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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2284 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (184 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (102 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1208 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (389 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (65 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (89 journals)

ENGINEERING (1208 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 229)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 254)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 227)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 184)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Canadian Geotechnical Journal
  [SJR: 2.093]   [H-I: 75]   [14 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0008-3674 - ISSN (Online) 1208-6010
   Published by NRC Research Press Homepage  [21 journals]
  • Geotechnical engineering significance of Great Plains polygonal fault
           system
    • Authors: Andy St-Onge
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      An extensive polygonal fault system (PFS) within fine-grained Upper Cretaceous sediments beneath the Great Plains of North America has implications for geotechnical engineering. Geological well control, outcrop, and three-dimensional seismic data from southeast Saskatchewan exemplify the fault characteristics typically observed within the PFS. The deepest faults are sparse, offset a seismic reflection identified from the Niobrara Formation Govenlock member, and have vertical offsets
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-06-26T05:13:52Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0436
       
  • Role of normal boundary condition in interface shear test for the
           determination of skin friction along pile shaft
    • Authors: Jianfeng Wang, Su Liu, Yi Pik Cheng
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      This paper presents numerical results from a two-dimensional discrete element method (DEM) simulation study on the influence of lateral boundary condition on shaft resistance of a pile driven into a crushable sand. The study was conducted by comparing simulation results from the pile penetration test and the interface shear test employing parallel-bonded agglomerates for modeling of the particle breakage. The interface shear test was performed under three different types of normal boundary conditions; namely, constant normal load (CNL), constant normal stiffness (CNS), and constant volume (CV) boundary conditions. For the pile penetration test, a series of sampling windows were identified on the initial ground configuration to monitor the stress–strain, volume change, and particle breakage behavior of particle groups located within the sampling windows. A detailed investigation was then undertaken by comparing the behavior of particle groups with that from the interface shear test to find out which type of normal boundary condition best describes the lateral boundary condition in the pile penetration test. It has been found that the behavior of a particle group reaches the peak state below the pile tip and the critical state after it reaches the pile shaft. The influence of normal boundary condition on the stress ratio at the critical state is not obvious. The conventional interface shear test (i.e., CNL) can provide valuable information on the determination of skin friction along the pile shaft.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-03-29T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0312
       
  • Geotechnical properties of polymer-amended tailings solvent recovery unit
           (TSRU) oil sands tailings
    • Authors: Courtney Dean, Sumi Siddiqua, Deborah June Roberts
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      Fine tailings from the tailings solvent recovery unit (TSRU) in the Athabasca oil sands are known to contain a relatively high pyrite content and a high residual hydrocarbon content, which may alter their geotechnical properties. Little is known about TSRU tailings properties and therefore the potential for subaerial deposition. The goal of this study was to investigate the geotechnical properties of untreated, polymer-amended, and sand-mixed TSRU tailings to provide information for the consideration of subaerial deposition and increase the general knowledge about these unique tailings. The polymer-amended tailings had more desirable properties for subaerial deposition, including a lower final void ratio, less energy required to desaturate, and higher compressibility, when compared with the untreated tailings. The sand-mixed samples enhanced these properties, but may pose issues for transportation. The mineralogy indicated that the polymer-amended TSRU tailings have a high-enough pyrite content for acid generation, which may pose environmental issues for subaerial deposition. Overall, TSRU tailings exhibited different geotechnical properties when compared with the well-studied mature fine tailings, highlighting the need for further studies to provide information for the management of TSRU tailings.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0028
       
  • Microfabricated sol-gel relative humidity sensors for soil suction
           measurement during laboratory tests
    • Authors: Rafaela Cardoso, Gabriele Sarapajevaite, Oleksandr Korsun, Susana Cardoso, Laura Ilharco
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      Currently there are no small sensors that can be incorporated inside soil samples for laboratory testing, to monitor water transport during loading. This is an important limitation to a better understanding of the hydromechanical coupled behaviour of soils. A sol-gel relative humidity sensor (11 mm × 11 mm), microfabricated in a clean room environment, was conceived to be incorporated in soil specimens during standard laboratory tests. The sensor operates based on changes in electrical resistivity detected by a cerium-doped silica–titania film deposited using a sol-gel technique over interdigitated aluminium electrodes spaced at 300 μm. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, sol-gel sensors for relative humidity measurement have never been used in soils; therefore, this is a novel application. The water retention curve of compacted kaolin was measured with the sensors and compared with the curve found using water dewpoint potentiometer WP4-C. The sensors were also tested incorporated in an oedometer cell, in which load was applied under vapour equilibrium. It was possible to detect the increment of the degree of saturation during compression. The use of the developed sensors incorporated in soils is considered acceptable for suction ranges between 1 and 10 MPa, which extends the suction interval covered by tensiometers, normally operating up to 2 MPa. Although the sensors require improvements in terms of sol-gel deposition and calibration protocol, the results confirm their scientific potential for being used in testing and characterization of unsaturated soils.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0419
       
