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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2284 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (184 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (102 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1208 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (389 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (65 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (89 journals)

ENGINEERING (1208 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 227)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 253)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 228)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Alexandria Engineering Journal
  [SJR: 0.436]   [H-I: 12]   [1 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1110-0168
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • Theoretical and experimental study of magneto-rheological fluid disc brake

    • Authors: E.M. Attia; N.M. Elsodany; H.A. El-Gamal; M.A. Elgohary
      Pages: 189 - 200
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal, Volume 56, Issue 2
      Author(s): E.M. Attia, N.M. Elsodany, H.A. El-Gamal, M.A. Elgohary
      A Magneto-Rheological (MR) fluid disc brake is a device that transmits a torque by the shear force of MR fluid. The fluid is inserted between the rotating and fixed discs and a magnetic field is imposed on the fluid. In this paper, a complete test rig for an MR fluid disc brake is introduced. Experiments are conducted to measure the braking torque and speed of shaft during braking process and the results are presented at different voltage input to the brake. Also theoretical analysis for both MR brake and the mechanical system is developed and is solved numerically using finite difference method and Matlab software. Effect of current input to the MR brake, viscosity of fluid and design parameters is taken into consideration. A validation of the theoretical results with CFD model is introduced. The experimental results are performed and both angular velocity and the braking torque are obtained as responses during the braking process. A comparison between braking torques obtained from theoretical and experimental work shows agreement when voltage is 2V at speed of 150rpm and also agreement when voltage is 2 and 3V at speed of 250rpm.

      PubDate: 2017-06-23T11:00:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2016.11.017
       
  • Inclusive analysis and performance evaluation of solar domestic hot water
           system (a case study)

    • Authors: Mohamed Ghorab; Evgueniy Entchev; Libing Yang
      Pages: 201 - 212
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal, Volume 56, Issue 2
      Author(s): Mohamed Ghorab, Evgueniy Entchev, Libing Yang
      In recent years Solar Domestic Hot Water systems have increased significantly their market share. In order to better understand the real-life performance of SDHW systems, a single detached house was selected for extensive monitoring. Two solar panels were installed on the house roof to provide thermal energy to the Domestic Hot Water (DHW) system. The house was equipped with data logging system and remotely monitored with performance data collected and analyzed over one year. The paper presents the inclusive analysis and performance evaluation of SDHW system, including DHW recirculation loop, under Canadian weather conditions for average family occupancy (two adults and two kids) with daily average DHW, draws of 246L. Moreover, the study is carried out a significant recommendation to improve the SDHW performance, decrease the gas energy consumption and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The SDHW performance depends mainly on DHW flow rate, draw time and duration, city water temperature, DHW recirculation loop control strategy and system layout. The performance analysis results show that 91.5% of the collected solar energy is transferred to the DHW heating load through the solar tank. The contribution to DHW heating load is about 69.4% from natural gas and 30.6% from solar. The recirculation loop is responsible for close to 34.9%, of DHW total energy.

      PubDate: 2017-06-23T11:00:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.01.033
       
  • Internal torsion resistance in deflected shafts

    • Authors: Mahmoud T. El-Sayed; Mohamed N.A. Nasr; B.M. El-Souhily; Mahmoud A. Moustafa
      Pages: 213 - 223
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal, Volume 56, Issue 2
      Author(s): Mahmoud T. El-Sayed, Mohamed N.A. Nasr, B.M. El-Souhily, Mahmoud A. Moustafa
      Most of the shaft theories have based their analysis on bending moment, twisting moment or combined between them. Nevertheless, the dynamic behavior of flexural-torsional coupled vibrations in the rotating shafts is affected by the internal resistance forces due to torsion. It is expected that the deflected shafts shall be exposed to this resistance, where these forces were not considered in the analysis before. The objective of the present work was to estimate the effect of internal torsional resistance in shafts which is caused by deflection, for the reason that it has the upper hand on misalignment problem. With the aim of fulfilling this objective, an experimental rig has been constructed to verify the existence of the torsional resistance in deflected shafts and its variation with the rotation angle.

      PubDate: 2017-06-23T11:00:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.02.001
       
  • Cadmium free high efficiency Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cell with
           Zn1−xSnxOy buffer layer

    • Authors: Md. Asaduzzaman; Ali Newaz Bahar; Md. Mohiuddin Masum; Md. Mahmodul Hasan
      Pages: 225 - 229
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal, Volume 56, Issue 2
      Author(s): Md. Asaduzzaman, Ali Newaz Bahar, Md. Mohiuddin Masum, Md. Mahmodul Hasan
      We have investigated the simulation approach of a one-dimensional online simulator named A Device Emulation Program and Tool ( ADEPT 2.1 ) and the device performances of a thin film solar cell based on Cu 2 ZnSn ( S,Se ) 4 ( CZTSSe ) absorber have been measured. Initiating with a thin film photovoltaic device structure consisting of n-ZnO : Al / i-ZnO / Zn 1 - x Sn x O y ( ZTO ) / CZTSSe / Mo / SLG stack, a graded space charge region ( SCR ) and an inverted surface layer ( ISL ) were inserted between the buffer and the absorber. The cadmium ( Cd ) free ZTO buffer, a competitive substitute to the CdS buffer, significantly contributes to improve the open-circuit voltage, V oc without deteriorating the short-circuit current density, J sc . The optimized solar cell performance parameters including V oc , J sc , fill factor ( FF ) , and efficiency ( η ) were calculated from the current density-voltage curve, also known as J – V characteristic curve. The FF was determined as 73.17 % , which in turns, yields a higher energy conversion efficiency of 14.09 % .

      PubDate: 2017-06-23T11:00:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2016.12.017
       
  • Design and development of CPW fed monopole antenna at 2.45GHz and 5.5GHz
           for wireless applications

    • Authors: S. Ashok Kumar; T. Shanmuganantham; D. Dileepan
      Pages: 231 - 234
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal, Volume 56, Issue 2
      Author(s): S. Ashok Kumar, T. Shanmuganantham, D. Dileepan
      The behaviour of various families of the antenna structures is studied. In that, CPW (Coplanar Waveguide) fed antennas show better behaviour for the Wireless applications. The slot antenna is used for precise operating frequency, where the frequency spectrum is 2.45GHz and 5.5GHz. To achieve the proposed frequency, the slot antenna is fed with Coplanar waveguide is implemented and measured with dimensions of 70mm×70mm. To increase the bandwidth, first the mid section of two short slots of either side of the single pole length is increased slowly to check out the maximum bandwidth. The achieved peak bandwidth gradually starts decreasing at some length, considering the achieved peak value, The length responsible for decreasing peak value is to be noted. Now for obtaining the operating frequency lies in the frequency band, the mid section of long slot has to be decreased gradually; thus, operating frequency shows at 2.45GHz and 5.51GHz with return loss of −20dB, and the whole design is printed on the FR4 substrate for better efficiency to the proposed frequency at maximum bandwidth, and thereafter to check out the characteristics of antenna the parameters such as Return loss characteristics, VSWR, Azimuth pattern, Elevation pattern and 3D distribution pattern.

