Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2688 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (229 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (237 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (176 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1325 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (452 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (56 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (98 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (115 journals)

ENGINEERING (1325 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted by number of followers
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 247)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 221)
IEEE Spectrum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 219)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 183)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175)
IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 150)
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148)
IEEE Communications Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 140)
IEEE Engineering Management Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 117)
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 112)
IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 111)
IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 106)
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
IEEE Industry Applications Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 82)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 79)
IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Engineering Failure Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
IEEE Microwave Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
IEEE Signal Processing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
IEEE Transactions on Reliability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Experimental Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
IET Radar, Sonar & Navigation     Open Access   (Followers: 50)
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
IEEE Potentials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Heat Transfer Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Digital Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Flow, Turbulence and Combustion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
GPS Solutions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Fluid Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Géotechnique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Applied Energy     Partially Free   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Engineering & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
IET Image Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Intermetallics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
IET Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Implementation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Engineering Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Electrophoresis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IET Circuits, Devices & Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Experiments in Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Integration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Engineering Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
European Journal of Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Energy Conversion and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Electromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
IET Renewable Power Generation     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Human Factors in Ergonomics & Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Heat Transfer - Asian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Geotechnical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Fuel Cells Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Fuel Cells     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Energy Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Discrete Optimization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Designs, Codes and Cryptography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Geothermics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Fuel and Energy Abstracts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Fusion Engineering and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Formal Methods in System Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IET Science, Measurement & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Finite Fields and Their Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Focus on Powder Coatings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Ground Improvement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Fluid Phase Equilibria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Graphs and Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Filtration & Separation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Grass and Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Engineering Computations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Combinatorics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Focus on Pigments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Fuzzy Sets and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Historical Records of Australian Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IET Optoelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Abrasive Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus : Mécanique     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Latin America Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ESAIM: Control Optimisation and Calculus of Variations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Focus on Surfactants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Foundations of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Forschung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Épités - Épitészettudomány     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Dyes and Pigments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Designed Monomers and Polymers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Focus on Catalysts     Full-text available via subscription  
ESAIM: Proceedings     Open Access  
Environmetrics     Hybrid Journal  
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.283
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-6830 - ISSN (Online) 0272-4340
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Tau Aggregation Inhibiting Peptides as Potential Therapeutics for
           Alzheimer Disease

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common progressive neurodegenerative disorder. AD causes enormous personal and economic burden to society as currently only limited palliative therapeutic options are available. The pathological hallmarks of the disease are extracellular plaques, composed of fibrillar amyloid-β (Aβ), and neurofibrillary tangles inside neurons, composed of Tau protein. Until recently, the search for AD therapeutics was focussed more on the Aβ peptide and its pathology, but the results were unsatisfying. As an alternative, Tau might be a promising therapeutic target as its pathology is closely correlated to clinical symptoms. In addition, pathological Tau aggregation occurs in a large group of diseases, called Tauopathies, and in most of them Aβ aggregation does not play a role in disease pathogenesis. The formation of Tau aggregates is triggered by two hexapeptide motifs within Tau; PHF6* and PHF6. Both fragments are interesting targets for the development of Tau aggregation inhibitors (TAI). Peptides represent a unique class of pharmaceutical compounds and are reasonable alternatives to chemical substances or antibodies. They are attributed with high biological activity, valuable specificity and low toxicity, and often are developed as drug candidates to interrupt protein–protein interactions. The preparation of peptides is simple, controllable and the peptides can be easily modified. However, their application may also have disadvantages. Currently, a few peptide compounds acting as TAI are described in the literature, most of them developed by structure-based design or phage display. Here, we review the current state of research in this promising field of AD therapy development. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-05-21
       
  • Do Sleep Disturbances have a Dual Effect on Alzheimer’s Disease'

