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ENGINEERING (1208 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 226)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 228)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover 3 Biotech
  [7 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2190-572X - ISSN (Online) 2190-5738
   Published by SpringerOpen Homepage  [224 journals]
  • Evaluation of haplotype diversity of Achatina fulica (Lissachatina)
           [Bowdich] from Indian sub-continent by means of 16S rDNA sequence and its
           phylogenetic relationships with other global populations

    • Abstract: Achatina fulica (Lissachatina fulica) is one of the most invasive species found across the globe causing a significant damage to crops, vegetables, and horticultural plants. This terrestrial snail is native to east Africa and spread to different parts of the world by introductions. India, a hot spot for biodiversity of several endemic gastropods, has witnessed an outburst of this snail population in several parts of the country posing a serious threat to crop loss and also to human health. With an objective to evaluate the genetic diversity of this snail, we have sampled this snail from different parts of India and analyzed its haplotype diversity by means of 16S rDNA sequence information. Apart from this, we have studied the phylogenetic relationships of the isolates sequenced in the present study in relation with other global populations by Bayesian and Maximum-likelihood approaches. Of the isolates sequenced, haplotype ‘C’ is the predominant one. A new haplotype ‘S’ from the state of Odisha was observed. The isolates sequenced in the present study clustered with its conspecifics from the Indian sub-continent. Haplotype network analyses were also carried out for studying the evolution of different haplotypes. It was observed that haplotype ‘S’ was associated with a Mauritius haplotype ‘H’, indicating the possibility of multiple introductions of A. fulica to India.
      PubDate: 2017-07-18
  • Genetic characterization and disease mechanism of retinitis pigmentosa;
           current scenario

    • Abstract: Retinitis pigmentosa is a group of genetically transmitted disorders affecting 1 in 3000–8000 individual people worldwide ultimately affecting the quality of life. Retinitis pigmentosa is characterized as a heterogeneous genetic disorder which leads by progressive devolution of the retina leading to a progressive visual loss. It can occur in syndromic (with Usher syndrome and Bardet-Biedl syndrome) as well as non-syndromic nature. The mode of inheritance can be X-linked, autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive manner. To date 58 genes have been reported to associate with retinitis pigmentosa most of them are either expressed in photoreceptors or the retinal pigment epithelium. This review focuses on the disease mechanisms and genetics of retinitis pigmentosa. As retinitis pigmentosa is tremendously heterogeneous disorder expressing a multiplicity of mutations; different variations in the same gene might induce different disorders. In recent years, latest technologies including whole-exome sequencing contributing effectively to uncover the hidden genesis of retinitis pigmentosa by reporting new genetic mutations. In future, these advancements will help in better understanding the genotype–phenotype correlations of disease and likely to develop new therapies.
      PubDate: 2017-07-18
  • Phytochemicals as potential antidotes for targeting NF-κB in
           rheumatoid arthritis

    • Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune destructive arthropathy prevalent among people in the age group of 40–70 years. RA induces severe pain, swelling and stiffness of joints resulting in bone damage. RA leads to reduced life expectancy when left untreated. RA is characterized by synovial hyperplasia, infiltration of inflammatory cells resulting in formation of pannus. Synovial hyperplasia is mediated by proinflammatory cytokines, notably IL-1 and TNF-α. NF-κB is a predominant transcription factor in amplifying the inflammatory response. The translocation of activated NF-κB into the nucleus triggers the transcription of several genes that induce proinflammatory cytokine production. The inhibition of NF-κB translocation aids blocking the activation of proinflammatory cascades. The quest for more effective and side-effect free treatment for RA unveiled phytochemicals as efficacious and promising. Phytochemicals have been a source of therapeutic substances for many ailments from ancient times. Their therapeutic ability helps in developing potent and safe drugs targeting immune inflammatory diseases driven by NF-κB including RA. This review highlights the importance of NF-κB inflammatory cascade in RA so as to elucidate the crucial role of phytochemicals that inhibit the activity of NF-κB.
      PubDate: 2017-07-18
  • Characterization, drug loading and antibacterial activity of
           nanohydroxyapatite/polycaprolactone (nHA/PCL) electrospun membrane