  • Evaluation of defective sewer pipe–induced internal erosion and
           associated ground deformation using laboratory model test
    • Authors: Samanthi Indiketiya, Piratheepan Jegatheesan, Pathmanathan Rajeev
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      Sinkholes induced by long-term internal erosion around defective sewer pipes have been widely reported. There is a need for an efficient method to understand the influence of pipe defects on internal erosion and ground settlement. This paper presents an approach to the investigation of erosion-induced ground settlement and the susceptibility of pipe bedding materials to internal erosion. A new and efficient erosion test apparatus is introduced, aided by controlling most of the key influencing parameters. The corresponding ground displacement is tracked by image correlation based on particle image velocimetry (PIV). The basic parameters investigated are (i) the process of cavity initiation and evolution, (ii) the rate of soil loss, (iii) the gradation of eroded soil, and (iv) the corresponding ground displacement. The results indicate that particles less than 0.3 mm are highly vulnerable to erosion through 5 mm openings of embedment material with a maximum particle size of 4.75 mm. The proposed method is beneficial, as it allows measurement of the deformation at any time and at any location throughout the test and facilitates checking the resistance to erosion of pipe embedment materials.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0558
       
  • Load-transfer platform behaviour in embankments supported on semi-rigid
           columns: implications of the ground reaction curve
    • Authors: Daniel J. King, Abdelmalek Bouazza, Joel R. Gniel, R. Kerry Rowe, Ha H. Bui
      Pages: 1 - 18
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      Post-construction data from an instrumented geosynthetic reinforced column supported embankment (GRCSE) on drilled displacement columns in Melbourne, Australia, show the time-dependent development of arching over the 2 year monitoring period and a strong relationship between the development of arching stresses and subsoil settlement. A ground reaction curve is adopted to describe the development of arching stresses and good agreement is found for the period observed thus far. Predictions of arching stresses and load-transfer platform behaviour are presented for the remaining design life. Four phases of arching stress development (initial, maximum, load-recovery, and creep strain phases) are shown to describe the time-dependent, and subsoil-dependent, development of arching stresses that can be expected to occur in many field embankments. Of the four phases, the load-recovery phase is the most important with respect to load-transfer platform design, as it predicts the breakdown of arching stresses in the long term due to increasing subsoil settlement. This has important implications in assessing the appropriate design stress for the geosynthetic reinforcement layers, but also the deformation of the load-transfer platform in the long term.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-03-20T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0406
       
  • Effect of polyaniline-coated galvanized steel electrodes on electrokinetic
           sedimentation of dredged mud slurries
    • Authors: M. Malekzadeh, N. Sivakugan, O. Kazum, B. Mathan
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      An experimental study on electrokinetic improvement of dredged marine sediments to accelerate their sedimentation for land reclamation purposes is presented. Electrokinetic stabilization is currently used to improve soils; however, its use on soils with marine sediments with low permeability is still questionable due to the deterioration of anodes caused by an electrolysis reaction. A number of traditional methods are employed in literature to reduce the corrosion degradation of metals, such as painting, galvanizing, and conversion coating. Conducting polymers, e.g., polyaniline, are of engineering interest due to their properties such as ease of preparation and their high environmental stability in protecting metals from corrosion. For this purpose, the anodes used in the electrokinetic testing cell herein were coated with polyaniline to investigate the effect on electrokinetic stabilization of the dredged mud. Two series of experiments were performed using a polyaniline-coated galvanized steel anode, and two series of experiments with noncoated galvanized steel anodes were also carried out as a control. Depending on the applied voltage, the settlement and electroosmotic permeability of the dredged mud varied during the process. Polyaniline coating increased the power consumption during the electrokinetic stabilization compared to the case where the same electric potential was applied using the uncoated electrodes. However, when 5 V electric potential was applied to the soil through the polyaniline coated anode, its settlement and electroosmotic permeability were equivalent to what was observed with the 30 V electric potential applied through the noncoated anode, with 3 times less energy consumption.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0127
       
