei Kalaboukhov
      First page: 9649
      Abstract: Integrated quasi-optical cryogenic terahertz receivers contain arrays of detectors, quasi-optical filters, interferometers, and other metamaterials. Matrices of quasi-optical band-pass, low-pass, and high-pass filters, Fabry–Perot grid interferometers, and arrays of half-wave and electrically small antennas with superconductor-insulator-normal metal-insulator-superconductor (SINIS) sub-terahertz wavelength range detectors were fabricated and experimentally studied on the same computational, technological, and experimental platform. For the design of the filters, we used the periodic frequency-selective surfaces (FSS) approach, contrary to detector arrays that can be presented in a model of distributed absorbers. The structures were fabricated using direct electron beam lithography, thermal shadow evaporation, lift-off, alternatively magnetron sputtering, and chemical and plasma etching. The numerical simulation methods of such structures are sufficiently different: for the reactive matrices with low losses, the approximation of an infinite structure with periodic boundary conditions is applicable, and for the arrays of detectors with dissipative elements of absorbers, a complete analysis of the finite structure with hundreds of interacting ports is applicable. The difference is determined by the presence of dissipation in the detector arrays, the phase of the reflected or re-emitted signal turned out to be undefined and the Floquet periodic boundary conditions are correct only for a phased array antenna. The spectral characteristics of the created filters, interferometers, and antenna arrays were measured in the frequency range 50–600 GHz.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209649
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9650: A Path Planning Strategy for
           Multi-Robot Moving with Path-Priority Order Based on a Generalized Voronoi
           Diagram

    • Authors: Sheng-Kai Huang, Wen-June Wang, Chung-Hsun Sun
      First page: 9650
      Abstract: This paper proposes a new path planning strategy called the navigation strategy with path priority (NSPP) for multiple robots moving in a large flat space. In the space, there may be some static or/and dynamic obstacles. Suppose we have the path-priority order for each robot, then this article aims to find an efficient path for each robot from its starting point to its target point without any collision. Here, a generalized Voronoi diagram (GVD) is used to perform the map division based on each robot’s path-priority order, and the proposed NSPP is used to do the path planning for the robots in the space. This NSPP can be applied to any number of robots. At last, there are several simulations with a different number of robots in a circular or rectangular space to be shown that the proposed method can complete the task effectively and has better performance in average trajectory length than those by using the benchmark methods of the shortest distance algorithm (SDA) and reciprocal orientation algorithm (ROA).
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209650
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9651: A Theoretical Analysis of Magnetic
           Particle Alignment in External Magnetic Fields Affected by Viscosity and
           Brownian Motion

    • Authors: Andrej Krafcik, Peter Babinec, Oliver Strbak, Ivan Frollo
      First page: 9651
      Abstract: The interaction of an external magnetic field with magnetic objects affects their response and is a fundamental property for many biomedical applications, including magnetic resonance and particle imaging, electromagnetic hyperthermia, and magnetic targeting and separation. Magnetic alignment and relaxation are widely studied in the context of these applications. In this study, we theoretically investigate the alignment dynamics of a rotational magnetic particle as an inverse process to Brownian relaxation. The selected external magnetic flux density ranges from 5μT to 5T. We found that the viscous torque for arbitrary rotating particles with a history term due to the inertia and friction of the surrounding ambient water has a significant effect in strong magnetic fields (range 1–5T). In this range, oscillatory behavior due to the inertial torque of the particle also occurs, and the stochastic Brownian torque diminishes. In contrast, for weak fields (range 5–50μT), the history term of the viscous torque and the inertial torque can be neglected, and the stochastic Brownian torque induced by random collisions of the surrounding fluid molecules becomes dominant. These results contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of magnetic particle alignment in external magnetic fields and have important implications in a variety of biomedical applications.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209651
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9652: A Cross-Correlation-Based Approach
           to Pattern Distortion and Mutual Coupling for Shared-Aperture Antennas

    • Authors: Heo, Yoon, Kim, Kim, Byun
      First page: 9652
      Abstract: This paper proposes a pattern distortion coefficient as a new figure of merit to quantitatively evaluate both mutual coupling and pattern distortions in multi-antenna systems. The proposed coefficient is defined as a cross correlation between unaffected and affected far-field patterns of antennas under test, and the input patterns are weighted using a Gaussian function to consider the target operation angle. The feasibility of the proposed approach is validated using a two-antenna system composed of an inverted-F antenna and a microstrip patch antenna, and the amount of mutual coupling is adjusted by changing the distance between the two antennas. The evaluation is further extended to a single-antenna system with a conducting wall that produces strong platform effects with serious pattern distortions. The results demonstrate that the proposed figure of merit provides quantitative insight into the amplitude and phase distortions of far-field patterns that can be caused by both mutual coupling and platform effects.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209652
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9653: BIBC: A Chinese Named Entity
           Recognition Model for Diabetes Research

    • Authors: Lei Yang, Yufan Fu, Yu Dai
      First page: 9653
      Abstract: In the medical field, extracting medical entities from text by Named Entity Recognition (NER) has become one of the research hotspots. This thesis takes the chapter-level diabetes literature as the research object and uses a deep learning method to extract medical entities in the literature. Based on the deep and bidirectional transformer network structure, the pre-training language model BERT model can solve the problem of polysemous word representation, and supplement the features by large-scale unlabeled data, combined with BiLSTM-CRF model extracts of the long-distance features of sentences. On this basis, in view of the problem that the model cannot focus on the local information of the sentence, resulting in insufficient feature extraction, and considering the characteristics of Chinese data mainly in words, this thesis proposes a Named Entity Recognition method based on BIBC. This method combines Iterated Dilated CNN to enable the model to take into account global and local features at the same time, and uses the BERT-WWM model based on whole word masking to further extract semantic information from Chinese data. In the experiment of diabetic entity recognition in Ruijin Hospital, the accuracy rate, recall rate, and F1 score are improved to 79.58%, 80.21%, and 79.89%, which are better than the evaluation indexes of existing studies. It indicates that the method can extract the semantic information of diabetic text more accurately and obtain good entity recognition results, which can meet the requirements of practical applications.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209653
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9654: Smart Recommendations for Renting
           Bikes in Bike-Sharing Systems

    • Authors: Holger Billhardt, Alberto Fernández, Sascha Ossowski
      First page: 9654
      Abstract: Vehicle-sharing systems—such as bike-, car-, or motorcycle-sharing systems—have become increasingly popular in big cities in recent years. On the one hand, they provide a cheaper and environmentally friendlier means of transportation than private cars, and on the other hand, they satisfy the individual mobility demands of citizens better than traditional public transport systems. One of their advantages in this regard is their availability, e.g., the possibility of taking (or leaving) a vehicle almost anywhere in a city. This availability obviously depends on different strategic and operational management decisions and policies, such as the dimension of the fleet or the (re)distribution of vehicles. Agglutination problems—where, due to usage patterns, available vehicles are concentrated in certain areas, whereas no vehicles are available in others—are quite common in such systems, and need to be dealt with. Research has been dedicated to this problem, specifying different techniques to reduce imbalanced situations. In this paper, we present and compare strategies for recommending stations to users who wish to rent or return bikes in station-based bike-sharing systems. Our first contribution is a novel recommendation strategy based on queuing theory that recommends stations based on their utility to the user in terms of lower distance and higher probability of finding a bike or slot. Then, we go one step further, defining a strategy that recommends stations by combining the utility of a particular user with the utility of the global system, measured in terms of the improvement in the distribution of bikes and slots with respect to the expected future demand, with the aim of implicitly avoiding or alleviating balancing problems. We present several experiments to evaluate our proposal with real data from the bike sharing system BiciMAD in Madrid.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209654
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9655: Vlog-Based Multimodal Composing:
           Enhancing EFL Learners’ Writing Performance

    • Authors: Qiuzhu Xie, Xiaobin Liu, Nanyan Zhang, Qianqian Zhang, Xijuan Jiang, Lijun Wen
      First page: 9655
      Abstract: For most learners of English as a foreign language (EFL), there has long been a lack of effective opportunities to practice English writing skills. However, the recent development of social networking services (SNS) provides new possibilities for these learners to practice writing English in a meaningful way. Meanwhile, with the popularity of social media in language learning, writing is unnecessarily in the form of plain text, and multimodal composing based on text and additional modes such as audio, video or images has been a new form of writing activity instead. This study integrated SNS-based multimodal composing activities into secondary and higher education, with the aim of determining its effects on learners’ writing performance. Two classes in senior high school Grade 10 and four in college were recruited, three as the control groups without using SNS-based multimodal composing, and others as the experimental groups. While all classes’ writing performance improved between pretest and posttest, the gains in overall writing competence by experimental groups and the gains in three detailed aspects (readability, lexical complexity and syntactic complexity) by college students were significantly larger. Progress in detailed aspects, on the other hand, was different across different groups. These findings are discussed in relation to specific characteristics of multimodal composing and SNS-based learning that enables learners to improve writing performance.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209655
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9656: Nanomaterials for Chronic Kidney
           Disease Detection

    • Authors: Solmaz Maleki Dizaj, Aziz Eftekhari, Shakar Mammadova, Elham Ahmadian, Mohammadreza Ardalan, Soodabeh Davaran, Aygun Nasibova, Rovshan Khalilov, Mahbuba Valiyeva, Sevil Mehraliyeva, Ebrahim Mostafavi
      First page: 9656
      Abstract: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a dilapidating problem that causes great global burden since the current therapeutic options are mostly ineffective. Early diagnosis and efficient treatment are essential to prevent the progression of CKD. Nanoparticles as technological drivers of innovation have emerged in biomedical studies for different theranostic applications. Several nanoparticles have been developed, which can be labeled with targeting moieties for both drug delivery and/or imaging systems and are investigated to detect different pathological conditions. The focus of this review is to demonstrate the current research and clinical applications for nanoparticles in the diagnosis of CKD and other renal diseases that will probably result in CKD.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209656
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9657: A Short S-Equol Exposure Has a
           Long-Term Inhibitory Effect on Adipogenesis in Mouse 3T3-L1 Cells

    • Authors: Gilberto Mandujano-Lázaro, Carlos Galaviz-Hernández, César A. Reyes-López, Julio C. Almanza-Pérez, Abraham Giacoman-Martínez, César López-Camarillo, Fengyang Huang, Laurence A. Marchat
      First page: 9657
      Abstract: In the search for new drugs against obesity, the chronic disease that threatens human health worldwide, several works have focused on the study of estrogen homologs because of the role of estrogen receptors (ERs) in adipocyte growth. The isoflavone equol, an ERβ agonist, has shown beneficial metabolic effects in in vivo and in vitro assays; however, additional studies are required to better characterize its potential for body weight control. Here, we showed that the treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with 10 μM of S-equol for the first three days of the adipocyte differentiation protocol was able to prevent cells becoming semi-rounded and having a lipid droplet formation until the seventh day of culture; moreover, lipid accumulation was reduced by about 50%. Congruently, S-equol induced a reduction in mRNA expression of the adipogenic markers C/EBPα and PPARγ, and adipokines secretion, mainly Adiponectin, Leptin, Resistin, and MCP-1, while the release of PAI-1 was augmented. Moreover, it also reduced the expression of ERα and attenuated the subexpression of ERβ associated with adipogenesis. Altogether, our data suggested that S-equol binding to ERβ affects the transcriptional program that regulates adipogenesis and alters adipocyte functions. Future efforts will focus on studying the impact of S-equol on ER signaling pathways.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209657
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9658: Structural Synthesis of Articulated
           Manipulators with Non-Fractionated or Fractionated Kinematic Chains
           without Isomorphism

    • Authors: Ho Sung Park, Jae Kyung Shim, Woon Ryong Kim, Tae Woong Yun
      First page: 9658
      Abstract: As the kinematic structure of an articulated manipulator affects the characteristics of its motion, rigidity, vibration, and force transmissibility, finding the most suitable kinematic structure for the desired task is important in the conceptual design phase. This paper proposes a systematic method for generating non-isomorphic graphs of articulated manipulators that consist of a fixed base, an end-effector, and a two-degree-of-freedom (DOF) intermediate kinematic chain connecting the two. Based on the analysis of the structural characteristics of articulated manipulators, the conditions that must be satisfied for manipulators to have a desired DOF is identified. Then, isomorphism-free graph generation methods are proposed based on the concepts of the symmetry of a graph, and the number of graphs generated are determined. As a result, 969 graphs of articulated manipulators that have two-DOF non-fractionated intermediate kinematic chains and 33,438 graphs with two-DOF fractionated intermediate kinematic chains are generated, including practical articulated manipulators widely used in industry.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209658
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9659: Application of Anti-Moisture
           Technologies in Historical Constructions from the Perspective of
           Sustainability

    • Authors: Patrik Šťastný, Jozef Gašparík, Oto Makýš, Barbara Chamulová, Sylvia Szalayová
      First page: 9659
      Abstract: Restoration of landmarks hit by rising moisture is in conjunction with the concept of sustainability by a very current theme. This problem needs to be addressed from a global point of view. The article discusses individual remediation technologies (invasive and non-invasive), which were applied and long-term investigated on several historical buildings within Slovakia. It describes the costs of their implementation, efficiency rate and importance from the perspective of the preservation of the nation’s cultural heritage and from the perspective of sustainability and the possibility of using these objects. From the perspective of sustainability, it is also shown that some interventions helped with remediation of the moist structure. This step results in a positive impact on the surroundings and protection of persons located in the vicinity of these buildings. It also helps to sustainability in terms of an environmental point of view because the demolition of renewed buildings is not necessary. The Article conclusion notes the level of efficiency of individual technologies. It also provides recommendations that could also be applied to many other historic buildings.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209659
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9660: Effect of Post-Weld Heat Treatment
           on the Solid-State Diffusion Bonding of 6061 Aluminum Alloy