    • Abstract: Considering the important factor of bioactive nanohydoxyapatite (nHA) to enhance osteoconductivity or bone-bonding capacity, nHA was incorporated into an electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) membrane using electrospinning techniques. The viscosity of the PCL and nHA/PCL with different concentrations of nHA was measured and the morphology of the electrospun membranes was compared using a field emission scanning electron microscopy. The water contact angle of the nanofiber determined the wettability of the membranes of different concentrations. The surface roughness of the electrospun nanofibers fabricated from pure PCL and nHA/PCL was determined and compared using atomic force microscopy. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to study the chemical bonding of the composite electrospun nanofibers. Beadless nanofibers were achieved after the incorporation of nHA with a diameter of 200–700 nm. Results showed that the fiber diameter and the surface roughness of electrospun nanofibers were significantly increased after the incorporation of nHA. In contrast, the water contact angle (132° ± 3.5°) was reduced for PCL membrane after addition of 10% (w/w) nHA (112° ± 3.0°). Ultimate tensile strengths of PCL membrane and 10% (w/w) nHA/PCL membrane were 25.02 ± 2.3 and 18.5 ± 4.4 MPa. A model drug tetracycline hydrochloride was successfully loaded in the membrane and the membrane demonstrated good antibacterial effects against the growth of bacteria by showing inhibition zone for E. coli (2.53 ± 0.06 cm) and B. cereus (2.87 ± 0.06 cm).
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
  • Regulatory genes and their roles for improvement of antibiotic
           biosynthesis in Streptomyces

    • Abstract: The numerous secondary metabolites in Streptomyces spp. are crucial for various applications. For example, cephamycin C is used as an antibiotic, and avermectin is used as an insecticide. Specifically, antibiotic yield is closely related to many factors, such as the external environment, nutrition (including nitrogen and carbon sources), biosynthetic efficiency and the regulatory mechanisms in producing strains. There are various types of regulatory genes that work in different ways, such as pleiotropic (or global) regulatory genes, cluster-situated regulators, which are also called pathway-specific regulatory genes, and many other regulators. The study of regulatory genes that influence antibiotic biosynthesis in Streptomyces spp. not only provides a theoretical basis for antibiotic biosynthesis in Streptomyces but also helps to increase the yield of antibiotics via molecular manipulation of these regulatory genes. Currently, more and more emphasis is being placed on the regulatory genes of antibiotic biosynthetic gene clusters in Streptomyces spp., and many studies on these genes have been performed to improve the yield of antibiotics in Streptomyces. This paper lists many antibiotic biosynthesis regulatory genes in Streptomyces spp. and focuses on frequently investigated regulatory genes that are involved in pathway-specific regulation and pleiotropic regulation and their applications in genetic engineering.
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
  • Correlation between the methylation of the FUT1 promoter region and FUT1
           expression in the duodenum of piglets from newborn to weaning

    • Abstract: Alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase (FUT1) gene has some influence on economically important traits and disease resistance. DNA methylation plays an important role in human diseases but is relatively poorly studied in pigs by regulating the mRNA expression of genes. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of promoter methylation on the expression of FUT1 gene. We used bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP) and qPCR to analyze the methylation of the FUT1 5′-flanking region and FUT1 mRNA expression in the duodenum of Sutai piglets from newborn to weaning. FUT1 contains three CpG islands upstream of the start codon, of which two are located in the putative promoter region containing multiple promoter elements and transcription factor binding sites, such as CpG islands, a CAAT box, SP1, and EARLY-SEQ 1. The CpG island between nucleotides −1762 and −580 had a low degree of methylation, and its methylation level was significantly lower in 35-day-old piglets than 8- and 18-day-old piglets (P < 0.05). FUT1 mRNA expression was significantly higher in 35-day-old piglets than 8- and 18-day-old piglets (P < 0.05). Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that the methylation of the CpG island between nucleotides −1762 and −580 of FUT1 was significantly, negatively correlated with FUT1 mRNA expression (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that differential methylation of CpG islands negatively regulates the expression of FUT1 in the porcine duodenum, suggesting a probable influence on the resistance of piglets to infection with ETEC F18.
      PubDate: 2017-07-15
  • Xanthan gum production using jackfruit-seed-powder-based medium:
           optimization and characterization