  • Gas breakthrough in saturated compacted GaoMiaoZi (GMZ) bentonite under
           rigid boundary conditions
    • Authors: L. Xu, W.M. Ye, B. Ye
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      In a geological repository for disposal of high-level radioactive waste, gas breakthrough is an important phenomenon during a gas migration process in the saturated engineered barrier. In this paper, gas injection, swelling pressure, water permeability, and water retention tests were conducted on saturated compacted GaoMiaoZi (GMZ) bentonite to investigate the gas breakthrough mechanism. Results show that, for saturated GMZ bentonite tested under rigid boundary conditions, the gas breakthrough pressure is significantly larger than the swelling pressure and slightly lower than the gas entry pressure obtained from the water retention characteristic and the van Genuchten model. Gas breakthrough pressure deviates from the swelling pressure and approaches the calculated gas entry pressure as the dry density increases. Mechanical and capillary effects are both important to the gas migration process for specimens with lower dry densities, and the capillary effect becomes more important with the increase of dry density. The desaturation and shrinkage of the specimen will result in unexpectedly high and disordered interfacial gas flux. For specimens with higher dry densities, gas will only flow through interconnected larger pores, then result in minor desaturation–shrinkage of the specimen. Finally, a new model with consideration of both mechanical and capillary effects is proposed, which can accurately predict gas breakthrough pressure for a GMZ bentonite specimen.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0220
       
  • Membrane filter properties and application of the filter to undrained
           cyclic triaxial test of unsaturated materials
    • Authors: Hailong Wang, Junichi Koseki, Tomoyoshi Nishimura, Yukika Miyashita
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      Properties of the membrane filter recently introduced as an alternative to the ceramic disk are revealed through diffusion and hydraulic conductivity tests. It is shown that diffusion of air through the membrane filter is significantly affected by suction magnitude and that hydraulic conductivity of the membrane filter can easily be affected by the quality of water used in the test. The application of the membrane filter to the soil-water characteristic curve tests (SWCC tests) shows that similar SWCCs can be obtained by employing pressure plate apparatuses with either the ceramic disks or the membrane filter installed, and that repeatability of the SWCC by using the membrane filter pressure plate apparatus is reasonably good. The application of the membrane filter to the undrained cyclic loading test of unsaturated sandy materials shows that the response (the duration to measure the equilibrated pore-water pressure of unsaturated materials) of the membrane filter pedestal in a modified triaxial system may be as short as ∼2 s in certain test conditions, and fairly good pore-water pressure and air pressure measurements can be obtained during undrained cyclic loading with a loading frequency of 0.1 Hz.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0507
       
  • Meander migration: the observation method
    • Authors: Jean-Louis Briaud, Axel M. Montalvo-Bartolomei
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      River meanders migrate over time and the consequences of this migration can create a problem for bridges and embankments near the river. This is why it is important to predict the lateral extent of future migration over the life of neighboring infrastructure. In the observation method for meander migration (OMM), the past movement and velocity history of the meander are used to back-calculate site specific erosion parameters. Those parameters serve as input to predict the meander migration for a chosen future velocity hydrograph. In this article and after a review of existing knowledge, the analytical steps leading to the development of the OMM are described, then the field and laboratory work at four full-scale meander migration case histories are presented, and then the four full-scale meander migration case histories are used to evaluate the OMM. The OMM has been automated in an Excel spreadsheet.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-03-09T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2015-0639
       
