Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2791 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (248 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (242 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (176 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1402 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (452 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (56 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (100 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (115 journals)

ENGINEERING (1402 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 189)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acta Nova     Open Access  
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access  
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Engineering Research     Open Access  
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Quantum Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Natural Sciences : Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Nahrain Journal for Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
Al-Qadisiya Journal for Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annual Journal of Technical University of Varna     Open Access  
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applications in Energy and Combustion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applications in Engineering Science     Open Access  
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Applied Energy     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Applied Engineering Letters     Open Access  
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Arctic     Open Access  
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment     Open Access  
ArtefaCToS : Revista de estudios sobre la ciencia y la tecnología     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
AURUM : Mühendislik Sistemleri ve Mimarlık Dergisi = Aurum Journal of Engineering Systems and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Autocracy : Jurnal Otomasi, Kendali, dan Aplikasi Industri     Open Access  
Automotive and Engine Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Automotive Experiences     Open Access  
Automotive Innovation     Hybrid Journal  
Avances en Ciencias e Ingenierías     Open Access  
Avances: Investigación en Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Batteries & Supercaps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Beyond : Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access  
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Black Sea Journal of Engineering and Science     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access  
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cahiers Droit, Sciences & Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51)
Carbon Resources Conversion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Carpathian Journal of Electronic and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cell Reports Physical Science     Open Access  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Population, Resources and Environment     Open Access  
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access  
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cleaner Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cleaner Environmental Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Coastal Engineering Proceedings : Proceedings of the International Conference on Coastal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 245)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 224)
Composites Part C : Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151)
Comptes Rendus : Mécanique     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.283
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-6830 - ISSN (Online) 0272-4340
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Correction to: Comparative Analysis of Behavioral Reactions and
           Morphological Changes in the Rat Brain After Exposure to Ionizing
           Radiation with Different Physical Characteristics

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      PubDate: 2022-01-17
       
  • Identifying Candidate Genes Associated with Sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral
           Sclerosis via Integrative Analysis of Transcriptome-Wide Association Study
           and Messenger RNA Expression Profile

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      Abstract: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a fatal neurodegeneration disease affecting motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord, is difficult to diagnose and treat. The objective of this study is to identify novel candidate genes related to ALS. Transcriptome-wide association study of ALS was conducted by integrating the genome-wide association study summary data (including 1234 ALS patients and 2850 controls) and pre-computed gene expression weights of different tissues. The ALS-associated genes identified by TWAS were further compared with the differentially expressed genes detected by the mRNA expression profiles of the sporadic ALS. Functional enrichment and annotation analysis of identified genes were performed by an R package and the functional mapping and annotation software. TWAS identified 761 significant genes (PTWAS < 0.05), 627 Gene ontology terms, and 8 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways for ALS, such as C9orf72, with three expression quantitative trait loci were found significantly: rs2453554 (PTWAS CBRS = 4.68 × 10–10, PTWAS CBRS = 2.54 × 10–9), rs10967976 (PTWAS CBRS = 7.85 × 10–10, PTWAS CBRS = 8.91 × 10–9, PTWAS CBRS = 1.49 × 10–7, PTWAS CBRS = 5.59 × 10–7), rs3849946 (PTWAS CBRS = 7.69 × 10–4, PTWAS YBL = 4.02 × 10–2), Mitochondrion (Padj = 4.22 × 10–16), and Cell cycle (Padj = 2.04 × 10–3). Moreover, 107 common genes, 4 KEGG pathways and 41 GO terms were detected by integrating mRNA expression profiles of sALS, such as CPVL (FC = 2.06, PmRNA = 6.99 × 10–6, PTWAS CBR = 2.88 × 10–2, PTWAS CBR = 4.37 × 10–2), Pyrimidine Metabolism (Padj = 2.43 × 10–2), and Cell Activation (Padj = 5.54 × 10–3). Multiple candidate genes and pathways were detected for ALS. Our findings may provide novel clues for understanding the genetic mechanism of ALS.
      PubDate: 2022-01-17
       
  • The Role of ERK1/2 Pathway in the Pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s
           Disease: An Overview and Update on New Developments