    • Abstract: Xanthan gum (XG) production by Xanthomonas campestris NCIM 2961 using jackfruit seed powder (JSP) as a novel substrate was reported. Central composite design (CCD) of response surface method (RSM) was used to evaluate the linear and interaction effects of five medium variables (JSP, peptone, citric acid, K2HPO4 and KH2PO4) for XG production. Maximum XG production (51.62 g/L) was observed at the optimum level of JSP (4 g/L), peptone (0.93 g/L), citric acid (0.26 g/L), K2HPO4 (1.29 g/L) and KH2PO4 (0.5 g/L). K2HPO4 and KH2PO4 were found as significant medium components, which served as buffering agents as well as nutrients for X. campestris growth. The obtained biopolymer was characterized as XG by XRD and FTIR analysis. Results of this study revealed that JSP was found to be a suitable low cost substrate for XG production.
      PubDate: 2017-07-15
  • Universal direct PCR amplification system: a time- and cost-effective tool
           for high-throughput applications

    • Abstract: Taking into account the limits of current genotyping methodologies, we have established a versatile direct PCR method on intact microtissue samples without prior DNA isolation. A simple and standard protocol was developed and validated on a wide range of living organisms including bacterial and fungal strains, plant species and human samples. This allows reliable amplification of target genomic DNA fragment directly from source material using minimal amount of tissue which makes DNA purification irrelevant for a number of biological applications. The direct PCR technique established here represents an excellent alternative to traditional amplification methods used for real-time detection. Since this approach was efficiently and universally applied for high-throughput molecular screening, its implementation will offer new insights for several investigations in human health, biomedical diagnosis, plant biotechnology, as well as in applied environmental and food microbiology.
      PubDate: 2017-07-15
  • Cloning and characterization of F3PYC gene encoding pyruvate carboxylase
           in Aspergillus flavus strain (F3)

    • Abstract: Pyruvate carboxylase is a major enzyme for biosynthesis of organic acids like; citric acid, fumeric acid, and l-malic acid. These organic acids play very important role for biological remediation of heavy metals. In this study, gene walking method was used to clone and characterize pyruvate carboxylase gene (F3PYC) from heavy metal resistant indigenous fungal isolate Aspergillus flavus (F3). 3579 bp of an open reading frame which encodes 1193 amino acid protein (isoelectric point: 6.10) with a calculated molecular weight of 131.2008 kDa was characterized. Deduced protein showed 90–95% similarity to those deduced from PYC gene from different fungal strains including; Aspergillus parasiticus, Neosartorya fischeri, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus clavatus, and Aspergillus niger. Protein generated from the PYC gene was a homotetramer (α4) and having four potential N-linked glycosylation sites and had no signal peptide. Amongst most possible N-glycosylation sites were –N–S–S–I– at 36 amino acid, –N–G–T–V– at 237 amino acid, N–G–S–S– at 517 amino acid, and N–T–S–R– at 1111 amino acid, with several functions have been proposed for the carbohydrate moiety such as thermal stability, pH, and temperature optima for activity and stabilization of the three-dimensional structure. Hence, cloning of F3PYC gene from A. flavus has important biotechnological applications.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
  • Prevalence of TEM, SHV, and CTX-M genes of extended-spectrum
           β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from urinary
           tract infections in adults