    • Authors: Chun-Hao Chen, Yu-Kai Sun, Yu-Chang Lai, Shih-Ying Chang, Tung-Han Chuang
      First page: 9660
      Abstract: The precipitation-hardenable aluminum alloy 6061 (AA 6061) is favored for aerospace components and automotive parts. However, the tenacious oxide layer on the surface greatly limits the quality and applicability of joining AA 6061. In this study, the joining method of solid-state diffusion bonding was implemented for AA 6061 plates, and the effects of post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) on the joint interface were investigated. The bonding temperatures were within the range of 500–530 °C, and the time periods varied from 30 to 240 min under a static pressure of 5 MPa in a vacuum. The diffusion bonded specimens were subjected to T4- and T6-PWHT to improve the bonding quality. The interfacial microstructure of the joints was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, and the mechanical properties were evaluated with shear tests. The experimental results showed that the shear strength of the diffusion bonded joint could reach around 71.2 MPa, which was highly dependent on bonding temperature and holding time, and T6-PWHT further enhanced it to over 100 MPa. The effects of PWHT on the diffusion bonded AA 6061 joint were investigated, and the fractography on the sheared surfaces indicated that PWHT-T6 played an important role in enhancing joint strength, which was consistent with the measured shear strength. The sequential PWHT for AA 6061 after diffusion bonding was proven to be feasible for bonding of AA 6061 parts, and the joint strength was sufficient for industrial needs.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209660
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9661: A Taxonomy of Technologies for
           Human-Centred Logistics 4.0

    • Authors: Alexandra Lagorio, Chiara Cimini, Fabiana Pirola, Roberto Pinto
      First page: 9661
      Abstract: Following the spread of the Industry 4.0 paradigm, the role of digital technologies in manufacturing, especially in production and industrial logistics processes, has become increasingly pivotal. Although the push towards digitalization and processes interconnection can bring substantial benefits, it may also increase the complexity of processes in terms of integration and management. To fully exploit the potential of technology, companies are required to develop an in-depth knowledge of each operational activity and related human aspects in the contexts where technology solutions can be implemented. Indeed, analyzing the impacts of technology on human work is key to promoting human-centred smart manufacturing and logistics processes. Therefore, this paper aims at increasing and systematizing knowledge about technologies supporting internal logistics working activities The main contribution of this paper is a taxonomy of the technologies that may be implemented in the different internal logistics areas to support a Logistics 4.0 model. Such a contribution is elaborated in accordance with a deductive approach (i.e., reasoning from the particular to the general), and backed up by an analysis of the literature. The taxonomy represents a useful framework to understand the current and possible technological implementations to drive logistics processes towards Logistics 4.0, with specific attention to the relation between human operators and technologies.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209661
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9662: Feasibility of Near-Infrared
           Spectroscopy for Identification of L-Fucose and L-Proline—Towards
           Detecting Cancer Biomarkers from Saliva

    • Authors: Miia O. Hurskainen, Jaakko K. Sarin, Sami Myllymaa, Wilfredo A. González-Arriagada, Arja Kullaa, Reijo Lappalainen
      First page: 9662
      Abstract: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-ionizing optical technique that can be used to quantify proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and other organic and biological substances. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of NIRS to identify different concentrations of L-fucose and L-proline solutions by utilizing different NIR spectral regions. NIR spectra of solid L-fucose and L-proline, their aqueous solutions in different concentrations, and the spectra of saliva samples collected from two patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) were studied. Differences in spectra of the pure solid reference samples and water were most noticeable in spectral regions 800–1250 nm and 1418–1867 nm. The saliva sample with an atypically high concentration of oral cancer biomarkers showed a similar spectral feature between 1530–1650 nm as the liquid samples with cancer biomarkers. In addition, a fine k-nearest neighbors (kNN) classifier was trained to differentiate the aqueous solutions and achieved 75.97% validation accuracy. The preliminary study presents that NIRS can be utilized to detect differences in spectra between the different biomarker concentrations in aqueous solutions. However, the qualitative measures may have resulted in limited sensitivity, which could be enhanced by additional samples and using a measurement probe dedicated to fluid measurements.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209662
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9663: Short-Term Effects of the Repeated
           Exposure to Trip-like Perturbations on Inter-Segment Coordination during
           Walking: An UCM Analysis

    • Authors: Vito Monaco, Clara Zabban, Tamon Miyake
      First page: 9663
      Abstract: The minimum toe clearance (MTC) results from the coordination of all bilateral lower limb body segments, i.e., a redundant kinematic chain. We tested the hypothesis that repeated exposure to trip-like perturbations induces a more effective covariation of limb segments during steady walking, in accordance with the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) theory, to minimize the MTC across strides. Twelve healthy young adults (mean age 26.2 ± 3.3 years) were enrolled. The experimental protocol consisted of three identical trials, each involving three phases carried outin succession: steady walking (baseline), managing trip-like perturbations, and steady walking (post-perturbation). Lower limb kinematics collected during both steady walking phases wereanalyzed in the framework of the UCM theory to test the hypothesis that the reduced MTC variability following the perturbation can occur, in conjunction with more effective organization of the redundant lower limb segments. Results revealed that, after the perturbation, the synergy underlying lower limb coordination becomes stronger. Accordingly, the short-term effects of the repeated exposure to perturbations modify the organization of the redundant lower limb-related movements. In addition, results confirm that the UCM theory is a promising tool for exploring the effectiveness of interventions aimed at purposely modifying motor behaviors.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209663
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9664: Acoustic Impact of Hybrid-Electric
           DEP Aircraft Configuration at Airport Level

    • Authors: Adolfo Sollazzo, Francesco Petrosino, Luciano De Vivo, Antonio Visingardi, Mattia Barbarino
      First page: 9664
      Abstract: The Italian research project PROSIB (PROpulsione e Sistemi IBridi per velivoli ad ala fissa e rotante), is a 30-month initiative funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Scientific Research (MIUR) and coordinated by the Leonardo company. The project is aimed to investigate configurations for regional aircraft and rotary wing platforms and architectures for propulsion systems, and is dedicated to the identification of the best strategy for their use, given different on-board energy sources. The reduced environmental impact is the key for the success of the new hybrid/electric aircraft configurations. This not only considers the chemical pollution introduced in the atmosphere, but also the noise produced on the surrounding area of airports. The present paper describes the acoustic impact assessment resulting from the inclusion of new propulsion technologies and new configurations of regional aircraft (ATR42 pax) in a reference airport area.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209664
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9665: Reducing System Load of Effective
           Video Using a Network Model

    • Authors: Soo-Young Cho, Dae-Yeol Kim, Su-Yeong Oh, Chae-Bong Sohn
      First page: 9665
      Abstract: Recently, as non-face-to-face work has become more common, the development of streaming services has become a significant issue. As these services are applied in increasingly diverse fields, various problems are caused by the overloading of systems when users try to transmit high-quality images. In this paper, SRGAN (Super Resolution Generative Adversarial Network) and DAIN (Depth-Aware Video Frame Interpolation) deep learning were used to reduce the overload that occurs during real-time video transmission. Images were divided into a FoV (Field of view) region and a non-FoV (Non-Field of view) region, and SRGAN was applied to the former, DAIN to the latter. Through this process, image quality was improved and system load was reduced.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209665
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9666: Characterization of Atypical
           Pheochromocytomas with Correlative MRI and Planar/Hybrid Radionuclide
           Imaging: A Preliminary Study

    • Authors: Roberta Galatola, Ludovica Attanasio, Valeria Romeo, Ciro Mainolfi, Michele Klain, Chiara Simeoli, Roberta Modica, Elia Guadagno, Giovanni Aprea, Luca Basso, Emanuele Nicolai, Marco Salvatore, Simone Maurea
      First page: 9666
      Abstract: Pheochromocytomas may show atypical imaging findings leading to diagnostic pitfalls. We correlated the results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with those of radionuclide studies in patients with pheochromocytomas. T2-weighted (-w), T1-w chemical-shift and T1-w dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI sequences were evaluated to assess tumor structure. 131Iodine metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy, 18fluoro (F) deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) or FDG PET/MRI were evaluated for direct comparison. Of a total of 80 adrenal lesions in 73 patients, 20 in 18 patients were pheochromocytomas. More than half (55%) of the pheochromocytomas (n = 11) had the typical increased signal intensity on T2-w and T1-w DCE, while the remaining (n = 9) lesions showed atypical findings; of these nine latter atypical lesions, seven (35%) were cystic (two totally, three predominantly and two partially) and two (10%) were hemorrhagic on MRI. In these atypical lesions, MIBG scintigraphy (n = 5), FDG PET/CT (n = 6) or FDG PET/MRI (n = 2) showed inhomogeneous tracer uptake in the residual viable tissue providing tumor characterization; however, one predominantly cystic pheochromocytoma showed false negative MIBG scan. Our preliminary results show that cystic degeneration may be frequent in pheochromocytoma being so marked that only a thin rim of viable cells may residue to disclose the true nature of the tumor. MRI findings together with those of correlative planar/hybrid radionuclide images are helpful to characterize these atypical pheochromocytomas. In particular, tumor accumulation of MIBG and/or FDG is able to classify these lesions as not simple cysts; in detail, the presence of partial MIBG uptake allows the diagnosis of pheochromocytomas, while the presence of partial FDG uptake generically reflects the presence of viable solid tissue of such cystic tumors.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209666
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9667: A Two-Phase Deep Learning-Based
           Recommender System: Enhanced by a Data Quality Inspector

    • Authors: Leiva, Li, Tsai
      First page: 9667
      Abstract: Research regarding collaborative filtering recommenders has grown fast lately. However, little attention has been paid to discuss how the input data quality impacts the result. Indeed, some review-rating pairs that a user gave to an item are inconsistent and express a different opinion, making the recommendation result biased. To solve the above drawback, this study proposes a two-phase deep learning-based recommender system. Firstly, a sentiment predictor of textual reviews is created, serving as the quality inspector that cleans and improves the input for a recommender. To build accurate predictors, this phase tries and compares a set of deep learning-based algorithms. Secondly, besides only exploiting the consistent review-rating pairs generated by the quality inspector, this phase builds deep learning-based recommender engines. The experiments on a real-world dataset showed the proposed data quality inspector, based on textual reviews, improves the overall performance of recommenders. On average, applying deep learning-based quality inspectors result in an above 6% improvement in RMSE, and more than a 2% boost in F1 score, and accuracy. This is robust evidence to prove the importance of the input data cleaning process in this field. Moreover, empirical evidence indicates the deep learning approach is suitable for modeling the sentiment predictor, and the core recommendation process, clearly outperforming the traditional machine learning methods.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209667
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9668: Evaluating the Intertwined
           Relationships of the Drivers for University Technology Transfer

    • Authors: Sun
      First page: 9668
      Abstract: Universities are the best places to gather knowledge and innovation, but the basis of technological development lies in talented R&D personnel who provide services to enterprise R&D activities, research institutions, and universities. Universities also gather many elites who cultivate talent for the country. However, universities do not have adequate technology transfer experience and do not network in industrial circles, which results in a huge gap between the concept and the practical result. This research determined the critical success factors and explored the causal relationships influencing the technology transfer from universities. We found that the main impact of the key factors was the technology market dimension. University technology transfer activities had to be classified as top priority. Technology industrial applicability was the main key evaluation factor, along with inventor attitude. In the organizational culture dimension, the attitude and ability of top management were the main evaluation factors. We attempted to draw upon our analysis results to make recommendations related to technology transfer to assist universities in successfully transferring their research results.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209668
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9669: Fast Performance Modeling across
           Different Database Versions Using Partitioned Co-Kriging

    • Authors: Rong Cao, Liang Bao, Shouxin Wei, Jiarui Duan, Xi Wu, Yeye Du, Ren Sun
      First page: 9669
      Abstract: Database systems have a large number of configuration parameters that control functional and non-functional properties (e.g., performance and cost). Different configurations may lead to different performance values. To understand and predict the effect of configuration parameters on system performance, several learning-based strategies have been recently proposed. However, existing approaches usually assume a fixed database version such that learning has to be repeated once the database version changes. Repeating measurement and learning for each version is expensive and often practically infeasible. Instead, we propose the Partitioned Co-Kriging (PCK) approach that transfers knowledge from an older database version (source domain) to learn a reliable performance prediction model fast for a newer database version (target domain). Our method is based on the key observations that performance responses typically exhibit similarities across different database versions. We conducted extensive experiments under 5 different database systems with different versions to demonstrate the superiority of PCK. Experimental results show that PCK outperforms six state-of-the-art baseline algorithms in terms of prediction accuracy and measurement effort.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209669
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9670: IoT Helper: A Lightweight and
           Extensible Framework for Fast-Prototyping IoT Architectures

    • Authors: Giansalvatore Mecca, Michele Santomauro, Donatello Santoro, Enzo Veltri
      First page: 9670
      Abstract: Industry 4.0 is focused on the task of creating Smart Factories, which require the automation of traditional industrial processes and the fully connection and integration of different systems and devices. However, despite the wide availability of tools and technology, developing intelligent applications in the industry framework remains a complex and expensive task. This paper proposes a lightweight, extensible and scalable framework called IoT Helper to facilitate the adoption of IoT and IIoT solutions both in industry and domotics. The framework is designed to be highly flexible and declarative in nature, thus allowing for a wide range of configurations with minimal user efforts. To emphasize the practical applicability or our proposal, we present two real-life use cases where the framework was successfully adopted. We also investigate a crucial aspect of these applications, i.e., what level of scalability can be achieved with a lean generic framework based on inexpensive components such as ours. Comprehensive experimental results show the excellent cost-to-performance ratio of our solution. We consider this to be an important contribution because it paves the way for a more widespread adoption of IIoT-enabling technologies in industry.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209670
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9671: The Influence of Commodity
           Presentation Mode on Online Shopping Decision Preference Induced by the
           Serial Position Effect

    • Authors: Zhiman Zhu, Ningyue Peng, Yafeng Niu, Haiyan Wang, Chengqi Xue
      First page: 9671
      Abstract: The information cluster that supports the final decision in a decision task is usually presented as a series of information. According to the serial position effect, the decision result is easily affected by the presentation order of the information. In this study, we seek to investigate how the presentation mode of commodities and the informativeness on a shopping website will influence online shopping decisions. To this end, we constructed two experiments via a virtual online shopping environment. The first experiment suggests that the serial position effect can induce human computer interaction decision-making bias, and user decision-making results in separate evaluation mode are more prone to the recency effect, whereas user decision-making results in joint evaluation mode are more prone to the primacy effect. The second experiment confirms the influence of explicit and implicit details of information on the decision bias of the human computer interaction caused by the serial position effect. The results of the research will be better applied to the design and development of shopping websites or further applied to the interactive design of complex information systems to alleviate user decision-making biases and induce users to make more rational decisions.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209671
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9672: Formal Chaos Existing Conditions on
           a Transmission Line Circuit with a Piecewise Linear Resistor

