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ENGINEERING (1206 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 234)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 258)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 236)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 216)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 58)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Canadian Geotechnical Journal
  [SJR: 2.093]   [H-I: 75]   [14 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0008-3674 - ISSN (Online) 1208-6010
   Published by NRC Research Press Homepage  [21 journals]
  • Retraction: Relationship between installation torque and axial capacities
           of helical piles in cohesionless soils
    • Authors: Mohammed Sakr
      Pages: 1 - 1
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.

      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T01:52:40Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2017-0478
  • Effects of fines on liquefaction behaviour in well-graded materials
    • Authors: Katherine A. Kwa, David W. Airey
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      This study uses a critical state soil mechanics perspective to understand the mechanics behind the liquefaction of metallic ores during transport by ship. These metallic ores are transported at relatively low densities and have variable gradings containing a wide range of particle sizes and fines contents. The effect of the fines content on the location of the critical state line (CSL) and the cyclic liquefaction behaviour of well-graded materials was investigated by performing saturated, standard drained and undrained monotonic and compression-only cyclic triaxial tests. Samples were prepared at four different gradings containing particle sizes from 9.5 mm to 2 μm with fines (
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-05-03T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2017-0016
  • Probabilistic investigations on the watertightness of jet-grouted ground
           considering geometric imperfections in diameter and position
    • Authors: Yutao Pan, Yong Liu, Jun Hu, Miaomiao Sun, Wei Wang
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      The effect of geometric imperfections in both diameter and position of jet-grouted columns on the watertightness of an underground cement-treated slab is investigated in this study. A three-dimensional discretized algorithm is proposed to facilitate the detection and measurement of untreated zones that penetrate the treated slab. The normalized flow rate of a cement-treated slab is then evaluated by calculating the harmonic average area of the penetrated defect. Statistical evaluation of the gross flow rate through the penetrated defects is carried out via Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that a more economic design is obtainable if intracolumn variation of diameter is considered or multi-shaft jet-grouting is used. Based on the statistical results, a reliability-based design method is proposed for designers to strike a balance among various design parameters, including slab thickness, depth, column diameter, and column spacing.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-04-27T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0671
  • Influence of debris flow solid fraction on rigid barrier impact
    • Authors: D. Song, C.W.W. Ng, C.E. Choi, G.G.D. Zhou, J.S.H. Kwan, R.C.H. Koo
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      The dynamics of debris flows are fundamentally governed by the interaction between the solid and fluid phases. However, current approaches used to estimate impact load treat debris flow as an equivalent fluid without considering solid–fluid interaction separately from other factors. In this study, a series of centrifuge tests was carried out to investigate the influence of interaction between solid and fluid phases on single-surge debris flow impact on a rigid barrier. The effect of solid–fluid interaction was studied by varying the solid fraction of the flows. A model rigid barrier was instrumented to capture induced bending moment and impact pressure. Test results demonstrate that the transition from a pile-up mechanism to a run-up mechanism is governed by the solid fraction and thus the grain contact stresses. The rigid barrier design for the impact with a pile-up mechanism is mainly dominated by the static load. Contrary to the hydrodynamic approach, which assumes that the frontal impact is the most critical, the frontal impact of a run-up mechanism contributes less than 25% of the total force impulse. The consideration of static loading leads to the development of a new impact model with a triangular distribution of the impact pressure.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-04-26T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0502
  • Superstructure–foundation interaction in multi-objective pile group
           optimization considering settlement response
    • Authors: Y.F. Leung, A. Klar, K. Soga, N.A. Hoult