      PubDate: 2017-06-23T11:00:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2016.12.018
       
  • Design of hexagon shape bow-tie patch antenna for implantable bio-medical
           applications

    • Authors: N. Mahalakshmi; A. Thenmozhi
      Pages: 235 - 239
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal, Volume 56, Issue 2
      Author(s): N. Mahalakshmi, A. Thenmozhi
      This paper presents a novel hexagon shape bow-tie antenna for implantable bio-medical application at a frequency ranging from 2.4GHz to 2.48GHz of ISM band. In order to achieve high frequency response the proposed antenna is designed with CPW feed. Alumina ceramic ( Al 2 O 3 ) is used as the substrate material with 1mm thickness and the dielectric constant is 9.8. The proposed antenna has the total size of 10∗10∗1mm which is located at human tissues such as muscle, fat and skin and some of the parameters such as gain, return loss, radiation pattern and VSWR are measured. The main advantage of the proposed system is it has reduced size with increased accuracy. The proposed antenna possesses the return loss of −29dB at 2.43GHz. Thus the proposed hexagon shape bow-tie antenna can be employed for several implantable applications.

      PubDate: 2017-06-23T11:00:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.01.028
       
  • Seismic performance of steel frames designed using different allowable
           story drift limits

    • Authors: Hamdy Abou-Elfath; Mostafa Ramadan; Mohamed Meshaly; Heba Alzobair Fdiel
      Pages: 241 - 249
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal, Volume 56, Issue 2
      Author(s): Hamdy Abou-Elfath, Mostafa Ramadan, Mohamed Meshaly, Heba Alzobair Fdiel
      The design of Moment Resisting Steel Frames (MRSFs) is usually governed by drift limits rather than strength because of their high flexibility. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the seismic performance of a 6-story MRSF designed according to the Egyptian code with three different levels of allowable story drift limits: 0.5%, 0.75% and 1.0%. Seismic evaluation in this study has been carried out by static pushover analysis and time history earthquake analysis. Ten ground motions with different PGA levels are used in the analysis. The mean plus one standard deviation values of the roof-drift ratio, the maximum story drift ratio and the maximum beam- and column-strain responses are used as the basis for the seismic performance evaluations. The results obtained indicated that the strength and the initial stiffness of the designed frames decrease as the allowed story drift limit of the frame increases. Two of the designed frames exhibit maximum story drifts that are higher than the allowed limits specified by the code. The maximum story drift and beam-strain responses of the designed frames under the earthquake loading increase with the increase in the allowable story drift limits.

      PubDate: 2017-06-23T11:00:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2016.08.028
       
  • Upgrading the seismic capacity of existing RC buildings using buckling
           restrained braces

    • Authors: Hamdy Abou-Elfath; Mostafa Ramadan; Fozeya Omar Alkanai
      Pages: 251 - 262
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal, Volume 56, Issue 2
      Author(s): Hamdy Abou-Elfath, Mostafa Ramadan, Fozeya Omar Alkanai
      Many existing RC buildings do not meet the lateral strength requirements of current seismic codes and are vulnerable to significant damage or collapse in the event of future earthquakes. In the past few decades, buckling-restrained braces have become increasingly popular as a lateral force resisting system because of their capability of improving the strength, the stiffness and the energy absorbing capacity of structures. This study evaluates the seismic upgrading of a 6-story RC-building using single diagonal buckling restrained braces. Seismic evaluation in this study has been carried out by static pushover analysis and time history earthquake analysis. Ten ground motions with different PGA levels are used in the analysis. The mean plus one standard deviation values of the roof-drift ratio, the maximum story drift ratio, the brace ductility factors and the member strain responses are used as the basis for the seismic performance evaluations. The results obtained in this study indicate that strengthening of RC buildings with buckling restrained braces is an efficient technique as it significantly increases the PGA capacity of the RC buildings. The results also indicate the increase in the PGA capacity of the RC building with the increase in the amount of the braces.

      PubDate: 2017-06-23T11:00:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2016.11.018
       
  • Heat transfer in wall jet flow of magnetic-nanofluids with variable
           magnetic field

    • Authors: N. Sandeep; I.L. Animasaun
      Pages: 263 - 269
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal, Volume 56, Issue 2
      Author(s): N. Sandeep, I.L. Animasaun
      This study reports the enhanced heat transfer of electrically conducting magnetic-nanofluids with thermal radiation and inclined magnetic field effects. We consider water as a base fluid embedded with the two different types of aluminum alloy nanoparticles namely AA 7072 and AA 7075. AA 7072 is a special type of heat treatable aluminum alloy with 98% Al and 1% of Zn with the additives such as Si, Fe and Cu. Similarly, AA 7075 contains 90% Al, 5–6% Zn, 2–3% Mg, 1–2% Cu with the additives such as Si, Fe and Mn. Numerical results are explored with the aid of R-K and Newton’s techniques. Results are depicted diagrammatically and discussed on the common profiles of interest (velocity and temperature). The heat transfer rate of water-AA 7075 nanofluid is significantly high when compared with the rate of heat transfer of water-AA 7072 nanofluid.

      PubDate: 2017-06-23T11:00:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2016.12.019
       
  • Analysis of solution for system of nonlinear fractional Burger
           differential equations based on multiple fractional power series

    • Authors: Bahram Agheli; Rahmat Darzi
      Pages: 271 - 276
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal, Volume 56, Issue 2
      Author(s): Bahram Agheli, Rahmat Darzi
      We have applied the new approach of homotopic perturbation method (NHPM) for Burger differential system equations featuring time-fractional derivative. A combination of NHPM and multiple fractional power series form has been used the first time to present analytical solution. In order to illustrate the simplicity and ability of the suggested approach, some specific and clear examples have been given. All numerical calculations in this manuscript have been carried out with Mathematica.

      PubDate: 2017-06-23T11:00:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2016.12.021
       
  • Nanofluid heat transfer between two pipes considering Brownian motion
           using AGM

    • Authors: M. Sheikholeslami; M. Nimafar; D.D. Ganji
      Pages: 277 - 283
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal, Volume 56, Issue 2
      Author(s): M. Sheikholeslami, M. Nimafar, D.D. Ganji
      Nanofluid flow between two circular cylinders is studied in existence of magnetic field. KKL model is applied for nanofluid. Thermal radiation effect has been considered in energy equation. AGM is selected for solving ODEs. Semi analytical procedures are examined for various active parameters namely; aspect ratio, Hartmann number, Eckert number and Reynolds number. Results indicate that temperature gradient enhances with rise of Ha, Ec and η but it reduces with augment of Re. Velocity reduces with rise of Lorentz forces but it augments with rise of Reynolds number.