    • Authors: Kazuya Ozawa, Kaito Isogai, Hideo Nakano, Hideaki Okazaki
      First page: 9672
      Abstract: By using one-dimensional (1-D) map methods, some lossless transmission line circuits with a short at one side terminal have been actively studied. Bifurcation results or chaotic states in the circuits have been reported. On the other hand, many weak or strong definitions such that a 1-D map is mathematically chaotic are still being studied. In such definitions, the definition of formal chaos is well known as being the most traditional and most definite. However, formal chaos existences have not been rigorously proven in such circuits. In this paper, a general lossless transmission circuit is considered first with a dc bias voltage source in series with a load resistor at one side terminal and with a three-segment piecewise linear resistor at another side terminal. Secondly, the method for deriving a 1-D map describing the behavior of the circuit is summarized. Thirdly, to provide a basis of chaotic application for the 1-D map, the mathematical definition of formal chaos and the sufficient conditions of the existence of formal chaos are discussed. Furthermore, by using Maple, formal chaos existences and bifurcation behavior of 1-D maps are presented. By using the Lyapunov exponent, the observability of formal chaos in such bifurcation processes is outlined. Finally, the principal results and the future works are summarized.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209672
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9673: Current Challenges Supporting
           School-Aged Children with Vision Problems: A Rapid Review

    • Authors: Qasim Ali, Ilona Heldal, Carsten G. Helgesen, Gunta Krumina, Cristina Costescu, Attila Kovari, Jozsef Katona, Serge Thill
      First page: 9673
      Abstract: Many children have undetected vision problems or insufficient visual information processing that may be a factor in lower academic outcomes. The aim of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of the importance of vision screening for school-aged children, and to investigate the possibilities of how eye-tracking (ET) technologies can support this. While there are indications that these technologies can support vision screening, a broad understanding of how to apply them and by whom, and if it is possible to utilize them at schools, is lacking. We review interdisciplinary research on performing vision investigations, and discuss current challenges for technology support. The focus is on exploring the possibilities of ET technologies to better support screening and handling of vision disorders, especially by non-vision experts. The data orginate from a literature survey of peer-reviewed journals and conference articles complemented by secondary sources, following a rapid review methodology. We highlight current trends in supportive technologies for vision screening, and identify the involved stakeholders and the research studies that discuss how to develop more supportive ET technologies for vision screening and training by non-experts.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209673
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9674: Dynamic Modeling and Vibration
           Characteristics for a High-Speed Aero-Engine Rotor with Blade Off

    • Authors: Longkai Wang, Yijun Yin, Ailun Wang, Xing Heng, Miao Jin
      First page: 9674
      Abstract: Blade off that occurs during operation will generate a sudden imbalance excitation and make the rotor become inertially asymmetric, which leads to large instantaneous impact load and induces more complex rotor dynamic phenomena. In order to study the transient dynamic characteristics for complex rotors suffering from blade off, a mathematical model for solving the response of the gas generator rotor in the aero-turboshaft engine is established based on the FE method and DOF condensation, in which the complex structural characteristics, transient impact load, and inertia asymmetry of the rotor are considered. The complex impeller structure is modeled by piecewise linear fitting with cylindrical beam elements and tapered beam elements. Without loss of generality, the modeling method suitable for complex rotors is verified through a general complex test rotor with modal experiments. Based on this, the responses are solved for carrying out parametric studies and an understanding of the transient dynamic characteristics of the rotor under the extreme working conditions of blade off. The results show that the blade off has a great impact effect on the time-domain waveform, frequency components, and rotor orbits. At the instantaneous stage after blade off, the complex motion is composed of synchronous motion and some lower-order natural modes excited by blade off. Although the transient responses with blade off at different rotational speeds have similar time-varying characteristics, the impact factor is sensitive to the rotating speed. Most important is that the parameter of the blade off location will not only have a significant effect on the impact factor, but also on the frequency spectrum. These dynamic characteristics as well as impact effect provide certain guidance for the fault recognition and dynamic analysis to these complex rotors suffering blade off.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209674
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9675: Forecasting Taxi Demands Using
           Generative Adversarial Networks with Multi-Source Data

    • Authors: Hasan A. H. Naji, Qingji Xue, Huijun Zhu, Tianfeng Li
      First page: 9675
      Abstract: As a popular transportation mode in urban regions, taxis play an essential role in providing comfortable and convenient services for travelers. For the sake of tackling the imbalance between supply and demand, taxi demand forecasting can help drivers plan their routes and reduce waiting time and oil pollution. This paper proposes a deep learning-based model for taxi demand forecasting with multi-source data using Generative Adversarial Networks. Firstly, main features were extracted from multi-source data, including GPS taxi data, road network data, weather data, and points of interest. Secondly, Generative Adversarial Network, comprised of the recurrent network model and the conventional network model, is adopted for fine-grained taxi demand forecasting. A comprehensive experiment is conducted based on a real-world dataset of the city of Wuhan, China. The experimental results showed that our model outperforms state-of-the-art prediction methods and validates the usefulness of our model. This paper provides insights into the temporal, spatial, and external factors in taxi demand-supply equilibrium based on the results. The findings can help policymakers alter the taxi supply and the taxi lease rents for periods and increase taxi profit.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209675
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9676: Thin Film Gas Sensors Based on
           Planetary Ball-Milled Zinc Oxide Nanoinks: Effect of Milling Parameters on
           Sensing Performance

    • Authors: Raju Sapkota, Pengjun Duan, Tanay Kumar, Anusha Venkataraman, Chris Papadopoulos
      First page: 9676
      Abstract: Planetary ball-milled zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle suspensions (nanoinks) were used to produce thin film chemiresistive gas sensors that operate at room temperature. By varying milling or grinding parameters (speed, time, and solvent) different thin film gas sensors with tunable particle sizes and porosity were fabricated and tested with dry air/oxygen against hydrogen, argon, and methane target species, in addition to relative humidity, under ambient light conditions. Grinding speeds of up to 1000 rpm produced particle sizes and RMS thin film roughness below 100 nm, as measured by atomic force and scanning electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and X-ray analysis confirmed the purity and structure of the resulting ZnO nanoparticles. Gas sensor response at room temperature was found to peak for nanoinks milled at 400 rpm and for 30 min in ethylene glycol and deionized water, which could be correlated to an increased film porosity and enhanced variation in electron concentration resulting from adsorption/desorption of oxygen ions on the surfaces of ZnO nanoparticles. Sensor response and dynamic behavior was found to improve as the temperature was increased, peaking between 100 and 150 °C. This work demonstrates the use of low-cost PBM nanoinks as the active materials for solution-processed thin film gas/humidity sensors for use in environmental, medical, food packaging, laboratory, and industrial applications.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209676
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9677: Renal Ultrasound Elastography: A
           Review of the Previous Reports on Chronic Kidney Diseases

    • Authors: Takuji Iyama, Takaaki Sugihara, Tomoaki Takata, Hajime Isomoto
      First page: 9677
      Abstract: The early detection of a kidney injury is essential to protect against the progression of kidney damage owing to the progressive nature of chronic kidney disease. A renal biopsy is the gold standard for the assessment of pathological alterations such as interstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis. However, there are concerns regarding potential complications including bleeding and a reduction in renal function. Ultrasound elastography is an ideal modality for assessing the alterations in various organs and diagnosing malignant tumors. This technique has the potential to help detect early changes in renal function and pathological alterations. However, the careful application and interpretation of this technique in the kidney is required because of its complex hemodynamics and architecture. Shear wave elastography is the most widely investigated technique among ultrasound elastography. This review aims to summarize the previous investigations of the kidney using shear wave elastography, particularly for renal malignancy, kidney transplantation, and chronic kidney disease. Additionally, we have highlighted the influencing factors concerning the practical measurement of renal elasticity.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209677
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9678: Preliminary Research on the
           Influence of a Pulsed Magnetic Field on the Cationic Profile of Sunflower,
           Cress, and Radish Sprouts and on Their Germination Rate

    • Authors: Grzegorz Zaguła, Bogdan Saletnik, Marcin Bajcar, Aneta Saletnik, Czesław Puchalski
      First page: 9678
      Abstract: Magnetic stimulation of seeds before sowing can have a significant impact on the speed of their germination. Sprouts are sought after by consumers for their high nutrient content. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of a pulsed magnetic field on the dynamics of seed germination and on the content of ions in sunflower, cress, and radish sprouts. The research material in the experiment was provided by seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.), and garden radish (Raphanus sativus L.) intended for sprouting, which were supplied by PNOS Ożarów Mazowiecki. The research methods involved germinating seeds under strictly defined conditions for 14 days. Then, the mineral composition of the previously mineralised sprout material was determined using emission spectrometry on a ICP-OES iCAP Duo 6500 Termo spectrometer. Greater dynamics of germination were noted in the first half of the growth period in seeds stimulated with a pulsed magnetic field with the parameters 100 µT and 100 Hz. However, the application of the magnetic field produced no increase in the capacity of the seeds to germinate. The research showed an increase in the content of macronutrients in sprouts, such as calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and sulphur. In the case of the field with parameters of 100 µT and 200 Hz, the effect was similar for both the germination percentage and the accumulation of macronutrients. However, in the case of both frequencies of magnetic field applied, the effect on individual plant seed species was different. Pre-sowing stimulation of seeds with a pulsed magnetic field may affect the rate of seed germination and the content of ions in the sprouts; however, these effects vary in individual plant matrices.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209678
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9679: A New Inspiration in Bionic Shock
           Absorption Midsole Design and Engineering

    • Authors: Hai-Bin Yu, Rui Zhang, Guo-Long Yu, Hai-Tao Wang, Dao-Chen Wang, Wei-Hsun Tai, Jian-Long Huang
      First page: 9679
      Abstract: Inspired by the performance of the ostrich in terms of loading and high-speed moving ability, the purpose of this study was to design a structure and material on the forefoot and heel of the middle soles of sports shoes based on the high cushioning quality of the ostrich toe pad by applying bionic engineering technology. The anatomical dissection method was used to analyze the ostrich foot characteristics. The structure and material of the bionic shock absorption midsole were designed according to the principles of bionic engineering and reverse engineering. F-Scan and numerical simulation were used to evaluate the bionic shock absorption midsole performance. The results showed that the bionic shock absorption midsole decreased the peak pressure (6.04–12.27%), peak force (8.62–16.03%), pressure–time integral (3.06–12.66%), and force–time integral (4.06–10.58%) during walking and brisk walking. In this study, the biomechanical effects to which the bionic shock absorption midsole structure was subjected during walking and brisk walking exercises were analyzed. The bionic midsole has excellent shock resistance. It is beneficial for the comfort of the foot during exercise and might reduce the risk of foot injuries during exercise.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209679
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9680: When Intelligent Transportation
           Systems Sensing Meets Edge Computing: Vision and Challenges

    • Authors: Xuan Zhou, Ruimin Ke, Hao Yang, Chenxi Liu
      First page: 9680
      Abstract: The widespread use of mobile devices and sensors has motivated data-driven applications that can leverage the power of big data to benefit many aspects of our daily life, such as health, transportation, economy, and environment. Under the context of smart city, intelligent transportation systems (ITS), such as a main building block of modern cities and edge computing (EC), as an emerging computing service that targets addressing the limitations of cloud computing, have attracted increasing attention in the research community in recent years. It is well believed that the application of EC in ITS will have considerable benefits to transportation systems regarding efficiency, safety, and sustainability. Despite the growing trend in ITS and EC research, a big gap in the existing literature is identified: the intersection between these two promising directions has been far from well explored. In this paper, we focus on a critical part of ITS, i.e., sensing, and conducting a review on the recent advances in ITS sensing and EC applications in this field. The key challenges in ITS sensing and future directions with the integration of edge computing are discussed.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209680
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9681: Coupled Numerical Method for
           Modeling Propped Fracture Behavior

    • Authors: Tamás Lengyel, Attila Varga, Ferenc Safranyik, Anita Jobbik
      First page: 9681
      Abstract: Hydraulic fracturing is a well-known production intensification technique in the petroleum industry that aims to enhance the productivity of a well drilled mostly in less permeable reservoirs. The process’s effectiveness depends on the achieved fracture conductivity, the product of fracture width, and the permeability of the proppant pack placed within the fracture. This article presents an innovative method developed by our research activity that incorporates the benefit of the Discrete—and Finite Element Method to describe the in situ behavior of hydraulic fractures with a particular emphasis on fracture conductivity. DEM (Discrete Element Method) provided the application of random particle generation and non-uniform proppant placement. We also used FEM (Finite Element Method) Static Structural module to simulate the elastic behavior of solid materials: proppant and formation, while CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) module was applied to represent fluid dynamics within the propped fracture. The results of our numerical model were compared to data of API RP-19D and API RP-61 laboratory measurements and findings gained by publishers dealing with propped fracture conductivity. The match of the outcomes verified the method and encouraged us to describe proppant deformation and embedment and their effect as precisely as possible. Based on the results, we performed sensitivity analysis which pointed out the impact of several factors affecting proppant embedment, deformation, and fracture conductivity and let one be aware of a reasonable interpretation of propped hydraulic fracture operation. However, DEM–CFD coupled models were introduced regarding fracturing before, to the best of our knowledge, the developed workflow of coupling DEM–FEM–CFD for modeling proppant-supported fracture behavior has not been applied yet, thus arising new perspectives for explorers and engineers.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209681
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9682: Microstructure and Wear Behavior of
           TiC/AISI 1020 Metal Matrix Composites Produced by Liquid Pressing
           Infiltration