  • Insight into hydraulic conductivity testing of geosynthetic clay liners
           (GCLs) exhumed after 5 and 7 years in a cover
    • Authors: R.K. Rowe, R.W.I. Brachman, M.S. Hosney, W.A. Take, D.N. Arnepalli
      Pages: 1 - 21
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      Four geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) serving as single liners were exhumed from below 0.7 m of silty sand on a 3:1 (horizontal:vertical) north-facing slope at the QUELTS site in Godfrey, Ontario, after 5 and 7 years. The 300 mm GCL overlaps with 0.4 kg/m supplemental bentonite were all physically intact. The exchangeable bound sodium was completely replaced with divalent cations. The GCL with the smallest needle-punched bundle size (average of 0.7 mm) and percentage area covered by bundles (4%) maintained low hydraulic conductivity (k) when tested under 0.07–1.2 m head with 10 mmol/L CaCl2 solution as the permeant. For GCLs with larger bundles (1.1–1.6 mm) and higher percentage area covered by bundles (9%–14%), k was low when the head was low (0.07 m). Once the applied head increased, k increased by 1–4 orders of magnitude depending on the (i) hydraulic gradient, (ii) size and number of the needle-punched bundles, and (iii) structure and mass of the bentonite per unit area. The results suggest that the GCLs can perform effectively as a single hydraulic barrier in covers providing that the head above the GCL is kept low (e.g., by a suitable drainage layer above the GCL).
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-03-09T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0473
       
  • Laboratory investigation on hydraulic anisotropy behavior of unsaturated
           soil
    • Authors: Priono, Harianto Rahardjo, Kalyani Chatterjea, Eng-Choon Leong
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      Hydraulic anisotropy behavior of unsaturated soil has not been fully investigated. Direct laboratory measurement and indirect determination of hydraulic anisotropy under a drying condition were carried out on statically compacted specimens having different initial conditions. Direct measurement of permeability was carried out using an unsaturated triaxial permeameter whereas indirect determination of permeability was performed through statistical estimation via a measured drying soil–water characteristic curve (SWCC). In this research, two orientations — specifically horizontal-layering (HL) and vertical-layering (VL) orientations — were prepared for a given specimen from statically compacted homogeneous sand–kaolin. The results from both direct measurement and indirect determination of hydraulic anisotropy were in good agreement. Hydraulic anisotropy under an unsaturated condition was found to be similar with that in a saturated condition. Moreover, hydraulic anisotropy was reflected in the ratio of transient time during the direct measurements of HL and VL specimens at high matric suctions. In contrast, in the indirect method, hydraulic anisotropy was reflected in the ratio of equalization time during SWCC tests at matric suctions higher than the air-entry value of the soil.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0023
       
  • Simulation of hydromechanical behaviour of bentonite seals for containment
           of radioactive wastes
    • Authors: O. Nasir, T.S. Nguyen, J.D. Barnichon, A. Millard
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      Geological disposal of radioactive wastes relies on a multiple barrier system to provide long-term containment and isolation of the wastes. The excavation of the repository creates openings and disturbed zones in the host rock formations that need to be properly sealed. Bentonite-based materials are being considered worldwide as a preferred type of sealing material, since they possess desirable characteristics such as low permeability, high sorption capability, and swelling potential allowing them to close internal cracks and gaps at interfaces with other materials. The French Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has led an experimental program consisting of a series of laboratory and large in situ experiments to assess the hydromechanical behaviour of bentonite seals. The experiments consisted of the forced re-saturation of pre-fabricated blocks of bentonite–sand mixture, with technological voids between bentonite seals and the walls of the steel cell (in the laboratory tests) and between bentonite seals and the host rock (in the in situ experiment). Relative humidity and total stress were monitored during both tests. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) collaborated with Geofirma Engineering, IRSN, and Commissariat à l’énergie atomique (CEA) to develop a mathematical model to simulate the experiments. The model was developed within the framework of poromechanics, with the inclusion of partial saturation characteristics and swelling potential to simulate the behaviour of the bentonite-based material. The model results were in good agreement with the experimental measurements for relative humidity and swelling stresses. The model also predicted the closure of technological voids and gaps due to swelling. Although swelling into the technological voids leads to an increase in permeability, that permeability remains low and insignificant from a safety perspective.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-03-01T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0102
       
  • Optimum location of geogrid reinforcement in unpaved road
    • Authors: S. Hamed Mousavi, Mohammed A. Gabr, Roy H. Borden
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      This study evaluated the optimum location of a reinforcement layer to maximize the efficiency of the reinforcement inclusion in an unpaved road section. The analyses are used to investigate the optimum location of the reinforcement layer within the aggregate base course (ABC) layer, and provide a possible reason for the improvement in performance. A series of three-dimensional finite element method analyses was performed, and the strain and stress response of a reinforced unpaved road section with two different ABC thicknesses was evaluated. The analyses were conducted under cyclic loading with three different radii of the circular loaded area. The embedded depth of reinforcement was varied within the ABC layer. Results indicate that regardless of ABC layer thickness, the surface deformation is minimized when the reinforcement is embedded at a depth equal to half of the radius of the loaded area (D = 0.5r). A higher tension force is mobilized in the reinforcement element when it is placed at D = 0.5r. It is also shown that the required thickness of ABC is reduced when the reinforcement layer is implemented at the depth at which the maximum vertical strain occurs. Depending on the thickness of the ABC layer, the finite element analysis results indicate that the reinforcement layer could be ineffectual if it is placed at the interface between the ABC and the subgrade layer as is traditionally the case.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-03-01T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0562
       