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      Abstract: Sleep disturbances and Alzheimer’s disease have deleterious effects on various physiological and cognitive functions including synaptic plasticity, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and memory. In addition, clock genes expression is significantly altered following sleep disturbances, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. In this review article, we aimed to discuss the role of sleep disturbances and Alzheimer’s disease in the regulation of synaptic plasticity, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and clock genes expression. Also, we aimed to find significant relationships between sleep disturbances and Alzheimer’s disease in the modulation of these mechanisms. We referred to the controversial effects of sleep disturbances (particularly those related to the duration of sleep deprivation) on the modulation of synaptic function and neuroinflammation. We aimed to know that, do sleep disturbances have a dual effect on the progression of Alzheimer's disease? Although numerous studies have discussed the association between sleep disturbances and Alzheimer's disease, the new point of this study was to focus on the controversial effects of sleep disturbances on different biological functions, and to evaluate the potential dualistic role of sleep disturbances in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-05-14
       
  • β-Actin: An Emerging Biomarker in Ischemic Stroke

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      Abstract: Abstract At present, the diagnosis of ischemic stroke mainly depends on neuroimaging technology, but it still has many limitations. Therefore, it is very important to find new biomarkers of ischemic stroke. Recently, β-actin has attracted extensive attention as a biomarker of a variety of cancers. Although several recent studies have been investigating its role in ischemic stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases, the understanding of this emerging biomarker in neurology is still limited. We examined human and preclinical studies to gain a comprehensive understanding of the literature on the subject. Most relevant literatures focus on preclinical research, and pay more attention to the role of β-actin in the process of cerebral ischemia, but some recent literatures reported that in human studies, serum β-actin increased significantly in the early stage of acute cerebral ischemia. This review will investigate the basic biology of β-actin, pay attention to the potential role of serum β-actin as an early diagnostic blood biomarker of ischemic stroke, and explore its potential mechanism in ischemic stroke and new strategies for stroke treatment in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
       
  • Correction to: Liposomal Carrier Conjugated to APP-Derived Peptide for
           Brain Cancer Treatment

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Correction to: Overexpression of miR-124 Protects Against Neurological
           Dysfunction Induced by Neonatal Hypoxic–Ischemic Brain Injury

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Correction to: Nerve Growth Factor is a Potential Treated Target in
           Tg(SOD1*G93A)1Gur Mice

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Targeting Caveolin-1 and Claudin-5 with AY9944, Improve Blood–Brain
           Barrier Permeability; Computational Simulation and Experimental Study

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      Abstract: The current study aimed to determine the protective effect of AY9944 related to Caveolin-1 and Claudin-5 role in lipid raft, which can rescue the blood–brain barrier from enhanced permeability. Therefore, in vivo analyses were performed following ischemia in normal, ischemic, and AY9944-treated animal groups. The results revealed that AY9944 reduced the infarct size, edema, and brain water content. The extravasation of Alb-Alexa 594 and biocytin-TMR was minimum in the AY9944-treated animals. The results showed a significant decrease in the expression level of Caveolin-1 over 8 h and 48 h and a remarkable increase in the level of Claudin-5 over 48 h following ischemia in AY9944-treated animals. Molecular docking simulation demonstrated that AY9944 exerts a possible protective role via attenuating the interaction of the Caveolin-1 and cholesterol in lipid raft. These findings point out that AY9944 plays a protective role in stroke by means of blood–brain barrier preservation. Graphic Proper neural function essentially needs a constant homeostatic brain environment which is provided by the blood-brain barrier. Rescuing blood-brain barrier from enhanced permeability via inducing the protective effect of AY9944 related to caveolin-1 and claudin-5 role in lipid raft was the aim of the current study.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Past Exposure to Cigarette Smoke Aggravates Cognitive Impairment in a Rat
           Model of Vascular Dementia via Neuroinflammation

