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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2298 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1209 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 251)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 268)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 193)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 272)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 191)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover 3 Biotech
  [7 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2190-572X - ISSN (Online) 2190-5738
   Published by SpringerOpen Homepage  [226 journals]
  • Molecular characterization of 5′ UTR of the lycopene epsilon cyclase (
           lcyE ) gene among exotic and indigenous inbreds for its utilization in
           maize biofortification

    • Abstract: Abstract Maize grains are the important source of food and energy, but possess very low proA (< 2.5 µg/g) compared to target level of 15 µg/g set by HarvestPlus to alleviate VAD. Favorable allele having variation in 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of lycopene epsilon cyclase (lcyE) gene enhances concentration of proA in maize. To identify the sequence variation in 5′ UTR of lcyE, a set of diverse 13 inbreds of indigenous and exotic origin was characterized for allelic constitution of lcyE. Inbreds possessed wide variation in proA (1.62–23.12 µg/g) with a mean of 9.64 µg/g. The proA in CIMMYT-HarvestPlus genotypes having favorable allele of lcyE was very high (22.28 µg/g), whereas the Indian inbreds with the same allele possessed very low proA (2.48 µg/g). Eight genotypes viz., HKI161, HKI163, HKI161-PV, HKI163-PV, HKI193-1-PV, HKI193-2-PV, HP704-22 and HP704-23 revealed the presence of favorable allele, while VQL1, DMRIL47, MGU-PV-123/C6, HKI193-1 and HKI193-2 showed the presence of unfavorable allele of lcyE gene. Sequence comparison of favorable allele of Indian (HKI161 and HKI163) and exotic genotypes (HP704-22 and HP704-23) revealed seven SNPs having three transitions (SNP1 and SNP3: G to A, SNP2: C to T) and four transversions (SNP4: C to G, SNP5: T to G, SNP6: G to C and SNP7: G to T). Four SNPs (SNP1: position 446, SNP2: position 458, SNP3: position 459 and SNP4: position 483) discriminated the low- and high- proA lines having favorable allele of lcyE 5′TE. These SNPs hold significance in enrichment of proA in maize for marker development and their use in marker-assisted selection.
      PubDate: 2018-01-13
  • The production of UL16-binding protein 1 targeted pigs using CRISPR

    • Abstract: Abstract Two sgRNAs were designed to target the region of exon 2 of the pULBP1 gene by microinjection. The co-injection of modified Cas9-D10A nickase with a pair of sgRNAs into the zygote’s cytoplasm easily and efficiently generated biallelic modification of the pULBP1 gene in one step. Five out of nine F0 generation piglets showed insertions or deletions in the targeting site of the pULBP1 gene, indicating that pULBP1 mutation efficiency reached about 56% (5/9). Quantitative determination of pULBP1 showed approximately a 1.53-fold reduction in the amount of protein ULBP1 on the cell surface (ELISA). A human NK-cell cytotoxicity test leads to the conclusion that higher cell viability is observed for −/− ULBP1 (survival rate 85.36%) compared to +/+ ULBP1 (69.58%). ULBP1-KO pigs will provide a more progressive xenograft source for further research studies, especially those measuring the effects of abolishing the gene function in terms of the complexity of the immunological interactions.
      PubDate: 2018-01-13
  • Calligonum comosum and Fusarium sp. extracts as bio-mediator in silver
           nanoparticles formation: characterization, antioxidant and antibacterial

