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ENGINEERING (1240 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 268)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
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Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
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Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
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Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
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Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
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Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
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Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
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ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 274)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 212)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 184)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
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Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
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Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
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Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Calphad
  [SJR: 1.116]   [H-I: 44]   [0 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0364-5916
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Phase equilibria and liquidus projection determination of the
           Ce–Co–Sb ternary system
    • Authors: Chengliang Xu; Changrong Li; Daiman Zhu; Cuiping Guo; Zhenmin Du; Xiaohua Chen; Junqin Li
      Pages: 1 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 61
      Author(s): Chengliang Xu, Changrong Li, Daiman Zhu, Cuiping Guo, Zhenmin Du, Xiaohua Chen, Junqin Li
      The Ce-Co-Sb ternary system is experimentally investigated, including the isothermal section at 823 K and the supplementary measurements at 673 K, as well as the liquidus projection of this system. For the isothermal section at 823 K, the phase equilibria in the whole composition range are determined using the equilibrated alloys prepared by the combination of arc melting method and high frequency melting method under the protection of an argon atmosphere, in case of the volatility of Sb and the oxidation of Ce. To confirm the phase relations at 673 K from previous literature report, some phase equilibria are re-determined on the basis of supplementary experiments. Two ternary compounds, (CeCouSb2) and CeCoSb3 are observed and the isothermal sections of the Ce-Co-Sb system at 823 and 673 K are finally constructed. The solidification paths of the Ce-Co-Sb as-cast alloys are analyzed to ascertain the primarily solidified phases from liquid. Both the liquidus projection and the isothermal sections of the Ce-Co-Sb system are determined based on the microstructures, crystal structures and phase compositions determined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron probe micro-analyzer, respectively. Some phase transition temperatures of the Ce-Co rich region are determined by means of differential scanning calorimeter.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T16:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2018.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2018)
  • Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Ti-Fe-Zr system
    • Authors: Lijun Zeng; Guanglong Xu; Libin Liu; Weimin Bai; Ligang Zhang
      Pages: 20 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 61
      Author(s): Lijun Zeng, Guanglong Xu, Libin Liu, Weimin Bai, Ligang Zhang
      The phase relations of the Ti-Fe-Zr system at 873 and 1173 K were experimentally investigated by using the equilibrated alloys. Four ternary phases were determined stable at 1173 K. Two of them were line compounds with fixed Fe/(Ti, Zr) ratio, while the other two showed ellipse-shaped homogeneity. There were eight three-phase equilibria and a continuous single phase field of β(Ti, Zr) in the isothermal section at 1173 K. The solubility of Zr in Fe2(Ti, Zr) and Ti in (Fe, Ti)2Zr was measured to be 25.5 at% and 6.1 at%, respectively. The remaining binary intermetallic phases hardly dissolved the third component. The phase relationships in the isothermal section at 873 K were similar to those at 1173 K over the composition range of 0–50 at% Fe. In this isothermal section, five three-phase equilibria were observed and they were all related with the newly found ternary phases. The phase relations measured in this work are of significant difference from the existing ones obtained with the diffusion couple.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T16:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2018)
  • Thermodynamic re-assessment of the Re–X (X=Al, Co, Cr, Ta) binary
    • Authors: Cuiping Guo; Tianfeng Wu; Changrong Li; Zhenmin Du
      Pages: 33 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 61
      Author(s): Cuiping Guo, Tianfeng Wu, Changrong Li, Zhenmin Du