  • Peak punch-through capacity of spudcan in sand with interbedded clay:
           numerical and analytical modelling
    • Authors: Shah Neyamat Ullah, Yuxia Hu
      Pages: 1 - 18
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      The presence of a thin soft clay layer inside a bed of sand may significantly reduce the bearing capacity of the sand layer, imposing a risk of punch-through failure. In this paper, finite element (FE) simulations are reported using a hardening soil (HS) model for sand. The FE model has been verified against centrifuge tests involving loose and dense sand layers overlying clay soil. The effects of sand stiffness, foundation roughness, sand friction angle, undrained clay strength, clay strength nonhomogeneity, and sand and clay layer geometries on the foundation peak capacities have been studied. Punch-through failure is initiated with an inclined sand plug being sheared and pushed into the underlying soft clay. During punch-through, the clay layer fails due to significant radial squeezing. Existing analytical models do not capture the combined failure mechanism of sand shearing and clay radial squeezing. A new analytical model is developed to estimate the peak punch-through capacity of a spudcan in sand with an interbedded clay layer, showing improved performance over the current industry guidelines.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-02-22T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0597
       
  • Failure in anisotropic sensitive clays: finite element study of
           Perniö failure test
    • Authors: Marco D’Ignazio, Tim Tapani Länsivaara, Hans Petter Jostad
      Pages: 1 - 21
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      The railway network on coastal areas of Finland is predominantly located in soft clay areas. The undrained shear strength of such clays is generally low, highly anisotropic, and rate dependent, and it exhibits post-peak strain softening under undrained conditions. A full-scale failure test was performed by Tampere University of Technology in Perniö, Western Finland, in 2009. A shallow railway embankment built on a soft clay deposit was equipped with a loading structure and loaded to failure in about 30 h. The embankment collapsed 2 h after the last loading step. In this study, data collected from the experiment are used, together with laboratory test results on high-quality samples, to conduct advanced finite element analysis of the Perniö failure test. The NGI-ADPSoft model is used for this purpose, which is capable of simulating the strain-softening behavior of the clay. Even though the observed rate effect is not taken into account in the analyses, the failure load can be predicted reasonably well. Good agreement is also observed for calculated displacements and failure mechanism with experimental observations.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-02-22T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2015-0313
       
  • Quantifying exposure of linear infrastructures to earthquake-triggered
           transverse landslides in permafrost thawing slopes
    • Authors: Behrang Dadfar, M. Hesham El Naggar, Miroslav Nastev
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      Seismic shaking can cause slope instability in otherwise relatively stable permafrost terrains. In addition, rapid ice melting in low-permeability fine-grained soils can lead to excess pore-water pressure build-up and cause instability in slopes even at small angles. This study addresses the active-layer detachment (ALD) slope instability hazard and develops a systematic risk assessment framework for existing and future linear infrastructures, such as energy pipelines, bridges, and roads traversing permafrost regions. Mild slopes, with average gradient of 7°, are considered in this study as the most representative of actual field conditions. The potential for earthquake-triggered ALD is analytically quantified. State-of-the-art ALD morphological statistics for northern Canada are combined with seismic slope stability analyses to determine (i) the probability of linear infrastructure exposure to permanent ground deformations (PGDs) caused by ALD and (ii) the extent of the potential PGD that the linear infrastructure may be subjected to. The Monte Carlo technique is applied to simulate and assess the sensitivity of the model to parameters such as earthquake magnitude and source-to-site distance. Findings from this study can be used to evaluate the vulnerability of linear infrastructures exposed to the ALD hazard.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2017-0076
       