    • Abstract: Abstract In the current study, extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was carried out using aqueous extracts of green Calligonum comosum stem, besides Fusarium sp. Synthesized AgNPs were characterized using ultraviolet (UV)–Vis spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and zeta potential. Moreover, biosynthesized AgNPs were estimated for the scavenging ability on DPPH radical as well as tested for their antibacterial activity using well diffusion method against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. On the other hand, DNA content from untreated and AgNPs treated bacterial cells was evaluated by (UV)–Vis spectrophotometer and agarose gel electrophoresis. Results revealed the formation of AgNPs, which was first detected by color change of the reaction mixture. The characteristic surface plasmon resonance absorption was detected at 450 and 410 nm for the plant and myco-synthesized AgNPs. Furthermore, TEM micrograph and zeta sizer showed formation of spherical particles with an average size of about 105.8 and 228.4 nm for plant and myco-synthesized AgNPs, respectively. Plant-synthesized AgNPs exhibited higher scavenging of DPPH radicals than that of the myco-synthesized one. For bactericidal action, plant-synthesized AgNPs showed higher inhibition zone compared with myco-synthesized one, which was negatively correlated with the nanoparticle size. Furthermore, low DNA concentration was detected for AgNPs treated bacteria, which might be a consequence of inactivation for DNA replication. Further experimental work is required to find out if there is any correlation between nanoparticles size and efficacy against bacteria.
      PubDate: 2018-01-13
  • Evaluation of plant-based natural coagulants for municipal wastewater

    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, four plant-based natural coagulants (banana peel powder, banana stem juice, papaya seed powder and neem leaf powder) were evaluated for the removal of turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS) from municipal wastewater. The experiments were conducted at room temperature without adjusting the initial pH. The maximum turbidity removal was observed with banana peel powder (59.6%) at 0.4 g/L of dosage. Papaya seed powder and banana stem juice were the most effective for TSS removal (66.66%) and COD removal (66.67%), respectively. Significant linear relationships between turbidity and TSS (R2 = 0.67–0.88) and turbidity removals and COD removals (R2 = 0.68–0.8) were observed. Interestingly, all the natural coagulants tested in the study did not change the pH of the wastewater, which is an added advantage. FTIR analysis of banana peels revealed that functional groups such as carboxylic acid, hydroxyl and aliphatic amines might be responsible for promoting the coagulation–flocculation by neutralizing the charge on impurities in water. Overall, the results suggest the potential of low-cost natural coagulants in municipal wastewater treatment.
      PubDate: 2018-01-13
  • Simultaneous detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus
           and Salmonella by multiplex PCR in milk

    • Abstract: Abstract Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella are food-borne pathogens that cause serious gastrointestinal illness and frequent food safety accidents. This study aimed to develop a practical multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) technique for the simultaneous detection of these food-borne pathogens in culture broth and artificial food matrix. Pathogen-specific DNA sequences in the rfbE, nuc, and invA genes were used as targets to design primers for the identification of E. coli O157:H7, S. aureus, and Salmonella, respectively. As expected, the method produced species-specific bands of amplified products without any contaminating non-specific bands. The highest species specificity was established with primer concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 μM for E. coli O157:H7, S. aureus, and Salmonella, correspondingly. The detection sensitivity of this assay was 103 CFU/mL in culture broth, and the limit of detection was consistent with singleplex PCR in the food sample. The mPCR assay proposed here is an easy and convenient detection method, which will be valuable for microbial epidemiology and food safety investigations.
      PubDate: 2018-01-13
  • Production of gellan gum, an exopolysaccharide, from biodiesel-derived
           waste glycerol by Sphingomonas spp.

    • Abstract: Abstract In the present study, biodiesel-derived waste glycerol (WG) was used for the isolation and production of gellan, an exopolysaccharide, on media containing WG as the main carbon source. Two bacterial isolates showed gellan producing potential which were identified as Sphingomonas pseudosanguinis (Accession No. GI:724472387) and Sphingomonas yabuuchiae (GI:724472388) by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. To maximize gellan production by S. pseudosanguinis and S. yabuuchiae, media optimization was performed at different pHs and glycerol concentrations. Morphological observations through microscopic images showed the production of gellan from these isolates. Simple linear regression showed better utilization of WG by S. pseudosanguinis than S. yabuuchiae at pH 6 and pH 7. Though, both the strains showed reverse trend at pH 8. Both the strains were able to produce high amounts of gellan gum (51.6 and 52.6 g/l, respectively) using WG (80 g/l) as the sole carbon source, in a minimal medium. This is the first report on the efficient degradation of WG and low-cost production of gellan. Owing to these characteristics, S. pseudosanguinis and S. yabuuchiae demonstrate great potential for use in the commercial production of gellan and in the bioremediation of WG.
      PubDate: 2018-01-13
  • Nanotechnology: current uses and future applications in the food industry