    • Abstract: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the major sources of widespread infectious diseases in the community as well as in the hospitals which increase the cause of morbidity and mortality. Prevalence of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing uropathogenic E. coli isolates has been found to be increased rapidly across the world. The present study was undertaken to find out the frequency of bla TEM, bla CTX-M, and bla SHV genes among E. coli isolates from UTI and detect their sensitivity pattern. A total of 112 non-repeated E. coli isolates obtained from urine samples of UTI diagnosed patients were included in this study. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done by disc diffusion method. Seventy seven (68.75%) isolates were MDR and tested for ESBL. ESBL-positive isolates were screened for bla TEM, bla CTX-M, and bla SHV genes by monoplex PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Among 46 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, 8.69% harboured all the three bla genes. The bla TEM was the predominant (93.47%) gene followed by bla CTX-M (82.6%) and bla SHV (4.34%). It can be concluded that the prevalence of MDR (multidrug resistance) ESBL-producing E. coli appears to be high and the highest identified gene was bla TEM. The knowledge of resistance pattern can help physician’s select suitable empirical antibiotic regimens, so that antibiotics showing high-resistance pattern can be avoided.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
  • Microalgal cultivation for value-added products: a critical
           enviro-economical assessment

    • Abstract: The present review focuses on the cultivation of algal biomass for generating value-added products (VAP) and to assess their economic benefits and harmful environmental impact. Additionally, the impact of bioreactor designs on the yield of microalgal biomass for VAP is also considered. All these factors are discussed in relation to the impact of microalgae production on the bio-economy sector of commercial biotechnology.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
  • Genetic diversity and relatedness among ornamental purslane ( Portulaca
           L.) accessions unraveled by SRAP markers

    • Abstract: Ornamental purslanes (Portulaca L.) are a popular annual bedding and container plant for landscaping. Little information is available concerning the genetic characterization of ornamental purslane resources thus far. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity and relationships present in a collection of ornamental purslanes from Portulaca umbraticola and P. grandiflora cultivated in China, using sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. The genotyping showed that 16 SRAP primer combinations totally produced 261 informative fragments and averaged 16.31 per primer combination. The major allele frequency and Nei’s gene diversity was calculated at 0.78 and 0.31 across the loci, indicative of a moderate low diversity. Both unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) clustering and a Bayesian-based approach apparently assigned the whole accessions into two sub-groups: P. umbraticola and P. grandiflora, well concordant with the botanical classification and flower type. The findings provide a brandnew understanding of genetic diversity and population structure present in ornamental purslane, and benefit a sound design of breeding programs in future.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
  • Vanilla ( Vanilla planifolia Jacks.) cell suspension cultures:
           establishment, characterization, and applications

    • Abstract: The establishment and characterization of cell suspension cultures are an in vitro culture technique very useful for various plant biotechnological applications (production of secondary metabolites, mass micropropagation, protoplast isolation and fusion, gene transfer and the investigation of cell pathways). The objective of this study was to establish and characterization of cell suspension cultures of V. planifolia by inducing friable calluses. For that, friable calluses were obtained from immature seeds cultivated in MS medium supplemented with 0.45 µM thidiazuron (TDZ). The effect of benzyladenine (BA) in different concentrations was evaluated. Cultures were incubated under photoperiod at continuous stirring at 120 rpm on an orbital shaker. The optimal condition found for biomass growth in suspension cultures was 0.5 g of inoculum density (fresh weight) in MS liquid, supplemented with 8.88 µM BA. The growth kinetics of the cell suspension culture revealed a maximum cell growth (exponential growth phase) at day 16 and an 80% cell viability. The establishment and characterization of cell suspension cultures of V. planifolia constitute the bases of future studies and above all a better biotechnological use of this crop.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
  • Evaluation of fermentation kinetics of acid-treated corn cob hydrolysate