    • Authors: Heejeong Kim, Jungyu Park, Sangmin Shin, Seungchan Cho, Junghwan Kim, Dong-Su Bae, Ilguk Jo
      First page: 9682
      Abstract: A metal matrix composite was developed through a unique liquid pressing infiltration process to study the wear mechanism of a TiC reinforced AISI 1020 steel matrix. The microstructure, hardness, and wear behaviors of the TiC/AISI 1020 composite were compared with commercial AISI 52100 bearing steel. Microstructural analysis showed that there were no defects, such as pores or agglomeration of reinforcement particles, and about 60% of the volume of TiC was uniformly dispersed. In the case of the AISI 52100 alloy, the hardness was 62.42 HRC, which was similar to the 62.84 HRC value of the as-cast TiC/AISI 1020 composite. After the quenching heat treatment, the Rockwell hardness of the composite increased to 76.64 HRC, which was attributed to the martensitic transformation of the AISI 1020 matrix. As a result of the pin-on-disc wear test with high contact pressure, the wear width of AISI 52100 was 2937 μm, which was approximately 4.3 times wider than that of the heat-treated metal matrix composite (682 μm). The wear depths of AISI 52100 and the heat-treated composite were 2.6 μm and 0.5 μm, respectively, indicating that TiC/AISI 1020 exhibited excellent wear resistance compared with bearing steel. Improved wear resistance of the TiC/AISI 1020 composite originates from uniformly distributed TiC, with an increase in the hardness due to the heat treatment.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209682
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9683: Cortisol Reactivity to a Digital
           Version of Trier Social Stress Test and Eating Behavior in Non-Overweight
           and Overweight Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    • Authors: Ioan Gotca, Andrada Druica, Daniel V. Timofte, Cristina Preda, Dana-Teodora Anton-Paduraru, Cristina Mihaela Ghiciuc, Maria Christina Ungureanu, Letitia Leustean, Veronica Mocanu
      First page: 9683
      Abstract: (1) Background: In the present pilot study, we examined the response of cortisol to a digital version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and corresponding eating preferences in non-overweight and overweight adolescents. (2) Methods: The experimental study group included 35 adolescents aged 15.7 ± 0.5 years (16 boys and 19 girls). The participants were split into two groups: non-overweight (N = 24) and overweight (N = 11), according to the Body Mass Index (BMI). We induced acute stress in all participants, using a digital version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), with three different digital tasks. We measured salivary cortisol before the test (T0), during the stress induction by digital tasks (T5, T10, T15), and 25 min after the stress test (T40). The Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Questionnaire (HBSC) was administered to assess the influence of stress on eating behavior: the consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets, and soft drinks and the frequency of snacks. (3) Results: Among the entire group of adolescents, we observed a significant difference between the sexes in terms of cortisol response, girls being predominantly hyperreactive (13 girls compared to 5 boys, p = 0.03). In overweight adolescents, the cortisol reactivity was lower in boys and higher in girls (p = 0.05). The overweight hyperreactive adolescents, as compared to the hyporeactive ones, had a higher frequency of daily consumption of sweets (25% vs. 0%) and soft drink (25% vs. 0). (4) Conclusions: The individual patterns of cortisol reactivity to laboratory-induced stress could be associated with an increased risk of unhealthy eating behavior in adolescents.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209683
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9684: Preparation and Physicochemical
           Properties of Tannin-Immobilized Membrane Adsorbent

    • Authors: Wei Luo, Huiting Lin, Zhihao Wu, Jingteng Chen, Ruiyang Chi, Xiaoxia Ye, Jie Chen
      First page: 9684
      Abstract: Plant tannins have the ability to form stable complexes with metal ions, while microporous membranes have low pressure drop and high flux characteristics. Combining these two materials, a new type of tannin-immobilized membrane (M-TAN) adsorption material has been developed. The PA-BWT, PVDF-BWT, CELL -BWT, and PA-AA-BWT were prepared using different types of microporous membranes as substrates, which maintained the porous structure of the membranes and had the characteristics of high flux and fast filtration rate. The surface contact angle and pure water flux analysis showed that the introduction of tannin with multi-phenolic hydroxyl groups increased the hydrophilicity and water flux of the M-TANs. The adsorption performance shows that the adsorption capacity of four kinds of M-TANs for UO22+ is in the order of PA-BWT > PA-AA-BWT > PVDF-BWT > CELL-BWT, and PA-BWT has the largest adsorption capacity of 0.398 mmol g−1. In addition, the adsorption isothermal and kinetic data of PA-BWT were well fitted by the Langmuir equation and the Elovich model, respectively. The negative values of ΔG for UO22+ adsorption on PA-BWT indicated that adsorption is a spontaneous and favorable process. These facts indicate that PA-BWT can be used as a low-cost adsorbent for effective removal of UO22+ from aqueous solutions.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209684
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9685: New Dimensionless Correlations for
           the Evaluation of the Thermal Resistances of a District Heating Twin Pipe
           System

    • Authors: Massimo Corcione, Luca Cretara, Lucia Fontana, Alessandro Quintino
      First page: 9685
      Abstract: The heat losses from pre-insulated double-pipe district heating (DH) systems buried in a homogeneous soil are studied numerically. The study is conducted using the diameter of the pipes and their distance, the size of the insulation, the thermal conductivity ratio between the insulation and the soil, as well as the burial depth of the double-pipe system, as controlling parameters. A computational code based on a control-volume formulation of the finite-difference method has been developed using the open-source framework OpenFOAM with the purpose to compute the heat transfer rate across adjacent solid regions with different thermophysical properties. The main scopes of the study are: (a) to investigate in what measure the geometry and the relative position of the warm and cold pipes, as well as the temperature imbalance, the burial depth and the physical properties of both the insulation and the soil, affect the heat losses; (b) to analyze the existence of an optimal configuration of the DH system by the thermal resistance enhancement viewpoint; and (c) to develop accurate correlating equations for the evaluation of the thermal resistance existing between each pipe and its surroundings, useful for practical thermal engineering applications.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209685
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9686: A Dosimetric Analysis of Reduction
           Cardiac Dose with Lead Shielding in Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    • Authors: Hsiao-Wen Chiu, Lu-Han Lai, Chien-Yi Ting
      First page: 9686
      Abstract: Adjuvant radiotherapy is an important treatment modality after breast-conserving surgery. Due to its proximity, radiation therapy for the left breast can often lead to an escalated heart dose that can result in heart diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the heart dose reduction by using lead shields surrounding the left breast. The doses of a 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) plan, an intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plan, and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to the left breast tumor in a CIRS ATOM anthropomorphic female adult phantom were measured by optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs). To protect critical organs, the skin around the target area was covered by lead shields of two different thicknesses (0.125 mm and 0.25 mm). The results showed that compared to IMRT and 3D-CRT, VMAT provided better planning target volume (PTV) coverage, a better conformity index (CI), and homogeneity index (HI). With the use of lead shields, the thyroid dose was reduced by 5.12–27.5% and 20.51–30%, respectively; the heart dose was reduced by 49.41–50.12% and 56.38–57.42%, respectively; and the lung dose was reduced by 1.23–45.22% and 0.98–57.83%, respectively. Although the clinical application of lead shields was rare, this study verified that it could effectively decrease the heart dose from 4.31 ± 0.09 Gy to 1.88–2.18 Gy, thereby potentially reducing the risk of associated heart diseases by 14.8%. Further works to implement this method into clinical practice are needed.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209686
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9687: Production Planning Problem of a
           Two-Level Supply Chain with Production-Time-Dependent Products

    • Authors: Jun-Hee Han, Ju-Yong Lee, Bongjoo Jeong
      First page: 9687
      Abstract: This study considers a production planning problem with a two-level supply chain consisting of multiple suppliers and a manufacturing plant. Each supplier that consists of multiple production lines can produce several types of semi-finished products, and the manufacturing plant produces the finished products using the semi-finished products from the suppliers to meet dynamic demands. In the suppliers, different types of semi-finished products can be produced in the same batch, and products in the same batch can only be started simultaneously (at the same time) even if they complete at different times. The purpose of this study is to determine the selection of suppliers and their production lines for the production of semi-finished products for each period of a given planning horizon, and the objective is to minimize total costs associated with the supply chain during the whole planning horizon. To solve this problem, we suggest a mixed integer programming model and a heuristic algorithm. To verify performance of the algorithm, a series of tests are conducted on a number of instances, and the results are presented.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209687
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9688: Evaluating the Checklist for
           Artificial Intelligence in Medical Imaging (CLAIM)-Based Quality of
           Reports Using Convolutional Neural Network for Odontogenic Cyst and Tumor
           Detection

    • Authors: Van Nhat Thang Le, Jae-Gon Kim, Yeon-Mi Yang, Dae-Woo Lee
      First page: 9688
      Abstract: This review aimed to explore whether studies employing a convolutional neural network (CNN) for odontogenic cyst and tumor detection follow the methodological reporting recommendations, the checklist for artificial intelligence in medical imaging (CLAIM). We retrieved the CNN studies using panoramic and cone-beam-computed tomographic images from inception to April 2021 in PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and Web of Science. The included studies were assessed according to the CLAIM. Among the 55 studies yielded, 6 CNN studies for odontogenic cyst and tumor detection were included. Following the CLAIM items, abstract, methods, results, discussion across the included studies were insufficiently described. The problem areas included item 2 in the abstract; items 6–9, 11–18, 20, 21, 23, 24, 26–31 in the methods; items 33, 34, 36, 37 in the results; item 38 in the discussion; and items 40–41 in “other information.” The CNN reports for odontogenic cyst and tumor detection were evaluated as low quality. Inadequate reporting reduces the robustness, comparability, and generalizability of a CNN study for dental radiograph diagnostics. The CLAIM is accepted as a good guideline in the study design to improve the reporting quality on artificial intelligence studies in the dental field.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209688
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9689: A Framework to Understand Attitudes
           towards Immigration through Twitter

    • Authors: Yerka Freire-Vidal, Eduardo Graells-Garrido, Francisco Rowe
      First page: 9689
      Abstract: Understanding public opinion towards immigrants is key to prevent acts of violence, discrimination and abuse. Traditional data sources, such as surveys, provide rich insights into the formation of such attitudes; yet, they are costly and offer limited temporal granularity, providing only a partial understanding of the dynamics of attitudes towards immigrants. Leveraging Twitter data and natural language processing, we propose a framework to measure attitudes towards immigration in online discussions. Grounded in theories of social psychology, the proposed framework enables the classification of users’ into profile stances of positive and negative attitudes towards immigrants and characterisation of these profiles quantitatively summarising users’ content and temporal stance trends. We use a Twitter sample composed of 36 K users and 160 K tweets discussing the topic in 2017, when the immigrant population in the country recorded an increase by a factor of four from 2010. We found that the negative attitude group of users is smaller than the positive group, and that both attitudes have different distributions of the volume of content. Both types of attitudes show fluctuations over time that seem to be influenced by news events related to immigration. Accounts with negative attitudes use arguments of labour competition and stricter regulation of immigration. In contrast, accounts with positive attitudes reflect arguments in support of immigrants’ human and civil rights. The framework and its application can inform policy makers about how people feel about immigration, with possible implications for policy communication and the design of interventions to improve negative attitudes.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209689
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9690: Opportunities and Barriers for
           Valorizing Waste Incineration Bottom Ash: Iberian Countries as a Case
           Study

    • Authors: Beatriz S. Bandarra, Joana L. Pereira, Rui C. Martins, Alex Maldonado-Alameda, Josep M. Chimenos, Margarida J. Quina
      First page: 9690
      Abstract: Incineration bottom ashes (IBA) are the main waste from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration. In the Iberian countries (Portugal and Spain), MSW incineration with energy recovery (WtE) plays an important role in MSW management. IBA is highly produced and managed differently both between and within countries. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the management model of IBA using the Iberian Peninsula as a case study, addressing its properties, current management, incentives and difficulties in valorizing, and prospects. For this purpose, incineration plants of both countries were approached, and a broad literature review was conducted to gather information. About 10% and 41% of IBA have been landfilled in Portugal and Spain, respectively. Metals (mostly ferrous) from Portuguese (6% of IBA) and Spanish (9% of IBA) WtE plants are recycled. In Portugal, the remaining IBA (84%) has been temporarily stored (11%), applied to landfills as a substitute for soil in intermediate and final covers, construction of paths, accesses, and platforms (41%), or used in civil engineering work and road construction (48%). In Spain, the remaining IBA (50%) has been reused mainly as a secondary raw material in the construction and civil engineering fields (77%), while the rest has been temporarily stored (11%), applied in the conditioning of landfills (4%), alsoa secondary aggregate replacing natural materials. Both countries regulate IBA reuse outside landfills but consider different requirements and criteria. Nevertheless, there are both drivers and barriers to valorization. In the future, different IBA applications will likely continue to be developed, with the concern of protecting the environment. Growing confidence in IBA reuse following the publication of proper studies is expected. Globally, uniform legal frameworks among EU members with the same standards would likely lead to better IBA valorization.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209690
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9691: Deep Learning Semantic Segmentation
           for Water Level Estimation Using Surveillance Camera

    • Authors: Nur Atirah Muhadi, Ahmad Fikri Abdullah, Siti Khairunniza Bejo, Muhammad Razif Mahadi, Ana Mijic
      First page: 9691
      Abstract: The interest in visual-based surveillance systems, especially in natural disaster applications, such as flood detection and monitoring, has increased due to the blooming of surveillance technology. In this work, semantic segmentation based on convolutional neural networks (CNN) was proposed to identify water regions from the surveillance images. This work presented two well-established deep learning algorithms, DeepLabv3+ and SegNet networks, and evaluated their performances using several evaluation metrics. Overall, both networks attained high accuracy when compared to the measurement data but the DeepLabv3+ network performed better than the SegNet network, achieving over 90% for overall accuracy and IoU metrics, and around 80% for boundary F1 score (BF score), respectively. When predicting new images using both trained networks, the results show that both networks successfully distinguished water regions from the background but the outputs from DeepLabv3+ were more accurate than the results from the SegNet network. Therefore, the DeepLabv3+ network was used for practical application using a set of images captured at five consecutive days in the study area. The segmentation result and water level markers extracted from light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data were overlaid to estimate river water levels and observe the water fluctuation. River water levels were predicted based on the elevation from the predefined markers. The proposed water level framework was evaluated according to Spearman’s rank-order correlation coefficient. The correlation coefficient was 0.91, which indicates a strong relationship between the estimated water level and observed water level. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that the proposed approach has high potential as an alternative monitoring system that offers water region information and water level estimation for flood management and related activities.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209691
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9692: Multiple-Criteria Decision Analysis
           Using TOPSIS: Sustainable Approach to Technical and Economic Evaluation of
           Rocks for Lining Canals

