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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2287 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
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    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (105 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1206 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (385 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1206 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 236)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 259)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 182)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 236)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 216)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 58)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover 3 Biotech
  [7 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2190-572X - ISSN (Online) 2190-5738
   Published by SpringerOpen Homepage  [225 journals]
  • Reactive oxygen species-scavenging system is involved in l -amino acid
           oxidase accumulation in Pseudoalteromonas sp. B3

    • Abstract: Abstract To date, the mechanisms underlying the flavoprotein l-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) accumulation in cells remain unclear. In this study, using LAAO-producer Pseudoalteromonas spp. as model organisms, we found that the cell biomass is negatively associated with LAAO accumulation, whereas the LAAO accumulation is positively associated with the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging capability. The expression levels of ROS-scavenging-associated genes were up-regulated with LAAO accumulation in Pseudoalteromonas cells, which is presumably due to the requirement for the removal of LAAO-induced ROS. Exogenous H2O2 exposure experiment supported that the ROS-scavenging system is associated with LAAO accumulation in Pseudoalteromonas. All these observations indicate that ROS-scavenging capacity determines LAAO accumulation in bacterial cells. Our results shed a light on understanding the mechanism underlying controlling and adapting to LAAO accumulation in Pseudoalteromonas. Besides, our findings are critical to the improvement of heterologous expression of active LAAO in the future.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
       
  • Characterization of natural habitats and diversity of Libyan desert
           truffles

    • Abstract: Abstract Desert truffles have traditionally been used as food in Libya. Desert truffle grows and gives fruit sporadically when adequate and properly distributed rainfall occurs with existence of suitable soil and mycorrhizal host plant. The present study aimed to identify and characterize two kinds of wild desert truffles from ecological and nutritional points that were collected from the studied area. The truffle samples were identified as Terfezia (known as red or black truffle) and Tirmania (known as white truffle). The nutritional values (protein, lipid and carbohydrate) of both Libyan wild truffle (Terfezia and Tirmania) were determined on a dry weight basis and result showed that Tirmania and Terfezia contained 16.3 and 18.5% protein, 6.2 and 5.9% lipid, 67.2 and 65% carbohydrate, respectively, in ascocarp biomass. The soil pH of the upper and lower regions of the Hamada Al-Hamra ranged between 8.2 and 8.5 giving suitable conditions for fructification. The plants, Helianthemum kahiricum and Helianthemum lippii were the dominant plants in Hamada Al-Hamra region found to form a mycorrhiza with desert truffles. The phylogenetic analysis of the genomic rDNA ITS region showed that, out of five collections three represented Tirmania pinoyi (Maire) Malencon, one Tirmania nivea (Desf.) Trappe, and one Terfezia boudieri Chatin.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
       
  • Phenotypic and molecular assessment of chickpea rhizobia from different
           chickpea cultivars of India

    • Abstract: Abstract In the present study, heterogeneity in natural chickpea rhizobia populations associated with 18 different chickpea (Cicer arientinum) cultivars of India was investigated. Physiological diversity of 20 chickpea rhizobia was characterized based on phenotypic parameters such as Bromothymol blue (BTB) test, pH, temperature and salinity tolerance. Based on response to BTB test and pH tolerance, all chickpea rhizobia were further divided into slow growers/alkali producers (14 isolates) and fast growers/acid producers (6 isolates). The temperature (upto 40 °C) and salinity (NaCl) tolerance (upto 6%) tests provided a wide description of physiological diversity among the rhizobial isolates. The intrinsic antibiotic resistance of each isolate against 14 different antibiotics distinguished all chickpea rhizobia into five clades at the level of 80% similarity coefficient. Further, based on UPGMA phylogeny of carbon utilization profile, all isolates were dispersed into six clusters at the level of 85% similarity coefficient, which indicated a remarkable variability among the rhizobia. The evaluation of nodule-forming efficiency of all isolates revealed that the isolate ACR15 was more competent for nodule formation than all other isolates. The representative strain from each carbon metabolic cluster was further subjected for molecular identification through 16S rRNA gene characterization. Neighbour-joining method-based phylogeny of 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed a high degree of species diversity among the isolates. Further, the prominent nodule-forming isolate such as ACR15 was identified as Mesorhizobium ciceri, while other isolates showed similarity with other species of Mesorhizobium genus. The present study contributed to the knowledge that besides M. ciceri and M. mediterraneum, chickpea can also be nodulated by many other native chickpea rhizobia which indicates the impact of exploration of promising native populations. These findings may support the further investigation of symbiotic as well as stress responsive genes of chickpea rhizobia leading to develop more effective inoculant strains for wide agricultural applications.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
       