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      Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder worldwide. Several findings suggest that correcting the dysregulated signaling pathways may offer a potential therapeutic approach in this disease. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family, plays a major role in regulation of cell proliferation, autophagy process, and protein synthesis. The available literature suggests dysregulated ERK1/2 in AD patients with potential implications in the multifaceted underlying pathologies of AD, including amyloid-β plaque formation, tau phosphorylation, and neuroinflammation. In this regard, in the current review, we aim to summarize the reports on the potential roles of ERK1/2 in AD pathophysiology.
      PubDate: 2022-01-17
       
  • Roles of Phosphorylation of N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor in Chronic Pain

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      Abstract: Phosphorylation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is widely regarded as a vital modification of synaptic function. Various protein kinases are responsible for direct phosphorylation of NMDAR, such as cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase A, protein kinase C, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, Src family protein tyrosine kinases, cyclin-dependent kinase 5, and casein kinase II. The detailed function of these kinases on distinct subunits of NMDAR has been reported previously and contributes to phosphorylation at sites predominately within the C-terminal of NMDAR. Phosphorylation underlies both structural and functional changes observed in chronic pain, and studies have demonstrated that inhibitors of kinases are significantly effective in alleviating pain behavior in different chronic pain models. In addition, the exploration of drugs that aim to disrupt the interaction between kinases and NMDAR is promising in clinical research. Based on research regarding the modulation of NMDAR in chronic pain models, this review provides an overview of the phosphorylation of NMDAR-related mechanisms underlying chronic pain to elucidate molecular and pharmacologic references for chronic pain management.
      PubDate: 2022-01-15
       
  • Effect of Thiazolidin-4-one Against Lipopolysaccharide—Induced Oxidative
           Damage, and Alterations in Adenine Nucleotide Hydrolysis and
           Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Cultured Astrocytes

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      Abstract: Astrocytes play multiple important roles in brain physiology. However, depending on the stimuli, astrocytes may exacerbate inflammatory reactions, contributing to the development and progression of neurological diseases. Therefore, therapies targeting astrocytes represent a promising area for the development of new brain drugs. Thiazolidinones are heterocyclic compounds that have a sulfur and nitrogen atom and a carbonyl group in the ring and represent a class of compounds of great scientific interest due to their pharmacological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 3-(3-(diethylamino)propyl)-2-(4-(methylthio)phenyl)thiazolidin-4-one (DS27) on cell proliferation and morphology, oxidative stress parameters, activity of the enzymes ectonucleotidases and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels in primary astrocyte cultures treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), to model neuroinflammation. The astrocyte culture was exposed to LPS (10 μg/ml) for 3 h and subsequently treated with compound DS27 for 24 and 48 h (concentrations ranging to 10–100 μM). LPS induced an increase in astrocyte proliferation, AChE activity, IL-6 levels, oxidative damage, ATP and ADP and a reduction in AMP hydrolysis in rat primary astrocyte cultures. DS27 treatment was effective in reversing these alterations induced by LPS. Our findings demonstrated that DS27 is able to modulate cholinergic and purinergic signaling, redox status, and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-induced astrocyte damage. These glioprotective effects of DS27 may be very important for improving neuroinflammation, which is associated with many brain diseases.
      PubDate: 2022-01-15
       
  • COVID-19-Induced Stroke and the Potential of Using Mesenchymal Stem
           Cells-Derived Extracellular Vesicles in the Regulation of
           Neuroinflammation

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      Abstract: Ischemic stroke (IS) is a known neurological complication of COVID-19 infection, which is associated with high mortality and disability. Following IS, secondary neuroinflammation that occurs can play both harmful and beneficial roles and lead to further injury or repair of damaged neuronal tissue, respectively. Since inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19-induced stroke, targeting neuroinflammation could be an effective strategy for modulating the immune responses following ischemic events. Numerous investigations have indicated that the application of mesenchymal stem cells-derived extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs) improves functional recovery following stroke, mainly through reducing neuroinflammation as well as promoting neurogenesis and angiogenesis. Therefore, MSC-EVs can be applied for the regulation of SARS-CoV-2-mediated inflammation and the management of COVID-19- related ischemic events. In this study, we have first described the advantages and disadvantages of neuroinflammation in the pathological evolution after IS and summarized the characteristics of neuroinflammation in COVID-19-related stroke. Then, we have discussed the potential benefit of MSC-EVs in the regulation of inflammatory responses after COVID-19-induced ischemic events.
      PubDate: 2022-01-13
       