      PubDate: 2017-06-23T11:00:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.01.032
       
  • Role-task conditional-purpose policy model for privacy preserving data
           publishing

    • Authors: Rana Elgendy; Amr Morad; Hicham G. Elmongui; Ayman Khalafallah; Mohamed S. Abougabal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 July 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Rana Elgendy, Amr Morad, Hicham G. Elmongui, Ayman Khalafallah, Mohamed S. Abougabal
      Privacy becomes a major concern for both consumers and enterprises; therefore many research efforts have been devoted to the development of privacy preserving technology. The challenge in data privacy is to share the data while assuring the protection of personal information. Data privacy includes assuring protection for both insider ad outsider threats even if the data is published. Access control can help to protect the data from outsider threats. Access control is defined as the process of mediating every request to resources and data maintained by a system and determining whether the request should be granted or denied. This can be enforced by a mechanism implementing regulations established by a security policy. In this paper, we present privacy preserving data publishing model based on integration of CPBAC, MD-TRBAC, PBFW, protection against database administrator technique inspired from oracle vault technique and benefits of anonymization technique to protect data when being published using k-anonymity. The proposed model meets the requirements of workflow and non-workflow system in enterprise environment. It is based on the characteristics of the conditional purposes, conditional roles, tasks, and policies. It guarantees the protection against insider threats such as database administrator. Finally it assures needed protection in case of publishing the data.

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T14:12:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.05.029
       
  • An efficient simulation of quantum error correction codes

    • Authors: R. Padma Priya; A. Baradeswaran
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 July 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): R. Padma Priya, A. Baradeswaran
      The QCAD which has been technologically advanced during last few years to support basic transformations, simulating multi-dimensional quantum devices and circuits. It is most important to demonstrate the theoretical operation of quantum computer using the simulator. Besides of describing various noise models in terms of quantum gates, a direct support of quantum error correction codes. Using the quantum error correction codes, the effects of applying single bit or phase flip error to the quantum circuits are reported along with the error recovery method for different qubit codes. The results are generated using the QCAD simulator. A simulation model for evaluating single qubit error in the proposed quantum circuit is also given. The working software prototype of an extremely efficient quantum computer simulator which is an attractive and versatile tool for both research and education.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T21:34:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.06.013
       
  • Effective reduction of NOx emissions from diesel engine using split
           injections

    • Authors: R. Sindhu; G. Amba Prasad Rao; K. Madhu Murthy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 July 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): R. Sindhu, G. Amba Prasad Rao, K. Madhu Murthy
      Good fuel economy and high thermal efficiency of direct injection diesel engines are certainly welcome characteristics from the viewpoints of preserving energy sources and suppressing global warming. Despite the attractive fuel economy, high emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) with their unresolved trade-off are a major challenge to be addressed by researchers. Downsizing of the engine, dilution using exhaust gases, retardation of injection timing, etc. are widely adopted techniques to lower NOx emissions. Of late, multiple/split injection strategy is garnering much attention from the researchers for its potential to effectively address NOx, soot and piston work trade-offs. The effects of variation of fuel injection timing, dilution using EGR are investigated and compared against the proposed technique of split injections (25/75 and 75/25) on a single cylinder diesel engine using numerical experiments in the present work. For this purpose, a quasi-dimensional model has been developed primarily using the derivations of first law of thermodynamics and ideal gas equation. Models predicting heat release rates, heat transfer losses, ignition delay, chemistry of combustion, NOx and soot formations are coupled to the model using phenomenological considerations. Split injection with a smaller quantity of fuel injected in the first pulse is observed to significantly lower NOx emissions due to the restrain in premixed phase of combustion of second pulse. Split injections are observed to effectively address NO-piston work trade-off compared to increasing dilution rates using EGR and retarding injection timing towards TDC.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T21:34:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.06.009
       
  • Cubic B-splines collocation method for a class of partial
           integro-differential equation

    • Authors: M. Gholamian; J. Saberi-Nadjafi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 July 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): M. Gholamian, J. Saberi-Nadjafi
      In this paper, a numerical method is proposed to estimate the solution of initial-boundary value problems for a class of partial integro-differential equations. This is based on the cubic B-splines method for spatial derivatives while the backward Euler method is used to discretize the temporal derivatives. Detailed discrete schemes are investigated. Next, we proved the convergence and the stability of the proposed method. The method is applied to some test examples and the numerical results have been compared with the exact solutions. The obtained results show the computational efficiency of the method. It can be concluded that computational efficiency of the method is effective for the initial-boundary value problems.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T21:34:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.06.004
       
  • A simplified 2½-degree of freedom time-domain model with non-linearity
           for the simulation of parametric roll

    • Authors: Tamer M. Ahmed
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 July 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Tamer M. Ahmed
      In this paper, a simplified 2½-degree of freedom time-domain numerical method with non-linearity is developed, presented in detail and validated for simulating parametric roll. The method is termed 2½-degree of freedom since; it first linearly couples heave and pitch via a three-dimensional frequency-domain pulsating source method. The roll equation of motion is – then – solved in the time domain with, non-linear damping and non-linear parametric excitation taken into account and formulated in terms of heave-pitch-wave profile influence on roll. In other words, heave and pitch motions influence roll but roll motion does not influence heave and pitch back hence, the term 2½-degree of freedom. The mathematical formulation of the proposed method is presented in detail and has been developed into an in-house numerical model. Subsequently, the numerical model is applied to a modern container ship. Experimental results from the literature are utilized for validation. Predicted results show very good agreement with experiments and demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to accurately capture the influence of various parameters affecting parametric roll.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T21:34:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.06.015
       
  • Effect of thermal radiation and MHD on non-Newtonian third grade fluid in
           wire coating analysis with temperature dependent viscosity