    • Authors: Mahrous A. M. Ali, Jong-Gwan Kim, Zakaria H. Awadallah, Ahmed M. Abdo, Abbas M. Hassan
      First page: 9692
      Abstract: One of the crucial projects underway in Egypt is the lining of watercourses to withstand the outflow of water through their beds and flanks. Various materials have been used in this project, including limestone, sandstone, basalt, and dolomite, along with other building materials. This study focused on the evaluation of rock characteristics to determine their suitability for the construction of a canal lining. All rock characteristics should be classified in terms of technical and economic concerns related to mining rock specifications, such as mechanical and physical properties, and evaluated according to their weights and ratings. As a rule of decision making, management stakeholders select the rock types. The primary purpose of canal linings is to reduce water loss due to seepage. Methodologically, we adopted the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS), and derived an improved TOPSIS method based on experimental testing. This study attempted the first application of TOPSIS to canal linings and relevant construction materials. The analysis shows that limestone L1 is the best rock-building material for canal linings in Upper Egypt. Limestone L1 has the shortest geometric distance from the positive ideal solution and the longest geometric distance from the negative ideal solution. The results provide decision makers with strategic indicators to select among different rock types based on the total points assigned to all rock specifications.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209692
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9693: Three-Dimensional Modeling and 3D
           Printing of Biocompatible Orthodontic Power-Arm Design with Clinical
           Application

    • Authors: Andrej Thurzo, Filip Kočiš, Bohuslav Novák, Ladislav Czako, Ivan Varga
      First page: 9693
      Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) printing with biocompatible resins offers new competition to its opposition—subtractive manufacturing, which currently dominates in dentistry. Removing dental material layer-by-layer with lathes, mills or grinders faces its limits when it comes to the fabrication of detailed complex structures. The aim of this original research was to design, materialize and clinically evaluate a functional and resilient shape of the orthodontic power-arm by means of biocompatible 3D printing. To improve power-arm resiliency, we have employed finite element modelling and analyzed stress distribution to improve the original design of the power-arm. After 3D printing, we have also evaluated both designs clinically. This multidisciplinary approach is described in this paper as a feasible workflow that might inspire application other individualized biomechanical appliances in orthodontics. The design is a biocompatible power-arm, a miniature device bonded to a tooth surface, translating significant bio-mechanical force vectors to move a tooth in the bone. Its design must be also resilient and fully individualized to patient oral anatomy. Clinical evaluation of the debonding rate in 50 randomized clinical applications for each power-arm-variant showed significantly less debonding incidents in the improved power-arm design (two failures = 4%) than in the original variant (nine failures = 18%).
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209693
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9694: Analysis of the Water Quality
           Characteristics of Urban Streams Using the Flow–Pollutant Loading
           Relationship and a Load Duration Curve (LDC)

    • Authors: Ji-Yun Jang, Dae-Woong Kim, Ye-Ji Choi, Dong-Woo Jang
      First page: 9694
      Abstract: For urban streams, wastewater inflow makes water quality management difficult. This study attempted to analyze the water quality characteristics and pollution sources for the efficient management of water quality in the upper, middle, and lower Gul-po stream reaches. The water quality and flow characteristics for each point were analyzed using five-year water quality and flow discharge data at Gul-po stream from 2016 to 2020. The results showed that the flow increased and the water quality improved in the upper part of the stream, under the influence of a treated water discharge. The flow–pollutant loading equation revealed that the flow coefficient (slope of the regression equation) values of the water quality characteristics, except T-N, were lower than 1 in the upper part, indicating that the water quality decreased as the flow increased. In the middle and lower parts, the flow index values of the water quality characteristics, except T-N, were greater than 1, indicating that the water quality increased with the flow. For the middle and lower parts, the overage rate of target water quality by the Ministry of Environment was high for high-flow discharge sections, indicating the significant influence of nonpoint pollution sources. These results show that it is necessary to consider different pollution sources at each point for urban stream quality management.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209694
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9695: Robust Static Structural System
           Identification Using Rotations

    • Authors: Jun Lei, José Antonio Lozano-Galant, Dong Xu, Feng-Liang Zhang, Jose Turmo
      First page: 9695
      Abstract: Deflections are commonly measured in the static structural system identification of structures. Comparatively less attention has been paid to the possibility of measuring rotations for structural system identification purposes, despite the many advantages of using inclinometers, such as a high resolution and being reference free. Although some work using rotations can be found in the literature, this paper, for the very first time, proposes a statistical analysis that justifies the theoretical advantage of measuring rotations. The analytical expressions for the target parameters are obtained via static structural system identification using the constrained observability method first. Combined with the inverse distribution theory, the probability density function of the estimations of the target parameters can be obtained. Comparative studies on a simply supported bridge and a frame structure demonstrate the advantage of measuring rotations regarding the unbiasedness and the extent of variation in the estimations. To achieve robust parameter estimations, four strategies to use redundant rotations are proposed and compared. Numerical verifications on a bridge structure and a high-rise building have shown promising results.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209695
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9696: Properties of Fibre-Reinforced
           High-Strength Concrete with Nano-Silica and Silica Fume

    • Authors: Arash Karimipour, Mansour Ghalehnovi, Mahmoud Edalati, Jorge de Brito
      First page: 9696
      Abstract: This study intends to assess the influence of steel fibres (SF) and polypropylene fibres (PPF) on the hardened and fresh state properties of high-strength concrete (HSC). For this purpose, 99 concrete mixes were designed and applied. SF and PPF were used at six-volume replacement contents of 0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4% and 0.5%. Moreover, nano-silica (NS) was used at three contents, 0%, 1% and 2%, and silica fume powder (SP) was also used at three weight ratios (0%, 5% and 10%). The slump, compressive and tensile strength, elasticity modulus, water absorption and the electric resistivity of concrete specimens were examined. The results showed that using 1% NS and 10% SP together with 0.5% PPF improved the compressive strength of HSC by about 123%; however, the effect of SF on tensile strength is more significant and adding 0.5% SF with both 2% NS and 10% SP increased the tensile strength by 104%. Moreover, increasing the SF content reduces the electric resistivity while using PPF improves this property especially when 1% NS was employed, and it was enhanced by about 68% when 0.5% SF and 1% NS were utilized with 10% SP.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209696
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9697: Anti-Inflammatory Activity of
           Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (Mill.) Ethyl Acetate Extract on Croton
           Oil-Induced Mouse Ear Edema

    • Authors: Eduardo Padilla-Camberos, Omar Ricardo Torres-Gonzalez, Ivan Moises Sanchez-Hernandez, Nestor Emmanuel Diaz-Martinez, Oscar Rene Hernandez-Perez, Jose Miguel Flores-Fernandez
      First page: 9697
      Abstract: Nowadays, there is a growing interest in the development of medicinal plant-based therapies to diminish the ravages of the inflammatory process related to diseases and tissue damage. Most therapeutic effects of these traditional medicinal plants are owed to their phenolic and antioxidant properties. C. aconitifolius is a traditional medicinal plant in Mexico. Previous characterization reports have stated its high nutritional and antioxidant components. The present study aimed to better understand the biological activity of C. aconitifolius in inflammation response. We developed an ethyl acetate extract of this plant to evaluate its anti-inflammatory capacity and its flavonoid content. The topical anti-inflammatory effect of the ethyl acetate extract of C. aconitifolius was determined by the croton oil-induced mouse ear edema test, while flavonoid detection and concentration were determined by thin layer chromatography and the aluminum chloride colorimetric assay, respectively. Topical application of the extract showed significant inhibition of the induced-ear edema (23.52 and 49.41% for 25 and 50 mg/kg dose, respectively). The extract also exhibited the presence of flavonoids. The finding of the anti-inflammatory activity exerted by the C. aconitifolius and the identification of its active principles may suggest and support its use for inflammation treatment.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209697
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9698: The Role of Graphene Monolayers in
           Enhancing the Yield of Bacteriorhodopsin Photostates for Optical Memory
           Applications

    • Authors: Roma Patel, Gregory Salamone, Isaac Macwan
      First page: 9698
      Abstract: Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) is a photoactive protein that has gained increasing importance as a tool for optical memory storage due to its remarkable photochemical and thermal stability. The two stable photostates (bR and Q) obtained during the bR photocycle are appropriate to designate the binary bit 0 and 1, respectively. Such devices, however, have limited success due to a low quantum yield of the Q state. Many studies have used genetic and chemical modification as optimization strategies to increase the yield of the Q state. Nonetheless, this compromises the overall photochemical stability of bR. This paper introduces a unique way of stabilizing the conformations of bacteriorhodopsin and, thereby, the bR and Q photostates through adsorption onto graphene. All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with NAMD and CHARMM force fields have been used here to understand the interactive events at the interface of the retinal chromophore within bR and a single-layer graphene sheet. Based on the stable RMSD (~4.5 Å), secondary structure, interactive van der Waals energies (~3000 kcal/mol) and electrostatic energies (~2000 kcal/mol), it is found that the adsorption of bR onto graphene can stabilize its photochemical behavior. Furthermore, the optimal adsorption distance for bR is found to be ~4.25 Å from the surface of graphene, which is regulated by a number of interfacial water molecules and their hydrogen bonds. The conformations of the key amino acids around the retinal chromophore that are responsible for the proton transport are also found to be dependent on the adsorption of bR onto graphene. The quantity and lifetime of the salt bridges also indicate that more salt bridges were formed in the absence of graphene, whereas more were broken in the presence of it due to conformational changes. Finally, the analysis on the retinal dihedrals (C11 = C12-C13 = C14, C12-C13 = C14-C15, C13 = C14-C15 = NZ and C14-C15 = NZ-CE) show that bacteriorhodopsin in the presence of graphene exhibits increased stability and larger dihedral energy values.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209698
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9699: Engineering Properties of New-Age
           (Nano) Modified Emulsion (NME) Stabilised Naturally Available Granular
           Road Pavement Materials Explained Using Basic Chemistry

    • Authors: Gerrit J. Jordaan, Wynand J. vdM. Steyn
      First page: 9699
      Abstract: Nanoscale organofunctional silanes have been developed, tested and successfully applied to protect stone buildings in Europe against climatic effects since the 1860s. The same nanotechnologies can also be used in pavement engineering to create strong chemical bonds between a stabilising agent and granular material. The attachment of the organofunctional silane to a material also changes the surface of the material to become hydrophobic, thereby considerably reducing future chemical weathering. These properties allow naturally available materials to be used in any pavement layer at a low risk. In the built environment, scientists soon determined that the successful use of an organo-silane depends on the type and condition of the stone to be treated. The same principles apply to the implementation of applicable nanotechnologies in pavement engineering. Understanding the basic chemistry, determining the properties of the stabilising agent and the organofunctional modifying agent and the chemical interaction with the primary and secondary minerals of the material are essential for the successful application of these technologies in pavement engineering. This paper explains some basic chemistry, which fundamentally influences engineering outputs that can be achieved using New-age (Nano) Modified Emulsions (NME) stabilising agents with naturally available granular materials in all road pavement layers below the surfacing.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209699
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9700: Methodology of Functional and
           Technical Evaluation of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems and Its
           Practical Application

    • Authors: Zdeněk Lokaj, Martin Šrotýř, Miroslav Vaniš, Michal Mlada
      First page: 9700
      Abstract: In the area of smart cities, great emphasis is placed on many different fields such as energetics, information systems, and transportation. All of these should lead to a simplification of life thanks to smart technologies. If we talk about the transportation field, the main issues related to this area are safety, traffic efficiency, or the environment. Another condition is the successful acceptance of any new technology by its users. Cooperative systems prove to be a suitable solution for these issues, especially in urban areas. Today, pilot implementations of cooperative systems in European countries are being carried out. However, before they are put into full operation, they need to be tested, evaluated, and assessed. This article focuses on the latter two points, i.e., evaluation and assessment of the cooperative systems. For this purpose, a methodology was created, which describes the procedure chosen in the evaluation and assessment of cooperative systems in the Czech Republic and a demonstration of its use by example. The methodology is focused on three main areas, which in this case are functional evaluation, user acceptance, and impact assessment. For the area of user acceptance, the main source was questionnaires, impact assessment relied on measured data while functional evaluation was based on discussions with the drivers, evaluating the cooperative systems, the measured data, and the expert observations. All collected and measured data were then processed and some of the results of the evaluation of the selected service are presented at the end of this article.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209700
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9701: Parameter Estimation and
           Application of Anisotropic Yield Criteria for Cylindrical Aluminum
           Extrusions: Theoretical Developments and StereoDIC Measurements

    • Authors: Farzana Yasmeen, Michael A. Sutton, Xiaomin Deng, Megan Ryan, Anthony P. Reynolds
      First page: 9701
      Abstract: Theoretical and experimental studies are presented to characterize the anisotropic plastic response under torsion loading of two nominally identical aluminum Al6061-T6 extruded round bars. Theoretical models are developed using isotropic (Von Mises 1913) and anisotropic (Barlat 1991) yield criteria, along with isotropic strain hardening formulae, to model post-yield behavior under simple torsion loading. For the case of simple shear loading, incremental plasticity theory is used to determine the theoretical elastic, plastic, and total shear strains. A set of experiments are performed to calibrate Barlat’s 1991 yield function. Several specimens are extracted at different orientations to the longitudinal direction of each round Al6061-T6 bar and tested under uniaxial tension and simple torsion to optimally determine all anisotropic (Barlat 1991) yield function parameters. During loading, Stereo Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is used to quantify surface deformations for the torsion experiments and a baseline tension specimen to identify and correct measurement anomalies. Results show the isotropic yield model either underestimates or overestimates the experimental shear strains for both extrusions. Conversely, results using the Barlat 1991 anisotropic yield criteria are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements for both extrusions. The presence of significant differences in the anisotropic parameters for nominally similar extrusions confirms that plastic anisotropy is essential for the accurate prediction of mechanical behavior in longitudinally extruded Al6061-T6 bars.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209701
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9702: A Study on Sputtering of Copper
           Seed Layer for Interconnect Metallization via Molecular Dynamics
           Simulation