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      The full potential of pile optimization has not been realized as the interactions between superstructures and foundations, and the relationships between material usage and foundation performance are rarely investigated. This paper introduces an analysis and optimization approach for pile group and piled raft foundations, which allows coupling of superstructure stiffness with the foundation model, through a condensed matrix representing the flexural characteristics of the superstructure. This coupled approach is implemented within a multi-objective optimization algorithm, capable of providing a series of optimized pile configurations at various amounts of material. The approach is illustrated through two case studies. The first case involves evaluation of the coupled superstructure–foundation analyses against field measurements of a piled raft–supported building in London, UK. The potential benefits of pile optimization are also demonstrated through re-analyses of the foundation by the proposed optimization approach. In the second case, the effects of a soft storey on the superstructure–foundation interactions are investigated. These cases demonstrate the importance of properly considering the superstructure effects, especially when the building consists of stiff components such as concrete shear walls. The proposed approach also allows engineers to make informed decisions on the foundation design, depending on the specific project finances and performance requirements.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0498
  • Capacity evaluation of voided driven piles using embedded data collectors
    • Authors: Khiem T. Tran, Scott J. Wasman, Michael McVay, Rodrigo Herrera
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      This paper presents an application of a method that will be implemented in the embedded data collector (EDC) system in the near future, to estimate the capacity of driven piles with a combined solid and voided cross section. Data from accelerometers and strain gauges located in the solid sections at both the top and the bottom of a pile are used to independently estimate the pile’s skin friction and tip resistance. Wave propagation along the pile is modeled as a one-dimensional wave equation, with a nonuniform cross section and with nonlinear static skin friction and viscous-damping soil resistances acting along multiple segments of the pile. The static skin friction is extracted by least-squares fitting of computed particle velocities with measured data at both the top and the bottom of the pile. The pile tip is modeled as a nonlinear single degree of freedom with viscous damping. Static tip resistance (nonlinear stiffness–displacement relationship) is extracted by least-squares fitting of the predicted total force and energy with the measured tip data. The new EDC method was applied to four combined solid–voided cross section driven piles with capacities varying from 2800 to 6700 kN. The results of the data evaluated with the new EDC method are consistent with those from the static load tests to within 15%.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-04-22T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2017-0008
  • Effects of twin-tunnel excavation on an existing horseshoe-shaped tunnel
           considering the influence of a settlement joint
    • Authors: Biao Jiang, Li’ang Chen, J.S. Yang, Shuying Wang, C.W.W. Ng
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      In urban centres, the construction of a new tunnel would cause ground disturbance and affect any adjacent existing tunnel. Tunnel–tunnel interaction problems have not yet been comprehensively studied. In particular, the response of an existing horseshoe-shaped tunnel to the construction of two perpendicularly undercrossing tunnels remains unclear. In this study, three-dimensional centrifuge tests and three-dimensional numerical analysis were designed and conducted in dry sand to investigate the effects of twin-tunnel undercrossing on an existing horseshoe-shaped tunnel considering the influence of a settlement joint. It is found that the adverse effects caused by the tunnel excavated later were smaller than those by the earlier one. For the existing tunnel without a settlement joint, the settlement at the invert and crown along the longitudinal direction showed sagging and hogging curves, respectively, owing to significant vertical elongation of the middle section. The presence of a settlement joint resulted in an increase in the settlement of the ground surface and the existing tunnel by over 100%. In both cases, larger bending strains were induced in the transverse direction than in the longitudinal direction, particularly around the corners.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2015-0389
  • Effect of zeolite utilization on volume change and strength properties of
           expansive soil as landfill barrier
    • Authors: Şerife Öncü, Huriye Bilsel
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      A sand–Na–bentonite mixture is widely used as engineering barrier material, which usually possesses hydraulic conductivity below the regulatory limit (10−7 cm/s). However, in some areas natural Na–bentonite is not readily available; instead, an abundantly prevailing local expansive soil can be an alternative. This study assesses the suitability of a local expansive soil mixed with zeolite, easily obtained from natural reserves in Turkey, proposed to be used as a landfill liner in a semi-arid climate. The choice of zeolite is due to its already well-understood high adsorption capacity for heavy metals as well as its pozzolanicity. The volume change, strength, and hydraulic conductivity characteristics were studied with respect to durability through ageing. When an expansive soil to zeolite ratio of 0.5 was used, the results indicated improved properties with curing. Swell potential was observed to decrease by 85% within a 90 day curing period, while a 30%–34% reduction was noted in shrinkage and compressibility characteristics. The hydraulic conductivity was observed to remain below the regulatory limit under all confining pressure ranges studied, provided the curing time was at least 90 days. Moreover, the mixture attained improved strength characteristics with time, and proved to be sustainable over the period studied. Therefore, it was concluded that expansive soil mixed with zeolite could be a good alternative to sand–Na-bentonite, mainly in developing areas of growing population and environmental degradation.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0483