  • Aminochrome Induces Neuroinflammation and Dopaminergic Neuronal Loss: A
           New Preclinical Model to Find Anti-inflammatory and Neuroprotective Drugs
           for Parkinson’s Disease

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      Abstract: Studies have suggested aminochrome as an endogenous neurotoxin responsible for the dopaminergic neuron degeneration in Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, neuroinflammation, an important alteration in PD pathogenesis, has been strictly induced in vitro by aminochrome. The aim of this study was to characterize the neuroinflammation induced in vivo by aminochrome. Wistar rats (male, 250–270 g) received a unilateral single dose by stereotaxic injection of saline into three sites in the striatum in the negative control group, or 32 nmol 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in the positive control, or 6 nmol aminochrome. After 14 days, histological and molecular analyses were performed. We observed by immunofluorescence that aminochrome, as well as 6-OHDA, induced an increase in the number of Iba-1+ cells and in the number of activated (Iba-1+/ CD68+) microglia. An increase in the number of S100b+ cells and in the GFAP expression were also evidenced in the striatum and the SNpc of animals from aminochrome and positive control group. Dopaminergic neuronal loss was marked by reduction of TH+ cells and confirmed with reduction in the number of Nissl-stained neurons in the SNpc of rats from aminochrome and positive control groups. In addition, we observed by qPCR that aminocrhome induced an increase in the levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, NLRP3, CCL5 and CCR2 mRNA in the SNpc. This work provides the first evidence of microgliosis, astrogliosis and neuroinflammation induced by aminochrome in an in vivo model. Since aminochrome is an endogenous molecule derived from dopamine oxidation present in the targeted neurons in PD, these results reinforce the potential of aminochrome as a useful preclinical model to find anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective drugs for PD. Graphical Aminochrome induced dopaminergic neuronal loss, microglial activation, astroglial activation and neuroinflammation marked by an increase in NLRP3, IL1β, TNF-α, CCL2, CCL5 and CCR2.
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
       
  • The Mechanism Underlying the Regulation of Long Non-coding RNA MEG3 in
           Cerebral Ischemic Stroke

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      Abstract: Cerebral ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and rapidly increasing annually with no more effective therapeutic measures. Thus, the novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers are urgent to be identified for prevention and therapy of ischemic stroke. Recently, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), a major family of noncoding RNAs with more than 200 nucleotides, have been considered as new targets for modulating pathological process of ischemic stroke. In this review, we summarized that the lncRNA-maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) played a critical role in promotion of neuronal cell death and inhibition of angiogenesis in response to hypoxia or ischemia condition, and further described the challenge of overcrossing blood–brain barrier (BBB) and determination of optimal carrier for delivering lncRNA’ drugs into the specific brain regions. In brief, MEG3 will be a potential diagnostic biomarker and drug target in treatment and therapy of ischemic stroke in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
       
  • The Critical Role of Erythrolysis and Microglia/Macrophages in Clot
           Resolution After Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Review of the Mechanisms and
           Potential Therapeutic Targets

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      Abstract: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common cerebrovascular disorder with high morbidity and mortality. Secondary brain injury after ICH, which is initiated by multiple hemolytic products during erythrolysis, has been identified as a critical factor accounting for the poor prognosis of ICH patients. Clot resolution and hematoma clearance occur immediately after ICH via erythrolysis and erythrophagocytosis. During this process, erythrolysis after ICH results in the release of hemoglobin and products of degradation along with rapid morphological changes in red blood cells (RBCs). Phagocytosis of deformed erythrocytes and products of degradation by microglia/macrophages accelerates hematoma clearance, which turns out to be neuroprotective. Thus, a better understanding of the mechanism of erythrolysis and the role of microglia/macrophages after ICH is urgently needed. In this review, the current research progresses on the underlying mechanism of erythrolysis and erythrophagocytosis, as well as several useful tools for the quantification of erythrolysis-induced brain injury, are summarized, providing potential intervention targets and possible treatment strategies for ICH patients.
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
       