    • Authors: Zeeshan Khan; Rehan Ali Shah; Mohammad Altaf; Saeed Islam; Aurangzeb Khan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Zeeshan Khan, Rehan Ali Shah, Mohammad Altaf, Saeed Islam, Aurangzeb Khan
      This article describes the effect of thermal radiation on the non-Newtonian third grade fluid used as a coating material for wire coating analysis with temperature dependent viscosity. The basic governing equations of continuity, momentum and energy are incorporated. The effect of thermal radiation and viscous dissipation terms are included in the energy equation. The Reynolds and Vogel’s models have been considered for temperature dependent viscosity. The approximate solution is obtained by HAM (homotopy analysis method). The approximate solution is compared with the numerical solution obtained by ND-Solve method. The effect of different parameters involved in the solution such as non-Newtonian parameter β, Reynolds model viscosity parameter χ, Vogel’s model viscosity parameter Ω, thermal radiation parameter R and Brinkman number Br is discussed in detail. It is observed that the non-Newtonian property β of the fluid is favorable for increasing the velocity and temperature distribution. The magnetic parameter M increases the temperature. The viscosity parameters χ and Ω decrease the velocity of the fluid while the temperature profile increases. An increase in the thermal radiation parameter R and Brinkman number Br accelerate the velocity and temperature of the melt polymer so as to make the process faster.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T21:34:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.06.003
       
  • Characteristics of Joule heating and viscous dissipation on
           three-dimensional flow of Oldroyd B nanofluid with thermal radiation

    • Authors: K. Ganesh Kumar; G.K. Ramesh; B.J. Gireesha; R.S.R. Gorla
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): K. Ganesh Kumar, G.K. Ramesh, B.J. Gireesha, R.S.R. Gorla
      Present study explores the discussion on combined effects of Joule heating and viscous dissipation on a three-dimensional flow of Oldroyd B nanofluid. The model describes that flow is generated by bidirectional stretching sheet with thermophoresis and Brownian motion effects and also energy equation contain radiation term. Converted self similar equations are solved via shooting algorithm with RKF 45 method. The influences of Joule heating and viscous dissipation are discussed through graphs. It is noticed that combination of Joule and viscous heating, the temperature of Oldroyd B nanofluid profile increases.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T23:10:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.06.006
       
  • Koch boundary on the square patch microstrip antenna for ultra wideband
           applications

    • Authors: Manisha Gupta; Vinita Mathur
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Manisha Gupta, Vinita Mathur
      In this paper a novel compact microstrip feed square patch antenna with right angled isosceles Koch fractal geometry on its edges is designed for ultra wideband applications. The radiating patch is modified in several steps to achieve a multiband circularly polarized antenna. The fractal antenna is simulated using CST Microwave Studio Simulator. Antenna’s performance is then compared with equilateral Koch, Minkowski and Sierpinski fractal geometries. The suggested antenna is assembled on FR4-epoxy (εr =4.4) substrate with dimensions 60×55×1.59mm3. The developed antenna efficiently operates at 4.3GHz, 5.0GHz, 6.1GHz, 7.4GHz, 8.9GHz and 9.2GHz. Circular polarizations are achieved near four resonant frequencies, which are realized by adding a circle in the middle of the patch. The presented antenna has a good gain, bandwidth, VSWR and axial ratio bandwidth. In this paper, an approach for multiband antennas is proposed. The novelty of the paper lies in the fact that a right angled triangular Koch curve is formed on the edges of the square patch.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T23:10:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.06.005
       
  • Experimental study of effect of isobutanol in performance, combustion and
           emission characteristics of CI engine fuelled with cotton seed oil blended
           diesel

    • Authors: V. Mathan Raj; L.R. Ganapathy Subramanian; G. Manikandaraja
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): V. Mathan Raj, L.R. Ganapathy Subramanian, G. Manikandaraja
      There are many alternate fuels such as biodiesel and alcohols which has been commercialized in the industrial sector as well as in the transportation sector. In this context, cottonseed oil and isobutanol renewed our interest. Experiments are carried out on the single cylinder four strokes diesel engine capable of producing the power output of 5.2kW and test is carried at the speed of 1500rpm and under varying the load condition for the blends of cottonseed oil and isobutanol with diesel prepared by the volume basis i.e., B10, B10+5%, B10+10%, B20, B20+5% and B20+10%. The result shows that the addition of cottonseed oil increases the brake thermal efficiency with the reduction in the specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature. Increasing the amount of the cottonseed oil in the blend also reduces the emission parameter such as CO, CO2, NOX and O2 with increase in HC emission. The addition of the isobutanol in the cottonseed oil blend diesel fuel has similar effect to that of addition of pure cottonseed oil in varying proportion that increases the brake thermal efficiency with the reduction in the specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T23:10:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.06.007
       
  • Two-mode coupled Burgers equation: Multiple-kink solutions and other exact
           solutions

    • Authors: H.M. Jaradat
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): H.M. Jaradat
      In this paper, we establish a new two-mode coupled Burgers equation (TMCBE). The necessary conditions that make the multiple kink solutions and the multiple singular kink solutions to TMCBE exist are founded using the simplified bilinear method. Moreover, we find other exact solutions using the hyperbolic-expansion method such as the sech-csch method, the tanh-coth method, and the sinh-cosh method to conduct this study. Finally, this coupled is new and all results obtained didn’t exist in any other work prior to this paper.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T23:10:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.06.014
       
  • Neural based hybrid metaheuristic technique for computing rotating
           transport of Falkner-Skan flow

    • Authors: Z. Iqbal; Ehtsham Azhar; Zaffar Mehmood; Mirza Muhammad Sabir
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Z. Iqbal, Ehtsham Azhar, Zaffar Mehmood, Mirza Muhammad Sabir
      In present analysis we are focused on neural based hybrid metaheuristic technique for computing rotating transport of Falkner-Skan flow. We incorporate modeling of present problem using artificial neural network (ANN). An approximate model of the equation in an unsupervised manner is built to subjugate effectiveness of ANN. Stochastic solvers based on hybrid approach are used to verify the accuracy of the designed scheme. The hybrid metaheuristic scheme involves genetic algorithm (GA) along with interior point algorithm (IPA) for the training and weights optimization of ANN. The proposed scheme is evaluated for Falkner-Scan boundary value problem by taking different values of material and rotation parameters. Moreover, comparative studies of the proposed solution are made with standard numerical algorithm in order to establish reliability of present neural based hybrid metaheuristic technique.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T23:10:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.06.011
       
  • A novel local skew correction and segmentation approach for printed
           multilingual Indian documents

    • Authors: Narasimha Reddy Soora; Parag S. Deshpande
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Narasimha Reddy Soora, Parag S. Deshpande
      Till date, many Indian government organizations do not have robust software to search for words from scanned office documents having complex multilingual Indian scripts. Manual search of such a multilingual Indian document will take few minutes and there will be tens of thousands of documents to be searched for the desired content. Manual search of such a huge number of scanned Indian documents will be tedious, which requires robust automatic searching software. This led us to work toward indexing of aged printed multilingual Indian office documents. This paper presents a novel geometrical technique to group the components which belong to a text line of a document having multi-orientations and a novel approach to find the local skew of Devanagari word. The performance of the proposed technique was evaluated using 280 printed Indian documents with around 6000 text lines having English, Devanagari, and Marathi scripts and achieved 99% success rate for line segmentation indicates the legitimacy of the proposed method. To further assess the performance of the proposed method, we have considered publicly available Tobacco800 document image database and achieved significant performance results as compared with few of the prominent methods from the literature.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T23:10:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.06.010
       