      Rhenium was one of important alloying elements in the Ni-based superalloys. Based on the molar Gibbs energy of the pure Re updated in SGTE Pure 5 database, the Re–X(X=Al, Co, Cr, Ta) systems were re-optimized by means of CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagrams) technique. In the present work, the phases liquid, fcc, bcc and hcp were described using a substitutional solution model. The phases AlRe, Al3Re, Al6Re, Al12Re, AlRe2 and Al11Re4 in the Re–Al system were described as stochiometric compound. The Al4Re_H and Al4Re_L instead of Al4Re were evaluated in the present work. The phases σ in the Re–Cr and Re–Ta systems and χ in the Re–Ta system were modeled as (X, Re)10(X, Re)20 (X=Cr or Ta) and Re24(Re, Ta)10(Re, Ta)24, respectively. A set of self-consistent thermodynamic parameters of the Re–X systems were obtained and the optimized results were in good agreement with the experimental data.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T16:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2018)
  • Comprehensive first-principles study of transition-metal substitution in
           the γ phase of nickel-based superalloys
    • Authors: Weiliang Chen; Weiwei Xing; Hui Ma; Xueyong Ding; Xing-Qiu Chen; Dianzhong Li; Yiyi Li
      Pages: 41 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 61
      Author(s): Weiliang Chen, Weiwei Xing, Hui Ma, Xueyong Ding, Xing-Qiu Chen, Dianzhong Li, Yiyi Li
      In order to elucidate the role of various M-alloying additions in the fcc-type γ phase of nickel-based superalloys, we have performed a comprehensive and systematical computation on all 3d-, 4d- and 5d-M alloying additions substituting in the Ni lattice using the same standard of the first-principles calculations within the framework of the density functional theory. The results show that the substitution enthalpies of Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Zr, Nb, Hf, Ta, and Pt are negative, while the others elements have positive substitution enthalpies. To further explore the contributions of various factors to the substitution enthalpy, we have attempted to divide the substitution enthalpy into two parts. The first one is the mechanical deformation energy caused by the atomic volume change because of the M-alloying additions substituting in fcc Ni and the other one is the chemical and magnetic energy through electronic hybridizations and local magnetic interactions. It is found that the substitution enthalpy is a consequence of the balancing of these two contributions. Furthermore, we have attempted to correlate their mechanical deformation energies with metallic atomic radii of substitutional M-alloying addition with respect to Ni, and the chemical and magnetic energies with transferred charges between M-alloying addition and Ni, which are indeed associated with the so-called electronegativity difference.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T07:59:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2018)
  • CpFit program for approximation of heat capacities and enthalpies by
           Einstein-Planck functions sum
    • Authors: Alexey L. Voskov; Ilya B. Kutsenok; Gennady F. Voronin
      Pages: 50 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 61
      Author(s): Alexey L. Voskov, Ilya B. Kutsenok, Gennady F. Voronin
      CpFit program for joint approximation of heat capacities and enthalpies (heat contents) by means of Einstein-Planck functions sum has been developed. It uses algorithms for automatic search of number of functions in the sum and automatic search of initial approximation for model parameters. The program also allows to use arbitrary extra terms for approximation of heat capacity anomalies such as lambda-transitions, Schottky anomalies etc. Experimental data for thorium and uranium dioxides, natrolite, potassium and thallium substituted natrolites were successfully approximated in wide ranges of temperature.
      Graphical abstract image Highlights fx1

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T07:59:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2018.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2018)
  • Experimental investigation of phase relations in Bi-Te-RE (Yb, La, Ce)
           ternary systems
    • Authors: Mingyue Tan; Cun Mao; Ligang Zhang; Weimin Bai; Libin Liu
      Pages: 62 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 61
      Author(s): Mingyue Tan, Cun Mao, Ligang Zhang, Weimin Bai, Libin Liu
      Rare earth (RE) elements especially Yb, La and Ce have been frequently doped to Bi-Te alloys to improve thermoelectric performance. Three isothermal sections: Bi-Te-Yb at 573 K, Bi-Te-La and Bi-Te-Ce at 673 K were partly established by means of electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) and powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The determined maximum solubilities of RE elements in Bi-Te alloys are very small and that of Yb reached the maximum about 0.3 at% at 573 K. Both LaTe2 and CeTe2 can dissolve a large amount of Bi, about 10 and 13 at% at 673 K, respectively. No ternary compound has been confirmed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T07:59:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2018)
  • Thermodynamic description of the Ti-Mo-Nb-Ta-Zr system and its
           implications for phase stability of Ti bio-implant materials
    • Authors: Cassie Marker; Shun-Li Shang; Ji-Cheng Zhao; Zi-Kui Liu