    • Abstract: The efficient utilization of lignocellulosic biomass for ethanol production depends on the fermentability of the biomass hydrolysate obtained after pretreatment. In this work we evaluated the kinetics of ethanol production from xylose using Pichia stipitis in acid-treated corn cob hydrolysate. Acetic acid is one of the main inhibitors in corn cob hydrolysate that negatively impacts kinetics of xylose fermentation by P. stipitis. Unstructured kinetic model has been formulated that describes cell mass growth and ethanol production as a function of xylose, oxygen, ethanol, and acetic acid concentration. Kinetic parameters were estimated under different operating conditions affecting xylose fermentation. This is the first report on kinetics of xylose fermentation by P. stipitis which includes inhibition of acetic acid on growth and product formation. In the presence of acetic acid in the hydrolysate, the model accurately predicted reduction in maximum specific growth rate (from 0.23 to 0.15 h−1) and increase in ethanol yield per unit biomass (from 3 to 6.2 gg−1), which was also observed during experimental trials. Presence of acetic acid in the fermentation led to significant reduction in the cell growth rate, reduction in xylose consumption and ethanol production rate. The developed model accurately described physiological state of P. stipitis during corn cob hydrolysate fermentation. Proposed model can be used to predict the influence of xylose, ethanol, oxygen, and acetic acid concentration on cell growth and ethanol productivity in industrial fermentation.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
  • Genetic engineering strategies for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance and
           quality enhancement in horticultural crops: a comprehensive review

    • Abstract: Genetic engineering technique offers myriads of applications in improvement of horticultural crops for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and produce quality enhancement. During last two decades, a large number of transgenic horticultural crops has been developed and more are underway. A number of genes including natural and synthetic Cry genes, protease inhibitors, trypsin inhibitors and cystatin genes have been used to incorporate insect and nematode resistance. For providing protection against fungal and bacterial diseases, various genes like chitinase, glucanase, osmotin, defensin and pathogenesis-related genes are being transferred to many horticultural crops world over. RNAi technique has been found quite successful in inducing virus resistance in horticultural crops in addition to coat protein genes. Abiotic stresses such as drought, heat and salinity adversely affect production and productivity of horticultural crops and a number of genes encoding for biosynthesis of stress protecting compounds including mannitol, glycine betaine and heat shock proteins have been employed for abiotic stress tolerance besides various transcription factors like DREB1, MAPK, WRKY, etc. Antisense gene and RNAi technologies have revolutionized the pace of improvement of horticultural crops, particularly ornamentals for color modification, increasing shelf-life and reducing post-harvest losses. Precise genome editing tools, particularly CRISPR/Cas9, have been efficiently applied in tomato, petunia, citrus, grape, potato and apple for gene mutation, repression, activation and epigenome editing. This review provides comprehensive overview to draw the attention of researchers for better understanding of genetic engineering advancements in imparting biotic and abiotic stress tolerance as well as on improving various traits related to quality, texture, plant architecture modification, increasing shelf-life, etc. in different horticultural crops.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
  • Zinc oxide–curcumin nanocomposite loaded collagen membrane as an
           effective material against methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative

    • Abstract: Zinc oxide nanoparticles and curcumin are excellent antimicrobial agents. They have the potential to be used as alternative to antibiotics in wound infection management. In this study, ZnO–curcumin nanocomposite was synthesized and characterized. Physical adsorption of the nanocomposite onto collagen skin wound dressing was conducted and structural investigation was carried out by SEM. Antimicrobial assay, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and viability assays of different concentrations of nanocomposite loaded collagen membrane were conducted against clinically isolated methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci (MRCoNS), such as S. epidermidis, S. hemolyticus, and S. saprophyticus. The nanocomposite showed excellent anti-CoNS activity on time kill assay with the MIC value of 195 µg/mL against S. epidermidis, S. hemolyticus and 390 µg/mL against S. saprophyticus. The nanocomposite loaded collagen membrane also showed excellent in vitro antistaphylococcal activity. This study may lead to the development of antibiotic alternate strategies to control and limit the MRCoNS in wound-related infections.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
  • Genome sequencing of strain Cellulosimicrobium sp. TH-20 with ginseng
           biotransformation ability