  • Differential transform method for unsteady nanofluid flow and heat
           transfer

    • Authors: Muhammad Usman; Muhammad Hamid; Umar Khan; Syed Tauseef Mohyud Din; Muhammad Asad Iqbal; Wei Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Hamid, Umar Khan, Syed Tauseef Mohyud Din, Muhammad Asad Iqbal, Wei Wang
      In this article, unsteady two phases of nanofluid flow and heat transfer between moving parallel plates in the presence of the magnetic field were tackled by Differential transform method (DTM). System of ordinary differential equations was obtained using the similarity transformation. Comparison with numerical method Runge-Kutta of order four specifies that Differential transform method is very applicable to solve these problems. We investigate the numerical results of different values of parameters e.g. the squeeze number, Eckert number and Hartmann number. This sort of results can help the engineers to create higher and researchers to analyze quicker and easier.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T23:10:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.03.052
       
  • A comparative analysis of magnetohydrodynamic non-Newtonian fluids flow
           over an exponential stretched sheet

    • Authors: M. Sathish Kumar; N. Sandeep; B. Rushi Kumar; P.A. Dinesh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): M. Sathish Kumar, N. Sandeep, B. Rushi Kumar, P.A. Dinesh
      This study is dedicated to figure out the flow, thermal and concentration boundary layer nature of Casson and Carreau fluids over an exponential stretching surface with zero normal flux of nanoparticles having magnetic behavior. Moreover, consideration of nanoparticles which are passively control at the surface is physically more realistic condition (Buongiorno model). Adequate similarity transforms are invoked to put the flow governing equations in dimensionless form. Then after, the transformed equations are solved by means of an effective Runge-Kutta based shooting method. The influence of the selected flow managing parameters on the usual profiles viz. velocity, thermal and concentration are inspected comprehensively with the aid of plots. Numerical treatment for friction factor and reduced Nusselt number is presented in tabular form. It is noticed that Carreau fluid is highly affected by the Lorentz force when equated with the Casson fluid.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T23:10:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.06.002
       
  • Buckling analysis of nonuniform nonlocal strain gradient beams using
           generalized differential quadrature method

    • Authors: H. Bakhshi Khaniki; Sh. Hosseini-Hashemi; A. Nezamabadi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): H. Bakhshi Khaniki, Sh. Hosseini-Hashemi, A. Nezamabadi
      Recently, it was shown that the length scales presented in nonlocal elasticity and strain gradient theory each describe a different physical and material properties of structures at small scales. Accordingly, in this article, by using the new accurate nonlocal strain gradient theory, buckling behavior of nonuniform small-scale beam is investigated. Nanobeam is assumed with variable cross section through the length by exponentially varying the width. According to the size effects, higher order strain deformations and nonlocal effects are modeled on the Euler-Bernoulli beam. Governing equation of motion is presented using Hamilton's principle for nonuniform nonlocal strain gradient beams and solved using generalized differential quadrature method for higher order differential equations. Accuracy of the current methodology is discussed by increasing the number of sampling points and merging to unique solutions. Moreover, in order comprehend the nonuniformity effects on nonlocal strain gradient beams, parametric study is done and presented for different variables. It is shown that nonuniformity could have a significant efficacy on critical buckling loads depending on the ratio between nonlocal and strain gradient parameters. This study is a step forward in better understanding the behavior of nonuniform small scale beams to be used in different nanoscale structures.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T23:10:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.06.001
       
  • Unsteady viscous flow driven by the combined effects of peristalsis and
           electro-osmosis

    • Authors: Dharmendra Tripathi; Shashi Bhushan; O. Anwar Bég
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Dharmendra Tripathi, Shashi Bhushan, O. Anwar Bég
      Electrokinetic transport of fluids through microchannels by micro-pumping and micro- peristaltic pumping has stimulated considerable interest in biomedical engineering and other areas of medical technology. Deeper elucidation of the fluid dynamics of such transport requires the continuous need for more elegant mathematical models and numerical simulations, in parallel with laboratory investigations. In this article we therefore investigate analytically the unsteady viscous flow driven by the combined effects of peristalsis and electro-osmosis through microchannel. An integral number of waves propagating in the microchannel are considered as a model for transportation of fluid bolus along the channel length. Debye-Hückel linearization is employed to evaluate the potential function. Low Reynolds number and large wavelength approximations are employed. Closed-form solutions are derived for the non-dimensional boundary value problem. The computations demonstrate that magnitude of electric potential function is increased with a decrease in the thickness of the electrical double layer (EDL). Stronger electric field also decelerates the flow and decreases local wall shear stress. Hydrodynamic pressure is increased with EDL thickness whereas it is suppressed with electric field. Streamline visualization reveals that the quantity of trapped bolus is decreased with increase in EDL thickness and also with higher external electric field.

      PubDate: 2017-06-23T11:00:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.05.027
       
  • Numerical solution for space and time fractional order Burger type
           equation

    • Authors: Yokus
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Asıf Yokus
      In this paper, we study the fractional differential operators thereby considering the space and time order Burger type equation with initial condition. The extended finite difference method which is based on shifted Grünwald, Caputo and Riemann formulas are used. The fractional terms are approximated using two fractional difference schemes. Time Order Burger type Equation, Space Order Burger type Equation and Space-Time Order Burger type Equation are discussed with an example and error estimates obtained for the Finite difference method (FDM) and Generalized Taylor Series Methods (GTSM). The numerical methods have been applied to solve a numerical example, and results are compared with the exact solutions. By these methods, the numerical solutions of space and time order Burger type equation are obtained with the help of Wolfram Mathematica 11 software package. We present the tables of the obtained numerical results.

      PubDate: 2017-06-23T11:00:10Z
       
  • Study pultruded Jute fabric effect on the cementitious thin composites
           mechanical properties with low fiber volume fraction

    • Authors: Magdi El Messiry; Shaimaa El-Tarfawy; Rania El Deeb
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Magdi El Messiry, Shaimaa El-Tarfawy, Rania El Deeb
      The objective of this work was to study the influence of low fiber volume fraction on the mechanical properties of the Jute fabric reinforced cementitious composites, suggesting the thin sheet of pultruded fabric instead of Jute as a suitable solution for the forming complex matrix shapes. The present work investigates the pultrusion of a Jute fabrics reinforced by the polymeric matrix material, which protects the Jute fabrics and improves the durability of fiber cement sheets. Different fiber volume fraction as well as polymeric matrix material blending ratios were investigated through the pultrusion technique and compared with the control untreated Jute fabrics reinforced cementations composites. Microstructure characteristics of the fabric–matrix interface were also explored and correlated with the mechanical properties of the pultruded Jute fabrics reinforced cementations composite. It was found that an improvement in the behavior of mechanical properties of the cement composite with pultruded Jute fabrics compared to similar composites. Acceptable correlations were found on the mechanical properties of the composite, particularly bending stiffness. Pultrusion Jute reinforced polymeric matrix material increases the tensile stress, the modulus of elasticity, and the flexure strength than in control untreated Jute fabrics reinforced cementations composites.