      Pages: 72 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 61
      Author(s): Cassie Marker, Shun-Li Shang, Ji-Cheng Zhao, Zi-Kui Liu
      Titanium alloys are great candidates for applications such as biomedical implants that require biocompatibility, a low Young's modulus and a high strength. However, the properties of Ti alloys are highly dependent on phase stability. In the present work, a database for the Ti-Mo-Nb-Ta-Zr system has been evaluated using the CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram) approach. The database was completed by evaluating the accuracy of previously modeled systems from literature and modeling systems that, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, had no modeling available in literature. All of the binary systems that make up the Ti-Mo-Nb-Ta-Zr system had previously modeled thermodynamic descriptions available in the literature and in most cases had multiple different descriptions available, which meant determining which previous thermodynamic description most accurately modeled the binary system with a direct focus on the bcc phase. In order to determine the accuracy of the multiple available thermodynamic descriptions from literature a combination of experimental data (also obtained from the literature) and computed thermochemical properties of the bcc phase from DFT (Density Functional Theory)-based first-principles calculations (present work) were used. Once the thermodynamic descriptions for the binary systems were chosen, focus shifted to the Ti-containing ternary systems. The Ti-Mo-Zr, Ti-Nb-Zr and Ti-Ta-Zr systems had previous thermodynamic description available in literature, which were incorporated without changes into the working database. The Ti-Mo-Ta, Ti-Nb-Ta and Ti-Mo-Nb systems had, to the authors’ knowledge, no descriptions available in the literature. Interaction parameters were determined for the Ti-Mo-Ta and Ti-Nb-Ta systems, and no interaction parameters were introduced for the Ti-Mo-Nb system. The database introduced by this work satisfactorily predicts the thermodynamics of the Ti-Mo-Nb-Ta-Zr system.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T07:59:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2018.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2018)
  • Atomic mobilities and diffusivities in U-X (X = Nb, Zr, Ti) bcc alloys
    • Authors: Baixue Bian; Peng Zhou; Shiyi Wen; Yong Du
      Pages: 85 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 61
      Author(s): Baixue Bian, Peng Zhou, Shiyi Wen, Yong Du
      Based on a critical evaluation of experimental diffusion data available in the literature and the updated thermodynamic descriptions within the CALPHAD framework, the atomic mobilities of U, Nb, Ti, and Zr in U-X(X=Nb, Zr, Ti) bcc alloys were assessed with the DICTRA software. For each system, comprehensive comparison shows that a good agreement between the calculated and experimental data was obtained. The developed mobilities in conjunction with the thermodynamic parameters were also used to describe the marker movement in the U/Zr as well as U/Ti diffusion couples, and a satisfactory result was obtained. The presently obtained atomic mobilities can describe diffusion phenomenon more accurately than previously reported atomic mobilities.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T07:59:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2018.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2018)
  • Interdiffusion behaviors and mechanical properties of Cu-Zr system
    • Authors: Yongxing Zhao; Tikun Pang; Jiaxin He; Xiaoma Tao; Hongmei Chen; Yifang Ouyang; Yong Du
      Pages: 92 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 61
      Author(s): Yongxing Zhao, Tikun Pang, Jiaxin He, Xiaoma Tao, Hongmei Chen, Yifang Ouyang, Yong Du
      In this work, solid-to-solid diffusion couples were assembled and annealed to investigate diffusion behavior and mechanical properties of the Cu-Zr system in temperatures range from 1043 K to 1113 K. Six intermetallic compounds (IMCs) Cu9Zr2, Cu51Zr14, Cu8Zr3, Cu10Zr7, CuZr, and CuZr2 were observed in the diffusion zone. Composition-dependent interdiffusion coefficients of IMCs have been calculated based on the measured composition Cu profiles of the diffusion zones by using Sauer–Freise method. And the average effective interdiffusion coefficients for each phase were also calculated by using Wagner method. The activation energies of diffusion are evaluated according to the average effective interdiffusion coefficient. Finally, the load-displacement curves measured by nano-indentation are obtained to characterize mechanical properties of Cu9Zr2 and Cu51Zr14, which have similar hardness and elastic moduli.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T07:59:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2018.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2018)
  • Thermodynamic assessment of the C–Zr–Nb ternary system
    • Authors: Yinping Zeng; Peng Zhou; Yong Du
      Pages: 98 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 61
      Author(s): Yinping Zeng, Peng Zhou, Yong Du