    • Abstract: Abstract Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology intend new and innovative applications in the food industry. Nanotechnology exposed to be an efficient method in many fields, particularly the food industry and the area of functional foods. Though as is the circumstance with the growth of any novel food processing technology, food packaging material, or food ingredient, additional studies are needed to demonstrate the potential benefits of nanotechnologies and engineered nanomaterials designed for use in foods without adverse health effects. Nanoemulsions display numerous advantages over conventional emulsions due to the small droplets size they contain: high optical clarity, excellent physical constancy against gravitational partition and droplet accumulation, and improved bioavailability of encapsulated materials, which make them suitable for food applications. Nano-encapsulation is the most significant favorable technologies having the possibility to ensnare bioactive chemicals. This review highlights the applications of current nanotechnology research in food technology and agriculture, including nanoemulsion, nanocomposites, nanosensors, nano-encapsulation, food packaging, and propose future developments in the developing field of agrifood nanotechnology. Also, an overview of nanostructured materials, and their current applications and future perspectives in food science are also presented.
      PubDate: 2018-01-13
  • Bioethanol production from microwave-assisted acid or alkali-pretreated
           agricultural residues of cassava using separate hydrolysis and
           fermentation (SHF)

    • Abstract: Abstract The effect of microwave (MW)-assisted acid or alkali pretreatment (300 W, 7 min) followed by saccharification with a triple enzyme cocktail (Cellic, Optimash BG and Stargen) with or without detoxification mix on ethanol production from three cassava residues (stems, leaves and peels) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. Significantly higher fermentable sugar yields (54.58, 47.39 and 64.06 g/L from stems, leaves and peels, respectively) were obtained after 120 h saccharification from MW-assisted alkali-pretreated systems supplemented (D+) with detoxification chemicals (Tween 20 + polyethylene glycol 4000 + sodium borohydride) compared to the non-supplemented (D0) or MW-assisted acid-pretreated systems. The percentage utilization of reducing sugars during fermentation (48 h) was also the highest (91.02, 87.16 and 89.71%, respectively, for stems, leaves and peels) for the MW-assisted alkali-pretreated (D+) systems. HPLC sugar profile indicated that glucose was the predominant monosaccharide in the hydrolysates from this system. Highest ethanol yields (YE, g/g), fermentation efficiency (%) and volumetric ethanol productivity (g/L/h) of 0.401, 78.49 and 0.449 (stems), 0.397, 77.71 and 0.341 (leaves) and 0.433, 84.65 and 0.518 (peels) were also obtained for this system. The highest ethanol yields (ml/kg dry biomass) of ca. 263, 200 and 303, respectively, for stems, leaves and peels from the MW-assisted alkali pretreatment (D+) indicated that this was the most effective pretreatment for cassava residues.
      PubDate: 2018-01-13
  • Survey of sulfur-oxidizing bacterial community in the Pearl River water
           using soxB , sqr , and dsrA as molecular biomarkers

    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, we surveyed the abundance and diversity of three sulfur oxidation genes (sqr, soxB, and dsrA) using quantitative assays and Miseq high-throughput sequencing. The quantitative assays revealed that soxB is more abundant than sqr and dsrA and is the main contributor to sulfur oxidation. In the diversity analysis, the SOB community mainly comprised the classes Nitrospira, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. The genera Gallionella, Hydrogenophaga, Limnohabitans, Methylomonas, Nitrospira, Rhodoferax, and Sulfuritalea were abundant in the communities for sqr; Dechloromonas, Limnohabitans, Paracoccus, Sulfuritalea, Sulfitobacter, and Thiobacillus were abundant in communities for soxB; Sulfuritalea, Sulfurisoma, and Thiobacillus were abundant in communities for dsrA. This study presented a high diversity of SOB species and functional sulfur-oxidizing genes in Pearl River via high-throughput sequencing, suggesting that the aquatic ecosystem has great potential to scavenge the sulfur pollutants by itself.
      PubDate: 2018-01-13
  • Transcriptional control of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes and
           transcription factors associated with flower coloration patterns in
           Gerbera hybrida