      PubDate: 2017-06-23T11:00:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.05.026
       
  • Stability analysis of MHD outer velocity flow on a stretching cylinder

    • Authors: Vikas Poply; Phool Singh; A.K. Yadav
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Vikas Poply, Phool Singh, A.K. Yadav
      A study has been done on axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of a viscous incompressible outer velocity fluid along a stretching cylinder. The momentum and heat partial differential equations are mold using similarity transformations into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. These equations have been solved with the help of Runge-Kutta Fehlberg scheme numerically with shooting technique. It is found that the solution is not unique for stretching cylindrical surface. The dual solution exists for a certain range of fluid parameters on stretching surface. The stability analysis shown that the upper branch is a stable solution and the lower branch is a unstable solution. The critical point λ c = - 0.03211 of outer velocity parameter and the range of the unstable solution - 0.03211 = λ c ⩽ λ ⩽ λ r = 0.1411 have been obtained for certain magnetic parameter. Also, the effects of MHD and outer velocity parameter with various other fluid parameters on heat transfer and flow characteristics have been analyzed and shown by figures and tables. The outcomes show that the outer velocity parameter has a substantial effect on MHD fluid flow in stretching cylindrical surface.

      PubDate: 2017-06-23T11:00:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.05.025
       
  • Shannon and Fuzzy entropy based evolutionary image thresholding for image
           segmentation

    • Authors: M.S.R. Naidu; P. Rajesh Kumar; K. Chiranjeevi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): M.S.R. Naidu, P. Rajesh Kumar, K. Chiranjeevi
      Image segmentation is a very important and pre-processing step in image analysis. The conventional multilevel thresholding methods are efficient for bi-level thresholding because of its simplicity, robustness, less convergence time and accuracy. However, a mass of computational cost is needed and efficiency is broken down as an exhaustive search is utilized for finding the optimal thresholds, which results in application of evolutionary algorithm and swarm intelligence to obtain the optimal thresholds. The main aim of image segmentation was to segregate the foreground from background. For the first time this paper established a naturally inspired firefly algorithm based multilevel image thresholding for image segmentation by maximizing Shannon entropy or Fuzzy entropy. The proposed algorithm is tested on standard set of images and results are compared with the Shannon entropy or Fuzzy entropy based methods that are optimized by Differential Evolution (DE), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and bat algorithm (BA). It is demonstrated that the proposed method shows better performance in objective function, structural similarity index, peak signal to noise ratio, misclassification error and CPU time than state of art methods.

      PubDate: 2017-06-23T11:00:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.05.024
       
  • Series solutions of nonlinear coupled equations in tissue engineering

    • Authors: N. Kousar; R. Mahmood; A. Nawaz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): N. Kousar, R. Mahmood, A. Nawaz
      Objectives The objective of this article was to simulate a mathematical model of diffusive transport of nutrients which affects the nonlinear cell proliferation rate. The governing coupled equations are solved under the assumption that the nutrient delivery to the scaffold is purely depends on diffusion. Methods The homotopy analysis method (HAM) is applied to find the approximate series solution for the nonlinear coupled PDEs. This method is very powerful analytical tool for solving nonlinear and coupled equations. Findings The results are obtained of different physical parameters for the uniform cell seeding strategy. The results show the appearance of cell proliferated regions near the nutrient supply. We have compared our results with the results given in the literature (Lewis et al., 2005). Novelty Upto the best of author’s knowledge, no series solution is found so far in the literature for this tissue engineering model.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T04:51:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.05.023
       
  • Experimental/numerical investigation of mechanical behaviour of internally
           pressurized cylindrical shells with external longitudinal and
           circumferential semi-elliptical defects

    • Authors: H. Moustabchir; J. Arbaoui; Zitouni Azari; S. Hariri; Catalin Iulian Pruncu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): H. Moustabchir, J. Arbaoui, Zitouni Azari, S. Hariri, Catalin Iulian Pruncu
      This paper presents an experimental-numerical investigation on the mechanical behaviour of pressurized cylindrical shells with external longitudinal and circumferential cracks of semi-elliptical shape. The research is motivated by the need to develop advanced design methodologies for shell structures. For that purpose, strain gauges are utilized to monitor strain concentrations near the cracks, and finite element simulations are carried out to predict the corresponding stress intensity factor distributions. A good agreement between numerical simulations and experimental data is found. This confirms that virtual simulations/calculations provide a reliable approach to evaluating mechanical behaviour of pressurized cylindrical shells with crack defects.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T04:51:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.05.022
       
  • Numerical study of the stationary generalized viscoplastic fluid flows

    • Authors: Mohamed El-Borhamy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Mohamed El-Borhamy
      In this work, numerical schemes for the generalized stationary regularized viscoplastic fluids equations with highly nonlinear viscosities are analyzed. The discretisation using certain high order finite elements ( Q 2 P 1 disc ) is achieved to transform the nonlinear continuous form to the corresponding nonlinear discretized one. The solution process is analyzed in the sense of successive continuous Newton method (CNM) with minimal residual method as a linear solver. The convergence of the method is proved using the sense of the minimization technique due to the monotone decreasing feature of their viscosities. It is shown that, the convergence process of the successive nonlinear iterative method is mostly approaching a semi-quadratic behavior for slow flow cases. The numerical tests are achieved to have good fitting with the theoretical results using a self implemented Matlab code for the interested problem.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T04:51:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.04.018
       
  • Traffic loads used in the design of highway RC bridges in Egypt

    • Authors: Mohie El-Din Shoukry; Zaki I. Mahmoud; Nessreen A. Khalf
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Mohie El-Din Shoukry, Zaki I. Mahmoud, Nessreen A. Khalf
      Recently, a considerable research effort has been devoted to bridge design and evaluation in Egypt. The traffic loading in the Egyptian code (ECP) gets heavier from 1963 to 2012. So, it was necessary to evaluate how much safe are the existing bridges when loaded with heavier traffic loading. For this reason, a comparative study is presented between the internal forces (bending moments) in longitudinal girders and deck slabs, in slab/girder bridges, resulting from traffic loads recommended by ECP 1963, ECP 1994 and ECP 2012. Tables and figures are displayed to show the variation in live load moments when using the three different codes for bridges with 10.5m width (three traffic lanes) and with spans 15, 20 and 25m. Since most highway bridges are continuous ones, the present analysis was expanded to cover the effects of the different recommended live loads on continuous bridges. The results reveal big differences between the different versions of traffic loads in the Egyptian codes. In addition, modified equations to calculate maximum moments in longitudinal girders according to ECP2012 are proposed. The proposed equations show excellent results when compared with the numerical study.