  • Comparative Analysis of Behavioral Reactions and Morphological Changes in
           the Rat Brain After Exposure to Ionizing Radiation with Different Physical
           Characteristics

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      Abstract: The aim of this research was to study behavioral reactions and morphological changes in the brain of adult female Sprague Dawley rats after exposure to 170 MeV and 70 MeV protons and gamma radiation (60Co) at a dose of 1 Gy. The analysis of the behavioral reactions in the T-maze showed that exposure to ionizing radiation with different LETs led to an increase in number of repeated entries into the arms of the maze in the spontaneous alternation test. In the Open Field test a decrease in overall motor activity in the group of irradiated animals (70 MeV protons at the Bragg peak) was observed. A decrease in the number of standing positions was seen in all groups of irradiated animals. Morphological analysis showed the development of early amyloidosis, autolysis of the ependymal layer, an increase in the number of neurodegenerative changes in various structures of the brain, and the development of neuronal hypertrophy on the 30th day after irradiation in the cerebellum and hippocampal hilus. Exposure to protons at a dose of 1 Gy leads to the development of structural and functional disorders of the central nervous system of animals on the 30th day after irradiation. These data indicate a damage of short-term memory, a decrease in motor activity and exploratory behavior of animals. With an increase in LET, there is an increase in the number of amyloid plaques in the forebrain of rats, autolysis of the ependymal layer of the ventricles, and the development of dystrophic changes. Graphical Investigations of behavioral reactions and morphological changes in various parts of the brain of adult rats on the 30th day after influence of ionizing radiation with different physical characteristics at a dose of 1 Gy. Various negative patho-morphological and cognitive-behavioral changes observed.
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
       
  • Evidence for Menopause as a Sex-Specific Risk Factor for Glaucoma

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      Abstract: Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide and is characterized by progressive loss of visual function and retinal ganglion cells (RGC). Current epidemiological, clinical, and basic science evidence suggest that estrogen plays a role in the aging of the optic nerve. Menopause, a major biological life event affecting all women, coincides with a decrease in circulating sex hormones, such as estrogen. While 59% of the glaucomatous population are females, sex is not considered a risk factor for developing glaucoma. In this review, we explore whether menopause is a sex-specific risk factor for glaucoma. First, we investigate how menopause is defined as a sex-specific risk factor for other pathologies, including cardiovascular disease, osteoarthritis, and bone health. Next, we discuss clinical evidence that highlights the potential role of menopause in glaucoma. We also highlight preclinical studies that demonstrate larger vision and RGC loss following surgical menopause and how estrogen is protective in models of RGC injury. Lastly, we explore how surgical menopause and estrogen signaling are related to risk factors associated with developing glaucoma (e.g., intraocular pressure, aqueous outflow resistance, and ocular biomechanics). We hypothesize that menopause potentially sets the stage to develop glaucoma and therefore is a sex-specific risk factor for this disease. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
       
  • Progresses in GluN2A-containing NMDA Receptors and their Selective
           Regulators

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      Abstract: NMDA receptors play an important physiological role in regulating synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. GluN2A subunits are the most abundant functional subunits of NMDA receptors expressed in mature brain, and their dysfunction is related to various neurological diseases. According to subunit composition, GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors can be divided into two types: diheteromeric and triheteromeric receptors. In this review, the expression, functional and pharmacological properties of different kinds of GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors as well as selective GluN2A regulators were described to further understand this type of NMDA receptors.
      PubDate: 2022-01-03
       
  • Correction to: The Histopathology of Severe Graded Compression in Lower
           Thoracic Spinal Cord Segment of Rat, Evaluated at Late Post-injury Phase