  • Experimental and kinetics study for phytoremediation of sugar mill
           effluent using water lettuce ( Pistia stratiotes L.) and its end use for
           biogas production

    • Abstract: Abstract In present study, the performance of phytoremediation by Pistia stratiotes on sugar mill effluent (SME) and its end use for biogas production are investigated. The objectives of the study are to determine the nutrient and pollution reduction efficiency of P. stratiotes from SME and evaluation of its biomass as a feedstock for biogas production. Various concentrations of SME (25, 50, 75, and 100%) were remediated by Pistia stratiotes (initial weight; 150 g) outdoor for 60 days under batch mode experimental setup. The results showed that P. stratiotes achieved marked reduction in nutrient (TKN, 72.86%; TP, 71.49%) and pollutant load (EC, 25.69%; TDS, 57.26%; BOD, 69.40%; COD, 61.80%; Ca2+, 56.79%; Mg2+, 55.01%; Na+, 42.86%; K+, 54.38%; MPN, 78.13%; SPC, 60.13%) from 75% SME at the end of the experiment. The highest biomass (328.48 ± 2.04 g) and chlorophyll content (3.62 ± 3.04 mg/g) were also achieved with 75% SME. The dried biomass of P. stratiotes (from 75% SME) was inoculated with cow dung (10% w/v) and diluted with distilled water (1:10). The whole content was used as a substrate for the biogas production within hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 30 days at room temperature. Substrate parameters such as pH, TS (%), COD (mg/L), TKN (%), TOC (%), VS (%), and C/N ratio were reduced from 7.85 to 6.0, 66.65 to 28.65%, 12,900 to 2800 mg/L, 0.95 to 0.75%, 45.54 to 19.5%, 76.87 to 28.78%, and 47.94 to 26.00, respectively, in 30 days of HRT. About 8478.6 mL of cumulative biogas production was evaluated by modified Gompertz equation. Thus, the present investigation not only achieved efficient nutrient and pollution reduction from SME but also proved the potential of P. stratiotes for biogas production.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
       
  • Comparative transmission of Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus by two cryptic
           species of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    • Abstract: Abstract The leaf sample from okra plants showing prominent yellow vein mosaic symptoms and healthy plant without any virus symptoms were collected from farmer’s field. The presence of begomovirus in the infected sample was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the amplicons were cloned and sequenced. The genome analysis showed that the isolate in the present study had 99% nucleotide identity with Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus (BYVMV) revealing it as BYVMV variant. The genetic species of Bemisia tabaci collected from fields were identified as Asia-1 and MEAM-1 genetic species based on silver leaf assay, sequence characterized amplified region marker, and mtCOI gene sequence. The comparative virus–vector relationship of both genetic species of B. tabaci indicates a minimum of two and three B. tabaci in MEAM-1 and Asia-1 genetic species, respectively, per plant were required to transmit the disease. The minimum acquisition access period and inoculation access period of 15 (MEAM-1) and 20 min (Asia-1) were required to transmit the YVMD; it was further confirmed by nucleic acid hybridization using coat protein gene-specific probe of BYVMV. With respect to the sex, the female B. tabaci were more efficient in transmitting the disease as compared to male ones in both the genetic species of B. tabaci. The MEAM-1 to transmit the BYVMV more efficiently than Asia-1 genetic species of B. tabaci.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
       
  • A halotolerant laccase from Chaetomium strain isolated from desert soil
           and its ability for dye decolourization