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      Abstract: Abstract Smoking is a risk factor for dementia. Cognitive function can be partially restored after quitting smoking, but still lower than never smoked group. The underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. The effects of smoking cessation combined with cerebral chronic hypoperfusion (CCH) on cognitive function have never been described. Here, we established a cigarette smoking cessation model, a CCH model, and a cigarette smoking cessation plus CCH model. We investigated cognitive function in these models and the mechanisms of the neuroinflammation, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3(NLRP3)/cysteine aspartate-specific proteinase (caspase-1)/interleukin- 1β (IL-1β) pathway, and eucaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) /autophagy pathway. We used morris water maze (MWM) and novel object recognition (NOR) test to evaluate cognitive function in rats. Nissl staining was performed to observe cell morphology in the hippocampal CA1 area. A neuroinflammatory marker (glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP) was assessed by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry staining. IL-1β levels were detected by ELISA. The protein levels of NLRP3/caspase-1/ IL-1β and eIF2α/autophagy pathway were evaluated by Western blot analysis. LC3 was assessed by immunofluorescence staining. CCH can affect cognitive function by influencing neuroinflammation, NLRP3/caspase-1/IL-1β pathway, and eIF2α/autophagy pathway. Past exposure to cigarette smoke can also affect cognitive function by influencing neuroinflammation and NLRP3/caspase-1/IL-1β pathway, which may be induced by smoking and may not be alleviated after smoking cessation. Past exposure to cigarette smoke does not influence autophagy, which may be increased by smoking and then decrease to normal levels after smoking cessation. Past exposure to smoking can further aggravate cognitive impairment and neuroinflammation in VaD animals: cognitive impairment induced by CCH via neuroinflammation, NLRP3/caspase-1/IL-1β, and eIF2α/autophagy pathway and cognitive impairment induced by past exposure to cigarette smoke via neuroinflammation and NLRP3/caspase-1/IL-1β pathway. The combined group had the worst cognitive impairment because of harmful reasons.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • The Molecular Mechanisms of Action of Photobiomodulation Against
           Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Systematic Review

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      Abstract: Abstract Neurodegenerative diseases might be slow but relentless, as we continue to fail in treating or delaying their progression. Given the complexity in the pathogenesis of these diseases, a broad-acting approach like photobiomodulation can prove promising. Photobiomodulation (PBM) uses red and infrared light for therapeutic benefits, working by stimulating growth and proliferation. The implications of photobiomodulation have been studied in several neurodegenerative disease models. It has been shown to improve cell survival, decrease apoptosis, alleviate oxidative stress, suppress inflammation, and rescue mitochondrial function. In in vivo models, it has reportedly preserved motor and cognitive skills. Beyond mitochondrial stimulation, the molecular mechanisms by which photobiomodulation protects against neurodegeneration have not been very well studied. This review has systematically been undertaken to study the effects of photobiomodulation at a molecular level and identify the different biochemical pathways and molecular changes in the process. The data showed the involvement of pathways like extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and protein kinase B (Akt). In addition, the expression of several genes and proteins playing different roles in the disease mechanisms was found to be influenced by PBM, such as neurotrophic factors and secretases. Studying the literature indicated that PBM can be translated to a potential therapeutic tool, acting through a spectrum of mechanisms that work together to decelerate disease progression in the organism, which is difficult to achieve through pharmacological interventions.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Recovery of Human Embryonic Stem Cells-Derived Neural Progenitors Exposed
           to Hypoxic-Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury by Indirect Exposure to Wharton’s
           Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells Through Phosphatidyl-inositol-3-Kinase
           Pathway