  • Managing rockfall risk through baseline monitoring of precursors using a
           terrestrial laser scanner
    • Authors: Ryan Kromer, Matt Lato, D. Jean Hutchinson, Dave Gauthier, Tom Edwards
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      Rockfalls represent significant risks to safe and efficient use of transportation corridors. In this paper, we address the management of rockfall risk through baseline remote monitoring of susceptible slopes (every 2–4 months) along a transportation corridor along the Fraser River valley in western Canada using a terrestrial laser scanner and supporting remote sensing technologies. This includes identifying potential rockfall source zones based on incipient signs of failure, tracking kinematics in three dimensions to better understand the mechanism of failure, estimating potential failure volumes based on bounding joint structure, and transmitting this information to the railway operator for an assessment of risk. We demonstrate our approach for one case along the line where we identified several potential failures ranging in volume from 48 to 4200 m3. Our projections of the location of failures were successful, in that volume projections were within 10%–55%, and the anticipated kinematics and failure mechanism were consistent with the assessment of post-failure rockfall scar geometries. Accurate volume and kinematics estimates are important for the assessment of hazard and risk as well as the planning of risk mitigation options. In general, this approach can be used to better manage risk from rockfall hazard in communities, transportation corridors, or other infrastructure.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-02-17T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0178
       
  • New interaction model for vertical dynamic response of pipe piles
           considering soil plug effect
    • Authors: Wenbing Wu, M. Hesham El Naggar, Maged Abdlrahem, Guoxiong Mei, Kuihua Wang
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      A soil–pile interaction model is developed to better represent the actual behavior of pipe piles undergoing dynamic testing. To correctly investigate the dynamic interaction mechanism of the pipe piles, the developed model introduces an additional mass to account for the soil plug. The governing equations of motion for the soil–pile system subjected to small deformations and strains are established considering plane strain conditions for the soil and one-dimensional wave propagation in the pile. The analytical solution of the vertical dynamic response of the pipe pile in the frequency domain is then obtained by employing a Laplace transform and transfer function technique. The corresponding quasi-analytical solution in the time domain for the pipe pile subjected to a vertical semi-sinusoidal exciting force is subsequently derived by means of a Fourier transform. A parameter sensitivity analysis of the additional mass model is carried out to determine the approximate range of the parameter values. Utilizing the developed solution, a parametric study is performed to illustrate the influence of the properties of the soil–pile system on the vertical dynamic response of the pipe pile. Finally, the validity of the additional mass model is validated by conducting a set of model tests, based on which the concept of “apparent wave velocity of pipe pile” (AWVPP) is also proposed.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-02-15T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0309
       
  • Large-diameter helical pile capacity – torque correlations
    • Authors: Jared Harnish, M. Hesham El Naggar
      Pages: 1 - 19
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      Large-diameter helical piles are utilized increasingly to support heavy structures. Both the magnitude of the required installation torque and the pile capacity can be directly attributed to the soil shearing resistance developed over the embedded area of the pile including the shaft and helical plates. Hence, the pile capacity can be correlated to installation torque. Such correlations are widely used in the helical pile industry as a means for quality control and quality assurance. In the current study, a total of 10 test piles were installed while monitoring the installation torque continuously with depth. The recorded installation torque profiles were demonstrated to be accurate and repeatable. Field pile load tests were conducted and their results were analyzed to determine the interpreted ultimate capacity of the test piles. The results demonstrate that the ultimate capacity of large-diameter helical piles can be interpreted from pile load test data employing the failure criteria proposed by Elkasabgy and El Naggar in 2015 and Fuller and Hoy in 1970. The measured installation torque and corresponding ultimate capacity values were employed to define torque–capacity correlation (Kt) based on embedded pile area. It was demonstrated that the proposed Kt is suitable for large-diameter helical piles.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-02-13T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0156
       
  • Target geotechnical reliability for redundant foundation systems
    • Authors: Farzaneh Naghibi, Gordon A. Fenton
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      Geotechnical support systems (e.g., deep and shallow foundations) generally involve at least some redundancy. For example, if a building is supported by np separate foundations, then failure (e.g., excessive settlement) of a single foundation will generally not result in failure of the building if the building is able to shed the load from the failed foundation to adjacent foundations. This load-shedding ability lends the foundation system redundancy — system failure only occurs if multiple foundations fail. This paper investigates the relationship between the level of geotechnical redundancy, individual foundation reliability, and system reliability for deep foundations (piles). In the particular case where the pile resistance remains constant after achieving its ultimate capacity (at a certain displacement), the relationship between individual and system reliabilities is computed theoretically. The more general case, where the load carried by the pile reduces after exceeding its ultimate capacity, is investigated by Monte Carlo simulation. Charts relating system and individual reliability indices are presented, which can be used to aid in the design of individual piles as part of a pile support system.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-02-08T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0478
       