    • Authors: Cheng-Hsuan Ho, Cha’o-Kuang Chen, Chieh-Li Chen
      First page: 9702
      Abstract: Interconnects are significant elements in integrated circuits (ICs), as they connect individual components of the circuit into a functioning whole. To form a void-free interconnect, a thin and uniform copper seed layer must be deposited as a basis for electroplating. In this paper, process parameters of sputtering including incident energy, incident angle, substrate temperature, and deposition rate were studied to form a uniform copper seed layer. Different liner/barrier materials and properties including crystal planes were also studied to enhance the quality of the copper seed layer. The study was carried out by molecular dynamics simulation. It revealed that increasing the incident energy and substrate temperature during the sputtering process increases their diffusivity but results in poorer uniformity and larger alloy percentage. By decreasing the deposition rate, the Ostwald ripening effect becomes dominant and increases the uniformity. An adequate incident angle could increase necking and uniformity. Among the sputtering process parameters and material properties discussed in this study, surface diffusion barrier energy of different crystal planes is the most decisive factor, which leads to good uniformity.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209702
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9703: A Tensor Space Model-Based Deep
           Neural Network for Text Classification

    • Authors: Han-joon Kim, Pureum Lim
      First page: 9703
      Abstract: Most text classification systems use machine learning algorithms; among these, naïve Bayes and support vector machine algorithms adapted to handle text data afford reasonable performance. Recently, given developments in deep learning technology, several scholars have used deep neural networks (recurrent and convolutional neural networks) to improve text classification. However, deep learning-based text classification has not greatly improved performance compared to that of conventional algorithms. This is because a textual document is essentially expressed as a vector (only), albeit with word dimensions, which compromises the inherent semantic information, even if the vector is (appropriately) transformed to add conceptual information. To solve this `loss of term senses’ problem, we develop a concept-driven deep neural network based upon our semantic tensor space model. The semantic tensor used for text representation features a dependency between the term and the concept; we use this to develop three deep neural networks for text classification. We perform experiments using three standard document corpora, and we show that our proposed methods are superior to both traditional and more recent learning methods.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209703
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9704: Endoscopy at Bedside in Isolated
           Patients with Severe COVID-19: Our Approach during the Pandemic

    • Authors: Antonino Granata, Gennaro Martucci, Giacomo Emanuele Maria Rizzo, Dario Ligresti, Caterina Stornello, Giovanna Panarello, Antonio Arcadipane, Mario Traina
      First page: 9704
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic changed the management of emergency medicine and those complications that needed interventional procedures, such as endoscopy or other radiological procedures. At the beginning of the outbreak, there were no exploitable recommendations regarding the proper policy to apply for limiting the virus spread during endoscopy. Between the first and the second wave, the approach regarding interventional procedures changed, due to higher awareness and newly defined protocols, even if different among the health centers. Patients with severe COVID-19 may develop major gastrointestinal complications or require nutritional support, so interventional procedures are required at bedside, even if patients are in isolated rooms. Our tertiary center admitted 95 patients with severe COVID-19 at our ICU-dedicated department until May 2021, and 56% of them died. Among them, 61 endoscopic procedures were performed, mainly gastroscopies (81.96%) followed by colonoscopies (11.47%) and other more advanced procedures (6.55%). Our approach aimed to adapt and create COVID-related protocols, dedicated itineraries, and rooms in a separate department with the prospect to easily organize complete and safe endoscopic theaters at the COVID-ICU department.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209704
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9705: A CNN-Based Advertisement
           Recommendation through Real-Time User Face Recognition

    • Authors: Gihwi Kim, Ilyoung Choi, Qinglong Li, Jaekyeong Kim
      First page: 9705
      Abstract: The advertising market’s use of smartphones and kiosks for non-face-to-face ordering is growing. An advertising video recommender system is needed that continuously shows advertising videos that match a user’s taste and displays other advertising videos quickly for unwanted advertisements. However, it is difficult to make a recommender system to identify users’ dynamic preferences in real time. In this study, we propose an advertising video recommendation procedure based on computer vision and deep learning, which uses changes in users’ facial expressions captured at every moment. Facial expressions represent a user’s emotions toward advertisements. We can utilize facial expressions to find a user’s dynamic preferences. For such a purpose, a CNN-based prediction model was developed to predict ratings, and a SIFT algorithm-based similarity model was developed to search for users with similar preferences in real time. To evaluate the proposed recommendation procedure, we experimented with food advertising videos. The experimental results show that the proposed procedure is superior to benchmark systems such as a random recommendation, an average rating approach, and a typical collaborative filtering approach in recommending advertising videos to both existing users and new users. From these results, we conclude that facial expressions are a critical factor for advertising video recommendations and are helpful in properly addressing the new user problem in existing recommender systems.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209705
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9706: Pavement Maintenance Decision
           Making Based on Optimization Models

    • Authors: Shitai Bao, Keying Han, Lan Zhang, Xudong Luo, Shunqing Chen
      First page: 9706
      Abstract: Pavement maintenance prioritization considering both quality and cost is an important decision-making problem. In this paper, the actual pavement condition index of city roads was calculated using municipal patrol data. A linear optimization model that maximized maintenance quality with limited maintenance costs and a multi-objective optimization model that maximized maintenance quality while minimizing maintenance costs were developed based on the pavement condition index. These models were subsequently employed in making decisions for actual pavement maintenance using sequential quadratic programming and a genetic algorithm. The results showed that the proposed decision-making models could effectively address actual pavement maintenance issues. Additionally, the results of the single-objective linear optimization model verified that the multiobjective optimization model was accurate. Thus, they could provide optimal pavement maintenance schemes for roads according to actual pavement conditions. The reliability of the models was investigated by analyzing their assumptions and validating their optimization results. Furthermore, their applicability in pavement operation-related decision making and preventive maintenance for roads of different grades was confirmed.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209706
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9707: On the Omnipresence and Potential
           of Plasma Technology

    • Authors: Christoph Gerhard
      First page: 9707
      Abstract: Even though plasma is the most common state of aggregation in the known universe, its complex chemistry and physics, as well as its specifics and particular characteristics, are not yet fully understood [...]
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209707
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9708: Compilation of Load Spectrum for
           5MN Metal Extruder Based on Long Short-Term Memory Network

    • Authors: Xiaole Cheng, Te Han, Peilin Yang, Xugang Zhang
      First page: 9708
      Abstract: As an important condition for fatigue analysis and life prediction, load spectrum is widely used in various engineering fields. The extrapolation of load samples is an important step in compiling load spectrum. It is of great significance to select an appropriate load extrapolation method. This paper proposes a load extrapolation method based on long short-term memory (LSTM) network, introduces the basic principle of the extrapolation method, and applies the method to the data set collected under the working state of 5MN metal extruder. The comparison between the extrapolated load data and the actual load shows that the trend of the extrapolated load data is basically consistent with the original tendency. In addition, this method is compared with the rain flow extrapolation method based on statistical distribution. Through the comparison of the short-term load spectrum compiled by the two extrapolation methods, it is found that the load spectrum extrapolation method based on LSTM network can better realize load prediction and optimize the compilation of load spectrum.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209708
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9709: Ontology-Based Regression Testing:
           A Systematic Literature Review

    • Authors: Muhammad Hasnain, Imran Ghani, Muhammad Fermi Pasha, Seung-Ryul Jeong
      First page: 9709
      Abstract: Web systems evolve by adding new functionalities or modifying them to meet users’ requirements. Web systems require retesting to ensure that existing functionalities are according to users’ expectations. Retesting a web system is challenging due to high cost and time consumption. Existing ‘systematic literature review’ (SLR) studies do not comprehensively present the ontology-based regression testing approaches. Therefore, this study focuses on ontology-based regression testing approaches because ontologies have been a growing research solution in regression testing. Following this, a systematic search of studies was performed using the “Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses” (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 24 peer-reviewed studies covering ontologies (semantic and inference rules) and regression testing, published between 2007 and 2019, were selected. The results showed that mainly ontology-based regression testing approaches were published in 2011–2012 and 2019 because ontology got momentum in research in other fields of study during these years. Furthermore, seven challenges to ontology-driven regression testing approaches are reported in the selected studies. Cost and validation are the main challenges examined in the research studies. The scalability of regression testing approaches has been identified as a common problem for ontology-based and other benchmark regression testing approaches. This SLR presents that the safety of critical systems is a possible future research direction to prevent human life risks.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209709
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9710: Resolving Gas Bubbles Ascending in
           Liquid Metal from Low-SNR Neutron Radiography Images

    • Authors: Mihails Birjukovs, Pavel Trtik, Anders Kaestner, Jan Hovind, Martins Klevs, Dariusz Jakub Gawryluk, Knud Thomsen, Andris Jakovics
      First page: 9710
      Abstract: We demonstrate a new image processing methodology for resolving gas bubbles travelling through liquid metal from dynamic neutron radiography images with an intrinsically low signal-to-noise ratio. Image pre-processing, denoising and bubble segmentation are described in detail, with practical recommendations. Experimental validation is presented—stationary and moving reference bodies with neutron-transparent cavities are radiographed with imaging conditions representative of the cases with bubbles in liquid metal. The new methods are applied to our experimental data from previous and recent imaging campaigns, and the performance of the methods proposed in this paper is compared against our previously achieved results. Significant improvements are observed as well as the capacity to reliably extract physically meaningful information from measurements performed under highly adverse imaging conditions. The showcased image processing solution and separate elements thereof are readily extendable beyond the present application, and have been made open-source.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209710
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9711: Cyclostationary Approach to the
           Analysis of the Power in Electric Circuits under Periodic Excitations

    • Authors: Timofey Shevgunov, Oksana Guschina, Yury Kuznetsov
      First page: 9711
      Abstract: This paper proposes a cyclostationary based approach to power analysis carried out for electric circuits under arbitrary periodic excitation. Instantaneous power is considered to be a particular case of the two-dimensional cross correlation function (CCF) of the voltage across, and current through, an element in the electric circuit. The cyclostationary notation is used for deriving the frequency domain counterpart of CCF—voltage–current cross spectrum correlation function (CSCF). Not only does the latter exhibit the complete representation of voltage–current interaction in the element, but it can be systematically exploited for evaluating all commonly used power measures, including instantaneous power, in the form of Fourier series expansion. Simulation examples, which are given for the parallel resonant circuit excited by the periodic currents expressed as a finite sum of sinusoids and periodic train of pulses with distorted edges, numerically illustrate the components of voltage–current CSCF and the characteristics derived from it. In addition, the generalization of Tellegen’s theorem, suggested in the paper, leads to the immediate formulation of the power conservation law for each CSCF component separately.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209711
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9712: Picosecond Q-Switched 1064/532 nm
           Laser in Tattoo Removal: Our Single Center Experience

    • Authors: Luigi Bennardo, Giovanni Cannarozzo, Federica Tamburi, Cataldo Patruno, Eugenio Provenzano, Steven Paul Nisticò
      First page: 9712
      Abstract: Background: Tattoo removal is becoming increasingly popular, and Q-switched lasers represent the gold standard in the treatment of this condition. In this study, we report our experience with a new Q-switched picosecond laser device, evaluating its effectiveness and safety. Methods: A total of 34 patients asking for tattoo removal were consecutively enrolled in this open study. The clinicians decided on operating settings based on the Fitzpatrick phototype, the type of tattoo, and the tattoo location. A maximum of seven sessions, with a minimum interval of eight weeks between each session, were performed. At the six month follow-up visit following the last treatment session, patient satisfaction was assessed using a visual analogue scale and two dermatologists evaluated the aesthetic outcome based on pictures taken before and after treatment. Results: A total of 34 patients were included and analyzed: 17 females (50%) and 17 males (50%). The mean patient age was 43.6 ± 11 years. Participants’ Fitzpatrick skin type ranged from II to IV. The mean number of treatment sessions performed was 3.3 ± 2.0 per patient. Over 40% of patients showed complete removal of the tattoo, with most of the patients indicating satisfaction with the treatment. Conclusions: The Q-switched 1064/532 nm laser may be considered the gold standard treatment for tattoo removal. Picosecond pulses seem to guarantee fewer sessions and excellent results when compared to other laser systems in tattoo removal.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209712
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9713: Survival of Korean Patients with
           

    • Authors: Min-Sung Kang, Sung-Soo Lee, Soon-Chan Kwon, Da-An Huh, Yong-Jin Lee
      First page: 9713
      Abstract: Background: The purpose of this study was to identify the epidemiologic characteristics and prognostic factors for malignant pleural mesothelioma in Korea, which are currently insufficient. The data were derived from malignant mesothelioma patients who registered under the Asbestos Injury Relief Act; Methods: A total of 728 patients received compensation from the Asbestos Injury Relief Act due to malignant mesothelioma between 2011 and 2015. Of these, 313 patients (43.0%) with malignant pleural mesothelioma were included in the study. The study variables were sex (male, female), age at diagnosis (<59, 60–69, ≥70), smoking history (yes, no), surgery (yes, no), chemotherapy (yes, no), occupational exposure to asbestos (yes, no), and histological subtype (epithelioid, nonepithelioid); Results: Median survival of mesothelioma was 8.0 months (95% confidence interval: 6.2 to 9.8). The 1-year, 2-year, and 5-year survival rates (%) were 43.5%, 23.6%, and 12.5%, respectively. In multivariate analysis of Cox’s proportional hazards model; sex, age, smoking history, occupational asbestos exposure, and histological subtype were not significant prognostic factors, but surgery and chemotherapy combined was a significant predictor; Conclusions: Although the representativeness of these data is limited, our study estimates the epidemiologic characteristics of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Non-occupational exposure had a similar prognosis to occupational asbestos exposure, and there was no sex difference. In addition, it was found that receiving a combination of surgery and chemotherapy affects the survival rate, but there is a limitation in that factors such as performance status, comorbidities, and stage that contribute to survival are not considered.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209713
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9714: Analysis of Fine Crack Images Using
           Image Processing Technique and High-Resolution Camera