    • Abstract: Abstract We analyzed the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes and transcription factors (TFs) in the Gerbera hybrida cultivars ‘Bintang’ and ‘Alliance’ that exhibit different coloration patterns. Differential expression of biosynthesis genes and TFs was associated with variable anthocyanin content at different flower developmental stages (S1–S3) in both cultivars; higher anthocyanin content was correlated with higher levels of gene expression. Exposure to different temperatures (6 and 22 °C) also resulted in different anthocyanin content levels: the lower temperature (6 °C) enhanced anthocyanin content compared to the higher temperature (22 °C). However, the increased anthocyanin content of ‘Bintang’ compared to ‘Alliance’ was the result of higher levels of expression of all detected genes, regardless of flower stage and temperature conditions. Therefore, we conclude that transcriptional control of the detected genes is associated with the mechanisms of anthocyanin biosynthesis and coloration patterns in gerberas; however, further studies of the key genes are needed.
      PubDate: 2018-01-12
  • Classifying nitrilases as aliphatic and aromatic using machine learning

    • Abstract: Abstract ProCos (Protein Composition Server, script version), one of the machine learning techniques, was used to classify nitrilases as aliphatic and aromatic nitrilases. Some important feature vectors were used to train the algorithm, which included pseudo-amino acid composition (PAAC) and five-factor solution score (5FSS). This clearly differentiated into two groups of nitrilases, i.e., aliphatic and aromatic, achieving maximum sensitivity of 100.00%, specificity of 90.00%, accuracy of 95.00% and Mathew Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of about 0.90 for the pseudo-amino acid composition. On the other hand, five-factor solution score achieved a sensitivity of 96.00%, specificity of 84.00%, accuracy of 90.00% and Mathew Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of about 0.81. The total count of aliphatic amino acids, Ala (A), Gly (G), Leu (L), Ile (I), Val (V), Met (M) and Pro (P), was found to be higher, i.e., 42.7 in case of aliphatic nitrilases, whereas it was 40.1 in aromatic nitrilases. On the other hand, aromatic amino acids, Tyr (Y), Trp (W), His (H) and Phe (F) number, were found to be higher, i.e., 12.7 in aromatic nitrilases as compared to aliphatic nitrilases which was 10.7. This approach will help in predicting a nitrilase as aromatic or aliphatic nitrilase based on its amino acid sequence. Access to the scripts can be done logging onto GitHub using keyword ‘Nitrilase’ or ‘’.
      PubDate: 2018-01-12
  • Comparative transcriptomics reveals a reduction in carbon capture and flux
           between source and sink in cytokinin-treated inflorescences of Jatropha
           curcas L.

    • Abstract: Abstract The low seed yield of Jatropha curcas has been a stumbling block in realizing its full potential as an ideal bioenergy crop. Low female to male flower ratio is considered as a major limiting factor responsible for low seed yield in Jatropha. An exogenous cytokinin application was performed on floral meristems to increase the seed yield. This resulted in an increase of total flowers count with a higher female to male flower ratio. However, the seed biomass did not increase in the same proportion. The possible reason for this was hypothesized to be the lack of increased photosynthesis efficiency at source tissues which could fulfil the increased demand of photosynthates and primary metabolites in maturing seeds. After cytokinin application, possible molecular mechanisms underlying carbon capture and flux affected between the source and sink in developing flowers, fruits and seeds were investigated. Comparative transcriptome analysis was performed on inflorescence meristems (treated with cytokinin) and control (untreated inflorescence meristems) at time intervals of 15 and 30 days, respectively. KEGG-based functional annotation identified various metabolic pathways associated with carbon capture and flux. Pathways such as photosynthesis, carbon fixation, carbohydrate metabolism and nitrogen metabolism were upregulated after 15 days of cytokinin treatment; however, those were downregulated after 30 days. Five genes FBP, SBP, GS, GDH and AGPase showed significant increase in transcript abundance after 15 days of treatment but showed a significant decrease after 30 days. These genes, after functional validation, can be suitable targets in designing a suitable genetic intervention strategy to increase overall seed yield in Jatropha.
      PubDate: 2018-01-12
  • Protective role of selenium against chromium stress involving metabolites
           and essential elements in Brassica juncea L. seedlings