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      PubDate: 2022-01-01
       
  • 40 Years of Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology

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      PubDate: 2022-01-01
       
  • SARS-CoV-2 Infectivity and Neurological Targets in the Brain

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      Abstract: The gateway for invasion by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into human host cells is via the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) transmembrane receptor expressed in multiple immune and nonimmune cell types. SARS-CoV-2, that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; CoV-19) has the unusual capacity to attack many different types of human host cells simultaneously via novel clathrin- and caveolae-independent endocytic pathways, becoming injurious to diverse cells, tissues and organ systems and exploiting any immune weakness in the host. The elicitation of this multipronged attack explains in part the severity and extensive variety of signs and symptoms observed in CoV-19 patients. To further our understanding of the mechanism and pathways of SARS-CoV-2 infection and susceptibility of specific cell- and tissue-types and organ systems to SARS-CoV-2 attack in this communication we analyzed ACE2 expression in 85 human tissues including 21 different brain regions, 7 fetal tissues and 8 controls. Besides strong ACE2 expression in respiratory, digestive, renal-excretory and reproductive cells, high ACE2 expression was also found in the amygdala, cerebral cortex and brainstem. The highest ACE2 expression level was found in the pons and medulla oblongata in the human brainstem, containing the medullary respiratory centers of the brain, and may in part explain the susceptibility of many CoV-19 patients to severe respiratory distress.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
       
  • Progesterone and Allopregnanolone Neuroprotective Effects in the Wobbler
           Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

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      Abstract: Progesterone regulates a number of processes in neurons and glial cells not directly involved in reproduction or sex behavior. Several neuroprotective effects are better observed under pathological conditions, as shown in the Wobbler mouse model of amyotrophic laterals sclerosis (ALS). Wobbler mice are characterized by forelimb atrophy due to motoneuron degeneration in the spinal cord, and include microgliosis and astrogliosis. Here we summarized current evidence on progesterone reversal of Wobbler neuropathology. We demonstrated that progesterone decreased motoneuron vacuolization with preservation of mitochondrial respiratory complex I activity, decreased mitochondrial expression and activity of nitric oxide synthase, increased Mn-dependent superoxide dismutase, stimulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor, increased the cholinergic phenotype of motoneurons, and enhanced survival with a concomitant decrease of death-related pathways. Progesterone also showed differential effects on glial cells, including increased oligodendrocyte density and downregulation of astrogliosis and microgliosis. These changes associate with reduced anti-inflammatory markers. The enhanced neurochemical parameters were accompanied by longer survival and increased muscle strength in tests of motor behavior. Because progesterone is locally metabolized to allopregnanolone (ALLO) in nervous tissues, we also studied neuroprotection by this derivative. Treatment of Wobbler mice with ALLO decreased oxidative stress and glial pathology, increased motoneuron viability and clinical outcome in a progesterone-like manner, suggesting that ALLO could mediate some progesterone effects in the spinal cord. In conclusion, the beneficial effects observed in different parameters support the versatile properties of progesterone and ALLO in a mouse model of motoneuron degeneration. The studies foresee future therapeutic opportunities with neuroactive steroids for deadly diseases like ALS.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
       
  • Maturing Autophagosomes are Transported Towards the Cell Periphery

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      Abstract: Autophagosome maturation comprises fusion with lysosomes and acidification. It is a critical step in the degradation of cytosolic protein aggregates that characterize many neurodegenerative diseases. In order to better understand this process, we studied intracellular trafficking of autophagosomes and aggregates of α-synuclein, which characterize Parkinson’s disease and other synucleinopathies. The autophagosomal marker LC3 and the aggregation prone A53T mutant of α-synuclein were tagged by fluorescent proteins and expressed in HEK293T cells and primary astrocytes. The subcellular distribution and movement of these vesicle populations were analyzed by (time-lapse) microscopy. Fusion with lysosomes was assayed using the lysosomal marker LAMP1; vesicles with neutral and acidic luminal pH were discriminated using the RFP-GFP “tandem-fluorescence” tag. With respect to vesicle pH, we observed that neutral autophagosomes, marked by LC3 or synuclein, were located more frequently in the cell center, and acidic autophagosomes were observed more frequently in the cell periphery. Acidic autophagosomes were transported towards the cell periphery more often, indicating that acidification occurs in the cell center before transport to the periphery. With respect to autolysosomal fusion, we found that lysosomes preferentially moved towards the cell center, whereas autolysosomes moved towards the cell periphery, suggesting a cycle where lysosomes are generated in the periphery and fuse to autophagosomes in the cell center. Unexpectedly, many acidic autophagosomes were negative for LAMP1, indicating that acidification does not require fusion to lysosomes. Moreover, we found both neutral and acidic vesicles positive for LAMP1, consistent with delayed acidification of the autolysosome lumen. Individual steps of aggregate clearance thus occur in dedicated cellular regions. During aggregate clearance, autophagosomes and autolysosomes form in the center and are transported towards the periphery during maturation. In this process, luminal pH could regulate the direction of vesicle transport. Graphic (1) Transport and location of autophagosomes depend on luminal pH: Acidic autophagosomes are preferentially transported to the cell periphery, causing more acidic autophagosomes in the cell periphery and more neutral autophagosomes at the microtubule organizing center (MTOC). (2) Autolysosomes are transported to the cell periphery and lysosomes to the MTOC, suggesting spatial segregation of lysosome reformation and autolysosome fusion. (3) Synuclein aggregates are preferentially located at the MTOC and synuclein-containing vesicles in the cell periphery, consistent with transport of aggregates to the MTOC for autophagy.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
       