    • Authors: Hoseong Jeong, Baekeun Jeong, Myounghee Han, Dooyong Cho
      First page: 9714
      Abstract: Visual inspections are performed to investigate cracks in concrete infrastructure. These activities require manpower or equipment such as articulated ladders. Additionally, there are health and safety issues because some structures have low accessibility. To deal with these problems, crack measurement with digital images and digital image processing (DIP) techniques have been adopted in various studies. The objective of this experimental study is to evaluate the optical limit of digital camera lenses as working distance increases. Three different lenses and two digital cameras were used to capture images of lines ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 mm in thickness. As a result of the experiments, it was found that many elements affect width measurement. However, crack width measurement is dependent on the measured pixel values. To accurately measure width, the measured pixel values must be in decimal units, but that is theoretically impossible. According to the results, in the case of 0.3 mm wide or wider cracks, a working distance of 1 m was secured when the focal length was 50 mm, and working distances of 3 m and 4 m were secured when the focal length was 100 mm and 135 mm, respectively. However, for cracks not wider than 0.1 mm, focal lengths of 100 mm and 135 mm showed measurability within 1 m, but a focal length of 50 mm was judged to hardly enable measurement except for certain working positions. Field measurement tests were conducted to verify measurement parameters identified by the results of the indoor experiment. The widths of actual cracks were measured through visual inspection and used for the analysis. From the evaluation, it was confirmed that the number of pixels corresponding to the working distance had a great influence on crack width measurement accuracy when using image processing. Therefore, the optimal distance and measurement guidelines required for the measurement of the size of certain objects was presented for the imaging equipment and optical equipment applied in this study.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209714
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9715: Numerical Investigating on
           Representativeness of Tracers in PIV Model Test of Dredged Slurry Treated
           by Vacuum Preloading

    • Authors: Jiahao Wang, Zunan Fu, Yanming Yu, Guoshuai Wang, Li Shi, Zhiying Yuan, Kang Yao, Jie He
      First page: 9715
      Abstract: The vacuum preloading method is commonly adopted for improving the soft ground that the embankment of the railway line is laid on. The PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) technique is a powerful tool in observing the formation of the soil column, a phenomenon that is unique to the dredged slurry when treated by vacuum preloading. However, it is not clear to what extent the motions of the slurry particles can be represented by the PIV tracers. In this paper, a mesoscopic model has been established by using the CFD-DEM method to reproduce the vacuum consolidation process of the slurry, in which the PVD (Prefabricated Vertical Drain) membrane, the slurry particles, and the tracers are described by the DEM, and the pore water is governed by the CFD method. Eight computational cases that can cover a broad range of material parameters governing the PIV model tests on the dredged slurry have been designed and studied by the established model. The representativeness of the PIV tracer is evaluated by comparing the statistic displacement of the tracer to that of the slurry particles. It is found that for the commonly used tracer, the carbon powder, can reliably represent the particle motions of the slurry since the difference in displacements of the tracer and the slurry particles is smaller than 6.5% if the diameter ratio between the tracer and the slurry particle is within 1.8.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209715
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9717: Optimal Reserve and Energy
           Scheduling for a Virtual Power Plant Considering Reserve Activation
           Probability

    • Authors: Huy Nguyen Duc, Nhung Nguyen Hong
      First page: 9717
      Abstract: With the increasing share of variable and limitedly predictable renewable energy in power systems worldwide, ensuring reserve capacity to maintain the balance of supply and demand becomes more important. On the other hand, the development of the virtual power plant model (VPP) allows renewable sources and energy storage to participate in reserve service. This paper addresses the optimal reserve bidding strategy problem of a VPP comprising of renewable energy resources (RESs), energy storage systems (ESSs), and several customers. The VPP participates in balance capacity (BC), day-ahead (DA), and intra-day (ID) markets. The scheduling problem is formulated as a two-stage chance-constrained optimization model taking the uncertainty of RESs production, load consumption, and probability of reserve activation into account. The response of VPP after its reserve capacity is called and generated is also considered to increase the operational flexibility of VPP. The proposed model is implemented on a test VPP system, and the effects of RESs sizing, ESSs sizing, and the probability of reserve activation are analyzed. Results indicate that the proposed model can perform well under real-world conditions.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209717
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9718: Theoretical Study of the Acoustic
           Installation Effects in Closed-Vein Wind Tunnels for the Experimental
           Characterization of Trailing Edge Noise

    • Authors: Stéphane Redonnet
      First page: 9718
      Abstract: This study focuses on the acoustic installation effects that may occur during typical aeroacoustic experiments when the latter are conducted in a closed-vein wind tunnel. More precisely, in regard to the specific problem of airfoil trailing edge noise, an analytical model is derived, which allows predicting the wall-induced reverberation effects that such a noise shall be subjected to, when radiating within a closed-vein, hard-wall, wind tunnel. These effects are then assessed through a parametric investigation so as to characterize their impact on in situ acoustic measurements that would be performed using flush-mounted microphones located on the vein’s walls. From a phenomenological perspective, the study highlights how important the reverberation effects by the vein can be. In particular, results reveal how their impact on the noise measurements may greatly vary, depending on the trailing edge noise source location (i.e., the airfoil incidence) and, to a lesser extent, its frequency. The outcomes allow identifying these locations where the installation effects are least, i.e., where to better position a flush-mounted microphone, should in situ noise measurements be conducted. From a methodological viewpoint, the study showcases how the proposed formalism could constitute a simple albeit useful diagnosis tool for mitigating the experimental biases weighing on airfoil trailing edge noise tests to be conducted within closed-vein facilities, whether this would be done a priori by flush-mounting the microphone(s) where these biases are minimal or a posteriori by de-biasing the noise measurements accordingly.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209718
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9719: Kinetic Study on Acrylic Acid
           Polymerisations in Isopropanol

    • Authors: Kai C. Betz, Anna Westhues, Werner Pauer
      First page: 9719
      Abstract: The radical polymerisation of acrylic acid is largely concentration dependent and affected by the type of the surrounding solvent. This work investigates reaction rate constants, the activation energy, heat flux and the molecular weight in the industrially relevant synthesis of low molecular mass acrylic acid polymers in 2‑propanol. The polymerisations were carried out isothermally in an RC1e calorimeter with inline Raman spectroscopy for monomer concentration monitoring. For a non-neutralised acrylic acid in isopropanol (150 g/L), a monomer reaction order of 1.73 ± 0.15, an activation energy of 58.6 ± 0.8 kJ/mol (0.5 mol% AIBN) and 88.5 ± 1.5 kJ/mol (1.0 mol% AIBN), and a reaction enthalpy of 66.4 ± 4.8 kJ/mol could be shown. This data is in accordance with the literature values for acrylic acid polymerisation in water. In addition, linear correlations between the respective reaction parameters and the molecular weight for customised polymer synthesis in the range from 1.2 to 1.7 × 104 g/mol could be established. In comparison with aqueous acrylic acid polymerisation, it was found that the reaction rate constants in isopropanol were slower by a factor of approximately 10 under similar reaction conditions.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209719
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9720: Photocatalytic Degradation of
           Methylene Blue Dye by Electrospun Binary and Ternary Zinc and Titanium
           Oxide Nanofibers

    • Authors: Beatrix Petrovičová, Zainab Dahrouch, Claudia Triolo, Fabiola Pantò, Angela Malara, Salvatore Patanè, Maria Allegrini, Saveria Santangelo
      First page: 9720
      Abstract: Synthetic dyes, dispersed in water, have harmful effects on human health and the environment. In this work, Ti and/or Zn oxide nanofibers (NFs) with engineered architecture and surface were produced via electrospinning followed by calcination. Calcination and subsequent cooling were operated at fast rates to generate porous NFs with capture centers to reduce the recombination rate of the photogenerated charges. After morphological and microstructural characterisation, the NFs were comparatively evaluated as photocatalysts for the removal of methylene blue from water under UV irradiation. The higher band gap and lower crystallinity were responsible for the lower photocatalytic activity of the ternary oxides (ZnTiO3 and Zn2TiO4) towards the degradation of the dye. The optimal loads of the highly performing binary oxides were determined. By using 0.66 mg mL−1 wurtzite ZnO for the discoloration of an aqueous solution with a dye concentration of 15 µM, a higher rate constant (7.94 × 10−2 min−1) than previously reported was obtained. The optimal load for anatase TiO2 was lower (0.33 mg mL−1). The corresponding rate constant (1.12 × 10−1 min−1) exceeds the values reported for the commonly used P25–TiO2 benchmark. The catalyst can be reused twice without any regeneration treatment, with 5.2% and 18.7% activity decrease after the second and third use, respectively.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209720
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9721: Emerging and Persistent Pollutants
           in the Aquatic Ecosystems of the Lower Danube Basin and North West Black
           Sea Region—A Review

    • Authors: Carmen Lidia Chiţescu, Antoaneta Ene, Elisabeta-Irina Geana, Aida Mihaela Vasile, Corina Teodora Ciucure
      First page: 9721
      Abstract: The tremendous impact of natural and anthropogenic organic and inorganic substances continuously released into the environment requires a better understanding of the chemical status of aquatic ecosystems. Water contamination monitoring studies were performed for different classes of substances in different regions of the world. Reliable analytical methods and exposure assessment are the basis of a better management of water resources. Our research comprised publications from 2010 regarding the Lower Danube and North West Black Sea region, considering regulated and unregulated persistent and emerging pollutants. The frequently reported ones were: pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim), pesticides (atrazine, carbendazim, and metolachlor), endocrine disruptors—bisphenol A and estrone, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorinated pesticides, and heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Pb, Hg, Cu, Cr). Seasonal variations were reported for both organic and inorganic contaminants. Microbial pollution was also a subject of the present review.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209721
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9722: New Trends in Biosciences

    • Authors: Andrea Ballini, Dario Di Di Stasio, Antonio Boccaccio, Maria Contaldo
      First page: 9722
      Abstract: The regulation and evaluation of biosciences are increasing, and this is probably a healthy tendency—at least to a certain extent [...]
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209722
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9723: New Sintered Porous Scaffolds of
           Mg,Sr Co-Substituted Hydroxyapatite Support Growth and Differentiation of
           Primary Human Osteoblasts In Vitro

    • Authors: Carlo Galli, Elena Landi, Silvana Belletti, Maria Teresa Colangelo, Stefano Guizzardi
      First page: 9723
      Abstract: Strontium (Sr) and Magnesium (Mg) are bioactive ions that have been proven to exert a beneficial effect on bone; therefore, their incorporation into bone substitutes has long been viewed as a possible approach to improve tissue integration. However, the thermal instability of Mg-substituted hydroxyapatites has hitherto limited development. We previously described the creation of thermally consolidated porous constructs of Mg,Sr co-substituted apatites with adequate mechanical properties for their clinical use. The present paper describes the biocompatibility of Mg,Sr co-substituted granules using an alveolar-bone-derived primary model of human osteoblasts. Cells were cultured in the presence of different amounts of hydroxyapatite (HA), Sr-substituted HA, or MgSrHA porous macrogranules (with a size of 400–600 microns, obtained by grinding and sieving the sintered scaffolds) for three and seven days, and their viability was measured by a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Protein content was measured using the Lowry assay at the same time points. Cell viability was not impaired by any of the tested compounds. Indirect and direct biocompatibility of these macrogranules was assessed by culturing cells in a previously conditioned medium with HA, SrHA, or MgSrHA, or in the presence of material granules. Osteoblasts formed larger and more numerous nodules around SrHA or MgSrHA granules. Furthermore, cell differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase staining of primary cells cultured in the presence of HA, SrHA, or MgSrHA granules, confirming the increased osteoconductivity of the doped materials.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209723
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9724: Towards Single 2D Image-Level
           Self-Supervision for 3D Human Pose and Shape Estimation

    • Authors: Junuk Cha, Muhammad Saqlain, Changhwa Lee, Seongyeong Lee, Seungeun Lee, Donguk Kim, Won-Hee Park, Seungryul Baek
      First page: 9724
      Abstract: Three-dimensional human pose and shape estimation is an important problem in the computer vision community, with numerous applications such as augmented reality, virtual reality, human computer interaction, and so on. However, training accurate 3D human pose and shape estimators based on deep learning approaches requires a large number of images and corresponding 3D ground-truth pose pairs, which are costly to collect. To relieve this constraint, various types of weakly or self-supervised pose estimation approaches have been proposed. Nevertheless, these methods still involve supervision signals, which require effort to collect, such as unpaired large-scale 3D ground truth data, a small subset of 3D labeled data, video priors, and so on. Often, they require installing equipment such as a calibrated multi-camera system to acquire strong multi-view priors. In this paper, we propose a self-supervised learning framework for 3D human pose and shape estimation that does not require other forms of supervision signals while using only single 2D images. Our framework inputs single 2D images, estimates human 3D meshes in the intermediate layers, and is trained to solve four types of self-supervision tasks (i.e., three image manipulation tasks and one neural rendering task) whose ground-truths are all based on the single 2D images themselves. Through experiments, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on 3D human pose benchmark datasets (i.e., Human3.6M, 3DPW, and LSP), where we present the new state-of-the-art among weakly/self-supervised methods.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209724
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9725: Optimization of Process Parameters
           for Turning Hastelloy X under Different Machining Environments Using
           Evolutionary Algorithms: A Comparative Study

    • Authors: Vinothkumar Sivalingam, Jie Sun, Siva Kumar Mahalingam, Lenin Nagarajan, Yuvaraj Natarajan, Sachin Salunkhe, Emad Abouel Nasr, J. Paulo Davim, Hussein Mohammed Abdel Moneam Hussein
      First page: 9725
      Abstract: In this research work, the machinability of turning Hastelloy X with a PVD Ti-Al-N coated insert tool in dry, wet, and cryogenic machining environments is investigated. The machinability indices namely cutting force (CF), surface roughness (SR), and cutting temperature (CT) are studied for the different set of input process parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, and machining environment, through the experiments conducted as per L27 orthogonal array. Minitab 17 is used to create quadratic Multiple Linear Regression Models (MLRM) based on the association between turning parameters and machineability indices. The Moth-Flame Optimization (MFO) algorithm is proposed in this work to identify the optimal set of turning parameters through the MLRM models, in view of minimizing the machinability indices. Three case studies by considering individual machinability indices, a combination of dual indices, and a combination of all three indices, are performed. The suggested MFO algorithm’s effectiveness is evaluated in comparison to the findings of Genetic, Grass-Hooper, Grey-Wolf, and Particle Swarm Optimization algorithms. From the results, it is identified that the MFO algorithm outperformed the others. In addition, a confirmation experiment is conducted to verify the results of the MFO algorithm’s optimal combination of turning parameters.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209725
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9726: A Mathematical Model for COVID-19
           with Variable Transmissibility and Hospitalizations: A Case Study in
           Paraguay