    • Abstract: Abstract A novel fungal laccase produced by the ascomycete Chaetomium sp. isolated from arid soil was purified and characterized and its ability to remove dyes was determined. Extracellular laccase was purified 15-fold from the crude culture to homogeneity with an overall yield of 50% using ultrafiltration and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified enzyme was found to be a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 68 kDa, estimated by SDS-PAGE, and with an isoelectric point of 5.5. The optimal temperature and pH value for laccase activity toward 2,6-DMP were 60 °C and 3.0, respectively. It was stable at temperatures below 50 °C and at alkaline conditions. Kinetic study showed that this laccase showed higher affinity on ABTS than on 2,6-DMP. Its activity was enhanced by the presence of several metal ions such as Mg2+, Ca2+ and Zn2+, while it was strongly inhibited by Fe2+, Ag+ and Hg2+. The novel laccase also showed high, remarkable sodium chloride tolerance. Its ability to decolorize different dyes, with or without HBT (1-hydroxy-benzotriazole), as redox mediator, suggests that this protein may be useful for different industrial applications and/or bioremediation processes.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
       
  • Effect of different physico-chemical parameters for natural indigo
           production during fermentation of Indigofera plant biomass

    • Abstract: Abstract Natural indigo production from Indigofera plant biomass requires fermentation of biomass, oxidation of fermented broth, settling of oxidized product (indigo), filtration and recovery. In this study, we have investigated roles of physico-chemical parameters during fermentation with respect to product yield. The study showed that water-to-biomass ratio (1:10), fermentation duration (0, 6, 12, 18, 24 h), pH (6–7.5), dissolved oxygen concentration; DO (0.5–3 mg ml−1), oxidation reduction potential ORP (+50 to −300 mV) and temperature (25–40 °C) during fermentation, oxidation and dye recovery from the broth are directly or indirectly related to indigo yield. Biomass fermentation for 12 h at 40 °C incubation temperature yields the highest biogenic indigo (2.84 mg g−1) out of the different experimental conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-09-16
       
  • Application of customised bacterial inoculants for grass haylage
           production and its effectiveness on nutrient composition and fermentation
           quality of haylage

    • Abstract: Abstract The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of customised Lactobacillus plantarum KCC-10, KCC-19 and K-46 on nutrient composition and fermentation quality of low moisture Italian ryegrass (IRG) forage. An addition of customised bacterial inoculants (CBI) did not affect the nutrient compositions and digestibility rates of haylage. The lactic acid content was higher in CBI-inoculated haylage, whereas the amount of acetic acid and butyric acid production was significantly reduced than the control. CBI-inoculated haylage exhibited higher numbers of bacterial colonies that reduced the pH of the haylage. Low pH in haylage is an important criterion for preventing undesirable microbial growth and improves fermentation quality of haylage. PCR studies indicated that the DNA of L. plantarum was predominantly amplified. It evidenced that the CBI is the main reason behind the improvement of haylage fermentation as compared to control. Overall results suggested that KCC-10, KCC-19 and K-46 are considered as potent strains for improving fermentation quality of low moisture forage and preserve its stability for a long time.
      PubDate: 2017-09-16
       
  • Comparative lipidomics of drug sensitive and resistant Mycobacterium
           tuberculosis reveals altered lipid imprints

    • Abstract: Abstract Lipids are most adaptable molecules that acclimatize to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). The precise molecular mechanism of this acclimatization achieved in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) remains elusive. Although lipids of MTB have been characterized to some details, a comparable resource does not exist between drug sensitive (DS) and resistant (DR) strains of MTB. Here, by employing high-throughput mass spectrometry-based lipidomic approach, we attempted to analyze the differential lipidome profile of DS and DR MTB clinical isolates. We analyzed three major classes of lipids viz fatty acyls, glycerophospholipids and glycerolipids and their respective subclasses. Notably, we observed differential fatty acyls and glycerophospholipids as evident from increased mycolic acids phosphatidylinositol mannosides, phosphatidylinositol, cardiolipin and triacylglycerides abundance, respectively, which are crucial for MTB virulence and pathogenicity. Considering the fact that 30% of the MTB genome codes for lipid, this comprehensive lipidomic approach unravels extensive lipid alterations in DS and DR that will serve as a resource for identifying biomarkers aimed at disrupting the functions of MTB lipids responsible for MDR acquisition in MTB.
      PubDate: 2017-09-16
       
  • Degradation of the herbicide paraquat by macromycetes isolated from
           southeastern Mexico