    • Abstract: Abstract The present study aimed at the potential role of selenium in providing protection to plants subjected to chromium toxicity. The study was carried out on 15-day-old seedlings of Brassica juncea raised in the solutions of Cr (300 µM) and Se (2, 4 and 6 µM), both alone and in combinations under controlled laboratory environment. The effects were studied on growth, plant metabolites (involved in osmotic homeostasis and stress protection), and essential elements. The results showed that the exposure of B. juncea seedlings to 300 µM Cr led to an increase in the contents of total sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, total phenols and flavonoids. However, a significant decline in growth characteristics, the contents of proteins and free amino acids was observed. The essential elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, C, H, N) also decreased in response to Cr. Se application in binary combinations, on the other hand, aided in improving seed germination (19%), root (88.3%) and shoot (18.2%) lengths. It also helped to increase the contents of sugars [total (16.3%), reducing (21.6%) and non-reducing (15.2%)], phenols (36.7%) and flavonoids (27.4%), thereby aiding in alleviating the phytotoxicity of Cr. The profiling of polyphenols and amino acids, and histological study of phenols supported the above results. The contents of essential elements also showed a significant increase, while Cr uptake was observed to decline by Se supplementation. The observations from the present study indicate that Se has the ability to influence primary and secondary metabolism, improve mineral nutrition and reduce Cr uptake in B. juncea seedlings to combat the Cr phytotoxicity and enhance the tolerance against stress.
      PubDate: 2018-01-12
  • Unveiling the role of ATP in amplification of intrinsic peroxidase-like
           activity of gold nanoparticles

    • Abstract: Abstract Peroxidase enzyme-like activity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is currently being investigated for the potential application in the several realms of biomedicines. However, little is explored about the peroxidase activity of AuNPs decorated with different surface charges. It is well-documented that the catalytic activity and the interaction with mammalian cells are significantly different among AuNPs carrying different surface charges. We have recently reported that ATP enhances the peroxidase-like activity of AuNPs and iron oxide nanoparticles. However, a comprehensive and systematic study to reveal the role of surface charge on nanoparticles peroxidase-like activity has not been studied. In this work, we have shown that AuNPs coated with PEG (PEG AuNPs), citrate (citrate AuNPs) or CTAB (CTAB AuNPs) exhibit varying peroxidase-like activity and the boosting effect imparted by ATP was also different. We found that the peroxidase-like activity of PEG AuNPs and citrate AuNPs is dependent on hydroxyl radical formation, whereas CTAB AuNPs did not show any significant activity under the same experimental conditions. We also studied the boosting effect of ATP on the peroxidase-like activity of PEG and citrate AuNPs. Although the use of ATP resulted in enhanced peroxidase-like activity; however, contrary to the expectation, it did not facilitate the enhanced production of hydroxyl radical. In further studies, we found that the likely mechanism of boosting effect by ATP is the stabilization of oxidized TMB after peroxidase reaction. ATP imparts stabilization to the oxidized TMB produced due to PEG AuNPs, citrate AuNPs as well as HRP.
      PubDate: 2018-01-12
  • Assessment of three plastid DNA barcode markers for identification of
           Clinacanthus nutans (Acanthaceae)