  • Effect of specimen preparation techniques on dynamic properties of
           unsaturated fine-grained soil at high suctions
    • Authors: C.W.W. Ng, S. Baghbanrezvan, H. Sadeghi, C. Zhou, F. Jafarzadeh
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      The seismic response of soil depends on proper evaluation and use of soil dynamic properties, including shear modulus and damping ratio at various strain levels. Despite extensive studies on the shear modulus and damping ratio of saturated soils, research on the dynamic properties of unsaturated fine-grained soils — especially at high suction — is limited. This study aims to investigate the dynamic properties of loess at a variety of initial states resulting from different specimen preparation techniques (reconstituted, recompacted, and intact) and their evolutions due to suction-induced desiccation. Results of resonant column tests show that at initial states, the specimen preparation technique has a negligible effect on the normalized modulus (G/Gmax) and damping degradation pattern, while the influence becomes significant at a high suction (40 MPa). This is attributed to the microstructural evolution of specimens with different initial states that were subjected to suction-induced desiccation. More specifically, the elastic shear strain threshold decreases (reduction of elastic range) while shear modulus increases as suction reaches 40 MPa. Furthermore, the rate of increase in the damping ratio as well as degradation of the shear modulus for specimens at high suction is faster than their initial states. Based on the scanning electron microscopy observations, these findings may be attributed to the aggregation of larger silt–clay assemblies induced by suction increase. Consequently, soil with larger aggregates behaves more like granular sandy soil than saturated silt or clay.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-04-19T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0531
  • Capillary forces between equally sized moving glass beads: an experimental
    • Authors: M.G. Bozkurt, D. Fratta, W.J. Likos
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      The mechanical response of near-surface unsaturated soils in large-strain environments such as earthquakes, landslides or debris flows is highly dependent on capillary forces. While the evolution of capillary forces under static loading has been studied in detail, the dynamic response of unsaturated soils associated with the viscous deformation and rupture of interparticle liquid menisci at large strains is not as well characterized. Particle-scale pullout tests were conducted to achieve better understanding of how separation rates and distances contribute to capillary force evolution and meniscus rupture between two equally sized glass spheres. Capillary forces evolve nonmonotonically in a manner that first increases and then decreases with increasing separation distances and is dependent on the initial meniscus geometry and wettability of the particles. The rate of capillary force reduction and particle separation distance at liquid bridge rupture are functions of the meniscus volume and rate of particle separation. The two-particle experimental results suggest that the dynamic response of bulk (multi-particle) unsaturated soil systems would depend on processes of drainage and imbibition and provide insight into the evolution of stiffness and the ductility of unsaturated soils undergoing large-strain deformations.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-04-14T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0213
  • Membrane behavior of compacted sand–bentonite mixture
    • Authors: Amara J. Meier, Charles D. Shackelford
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      Semi-permeable membrane behavior contributes to the containment function of engineered barriers used for waste containment by restricting the migration of dissolved chemical species (solutes) such as aqueous-phase contaminants. The existence of membrane behavior has been demonstrated extensively for virtually all categories of bentonite-based containment barriers except compacted sand–bentonite mixtures. Accordingly, membrane tests were conducted on two specimens of a compacted sand–bentonite mixture comprising 15% bentonite (dry weight) with sufficiently low hydraulic conductivity (i.e., ≤1.0 × 10−9 m/s) to be suitable for use as a waste containment barrier. Despite the imposition of relatively complex chemical conditions, including the use of tap water versus de-ionized water as a circulating liquid and incomplete flushing (leaching) of soluble salts from the specimens prior to membrane testing, the results were in good agreement with those previously reported for other bentonite-based engineered barriers when exposed to similar or the same types of salts and salt concentrations. Also, both compacted soil–bentonite specimens exhibited similar magnitudes of membrane behavior, with measured membrane efficiencies ranging from 0.395 ± 0.053 to 0.063 ± 0.012 when exposed to source KCl solutions with concentrations ranging from 5 to 80 mmol/L, respectively. Thus, compacted sand–bentonite mixtures suitable for use as engineered containment barriers can exhibit semi-permeable membrane behavior, thereby potentially enhancing the containment function of the barriers.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0708