    • Abstract: Abstract Fifty-four macromycetes, isolated from southeastern Mexico, were used in order to evaluate their capacity for degradation and tolerance to the herbicide paraquat. Ten of these strains were capable of growing in a solid culture medium in the presence of 200 ppm paraquat. Subsequently, assays to evaluate the degradation of the xenobiotic in a liquid medium were carried out. Of the ten strains evaluated, three presented the highest levels of degradation of the compound, which were Trametes pavonia (54.2%), Trametes versicolor (54.1%) and Hypholoma dispersum. They presented the highest overall degradation percentage (70.7%) after 12 days culture. The presence of ligninolytic enzymes in these strains was evaluated. H. dispersum only presented aryl alcohol oxidase activity; however, with the data obtained, it was not possible to conclude whether this specific enzyme is responsible for paraquat degradation. The level of degradation obtained is above the one reported for Pseudomonas putida, one of the few reports on paraquat degradation. This is the first report on the contaminant degradation capacity of H. dispersum.
      PubDate: 2017-09-16
       
  • Bacterial laccase: recent update on production, properties and industrial
           applications

    • Abstract: Abstract Laccases (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.2) are multi-copper enzymes which catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of phenolic and non-phenolic aromatic compounds in the presence or absence of a mediator. Till date, laccases have mostly been isolated from fungi and plants, whereas laccase from bacteria has not been well studied. Bacterial laccases have several unique properties that are not characteristics of fungal laccases such as stability at high temperature and high pH. Bacteria produce these enzymes either extracellularly or intracellularly and their activity is in a wide range of temperature and pH. It has application in pulp biobleaching, bioremediation, textile dye decolorization, pollutant degradation, biosensors, etc. Hence, comprehensive information including sources, production conditions, characterization, cloning and biotechnological applications is needed for the effective understanding and application of these enzymes at the industrial level. The present review provides exhaustive information of bacterial laccases reported till date.
      PubDate: 2017-09-16
       
  • Aerobic degradation of fenvalerate by a Gram-positive bacterium, Bacillus
           flexus strain XJU-4

    • Abstract: Abstract Synthetic pyrethroid—fenvalerate—is one of the most widespread toxic pollutants and has adverse effect on living systems. However, little is known about its biotransformation mechanism in different microorganisms. To elucidate the pathway that might be involved in the catabolism of fenvalerate, we used Bacillus flexus strain XJU-4 (3-nitrobenzoate degrading organism) as an ideal fenvalerate degrading bacterium. Thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis results revealed that 3-phenoxybenzoate, protocatechuate, and catechol are the three main by-products of fenvalerate metabolism. Additionally, the bacterial cell-free enzymes showed the activities of fenvalerate hydrolyzing esterase, 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde dehydrogenase, 3-phenoxybenzoate dioxygenase, phenol hydroxylase, protocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenase and catechol-2,3-dioxygenase. Thus, in strain XJU-4, protocatechuate and catechol were further metabolized through meta-cleavage pathway. Moreover, laboratory-scale soil experiments results suggest that B. flexus strain XJU-4 is a suitable contender for bioremediation of pyrethroid fenvalerate-contaminated sites.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15
       
  • Characterization of ligninolytic enzyme production in white-rot wild
           fungal strains suitable for kraft pulp bleaching

    • Abstract: Abstract Fungal strains identified by phylogenetic analysis of the ITS rDNA region as Trametes versicolor (CMU-TA01), Irpex lacteus (CMU-84/13), and Phlebiopsis sp. (CMU-47/13) are able to grow on and bleach kraft pulp (KP) in a simple solid-state fermentation (SSF) assay conducted in Petri dishes. Kappa number reductions obtained with Phlebiopsis sp. (48.3%), T. versicolor (43%), and I. lacteus (39.3%), evidence their capability for lignin breakdown. Scanning electron microscopy images of KP fibers from SSF assays demonstrated increased roughness and striation, evidencing significant cell wall modification. T. versicolor produces laccase (Lac), manganese peroxidase (MnP), and lignin peroxidase (LiP) in potato dextrose broth (PDB), PDB + CuSO4, and PDB + KP, whereas Phlebiopsis sp. and I. lacteus showed no Lac and low LiP activities in all media. Compared to PDB, the highest increase in Lac (7.25-fold) and MnP (2.37-fold) activities in PDB + CuSO4 occur in T. versicolor; for LiP, the greatest changes (6.95-fold) were observed in I. lacteus. Incubation in PDB + KP shows significant increases in Lac and MnP for T. versicolor, MnP and LiP for Phlebiopsis sp., and none for I. lacteus. SSF assays in Petri plates are a valuable tool to select fungi that are able to delignify KP. Here, delignification by Phlebiopsis sp. of this substrate is reported for the first time, and MnP activity was strongly associated with the delignification ability of the studied strains. The obtained results suggest that the studied fungal strains have biotechnological potential for use in the paper industry.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15
       