      PubDate: 2017-06-13T12:32:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.03.022
       
  • Magnetohydrodynamic axisymmetric flow of Casson fluid with variable
           thermal conductivity and free stream

    • Authors: M. Nawaz; Rahila Naz; M. Awais
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): M. Nawaz, Rahila Naz, M. Awais
      This article examines Joule heating and viscous dissipation effects in axisymmetric stagnation point flow of Casson fluid with temperature dependent thermal conductivity. The governing boundary layer equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations using the similarity transformations. Resulting boundary value problem is solved by homotopy analysis method (HAM). The homotopy solutions are compared with the numerical results. The behavior of sundry parameters is analyzed through the dimensionless velocity, temperature, wall shear stress and Nusselt number. The upshot of Casson fluid parameter appears to accelerate the fluid velocity. The system heats up by the effects of dissipation and Joule heating.

      PubDate: 2017-06-13T12:32:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.05.016
       
  • Effect of flexural and shear reinforcement on the punching behavior of
           reinforced concrete flat slabs

    • Authors: Rasha T.S. Mabrouk; Amr Bakr; Hany Abdalla
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Rasha T.S. Mabrouk, Amr Bakr, Hany Abdalla
      Punching is one of the most important phenomena to be considered during the design of reinforced concrete flat slabs. Three main factors affect the punching behavior. These factors are concrete compressive strength, horizontal flexural reinforcement, and vertical shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups, studs or other forms. This paper is part of an ongoing research program conducted at the concrete laboratory of the Faulty of Engineering, Cairo University to assess the contribution of horizontal flexural reinforcement and vertical shear reinforcement on the punching behavior of reinforced concrete flat slabs. In the current research, seven half scale specimens are cast and tested. The specimens had dimensions of 1050×1050mm and a total thickness of 100mm. All specimens were connected to a square column of dimensions 150×150mm and loaded at the four corners with a span 950mm. The parameters considered in this research included spacing between vertical stirrups, width of the stirrups, number of stirrups branches and the ratio of the horizontal flexural reinforcement. During testing, ultimate capacity, steel strain, cracking pattern and deformation were recorded. The experimental results were analyzed and compared against values estimated from different international design codes.

      PubDate: 2017-06-13T12:32:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.05.019
       
  • Behavior of RC beams with tension lap splices confined with transverse
           reinforcement using different types of concrete under pure bending

    • Authors: Rasha T.S. Mabrouk; Ahmed Mounir
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Rasha T.S. Mabrouk, Ahmed Mounir
      Many research studies have been carried out on the different parameters affecting the bond strength of tension lap splices in RC beams but limited attention has been given to the effect of using transverse reinforcement along the splice length. The first part of this research is an experimental program which consisted of sixteen reinforced concrete beams tested at the concrete laboratory of the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University. The parameters under study herein are the diameter of the transverse reinforcement as well as its shape and distribution while using three different types of concrete. The beams were all simply supported with 1800mmspan and 150×250mm cross section. The tensile steel was spliced in the constant moment zone. The second part of the research consisted of an analytical study to enhance the understanding of the topic of this research. Three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis was carried with the help of the well-known finite element software; ABAQUS. The concrete damaged plasticity model is selected at this study because it is capable of representing the complete inelastic behavior of concrete both in tension and in compression including damage characteristics. The analytical and experimental results were compared and contrasted. Good agreement was obtained.

      PubDate: 2017-06-13T12:32:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.05.001
       
  • A new hybrid decision tree method based on two artificial neural networks
           for predicting sediment transport in clean pipes

    • Authors: Isa Ebtehaj; Hossein Bonakdari; Amir Hossein Zaji
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Isa Ebtehaj, Hossein Bonakdari, Amir Hossein Zaji
      A new hybrid decision tree (DT) technique based on two artificial neural networks (ANN), namely multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF), is proposed to predict sediment transport in clean pipes (i.e. without deposition). The parameters affecting densimetric Froude number (Fr) prediction were extracted from the literature in order to build the model proposed in this study. The effect of each parameter is first examined using MLP and RBF and a sensitivity analysis. According to the sensitivity analysis, the optimal model indicates that using the volumetric sediment concentration (CV ), median diameter of particle size distribution to pipe diameter (d/D) and ratio of median diameter of particle size distribution to hydraulic radius (d/R) parameters yield the best Fr prediction results. Subsequently, the hybrid DT-MLP and DT-RBF model results are compared with MLP and RBF. According to the results, MLP with all models predicted Fr more accurately than RBF, and DT-MLP exhibited the best performance (R 2 =0.975, MARE =0.063, RMSE =0.328, SI =00.081, BIAS =−0.01). Moreover, the comparison between DT-MLP and existing regression-based equations indicates that the models presented in the current study are superior.

      PubDate: 2017-06-08T09:32:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.05.021
       
  • Study on the use of banana peels for oil spill removal

    • Authors: G. Alaa El-Din; A.A. Amer; G. Malsh; M. Hussein
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): G. Alaa El-Din, A.A. Amer, G. Malsh, M. Hussein
      Nowadays, oil spill is one of the most serious pollutants that have negative effects on the ecosystem and marine life. Environmentalists face major challenges in the treatment of spills and in developing an alternative product with low cost. Among all different sorbents, agriculture waste is preferred as an oil cleanup technology due to its biodegradation and buoyancy. This study investigates the oil sorption capacity of crude and gas oils, using banana peel as a substitutional material from local fruit wastes. The research detected that the capacity of this sorbent to clean up crude oil from produced water toward different factors is associated with surface characteristics, oil type, oil film thickness, sorption time, temperature, in addition to the salinity of crude oil. Analytical techniques of banana peel, such as microstructure and morphology using FTIR spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are also studied. Banana peel is tested using gas oil, 1- and 7-day weathered Almein crude oil. The results explain that the best conditions were established at 0.3625mm particle size and temperature at 25°C for 15min.