    • Abstract: Abstract This study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using three plastid DNA regions (matK, trnH-psbA, and rbcL) as DNA barcodes to identify the medicinal plant Clinacanthus nutans. In this study, C. nutans was collected at several different locations. Total genomic DNA was extracted, amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and sequenced using matK, trnH-psbA, and rbcL, primers. DNA sequences generated from PCR were submitted to the National Center for Biotechnology Information’s (NCBI) GenBank. Identification of C. nutans was carried out using NCBI’s Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST). The rbcL and trnH-psbA regions successfully identified C. nutans with sequencing rates of 100% through BLAST identification. Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) 6.0 was used to analyze interspecific and intraspecific divergence of plastid DNA sequences. rbcL and matK exhibited the lowest average interspecific distance (0.0487 and 0.0963, respectively), whereas trnH-psbA exhibited the highest average interspecific distance (0.2029). The R package Spider revealed that trnH-psbA correctly identified Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD) 96%, best close match 79%, and near neighbor 100% of the species, compared to matK (BOLD 72%; best close match 64%; near neighbor 78%) and rbcL (BOLD 77%; best close match 62%; near neighbor 88%). These results indicate that trnH-psbA is very effective at identifying C. nutans, as it performed well in discriminating species in Acanthaceae.
      PubDate: 2018-01-11
  • Presence of 16SrIV phytoplasmas of subgroups A, D and E in planthopper
           Haplaxius crudus Van Duzee insects in Yucatán, Mexico

    • Abstract: Abstract The present study was carried out to determine if group 16SrIV phytoplasmas, causing lethal yellowing (LY) disease, are present in Haplaxius crudus Van Duzee (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) insects associated with palms in Yucatán, Mexico. Haplaxius crudus feral insects were captured from palm foliage at two locations (Chicxulub Puerto and CICY, Mérida, where LY-type diseases are active) and evaluated individually for the presence of phytoplasma DNA by a group 16SrIV-specific nested PCR assay. The results showed positive detection in H. crudus insects in a proportion of 2.7% (of the total 2726 analyzed) during a 3-year period of study. The percentage of detection was different for each site, 5.9% positive of 799 insects from Mérida and 1.7% of 1927 from Chicxulub Puerto. Positive detections were also obtained in extracts from 5.3 to 1.2% of males and females, respectively. Sequencing and in silico RFLP and phylogenetic analyses of PCR-amplified rDNA products indicated that H. crudus insects from Chicxulub Puerto harbored phytoplasma strains of subgroups 16SrIV-A or 16SrIV-D, whereas in insects from Mérida the strains found were 16SrIV-A, 16SrIV-D or 16SrIV-E. The diversity of subgroup strains detected in H. crudus coincided with strains previously identified in palms showing LY-type disease syndromes in Yucatán thereby implicating H. crudus as a candidate vector of 16SrIV phytoplasmas in this region of Mexico.
      PubDate: 2018-01-11
  • Spermidine sprays alleviate the water deficit-induced oxidative stress in
           finger millet ( Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn.) plants

    • Abstract: Abstract Severe drought stress (water deficit) in finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn.) plants significantly reduced total leaf chlorophyll and relative water content in shoots and roots, whereas electrolyte leakage, concentrations of proline and hydrogen peroxide, as well as caspase-like activity were significantly increased. The role of spermidine in plant defence to water-stress was investigated after subjected to various drought treatments. Three weeks of daily spermidine sprays (0.2 mM) at early flowering stage significantly changed shoot and root growth, in both fresh and dry weights terms. At 75% of water deficit stress, leaves accumulated twice as much proline as unstressed plants, and roots accumulated thrice. Plants treated with spermidine under water stress showed lower electrolyte leakage, hydrogen peroxide and caspase-like activity than unstressed and untreated control.
      PubDate: 2018-01-11
  • High frequency plant regeneration from cotyledonary node explants of
           Cucumis sativus L. cultivar ‘Green Long’ via adventitious shoot
           organogenesis and assessment of genetic fidelity by RAPD-PCR technology