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      Abstract: Abstract Increasing evidence suggests that mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) have beneficial effects in hypoxic ischemic reperfusion injury, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we first examined the effect of OGD reperfusion injury on the vulnerability of human NPs derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) with regard to cell survival and oxidative stress. Cellular deregulation was assessed by measuring glutathione levels, basal calcium and intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i response under KCl stimulation, as well as the key parameters of proliferation, glial progenitor marker expression and migration. Next, the influence of WJ-MSCs in recovering these parameters was evaluated, and the role of Phosphatidyl-inositol-3-Kinase(PI3K) pathway in actuating the protective effect was assessed. OGD reperfusion injury induced significant increases in cell death, ROS generation, oxidative stress susceptibility and decreased glutathione levels in NPs, accompanied by rises in basal [Ca2+]i, KCl-induced [Ca2+]i, expression of K+ leak channel(TASK1), and declines in proliferation, migration potential and glial progenitor population. The introduction of WJ-MSCs(after 2 h of reperfusion) through a non-contact method brought about significant improvement in all these cellular parameters as observed after 24hrs, and the PI3K pathway played an important role in the neuroprotection process. Presence of WJ-MSCs increased the expression of survival signals like phosphorylated Akt/Akt and PI3K in the OGD-reperfused NPs. Our data clearly demonstrate for the first time that soluble factors from WJ-MSCs can not only ameliorate survival, proliferation, migration and glial progenitor expression of OGD-reperfused NPs, but also regulate their intracellular Ca2+ response to KCl stimulation and expression of TASK1 through the PI3K pathway.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Prenatal Stress Impairs Spinal Cord Oligodendrocyte Maturation via BDNF
           Signaling in the Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Model of
           Multiple Sclerosis

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      Abstract: Abstract One of the most substantial and established environmental risk factors for neurological and psychiatric disorders is stress exposure, whose detrimental consequences hinge on several variables including time. In this regard the gestational period is known to present an intrinsic vulnerability to environmental insults and thus stressful events during pregnancy can lead to severe consequences on the offspring’s brain development with long-term repercussions throughout adulthood. On this basis, we investigated the long-lasting impact of prenatal stress exposure on the susceptibility to the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a well-established murine model of multiple sclerosis. Although stress is considered a triggering factor for this chronic, progressive, autoimmune disease, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. To this end, EAE was induced by immunization with MOG35-55/CFA and pertussis toxin administration in adult female C57BL/6 mice born from control or stressed dams exposed to restraint stress during the last days of gestation. Our results demonstrate that gestational stress induces a marked increase in the severity of EAE symptoms in adulthood. Further, we highlight an altered maturation of oligodendrocytes in the spinal cord of prenatally stressed EAE mice, as indicated by the higher levels of GPR17, a marker of immature oligodendrocyte precursor cells. These behavioral and molecular alterations are paralleled by changes in the expression and signaling of the neurotrophin BDNF, an important mediator of neural plasticity that may contribute to stress-induced impaired remyelination. Since several already marketed drugs are able to modulate BDNF levels, these results pave the way to the possibility of repositioning these drugs in multiple sclerosis.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Effects of Thrombin on the Neurovascular Unit in Cerebral Ischemia

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      Abstract: Abstract Cerebral ischemia is a cerebrovascular disease with high morbidity and mortality that poses a significant burden on society and the economy. About 60% of cerebral ischemia is caused by thrombus, and the formation of thrombus proceeds from insoluble fibrin, following its transformation from liquid fibrinogen. In thrombus-induced ischemia, increased permeability of the blood–brain barrier (BBB), followed by the extravasation of blood components into the brain results in an altered brain microenvironment. Changes in the brain microenvironment affect brain function and the neurovascular unit (NVU), the working unit of the brain. Recent studies have reported that coagulation factors interact with the NVU and its components, but the specific function of this interaction is highly speculative and warrants further investigations. In this article, we reviewed the role of coagulation factors in cerebral ischemia and the role of coagulation factors in thrombosis. Additionally, the influence of thrombin on the NVU is introduced, as well as in the function of NVU, which may help to explore part of brain injury mechanism during ischemia. Lastly, we propose some novel therapeutic approaches on ischemic stroke by reducing the risk of coagulation.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Exploration of Pericyte-Derived Factors Implicated in Lung Cancer Brain
           Metastasis Protection: A Pilot Messenger RNA Sequencing Using the
           Blood–Brain Barrier In Vitro Model