      PubDate: 2017-06-08T09:32:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.05.020
       
  • Robust stabilization of a class of nonholonomic systems using logical
           switching and integral sliding mode control

    • Authors: Yasir Awais Butt
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Yasir Awais Butt
      The problem of stabilization of a class of nonholonomic systems that can be transformed into chained form is considered. Since nonholonomic systems cannot be stabilized using smooth and time invariant control, a switching algorithm comprising three distinct steps is employed to stabilize the system. The proposed algorithm allows the system to be reduced into simpler subsystems and affords employing different controllers in each step. Using this approach, desired performance and robustness properties of the feedback control system can be guaranteed. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is established by applying it on a unicycle type system moving on hyperbolic plane. In order to make the controller robust, integral sliding mode control is introduced that guarantees robust stabilization. Simulation results confirm the mathematical developments.

      PubDate: 2017-06-08T09:32:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.05.017
       
  • Prediction of discharge coefficient of triangular labyrinth weirs using
           Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System

    • Authors: Amir Hamzeh Haghiabi; Abbas Parsaie; Samad Ememgholizadeh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Amir Hamzeh Haghiabi, Abbas Parsaie, Samad Ememgholizadeh
      In this paper, the discharge coefficient of triangular labyrinth weir was predicted using multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network and Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). To this purpose, 223 related dataset were collected. The Gamma Test (GT) was carried out to obtain the most affective parameters on the discharge coefficient. The results of the GT indicated that the ratio of length of crest of weir to the main channel width Lw/Wmc, the ratio of length of one cycle to its width (Lc/Wc) and the ratio of total upstream head flow to the weir height H/P are the most important parameters. With regarding to the results of the GT, the structure of ANFIS model was designed. The results of ANFIS model with error indices including coefficient of determination value of 0.97 and root mean square error value of 0.03 was so suitable. Comparison the results of MLP with ANFIS model showed that both models has so suitable performance however the structure of ANFIS model is more optimal.

      PubDate: 2017-06-03T14:01:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.05.005
       
  • Insight into the boundary layer flow of non-Newtonian Eyring-Powell fluid
           due to catalytic surface reaction on an upper horizontal surface of a
           paraboloid of revolution

    • Authors: O.A. Abegunrin; I.L. Animasaun; N. Sandeep
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): O.A. Abegunrin, I.L. Animasaun, N. Sandeep
      Bonnet of a car, the upper surface of a pointed bullet and upper surface of the pointed part of an aircraft are typical examples of an upper horizontal surface of a paraboloid of revolution (uhspr). However, the flow of some fluids past these kinds of objects fit the description of Eyring-Powell fluid flow. Theoretical investigation of two-dimensional Eyring-Powell fluid flow over such object which is neither cone/wedge nor horizontal/vertical is investigated. It is assumed that the flow of Eyring-Powell fluid is induced by catalytic surface reaction and stretching fluid layers at the free stream. The numerical solutions of the governing equation are obtained using classical fourth order Runge-Kutta scheme together with shooting techniques. The impacts of the most important parameters on the flow are presented. It is concluded that the maximum velocity of the flow is ascertained when the flow is characterized as Newtonian fluid flow. On the surface of uhspr, rapid increase and suppress in the temperature distribution and concentration with an increase in the magnitude of one of the Eyring-Powell fluid parameters are guaranteed. A significant fall in the local skin friction coefficients is ascertained due to rise in the magnitude of thickness parameter.

      PubDate: 2017-06-03T14:01:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.05.018
       
  • Improving accurate vibration periods and responses of a rigid rod model

    • Authors: Zhongjin Guo; Lili Xia; Wei Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Zhongjin Guo, Lili Xia, Wei Zhang
      In this paper, we construct a residue harmonic balance solution procedure to improve the accuracy of approximate vibration period and steady response for a strongly nonlinear oscillator from the motion of rigid rod rocking back and forth on a circular surface without slipping. In this new solution procedure, all the unbalanced residuals due to Fourier truncation are considered into next order approximation by iteration to improve the accuracy. The presented approximate analytical results are compared with the other existing solutions such as Newton harmonic balance method, variational approach method, amplitude-frequency formulation, He’s energy balance method and the exact ones which are shown in graphs. It is evident that the method considered here is quickly convergent and only the second order approximation leads to high accuracy of the steady state solutions. In addition, four numerical examples are presented to highlight the effects of system parameters on the nonlinear vibration period, and excellent agreement between approximate periods and exact ones in the steady state. It is predicted that the solution method can be found wide application in the other nonlinear oscillation problems.

      PubDate: 2017-06-03T14:01:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.05.006
       
  • Retrofitting strategy for building envelopes to achieve energy efficiency

    • Authors: Ingy El-Darwish; Mohamed Gomaa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Ingy El-Darwish, Mohamed Gomaa
      With the excessive energy consumption worldwide, the demand for saving strategies increases. Energy consumption in public buildings increased drastically over the last decade. Significant policy actions towards the promotion of energy-efficiency in the building sector have been developed with different intensity and structure. This study aims at proposing a retrofit strategy in an attempt to improve energy efficiency in a sample of higher educational buildings located in a hot arid climate (Egypt). Retrofitting some of the building’s envelope features can provide comfort without compromising functional needs. Comfort needs, which include thermal, visual and acoustical, can reduce energy consumption. Emphasis is placed on thermal comfort in terms of energy efficiency. Some of the important measures used in the retrofitting process of the building envelope include: external walls’ insulation, windows’ glazing type, air tightness (infiltration) and solar shading. The study results show that simple retrofit strategies such as solar shading, window glazing, air tightness then insulation can reduce energy consumption of an average of 33%. From the feasible envelope features’ used in this study, the research provides a suggestion for design codes that maintains thermal comfort, propose a feasible strategy for retrofitting and a baseline reference specifically devised for local energy efficiency.

      PubDate: 2017-06-03T14:01:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.05.011
       
  • Assessment of the accuracy and convergence period of Precise Point
           Positioning

    • Authors: Mohammed Abou-Galala; Mostafa Rabah; Mosbeh Kaloop; Zaki M. Zidan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Mohammed Abou-Galala, Mostafa Rabah, Mosbeh Kaloop, Zaki M. Zidan
      Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a well-known positioning method that removes, models, or estimates GNSS system errors to reach the optimal position accuracy from a single receiver. The accuracy of static PPP was tested for 523 daily observation files from 75 IGS globally distributed stations observed at the period from DOY 49 to 55 in 2012. Also, the convergence period was examined to reach different levels of the horizontal accuracy to serve two applications: precision agriculture and geodetic control surveying. The accuracy of static PPP was 4, 5 and 9mm in the north, east and vertical components, respectively. Static PPP needs 60min to reach five-centimeter horizontal accuracy at the 95% confidence level and 24h to achieve one-centimeter horizontal accuracy at the 95% confidence level.

      PubDate: 2017-06-03T14:01:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.04.019
       
 
 
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