  • Evaluation of Becker penetration test interpretation methods for
           liquefaction assessment in gravelly soils
    • Authors: Mason Ghafghazi, Jason T. DeJong, Daniel W. Wilson
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      The Becker penetration test (BPT) is the only tool available for characterizing gravelly soils with a probe diameter that is meaningfully larger than that of the standard penetration test (SPT) and the cone penetration test (CPT). Measurements on the BPT system during operation provide information on how penetration is controlled by the driving energy and frictional resistance along the shaft. This has led to development of the instrumented Becker penetration test (iBPT), which uses measurements of force and acceleration obtained directly behind the drill string tip to compute the residual energy and displacement induced by each hammer blow. These measurements are used to produce a continuous profile of normalized blow counts that are repeatable, unaffected by varying driving energy or accumulated shaft resistance, and can be used to directly estimate equivalent SPT N60 blow count values as per DeJong et al. and Ghafghazi et al. in their 2017 studies. The measurements obtained also enabled evaluation of previously developed methods by Harder and Seed in 1986 and Sy and Campanella in 1994. This evaluation revealed that the hammer energy normalization approaches employed by Sy and Campanella and especially Harder and Seed are not robust across the broad range of conditions observed. The predicted equivalent SPT N60 values by Harder and Seed and Sy and Campanella methods are influenced by the shaft resistance magnitude as both methods are based on above-ground field measurements. Estimated N60 values produced by the two methods can be inconsistent with each other, with N60 values produced by the iBPT, and with measured N60 values obtained directly from SPT (where values are obtained in the absence of gravel).
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0413
  • Seismic assessment of sheet pile reinforcement effect on river embankments
           constructed on a soft foundation ground including soft estuarine clay
    • Authors: Kentaro Nakai, Toshihiro Noda, Kenta Kato
      Pages: 1 - 22
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      Conventional seismic assessments of river embankments have focused on liquefaction damage of sandy ground. However, following the 2011 earthquake centered off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku, extensive damage of river embankments built on a clayey foundation has garnered greater attention. This paper presents seismic response analyses of river embankments constructed on soft and sensitive estuarine clay, as well as analyses of countermeasures implemented with sheet piles with a succession of penetration depth and placement. River embankments have kept stable if the clayey ground was assumed to be a nonsensitive condition. However, if a strong shake impacts actual sensitive clay, there is a risk of slippage generated from the clayey layer. If the penetration depth of piles is shallow in the clayey layer, the clay is strongly disturbed by the tip of the pile, generating extensive damage; if the penetration depth is sufficiently deep in the supporting layer, significant deformation control may be obtained at the reinforced side, although there is a risk of promoting deformation at the opposite side. These results indicate the importance of the specific inspection of pile penetration depth; otherwise, not only is it not possible to obtain a sufficient countermeasure effect, but also an adverse effect may be generated.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-04-05T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0019
  • Vibration velocity of X-section cast-in-place concrete (XCC) pile–raft
           foundation model for a ballastless track
    • Authors: Guangchao Sun, Gangqiang Kong, Hanlong Liu, Andrew Cudzo Amenuvor
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      This paper presents two case studies of the dynamic response of a ballastless track, X-section cast-in-place concrete (XCC) pile–raft (referred to as BTXPR) foundation embedded in sand subsoil. Model tests were conducted at a scale of 1/5 using a 7 m deep box with cross-sectional dimensions of 5 m × 4 m. In one case the box was filled with subsoil consisting of air-dried sand, whereas in the other case the box was filled with saturated sand. The tests involved measurement and analysis of the response in velocity under different applied cyclic load frequencies. It has been shown that the magnitude and variation of vibration velocity in the BTXPR foundation are closely related to the degree of saturation of the subsoil. Due to the existence of pore water in the saturated sand subsoil, the first natural frequency of the BTXPR foundation embedded in saturated sand is 5 Hz lower than that in air-dried sand. In addition, the amplitude of vibration velocity of the BTXPR foundation embedded in the saturated sand is about 9%∼36% higher than that of the air-dried sand. The research results provide an insight into BTXPR foundations with respect to theoretical analysis and calculation.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2015-0623