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      Abstract: Abstract Metastatic brain tumors have poor prognoses and pose unmet clinical problems for the patients. The blood–brain barrier (BBB) implication is supposed to play a major role in brain metastasis. However, the role of pericytes remains to be elucidated in the brain metastasis. This pilot study described the expression profile of interactions between pericytes, endothelial cells, and cancer cells. We applied an in vitro BBB model with rat primary cultured BBB-related cells (endothelial cells and pericytes), and performed the gene expression analyses of pericytes under the lung cancer cells coculture conditions. Pericytes demonstrated inhibition of the cancer cell proliferation significantly (p < 0.05). RNA was extracted from the pericytes, complementary DNA library was prepared, and RNA-seq was performed. The sequence read data were analyzed on the Management and Analysis System for Enormous Reads and Tag Count Comparison-Graphical User Interface platforms. No statistically or biologically significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in the explanatory analyses. Lot-specific DEG detection demonstrated significant decreases in the expression of two genes (Wwtr1 and Acin1), and enrichment analyses using Metascape software revealed the inhibition of apoptotic processes in fibroblasts. Our results suggest that the expression profiles of brain pericytes are partially implicated in the prevention of lung cancer metastasis to the brain. Pericytes exerted an anti-metastatic effect in the BBB model, and their neurohumoral factors remain to be elucidated.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Remote and Persistent Alterations in Glutamate Receptor Subunit
           Composition Induced by Spreading Depolarizations in Rat Brain

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      Abstract: Abstract Spreading depolarizations (SDs) are massive breakdowns of ion homeostasis in the brain’s gray matter and are a necessary pathologic mechanism for lesion development in various injury models. However, injury-induced SDs also propagate into remote, healthy tissue where they do not cause cell death, yet their functional long-term effects are unknown. Here we induced SDs in uninjured cortex and hippocampus of Sprague–Dawley rats to study their impact on glutamate receptor subunit expression after three days. We find that both cortical and hippocampal tissue exhibit changes in glutamate receptor subunit expression, including GluA1 and GluN2B, suggesting that SDs in healthy brain tissue may have a role in plasticity. This study is the first to show prolonged effects of SDs on glutamate signaling and has implications for neuroprotection strategies aimed at SD suppression.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • LncRNA H19 Promotes Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Angiogenesis of
           Glioma by Regulating Wnt5a/β-Catenin Pathway via Targeting miR-342

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      Abstract: Abstract Glioma is the most common malignant brain tumor and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to play an important role in the growth and angiogenesis of glioma. However, the potential mechanisms of lncRNA H19 in glioma remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of lncRNA H19 on glioma cell proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis were evaluated. The expression levels of H19, miR-342, and Wnt5a in glioma tissues and cells were detected by RT-qPCR or Western blotting. Dual luciferase reporter assay confirmed the interaction between H19, miR-342, and Wnt5a. Cell proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis were analyzed by colony formation, transwell, and tube formation assays, respectively. IHC was performed to test the angiogenesis-related factor CD31. H19 and Wnt5a expression were remarkably upregulated in glioma tissues and cells, whereas miR-342 expression was downregulated. Moreover, functional analysis confirmed that knockdown of H19 or overexpression of miR-342 suppressed glioma cell proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis in vitro. Besides, H19 was found to directly target miR-342 to promote Wnt5a expression and activate β-catenin pathway in glioma cells. Moreover, suppression of miR-342 or overexpression of Wnt5a reversed the inhibitory effect of sh-H19 on glioma growth and metastasis. Additionally, we verified that H19 promoted glioma cell proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis via miR-342/Wnt5a/β-catenin axis in vivo. H19 regulates glioma cell growth and metastasis through miR-342 to mediate Wnt5a/β-catenin signaling pathway, which provides new therapeutic targets for glioma treatment.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Predator Scent-Induced Sensitization of Hypertension and Anxiety-like
           Behaviors