    • Abstract: Abstract Influence of cytokinins, silver nitrate (AgNO3) and auxins on plant regeneration from cucumber was investigated. The cotyledonary node explants were cultured on MS medium augmented with various concentrations (0.5–2.5 mg l−1) of 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP) and kinetin (KIN) for shoot bud induction. BAP at 1.5 mg l−1 was found to be the best concentration for induction of high frequency of multiple shoots (98.4%). Interestingly, maximum percent of multiple shoot regeneration (100%) as well as number of shoot buds (54.6 shoots/culture) was recorded on MS medium containing the combination of 4.5 mg l−1 AgNO3 and 1.5 mg l−1 BAP. Multiple shoot bud regeneration frequency as well as the number of shoots was positively correlated with the concentrations of AgNO3. Addition of silver nitrate in the medium not only enhanced the rate of multiple shoot bud regeneration but also elongation of shoot buds was observed. The highest percent of rooting (96.2%) was noticed on a medium containing the combination of indole 3-butyric acid (IBA), 1.5 mg l−1 and KIN 0.5 mg l−1. Acclimatized plantlets were successfully established in the field where the survival rate observed was 72%. The RAPD profiles of in vitro regenerated plants were found to be highly monomorphic and identical banding pattern with mother plant. DNA fingerprinting results confirmed that the tissue culture plantlets were found to be true-to-type. The present study describes efficient protocol for high frequency plant regeneration via adventitious shoot organogenesis in cucumber.
      PubDate: 2018-01-11
  • Enhanced biosynthesis of saponins by coronatine in cell suspension culture
           of Kalopanax septemlobus

    • Abstract: Abstract Kalopanax septemlobus is a medicinal woody species of the family Araliaceae, and the pharmaceutical properties of saponins obtained from K. septemlobus suggest that K. septemlobus has the potential to be a crude drug and dietary health supplement. In this study, we established cell suspension culture of K. septemlobus to develop a sustainable source of natura-ceuticals. Friable calli were used for establishing cell suspension culture. The maximum amount of total saponins (1.56 mg/60 ml suspension) was obtained during the 15th day of incubation, whereas the maximum capacity of saponin production was reached after day 6 (0.42 μg/mg of fresh weight). The total saponin production in the cell suspension of K. septemlobus was significantly increased by coronatine (COR) at 160% at a dose of 1 μM compared with the mock-treated control, whereas methyl jasmonate treated cells exhibited less increase in total saponin level as compared to the COR-treated cells. In addition, the elicitation of COR strongly induced the expression of beta-amyrin synthase, thus resulting in the accumulation of oleanolic acid (2.369 ± 0.98 μg/mg of extract), a precursor for oleanane-type triterpene saponins. These results indicate that COR is an efficient elicitor for inducing phytochemicals in cell suspension culture and that it provides the possibility for producing saponins of K. septemlobus using cell suspension culture.
      PubDate: 2018-01-10
  • Molecular typing of Staphylococcus aureus of different origins based on
           the polymorphism of the spa gene: characterization of a novel spa type

    • Abstract: Abstract The present study was conducted to determine the molecular diversity of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from human, bovine and food samples based on the polymorphism of the spa gene. A total of 208 S. aureus isolated from human, bovine raw milk and food samples were assessed using polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) and single locus sequence typing (SLST) methods, followed by determination of spa types using Ridom SpaServer. Altogether, 15 distinct RFLP patterns were recorded (I–XV). The highest heterogeneity was observed among S. aureus isolated from humans, whereas most of bovine and food S. aureus isolates indicated certain RFLP patterns. Although most of the isolates from patients showed RFLP pattern I, none of the S. aureus isolated from carriers had this spa pattern. Besides, the results of SLST led to the characterization of 16 spa types, and one of them was a novel spa type which has been registered in Ridom SpaServer for the first time and designated as type t16929. Determination of a high number of shared RFLP patterns between human and food S. aureus isolates indicated possible transmission of S. aureus and the source of food contamination. Thus, effective hygiene measures should be taken to break transmission routes. However, it seems that S. aureus isolated from patients, carriers and bovine should be considered in a different way, since some isolates had similar patterns, while the others showed their own specific pattern.
      PubDate: 2018-01-09
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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