  • Holding capacity of dynamically installed anchors in normally consolidated
           clay under inclined loading
    • Authors: Yong Fu, Xiying Zhang, Yuping Li, Hai Gu, Jie Sun, Yong Liu, Fook Hou Lee
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      This paper describes a design framework for inclined tensile loading capacity (holding capacity) of dynamically installed anchors in soft clay. Centrifuge model test and numerical results indicate that, while ultimate inclined holding capacity increases with a loading angle smaller than 45° (to the vertical at anchor padeye), anchor failure is controlled predominantly by the ultimate vertical holding capacity, which can be predicted using the American Petroleum Institute method put forth in 2007 with interface friction ratio of 0.25–0.34 and 0.60–0.82 for short- and long-term conditions, respectively. For a loading angle larger than about 65°, anchor failure is controlled largely by the ultimate horizontal holding capacity. It is proposed herein that the ultimate lateral holding capacity can be estimated by generalizing Broms’ method put forth in 1964 for lateral anchor capacity to variable cross section; thereby allowing anchor geometry to be considered in a rational manner. Good agreement can be obtained between the estimated ultimate horizontal holding capacity and that computed using the finite element method by using a lateral resistance of 10.5su, where su is the undrained shear strength. For a loading angle between 45° and 65°, there is significant interaction between vertical and horizontal failure modes. This allows a normalized horizontal–vertical interaction curve to be defined by fitting data from this and previous studies.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0537
  • Role of normal boundary condition in interface shear test for the
           determination of skin friction along pile shaft
    • Authors: Jianfeng Wang, Su Liu, Yi Pik Cheng
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      This paper presents numerical results from a two-dimensional discrete element method (DEM) simulation study on the influence of lateral boundary condition on shaft resistance of a pile driven into a crushable sand. The study was conducted by comparing simulation results from the pile penetration test and the interface shear test employing parallel-bonded agglomerates for modeling of the particle breakage. The interface shear test was performed under three different types of normal boundary conditions; namely, constant normal load (CNL), constant normal stiffness (CNS), and constant volume (CV) boundary conditions. For the pile penetration test, a series of sampling windows were identified on the initial ground configuration to monitor the stress–strain, volume change, and particle breakage behavior of particle groups located within the sampling windows. A detailed investigation was then undertaken by comparing the behavior of particle groups with that from the interface shear test to find out which type of normal boundary condition best describes the lateral boundary condition in the pile penetration test. It has been found that the behavior of a particle group reaches the peak state below the pile tip and the critical state after it reaches the pile shaft. The influence of normal boundary condition on the stress ratio at the critical state is not obvious. The conventional interface shear test (i.e., CNL) can provide valuable information on the determination of skin friction along the pile shaft.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-03-29T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0312
  • Suitability of jetted and grouted precast pile for supporting mast arm
    • Authors: Sudheesh Thiyyakkandi, Michael McVay, Peter Lai, Rodrigo Herrera
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      Jetted and grouted precast piles (JGPPs) are prefabricated piles installed utilizing jetting and pressure grouting. These piles are well-suited for urban environments as they overcome the inherent drawbacks of currently chosen deep foundations (e.g., noise and vibration disturbances due to pile driving, quality control issue with cast-in-place construction). Past studies in a large test chamber facility have shown that JGPPs can support very high axial and torsional loads owing to their improved skin and tip resistances subsequent to the side- and tip-grouting. However, this new pile has not yet been implemented in practice due to the lack of field verification of its constructability as well as load resistance. This paper presents the full-scale field construction of two JGPPs and the load test program performed to investigate the applicability of the new pile as a foundation for miscellaneous structures. As such structures are subjected to high torsion and lateral load during severe wind-loading (e.g., hurricanes), the test program included combined torsion and lateral loading as well as simple lateral loading. An actual pole – mast arm assembly was used in the coupled torsion and lateral load test to simulate the typical field-loading scenario. The load was applied using a crane and the pile’s rotations and translations were monitored using the novel instrumentation systems. The field tests showed that JGPPs possess high torsion and lateral resistances compared to identically sized drilled shafts, which is a common foundation type used for such structures. The two methods available for predicting axial resistance of the new pile are found to be suitable for the estimation of torsional resistance as well. It was also found that the concurrent application of torsion significantly reduces lateral resistance of the new pile foundation as observed for drilled shafts. In general, the study reveals that the JGPPs are well-suited foundations for miscellaneous structures.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0467