  • Novel analysis for large strains based on particle image velocimetry
    • Authors: Núria M. Pinyol, Mauricio Alvarado
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      Over the last few decades, the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique has become an interesting tool used to measure displacements in the field of experimental mechanics. This paper presents a procedure to interpret PIV displacements, measured following an Eulerian scheme, with the purpose of providing accumulated displacements, velocities, accelerations, and strains on points representing physical particles. Strains are computed as the gradient of displacements. When compared with other standard procedures already published, the presented methodology is especially well suited to interpret large strains. The basis of the procedure is to map displacement increments measured through PIV analysis on the subset (or patch) centres into numerical particles that are defined as portions of the moving masses whose deformation is analyzed. The implementation of the method is explained in detail, highlighting its simplicity. The procedure can be used as a post-processor of currently available PIV software packages. The methodology is first applied to synthetic cases of rectangular samples in which known displacements are imposed and also to a sandy slope failure experiment involving large displacements. The method reproduces satisfactorily the recorded images.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-02-08T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0327
       
  • Intrinsic compression behavior of remolded sand–clay mixture
    • Authors: Chengfu Chu, Zilong Wu, Yongfeng Deng, Yonggui Chen, Qiong Wang
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      A series of incremental loading oedometer tests was conducted on pure clays and sand–clay mixtures with various sand/clay ratios and clay mineral compositions. The void indexes Iv and IvH were introduced to evaluate their intrinsic compressibility. Test results revealed that Iv was more suitable for depicting the compression behavior of pure clays than IvH; whereas, for the compressibility of sand–clay mixtures, the normalized compression line by using Iv was obviously different from that of pure clays and traditional soils due to the presence of sand particles. Therefore, a four-phase analysis framework of sand–clay mixtures was introduced to unify the intrinsic compression behavior of soils with and without sands. It was found that the updated clay void index Ivc parameter was effective to unify the soil’s compression behavior by excluding the influence of sand particles in clays before the sand skeleton formation. After the formation of the sand skeleton, the cluster particles change the stress distribution of mixtures, leading to less stress being applied on the clay matrix and thus the bifurcation of the intrinsic compression behavior.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-02-03T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0453
       
  • Combined constitutive model for creep and steady flow rate of frozen soil
           in an unconfined condition
    • Authors: Guofang Xu, Chong Peng, Wei Wu, Jilin Qi
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      A combined constitutive model is developed for the creep behavior of frozen soil in an unconfined condition. The model is obtained by coupling two stress- and time-dependent models, which are responsible for the primary and tertiary creep stages. The model parameters are dependent on temperature and can be readily determined from the strain rate–time curves at two creep stresses. The model performance is demonstrated by simulating the complete strain–time and strain rate–time curves (including primary, secondary, and tertiary stages) of frozen sand and frozen clay in uniaxial creep tests under different creep stresses. Moreover, two equations are obtained from the combined model. One shows a good capability in describing the relationship between creep strength and the time to creep failure. The other makes an excellent prediction of the steady flow rate in a typical creep process. Both equations can reflect the effects of stress and temperature on the creep behavior of frozen soil.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-02-01T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0139
       
  • Water retention model for compacted bentonites
    • Authors: Anne-Catherine Dieudonne, Gabriele Della Vecchia, Robert Charlier
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      The water retention behaviour of compacted bentonites is strongly affected by multi-physical and multi-scale processes taking place in these materials. Experimental data have evidenced major effects of the material dry density, the imposed volume constraints, and the soil fabric. This paper presents a new water retention model accounting for proper retention mechanisms in each structural level of compacted bentonites, namely adsorption in the intra-aggregate pores and capillarity in the inter-aggregate ones. The model is calibrated and validated against experimental data on different bentonite-based materials, showing good capabilities in capturing the main features of the behaviour. The model is able to reproduce experimental data on compacted bentonites over a wide range of suction values, within a unified framework, and using a limited number of parameters. Some of the parameters introduced are shown to take approximately the same value for several bentonites, providing a significant basis for preliminary design when dedicated experiments are missing.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-01-31T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0297
       
 
 
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