  • Genome-wide identification of novel vaccine candidates for Plasmodium
           falciparum malaria using integrative bioinformatics approaches

    • Abstract: Abstract In spite of decades of malaria research and clinical trials, a fully effective and long-lasting preventive vaccine remains elusive. In the present study, 5370 proteins of Plasmodium falciparum genome were screened for the presence of signal peptide/anchor and GPI anchor motifs. Out of 45 screened surface-associated proteins, 22 were consensually predicted as antigens and had no orthologs in human and mouse except circumsporozoite protein (PF3D7_0304600). Among 22 proteins, 19 were identified as new antigens. In the next step, a total of 4944 peptides were predicted as CD8+ T cell epitopes from 22 probable antigens. Of these, the highest scoring 262 epitopes from each antigen were taken for optimization study in the malaria-endemic regions which covered a broad human population (~93.95%). The predicted epitope 13ILFYFFLWV21 of antigen 6-cysteine (PF3D7_1346800) was binding to the HLA-A*0201 allele with the highest fraction (26%) of immunogenicity in the target populations of North-East Asia, South-East Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, these epitopes are proposed to be favored in vaccine designs against malaria.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15
       
  • Kinetics and mechanisms of mercury biosorption by an exopolysaccharide
           producing marine isolate Bacillus licheniformis

    • Abstract: Abstract Eight exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing metal-removing marine bacteria were screened for mercury (Hg) sorption. Bacillus licheniformis with the highest MIC values and Hg sorption ability was selected for further study. Biosorption of Hg from aqueous solution by Bacillus licheniformis was studied with respect to the metal concentration, adsorbent concentration, pH, different contact times, and in the presence of other metal ions. Under optimum conditions, more than 70% mercury was removed by 25 mg dried biomass of Bacillus licheniformis at pH 7.0 after 1 h of contact time. Freundlich adsorption isotherm was acceptable at studied Hg concentrations as compared to Langmuir isotherm model. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model was found to be more suitable for data presentation in contrast to pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Involvement of external mass transfer was prominent as compared to intraparticle diffusion model. Desorption of Hg was more effective with acids from all the studied eluents, showing 49.36 and 33.8% eluting capacity for 0.1 N HCL and 0.1 N HNO3, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy exhibited altered cell surface morphology of the cells under the influence of mercury. The spectral images of energy dispersive spectroscopy showed the presence of metal ions on the surface of cells.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
       
  • Investigation of the key factors on 3-hydroxypropionic acid production
           with different recombinant strains

    • Abstract: Abstract 3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) is an important compound and precursor for a series of chemicals and polymeric materials. In this study, the 3-HP producing bacteria were constructed and studied for efficient synthesis of 3-HP. The results indicated that the instability of glycerol dehydratase (GDHt) affected the 3-HP production significantly, which was successfully solved by the expression of glycerol dehydratase reactivase (GdrB), with fivefold increase in 3-HP yield. Meanwhile, NAD+-regenerating enzymes GPD1 (glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) was expressed; however, the results showed 3-HP was significantly decreased from 56.73–4 mM, and malic acid was obviously increased. Analysis of the C flux distribution showed that the main reason for the results was the lack of NAD+. The addition of NAD+ further increased the 3-HP production to 23.87 mM, demonstrating that the “regeneration of NAD+” was the major factor for enhancing 3-HP production.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
       
  • Enzyme kinetics of cellulose hydrolysis of Miscanthus and oat hulls

    • Abstract: Abstract Experiments were done to model enzymatic hydrolysis of Miscanthus and oat hulls treated with dilute solutions of nitric acid and sodium hydroxide in direct and reverse sequences. The enzymatic hydrolysis kinetics of the substrates was studied at an initial solid loading from 30 to 120 g/L. The effects of feedstock type and its pretreatment method on the initial hydrolysis rate and reducing sugar yield were evaluated. The fitting results by the developed models showed good agreement with the experimental data. These models designed for developing the production technology of concentrated glucose solutions can also be applied for glucose fermentation into ethanol. The initial solid loading of 60–90 g/L provides the reducing sugar concentration of 40–80 g/L necessary for ethanol synthesis. The kinetic model can also be applied to investigate enzymatic hydrolysis of other substrates (feedstock type, pretreatment method) under the similar conditions used herein, with adjusted empirical coefficient values.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
       