  • Non-visual Opsins and Novel Photo-Detectors in the Vertebrate Inner Retina
           Mediate Light Responses Within the Blue Spectrum Region

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      Abstract: In recent decades, a number of novel non-visual opsin photopigments belonging to the family of G protein- coupled receptors, likely involved in a number of non-image-forming processes, have been identified and characterized in cells of the inner retina of vertebrates. It is now known that the vertebrate retina is composed of visual photoreceptor cones and rods responsible for diurnal/color and nocturnal/black and white vision, and cells like the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) and photosensitive horizontal cells in the inner retina, both detecting blue light and expressing the photopigment melanopsin (Opn4). Remarkably, these non-visual photopigments can continue to operate even in the absence of vision under retinal degeneration. Moreover, inner retinal neurons and Müller glial cells have been shown to express other photopigments such as the photoisomerase retinal G protein-coupled receptor (RGR), encephalopsin (Opn3), and neuropsin (Opn5), all able to detect blue/violet light and implicated in chromophore recycling, retinal clock synchronization, neuron-to-glia communication, and other activities. The discovery of these new photopigments in the inner retina of vertebrates is strong evidence of novel light-regulated activities. This review focuses on the features, localization, photocascade, and putative functions of these novel non-visual opsins in an attempt to shed light on their role in the inner retina of vertebrates and in the physiology of the whole organism.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
       
  • Dendrites of Neocortical Pyramidal Neurons: The Key to Understand
           Intellectual Disability

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      Abstract: Pyramidal neurons (PNs) are the most abundant cells of the neocortex and display a vast dendritic tree, divided into basal and apical compartments. Morphological and functional anomalies of PN dendrites are at the basis of virtually all neurological and mental disorders, including intellectual disability. Here, we provide evidence that the cognitive deficits observed in different types of intellectual disability might be sustained by different parts of the PN dendritic tree, or by a dysregulation of their interaction.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
       
  • Defective Function of the Blood–Brain Barrier in a Stroke-Prone
           Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat: Evaluation in an In Vitro Cell Culture
           Model

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      Abstract: The blood–brain barrier (BBB) comprises three cell types: brain capillary endothelial cells (BECs), astrocytes, and pericytes. Abnormal interaction among these cells may induce BBB dysfunction and lead to cerebrovascular diseases. The stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP) harbors a defective BBB, so we designed the present study to examine the role of these three cell types in a functional disorder of the BBB in SHRSP in order to elucidate the role of these cells in the BBB more generally. To this end, we employed a unique in vitro model of BBB, in which various combinations of the cells could be tested. The three types of cells were prepared from both SHRSPs and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKYs). They were then co-cultured in various combinations to construct in vitro BBB models. The barrier function of the models was estimated by measuring transendothelial electrical resistance and the permeability of the endothelial monolayer to sodium fluorescein. The in vitro models revealed that (1) BECs from SHRSPs had an inherent lower barrier function, (2) astrocytes of SHRSPs had an impaired ability to induce barrier function in BECs, although (3) both pericytes and astrocytes of SHRSPs and WKYs could potentiate the barrier function of BECs under co-culture conditions. Furthermore, we found that claudin-5 expression was consistently lower in models that used BECs and/or SHRSP astrocytes. These results suggested that defective interaction among BBB cells—especially BECs and astrocytes—was responsible for a functional disorder of the BBB in SHRSPs.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
       
 
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