    • Abstract: Biotransformation for increasing the pharmaceutical effect of ginsenosides is getting more and more attractions. Strain Cellulosimicrobium sp. TH-20 isolated from ginseng soil samples was identified to produce enzymes contributing to its excellent biotransformation activity against ginsenosides, the main active components of ginseng. Based on phylogenetic tree and homology analysis, the strain can be designated as Cellulosimicrobium sp. Genome sequencing was performed using the Illumina Miseq to explore the functional genes involved in ginsenoside transformation. The draft genome of Cellulosimicrobium sp. TH-20 encoded 3450 open reading frames, 51 tRNA, and 9 rRNA. All ORFs were annotated using NCBI BLAST with non-redundant proteins, Gene Ontology, Cluster of Orthologous Gene, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. A total of 11 genes were selected based on the functional annotation analysis. These genes are relevant to ginsenoside biotransformation, including 6 for beta-glucosidase, 1 for alpha-N-arabinofuranosidase, 1 for alpha-1,6-glucosidase, 1 for endo-1,4-beta-xylanase, 1 for alpha-l-arabinofuranosidase, and 1 for beta-galactosidase. These glycosidases were predicted to catalyze the hydrolysis of sugar moieties attached to the aglycon of ginsenosides and led to the transformation of PPD-type and PPT-type ginsenosides.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
  • Identification and characterization of the Chinese giant salamander (
           Andrias davidianus ) miRNAs by deep sequencing and predication of their

    • Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNA of approximately 22 nt in length. They are considered as key regulators for gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play an important role in the regulation of many fundamental biological processes. Andrias davidianus, as one of the largest amphibian on earth, may represent the transitional type of animal from aquatic to terrestrial life, but so far, no miRNA has been identified in the species. In this study, Illumina deep sequencing was used for high-throughput analysis of miRNAs in a pooled small RNA library isolated from eight tissues sample of A. davidianus including the spleen, liver, muscle, kidney, skin, testis, gut, and heart. In total, 6,213,146 reads were obtained, 5,962,175 of which were related to 143 unique miRNAs, including 140 conserved and three novel A. davidianus-specific miRNAs. Among them, seven conserved miRNAs and one novel miRNA were selected to validate their expression pattern by stem-loop qRT-PCR. Moreover, 4700 potential target genes were predicted for 143 A. davidianus miRNAs; GO enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway showed that most of the targets are involved in diverse biological processes including ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, FOXO signaling pathway, tight junction, and spliceosome. This study provides the first large-scale identification and characterization of A. davidianus miRNAs, and predicted their potential target genes; it will lay a valuable foundation for future understanding the role of these miRNAs on regulating diverse biological processes.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
  • Construction of a novel synthetic root-specific promoter and its
           characterization in transgenic tobacco plants

    • Abstract: Synthetic promoter technology offers a framework for designing expression cassettes that could provide precise control of transgene expression. Such artificially designed promoters enable defined transgene regulation, reduce unwanted background expression, and can overcome homology-dependent gene silencing in transgenic plants. In the present study, a synthetic root-specific module was designed using characterized cis-acting elements, fused with minimal promoter (86 bp) from PortUbi882 promoter, and cloned in pCAMBIA1305.1 by replacing CaMV 35S promoter so as to drive GUS expression. Two constructs were made; one had the synthetic module at the 5′ end of the minimal promoter (SynR1), whereas in the other construct, the module was present in both 5′ and 3′ ends (SynR2). Furthermore, the synthetic promoter constructs were transformed in tobacco wherein SynR1 promoter drove constitutive expression, whereas SynR2 conferred root-specific expression though slight leaky expression was present in stem. GUS assay in the roots of transgenic tobacco plants (T1) indicated that SynR2 promoter expressed significantly higher GUS activity than the CaMV 35S promoter. The real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of GUS gene further confirmed that SynR2 promoter conferred 2.1-fold higher root-specific expression when compared to CaMV 35S promoter.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
  • Role of Cys73 in the thermostability of farnesyl diphosphate synthase from
           Geobacillus stearothermophilus

    • Abstract: Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the condensation between one molecule of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) and two molecules of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) to produce farnesyl diphosphate (FPP). FPP is an important precursor in the isoprenoid synthesis pathway. In this study, the crystal structure of FPPase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus (GsFPPase) was determined at 2.31 Å resolution. The structure of GsFPPase shows a three-layered all α-helical fold and conserved functional domains similar to other prenyltransferases. We have analyzed the structural features of GsFPPase related to thermostability and compared it with those of human and avian mesophilic FPPases. “Semi-conserved” regions which appear to be possible features contributing to the thermostability of FPPase were found.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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