  • Geotechnical properties of polymer-amended tailings solvent recovery unit
           (TSRU) oil sands tailings
    • Authors: Courtney Dean, Sumi Siddiqua, Deborah June Roberts
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      Fine tailings from the tailings solvent recovery unit (TSRU) in the Athabasca oil sands are known to contain a relatively high pyrite content and a high residual hydrocarbon content, which may alter their geotechnical properties. Little is known about TSRU tailings properties and therefore the potential for subaerial deposition. The goal of this study was to investigate the geotechnical properties of untreated, polymer-amended, and sand-mixed TSRU tailings to provide information for the consideration of subaerial deposition and increase the general knowledge about these unique tailings. The polymer-amended tailings had more desirable properties for subaerial deposition, including a lower final void ratio, less energy required to desaturate, and higher compressibility, when compared with the untreated tailings. The sand-mixed samples enhanced these properties, but may pose issues for transportation. The mineralogy indicated that the polymer-amended TSRU tailings have a high-enough pyrite content for acid generation, which may pose environmental issues for subaerial deposition. Overall, TSRU tailings exhibited different geotechnical properties when compared with the well-studied mature fine tailings, highlighting the need for further studies to provide information for the management of TSRU tailings.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0028
  • Influence of stress and water content on air permeability of intact loess
    • Authors: Cunli Chen, Dengfei Zhang, Jie Zhang
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      Air permeability is one of the key parameters in performing consolidation analysis of unsaturated soil. Few data are available regarding the air permeability for intact loess under different applied stresses. The work reported in this paper evaluated the air permeability at isotropic stress using data obtained from laboratory investigations for intact loess. Air permeability tests were performed on specimens of intact loess at various water contents and isotropic stresses. Stress remarkably affected air permeability as a function of both liquid saturation and volumetric air content. There were all unique relationships not only between relative air permeability and liquid saturation as well as relative volumetric air content, but also between air permeability and modified air saturation for different stresses. The relative air permeability against liquid saturation could be well described by the Parker–van Genuchten–Mulaem (P-vG-M) model in terms of total liquid saturation. The relationship between relative air permeability and relative volumetric air content could be more conveniently expressed by the reference point power law (RPL) model, using the reference point values at natural water content rather than that at air-dried water content. Compared with the other two models, the proposed modified air saturation power law (MAPL) model was more appropriate to predict the air permeability.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0186
  • Correlations among some parameters of coarse-grained soils — the
           multivariate probability distribution model
    • Authors: Jianye Ching, Guan-Hong Lin, Kok-Kwang Phoon, Jieru Chen
      Pages: 1 - 18
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      A multivariate probability distribution model for seven parameters of coarse-grained soils is constructed based on the SAND/7/2794 database that was compiled by the authors. It is shown that the multivariate probability distribution captures the correlation behaviors in the database among the seven parameters. This multivariate distribution model serves as a prior distribution model in the Bayesian analysis and can be updated into the posterior distribution of the design soil parameter when multivariate site-specific information is available. It is shown that this Bayesian analysis is conceptually similar to what is routinely carried out in practice, which utilizes information from comparable sites to supplement limited site-specific information. The resulting posterior distribution from Bayesian analysis merely combines different uncertainties associated with different sources of “correlated” information in a more consistent way. In this paper, the parameters for the posterior distribution of the design soil parameter are summarized into engineer-friendly tables (Tables 9 and ) so that engineers do not need to conduct the actual Bayesian analysis. Caution should be taken in extrapolating the results of this paper to cases that are not covered by SAND/7/2794, because the resulting posterior distribution can be misleading. This caveat applies to conventional regression equations as well.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-03-22T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0571
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