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      Abstract: Abstract Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), an anxiety-related syndrome, is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated whether predator scent (PS) stress, a model of PTSD, induces sensitization of hypertension and anxiety-like behaviors and underlying mechanisms related to renin–angiotensin systems (RAS) and inflammation. Coyote urine, as a PS stressor, was used to model PTSD. After PS exposures, separate cohorts of rats were studied for hypertensive response sensitization (HTRS), anxiety-like behaviors, and changes in plasma levels and mRNA expression of several components of the RAS and proinflammatory cytokines (PICs) in the lamina terminalis (LT), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and amygdala (AMY). Rats exposed to PS as compared to control animals exhibited (1) a significantly greater hypertensive response (i.e., HTRS) when challenged with a slow-pressor dose of angiotensin (ANG) II, (2) significant decrease in locomotor activity and increase in time spent in the closed arms of a plus maze as well as general immobility (i.e., behavioral signs of increased anxiety), (3) upregulated plasma levels of ANG II and interleukin-6, and (4) increased expression of message for components of the RAS and PICs in key brain nuclei. All the PS-induced adverse effects were blocked by pretreatment with either an angiotensin-converting enzyme antagonist or a tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor. The results suggest that PS, used as an experimental model of PTSD, sensitizes ANG II-induced hypertension and produces behavioral signs of anxiety, probably through upregulation of RAS components and inflammatory markers in plasma and brain areas associated with anxiety and blood pressure control.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Neuroprotective Effect of 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl Borate (2-APB) in Amyloid
           β-Induced Memory Dysfunction: A Mechanistic Study

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      Abstract: Abstract β-Amyloid (Aβ) peptide is a characteristic feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and accumulation of Aβ is associated with loss of synaptic plasticity and neuronal cell death. Aggregation of Aβ initiates numerous molecular signalling pathways leading to oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction as well as an imbalance of calcium ion influx homeostasis. Recently, it has been shown that transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2), a non-selective calcium-permeable cation channel has been postulated to play a vital role in the neuronal death, indicating the potential of TRPM2 inhibition in CNS disease. In this study, neuroprotective potential of 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), a broad-spectrum calcium channels blocker was investigated in Aβ-induced memory deficits in rats. In addition, effect of 2-APB on TRPM2 channels gene and protein expressions and also on calcium and memory related proteins was investigated in the hippocampus. Intracerebroventricular (I.C.V.) administration of Aβ (Aβ25–35, 10 μg) markedly induced cognitive impairment and upregulation of mRNA and protein expression of TRPM2 in the hippocampus. In addition, AChE activity was also increased in the cortex of the Aβ administered animals. Three-week treatment with 2-APB led to the down-regulation of TRPM2 mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus and also improved the cognitive functions which was evident from the behavioral parameters. Moreover, 2-APB treatment also increased the calcium and memory associated proteins namely p-CaMKII, p-GSK-3β, p-CREB and PSD-95 in the hippocampus and reduced the mRNA level of calcium buffering proteins and calcineurin A (PPP3CA) in the hippocampus. Furthermore, 2-APB treatment significantly reduced the AChE activity in the cortex. Thus, our findings suggest the neuroprotective effect of 2-APB in Aβ-induced cognitive impairment.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Nerve Growth Factor is a Potential Treated Target in Tg(SOD1*G93A)1Gur
           Mice