  • Endophytic bacteria: a new source of bioactive compounds

    • Abstract: Abstract In recent years, bioactive compounds are in high demand in the pharmaceuticals and naturopathy, due to their health benefits to human and plants. Microorganisms synthesize these compounds and some enzymes either alone or in association with plants. Microbes residing inside the plant tissues, known as endophytes, also produce an array of these compounds. Endophytic actinomycetes act as a promising resource of biotechnologically valuable bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites. Endophytic Streptomyces sp. produced some novel antibiotics which are effective against multi-drug-resistant bacteria Antimicrobial agents produced by endophytes are eco-friendly, toxic to pathogens and do not harm the human. Endophytic inoculation of the plants modulates the synthesis of bioactive compounds with high pharmaceutical properties besides promoting growth of the plants. Hydrolases, the extracellular enzymes, produced by endophytic bacteria, help the plants to establish systemic resistance against pathogens invasion. Phytohormones produced by endophytes play an essential role in plant development and drought resistance management. The high diversity of endophytes and their adaptation to various environmental stresses seem to be an untapped source of new secondary metabolites. The present review summarizes the role of endophytic bacteria in synthesis and modulation of bioactive compounds.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
       
  • Microsatellite marker-based characterization of waxy maize inbreds for
           their utilization in hybrid breeding

    • Abstract: Abstract Waxy corn possesses 95–100% amylopectin, compared to 70–75% in normal maize, owing to mutation in Wx gene encoding a granule-bound starch synthase I. Amylopectin is used as an ingredient in textile, adhesive and paper industries. Further, waxy green cob is popular as breakfast item in South Asia and an important constituent of diet in north-eastern states of India as well. We developed a series of waxy inbreds from diverse exotic sources and through introgression breeding. To characterize and unravel the genetic relationships, 24 diverse waxy inbreds were analysed using 77 SSRs distributed throughout the genome. The study generated a total of 203 polymorphic alleles, with a mean of 2.69 alleles per locus. A total of nine unique and 20 rare alleles were detected. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.08 to 0.68 with an average value of 0.40. Molecular profiling suggested sufficient attainment of homozygosity among the inbreds. Jaccard’s dissimilarity coefficient between pairs of genotypes varied from 0.26 to 0.83 which revealed the diverse nature of the inbred lines. Cluster analyses grouped 24 genotypes into three major clusters. Principle coordinate analysis based on SSR also depicted the diverse origin of the genotypes as per the pedigree more reliably than agro-morphological traits. These inbreds were also promising for various cob and grain characteristics including grain yield. The study identified a set of potential cross-combinations that can be planned to develop highly heterotic waxy hybrid combinations. This is the first report of development and characterization of waxy inbreds in India.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
       
  • Characterization and application of a newly isolated pyrene-degrading
           bacterium, Pseudomonas monteilii

    • Abstract: Abstract Pseudomonas monteilii PL5 (PL5) was newly isolated from soil sample and was identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The strain PL5 had a high potential to degrade pyrene (PYR) in both liquid solution and soil and was able to degrade 51.8% of PYR at 25 °C and pH 7.0 condition within 10 days. At 25 °C, the ability of strain PL5 to degrade PYR at different pH values followed the following order pH 6.0 > pH 7.0 > pH 8.0 > pH 9.0. Degradation of total PYR was 56.5 and 51.8% after 10 days at pH 6.0 and 7.0 with PYR half-lives of 8.8 and 9.2 days, respectively. The ability of strain PL5 degraded PYR under different temperatures was 35 > 25 > 15 °C at pH 6.0. Among the tested soils contaminated by PYR, the best degradation of PYR by strain PL5 occurred in paddy soil where the degradation was 57.5% after 10 days, and the half-life of PYR was reduced 19-fold in the presence of strain PL5. This study suggested that P. monteilii PL5 could be used for the bioremediation of the contaminated soil and water through the degradation of PYR.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13
       
 
 
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