    • Authors: Hyun Ho Shin, Carlos Sauer Ayala, Pastor Pérez-Estigarribia, Sebastián Grillo, Leticia Segovia-Cabrera, Miguel García-Torres, Carlos Gaona, Sandra Irala, María Esther Pedrozo, Guillermo Sequera, José Luis Vázquez Noguera, Eduardo De Los Santos
      First page: 9726
      Abstract: Forecasting the dynamics of the number of cases with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a given population is a challenging task due to behavioural changes which occur over short periods. Planning of hospital resources and containment measures in the near term require a scenario analysis and the use of predictive models to gain insight into possible outcomes for each scenario. In this paper, we present the SEIR-H epidemiological model for the spread dynamics in a given population and the impact of COVID-19 in the local health system. It was developed as an extension of the classic SEIR model to account for required hospital resources and behavioural changes of the population in response to containment measures. Time-varying parameters such as transmissibility are estimated using Bayesian methods, based on the database of reported cases with a moving time-window strategy. The assessment of the model offers reasonable results with estimated parameters and simulations, reflecting the observed dynamics in Paraguay. The proposed model can be used to simulate future scenarios and possible effects of containment strategies, to guide the public institution response based on the available resources in the local health system.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209726
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9727: AEMB: An Automated Exploit
           Mitigation Bypassing Solution

    • Authors: Ruipeng Wang, Zulie Pan, Fan Shi, Min Zhang
      First page: 9727
      Abstract: Modern operating systems set exploit mitigations to thwart the exploit, which has also become a barrier to automated exploit generation (AEG). Many current AEG solutions do not fully account for exploit mitigations, and as a result, they are unable to accurately assess the exploitability of vulnerabilities in such settings.This paper proposes AEMB , an automated solution for bypassing exploit mitigations and generating useable exploits (EXPs). Initially, AEMB identifies exploit mitigations in the system based on characteristics of the program execution environment . Then, AEMB implements exploit mitigations bypassing the payload generation by modeling expert experience and constructs the corresponding constraints. Next, during the program’s execution, AEMB uses symbol execution to collect symbol information and create exploit constraints. Finally, AEMB utilizes a solver to solve the constraints, including payload constraints and exploit constraints, to generate the EXP. In this paper, we evaluated a prototype of AEMB on six test programs and seven real-world applications. Furthermore, we conducted 54 sets of experiments on six different combinations of exploit mitigations. Experiment results indicate that AEMB can automatically overcome exploit mitigations and produce successful exploits for 11 out of 13 applications.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209727
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9728: Soft Periodic Convolutional
           Recurrent Network for Spatiotemporal Climate Forecast

    • Authors: Ekasit Phermphoonphiphat, Tomohiko Tomita, Takashi Morita, Masayuki Numao, Ken-Ichi Fukui
      First page: 9728
      Abstract: Many machine-learning applications and methods are emerging to solve problems associated with spatiotemporal climate forecasting; however, a prediction algorithm that considers only short-range sequential information may not be adequate to deal with periodic patterns such as seasonality. In this paper, we adopt a Periodic Convolutional Recurrent Network (Periodic-CRN) model to employ the periodicity component in our proposals of the periodic representation dictionary (PRD). Phase shifts and non-stationarity of periodicity are the key components in the model to support. Specifically, we propose a Soft Periodic-CRN (SP-CRN) with three proposals of utilizing periodicity components: nearby-time (PRD-1), periodic-depth (PRD-2), and periodic-depth differencing (PRD-3) representation to improve climate forecasting accuracy. We experimented on geopotential height at 300 hPa (ZH300) and sea surface temperature (SST) datasets of ERA-Interim. The results showed the superiority of PRD-1 plus or minus one month of a prior cycle to capture the phase shift. In addition, PRD-3 considered only the depth of one differencing periodic cycle (i.e., the previous year) can significantly improve the prediction accuracy of ZH300 and SST. The mixed method of PRD-1, and PRD-3 (SP-CRN-1+3) showed a competitive or slight improvement over their base models. By adding the metadata component to indicate the month with one-hot encoding to SP-CRN-1+3, the prediction result was a drastic improvement. The results showed that the proposed method could learn four years of periodicity from the data, which may relate to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209728
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9729: Flexible and Coherent Soft X-ray
           Pulses at High Repetition Rate: Current Research and Perspectives

    • Authors: Lucas Schaper, Sven Ackermann, Enrico Allaria, Philipp Amstutz, Karolin Baev, Martin Beye, Christopher Gerth, Ingmar Hartl, Wolfgang Hillert, Katja Honkavaara, Mehdi Mohammad Kazemi, Tino Lang, Pardis Niknejadi, Fabian Pannek, Juliane Rönsch-Schulenburg, Dmitrii Samoilenko, Evgeny Schneidmiller, Siegfried Schreiber, Markus Tischer, Mathias Vogt, Mikhail Yurkov, Johann Zemella
      First page: 9729
      Abstract: The successful realization of high gain free-electron lasers has opened new possibilities to X-ray scientists for investigating matter in different states. The availability of unprecedented photon properties stimulated the development of new experimental techniques capable of taking full advantage of these options and has started a virtuous collaboration between machine experts and photon users to improve further and optimize the generated X-ray pulses. Over the recent years, this has led to the development of several advanced free-electron laser (FEL) schemes to tailor the photon properties to specific experimental demands. Presently, tunable wavelength X-ray pulses with extremely high brilliance and short pulse characteristics are a few of the many options available at FELs. Few facilities can offer options such as narrowband or extremely short pulses below one fs duration and simultaneous pulses of multiple colors enabling resonant X-ray pump—X-ray probe experiments with sub fs resolution. Fully coherent X-ray radiation (both spatial and temporal) can also be provided. This new option has stimulated the application of coherent control techniques to the X-ray world, allowing for experiments with few attoseconds resolution. FELs often operate at a relatively low repetition rate, typically on the order of tens of Hz. At FLASH and the European XFEL, however, the superconducting accelerators allow generating thousands of pulses per second. With the implementation of a new seeded FEL line and with an upgrade at FLASH linac, all the new features will become available in the soft X-ray spectral range down to the oxygen K edge with unprecedented average photon flux due to the high repetition rate of pulses.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209729
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9730: Routing Density Analysis of
           Area-Efficient Ring Oscillator Physically Unclonable Functions

    • Authors: Zulfikar Zulfikar, Norhayati Soin, Sharifah Fatmadiana Wan Muhamad Hatta, Mohamad Sofian Abu Talip, Anuar Jaafar
      First page: 9730
      Abstract: The research into ring oscillator physically unclonable functions (RO-PUF) continues to expand due to its simple structure, ease of generating responses, and its promises of primitive security. However, a substantial study has yet to be carried out in developing designs of the FPGA-based RO-PUF, which effectively balances performance and area efficiency. This work proposes a modified RO-PUF where the ring oscillators are connected directly to the counters. The proposed RO-PUF requires fewer RO than the conventional structure since this work utilizes the direct pulse count method. This work aims to seek the ideal routing density of ROs to improve uniqueness. For this purpose, five logic arrangements of a wide range of routing densities of ROs were tested. Upon implementation onto the FPGA chip, the routing density of ROs are varied significantly in terms of wire utilization (higher than 25%) and routing hotspots (higher than 80%). The best uniqueness attained was 52.71%, while the highest reliability was 99.51%. This study improves the uniqueness by 2% subsequent to the application of scenarios to consider ROs with a narrow range of routing density. The best range of wire utilization and routing hotspots of individual RO in this work is 3–5% and 20–50%, respectively. The performance metrics (uniqueness and reliability) of the proposed RO-PUF are much better than existing works using a similar FPGA platform (Altera), and it is as good as the recent RO-PUFs realized on Xilinx. Additionally, this work estimates the minimum runtimes to reduce error and response bit-flip of RO-PUF.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209730
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9731: Effects of Introducing Rest
           Intervals in Functional Fitness Training

    • Authors: Juan Hernández-Lougedo, Eduardo Cimadevilla-Pola, Tomás Fernández-Rodríguez, Jesús Guodemar-Pérez, Álvaro Otero-Campos, María del Carmen Lozano-Estevan, Ana María Cañuelo-Márquez, Fernando de Jesús-Franco, Manuel V. Garnacho-Castaño, Pablo García-Fernández, José Luis Maté-Muñoz
      First page: 9731
      Abstract: Background: Functional Fitness Training (FFT) is a new exercise modality prioritizing functional multi-joint movements executed at high intensity as a circuit. Objective: To examine the impacts of introducing rest intervals in a FFT workout compared to “rounds for time” (RFT) FFT. Materials and Methods: Participants were 25 resistance-trained adults who completed two FFT workouts 1 week apart. The study design was crossover such that in a given session half the participants completed the standard and the other half the adapted FFT (FFTadapted). The workouts consisted of the same exercises (circuit of four rounds of exercises), but one (FFTadapted) included preset rest intervals (three sets of 1 min after each completed round). Before and after the workouts, countermovement jump ability and blood lactate were measured. Heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured post-exercise. Results: For both the standard and adapted protocols, mean HR was 90% age-predicted maximum. Final RPE was also similar for both workouts (~15–15.5) and indicated a “hard” work intensity. Both FFTs took the same time to complete (~13 min). Furthermore, no significant differences were observed in jump ability between FFTs. In contrast, lactate (15.11 ± 3.64 vs. 13.48 ± 3.64 mmol·L−1, p < 0.05), measured 3 min post-exercise, was significantly lower in FFTadapted. Conclusions: In FFTadapted, there was a significant reduction in RPE and blood lactate concentrations after exercise, while there were no significant differences in either HR or jumping ability, compared to a FFT workout in RFT methodology.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209731
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9732: A Computational Study on the
           Aeroacoustics of a Multi-Rotor Unmanned Aerial System

    • Authors: Morteza Heydari, Hamid Sadat, Rajneesh Singh
      First page: 9732
      Abstract: The noise generated by a quadrotor biplane unmanned aerial system (UAS) is studied computationally for various conditions in terms of the UAS pitch angle, propellers rotating velocity (RPM), and the UAS speed to understand the physics involved in its aeroacoustics and structure-borne noise. The k-ω SST turbulence model and Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equations are used to solve the flow and acoustics fields, respectively. The sound pressure level is measured using a circular array of microphones positioned around the UAS, as well as at specific locations on its structure. The local flow is studied to detect the noise sources and evaluate the pressure fluctuation on the UAS surface. This study found that the UAS noise increases with pitch angle and the propellers’ rotating velocity, but it shows an irregular trend with the vehicle speed. The major source of the UAS noise is from its propellers and their interactions with each other at small pitch angle. The propeller and CRC-3 structure interaction contributes to the noise at large pitch angle. The results also showed that the propellers and structure of the UAS impose unsteadiness on each other through a two-way mechanism, resulting in structure-born noises which depend on the propeller RPM, velocity and pitch angle.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209732
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9733: HinPhish: An Effective Phishing
           Detection Approach Based on Heterogeneous Information Networks

    • Authors: Bingyang Guo, Yunyi Zhang, Chengxi Xu , Fan Shi, Yuwei Li , Min Zhang
      First page: 9733
      Abstract: Internet users have suffered from phishing attacks for a long time. Attackers deceive users through malicious constructed phishing websites to steal sensitive information, such as bank account numbers, website usernames, and passwords. In recent years, many phishing detection solutions have been proposed, which mainly leverage whitelists or blacklists, website content, or side channel-based techniques. However, with the continuous improvement of phishing technology, current methods have difficulty in achieving effective detection. Hence, in this paper, we propose an effective phishing website detection approach, which we call HinPhish. HinPhish extracts various link relationships from webpages and uses domains and resource objects to construct a heterogeneous information network. HinPhish applies a modified algorithm to leverage the characteristics of different link types in order to calculate the phish-score of the target domain on the webpage. Moreover, HinPhish not only improves the accuracy of detection, but also can increase the phishing cost for attackers. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that HinPhish can achieve an accuracy of 0.9856 and F1-score of 0.9858 .
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209733
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9734: Automatic Segmentation and
           Classification Methods Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography
           (OCTA): A Review and Handbook

    • Authors: Kristen M. Meiburger, Massimo Salvi, Giulia Rotunno, Wolfgang Drexler, Mengyang Liu
      First page: 9734
      Abstract: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a promising technology for the non-invasive imaging of vasculature. Many studies in literature present automated algorithms to quantify OCTA images, but there is a lack of a review on the most common methods and their comparison considering multiple clinical applications (e.g., ophthalmology and dermatology). Here, we aim to provide readers with a useful review and handbook for automatic segmentation and classification methods using OCTA images, presenting a comparison of techniques found in the literature based on the adopted segmentation or classification method and on the clinical application. Another goal of this study is to provide insight into the direction of research in automated OCTA image analysis, especially in the current era of deep learning.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209734
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 9735: Analysis of Factors for Compacted
           Clay Liner Performance Considering Isothermal Adsorption

    • Authors: Xing Zeng, Hengyu Wang, Jing Yao, Yuheng Li
      First page: 9735
      Abstract: The concentration profiles and breakthrough curves of the 2 m thick compacted clay liner (CCL) given in the specification were compared, considering three different adsorption isotherms (upper convex, linear, and lower concave). In addition, the effects of transport parameters, sorption isotherms, and source concentrations on pollutant migration were analyzed. The results showed that the dimensionless breakthrough curves of different source concentrations considering the linear adsorption isotherm coincided with each other, as the partition coefficient of the linear adsorption isotherm was constant. For the lower concave isotherm, the migration of a large source concentration was slowest, because the partition coefficient of the lower concave isotherm increased with an increase in concentration. For the upper convex isotherm, the migration of a large source concentration was fastest, because the partition coefficient decreased with an increase in concentration. The effects of the nonlinear isotherms on the shape of the outflow curve were similar to the effects of a change in the hydrodynamic dispersion (Dh): the concentration front of the upper convex isotherm was narrower, which was similar to the effect of a reduction in Dh (i.e., PL), and the concentration front of the lower concave isotherm was wider and similar to the effect of an increase Dh (i.e., PL). Therefore, the diffusion and adsorption parameters were fitted separately in the study, in case the nonlinear adsorption behavior was mistakenly defined as linear adsorption.
      Citation: Applied Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/app11209735
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 20 (2021)
       
 
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