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      Abstract: Abstract Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a protective factor of neural cells; the possible relationship between the NGF and the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) hasn’t been completely known. In this study, we observed and analyzed the expression and distribution of NGF, as well as the possible relationship between the NGF expression and distribution and the neural cell death in both SOD1 wild-type (WT) and Tg(SOD1*G93A)1Gur (TG) mice applying the fluorescence immunohistochemistry method. The results showed that the expression and distribution of NGF in the anterior horn (AH), the lateral horn (LH), and the surrounding central canal (CC) significantly increased at the supper early stage of ALS (Pre-onset stage) and the early stage (Onset stage), but the NGF expression and distribution in the AH, the LH, and the surrounding CC significantly reduced at the progression stage. The astrocyte, neuron, and oligodendrocyte produced the NGF and the neural precursor cells (NPCs) produced the NGF. The neural cell death gradually increased accompanying with the reduction of NGF expression and distribution. Our data suggested that the NGF was a protective factor of neural cells, because the neural cells in the AH, the LH, and the surrounding CC produced more NGF at the supper early and early stage of ALS; moreover, the NPCs produced the NGF. It implied that the NGF exerted the protective effect of neural cells, prevented from the neural cell death and aroused the potential of self-repair in the development of ALS.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Oxytocin Prevents the Development of 3-NP-Induced Anxiety and Depression
           in Male and Female Rats: Possible Interaction of OXTR and mGluR2

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      Abstract: Abstract Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive neurological disorder with dominant motor symptoms. It also has psychiatric manifestations, like anxiety and depression, that can emerge themselves before motor symptoms and impose a major burden on patients. Oxytocin (OXT) is a newly emerged treatment for disorders like autism and schizophrenia and recently is using to alleviate depression and anxiety. In the current study, we investigated the behavioral and molecular effects of OXT on the development of anxiety and depression in 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced model of HD. Anxiety- and depression-like behaviors as well as the levels of oxytocin receptor (OXTR), metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 2, mGluR5, and glutathione (GSH) were measured in striatum, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala. Also, we questioned if sex had any modulatory effect. We found that 3-NP increased anxiety and depression compared to controls. It also reduced the levels of OXTR and mGluR2, increased mGluR5, and reduced GSH in studied brain regions. Pretreatment with OXT before the injection of 3-NP ameliorated anxiety and depression. Additionally, it protected the brain from developing low levels of OXTR, mGluR2, and GSH and high levels of mGluR5 in studied regions. The protective effects of OXT were similar between male and female animals. These data suggest that OXTR, mGluR2, mGluR5, and GSH may contribute to psychiatric manifestations of HD. In addition, pretreatment with OXT could prevent the mood changes in male and female rats.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Systematic Analysis of Protein–Protein and Gene–Environment
           Interactions to Decipher the Cognitive Mechanisms of Autism Spectrum
           Disorder

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      Abstract: Abstract Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder resulting from both genetic and environmental risk factors, is manifested by deficits in cognitive function. Elucidating the cognitive disorder-relevant biological mechanisms may open up promising therapeutic approaches. In this work, we mined ASD cognitive phenotype proteins to construct and analyze protein–protein and gene–environment interaction networks. Incorporating the protein–protein interaction (PPI), human cognition proteins, and connections of autism-cognition proteins enabled us to generate an autism-cognition network (ACN). With the topological analysis of ACN, important proteins, highly clustered modules, and 3-node motifs were identified. Moreover, the impact of environmental exposures in cognitive impairment was investigated through chemicals that target the cognition-related proteins. Functional enrichment analysis of the ACN-associated modules and chemical targets revealed biological processes involved in the cognitive deficits of ASD. Among the 17 identified hub-bottlenecks in the ACN, PSD-95 was recognized as an important protein through analyzing the module and motif interactions. PSD-95 and its interacting partners constructed a cognitive-specific module. This hub-bottleneck interacted with the 89 cognition-related 3-node motifs. The identification of gene–environment interactions indicated that most of the cognitive-related proteins interact with bisphenol A (BPA) and valproic acid (VPA). Moreover, we detected significant expression changes of 56 cognitive-specific genes using four ASD microarray datasets in the GEO database, including GSE28521, GSE26415, GSE18123 and GSE29691. Our outcomes suggest future endeavors for dissecting the PSD-95 function in ASD and evaluating the various environmental conditions to discover possible mechanisms of the different levels of cognitive impairment.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
 
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