      The whole C–Zr–Nb ternary system was assessed by means of CALPHAD method for the first time. All of the experimental phase diagram data available from the literature were critically reviewed and assessed using thermodynamic models for the Gibbs energies of individual phases. The solution phases including the liquid, fcc, hcp and bcc were described by the substitutional solution model. There is no ternary compound in this system. A set of self-consistent thermodynamic parameters for the C–Zr–Nb system is obtained. Comparisons between the calculated and measured diagrams show that the present thermodynamic description can account for the experimental information satisfactorily. The liquidus projection and reaction scheme for the C–Zr–Nb system were generated by using the present thermodynamic parameters. The effect of microstructure on the mechanical properties of C–Zr–Nb alloys homogenized at 1800 °C reported in the literature was discussed from a phase diagram point of view.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T07:59:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2018.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2018)
  • Development of a multicomponent reaction rate model coupling
           thermodynamics and kinetics for reaction between high Mn-high Al steel and
           CaO-SiO2-type molten mold flux
    • Authors: Min-Su Kim; Youn-Bae Kang
      Pages: 105 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 61
      Author(s): Min-Su Kim, Youn-Bae Kang
      A new multi-component reaction model was developed in order to describe complex reaction phenomena between a high Mn-high Al steel and a CaO-SiO2-type molten mold flux. This model is an extension of Robertson's multicomponent mixed-transport-control theory (Robertson et al., 1984) [7], where rate controlling step is assumed to be a mass transport of diffusing species in a boundary layer, while chemical equilibrium is assumed at the reaction interface. This model also employs a CALPHAD type multicomponent-multiphase thermodynamic calculations for chemical equilibria at the interface. By explicitly taking into account 1) local equilibrium at the liquid steel-liquid flux interface, 2) flux density equations for each diffusing species in the steel and the flux phases, and 3) instantaneous change of mass transfer coefficients of all diffusing species in the flux phase by varying viscosity of the flux, previous laboratory scale experimental data could be well explained under various [pct Al]0, [pct Si]0 in the liquid steel, (pct CaO)/(pct SiO2), (pct Al2O3)0, (pct MgO)0 in the liquid flux, and reaction temperature. From the model calculations under the various [pct Al]0, it was concluded that the present reaction model can be successfully applicable from low [pct Al] to high [pct Al] conditions in liquid steel. The present model was further extended in simulating composition change in a mold flux in a continuous casting mold, where the steel and the flux continuously enter and leave. The model calculations show good agreement with pilot plant scale data available in literature. From the calculation results under different casting variables such as [pct Al]0, mold flux pool depth, and mold flux consumption rate, the Al2O3 accumulation in the CaO-SiO2-type mold flux during the continuous casting was discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T07:59:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2018.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2018)
  • Partition and non-partition transition of austenite growth from a ferrite
           and cementite mixture in hypo- and hypereutectoid Fe-C-Mn alloys
    • Authors: M. Enomoto; S. Li; Z.N. Yang; C. Zhang; Z.G. Yang
      Pages: 116 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 61
      Author(s): M. Enomoto, S. Li, Z.N. Yang, C. Zhang, Z.G. Yang
      The growth of austenite from a ferrite and cementite mixture in low Mn steel of hypo- and hypereutectoid composition is investigated with focus upon the Mn partitioning between dissolving cementite (or ferrite) and austenite. Under the assumption that austenite is nucleated on cementite, two critical temperatures which characterize the transition between Mn-partitioned and non-partitioned growth of austenite are noticed; below the 1st and lower critical temperature the austenite grows with redistribution of Mn from the beginning, and above the 2nd and higher critical temperature, without Mn redistribution until completion. Between them the growth mode switches from carbon-diffusion to Mn-diffusion control during growth. The influence of carbon and/or Mn diffusion through the matrix becomes progressively more significant with time, but may not affect the growth mode transition temperatures. Above the 2nd critical temperature, which is at most ca. 50 °C higher than Acm or Ae3 in alloys studied, the distribution of Mn in as-transformed or spheroidized pearlite is preserved at the completion of austenitization irrespective of the last dissolving phase, leading to the formation of an ultrafine mixture of martensite and austenite upon quenching.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T07:59:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2018.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2018)
  • Solution properties and salt-solution equilibria in the
           H-Li-Na-K-Ca-Mg-Cl-H2O system at 25 °C: A new thermodynamic model based
           on Pitzer's equations
    • Authors: Arnault Lassin; Laurent André; Adeline Lach; Anne-Laure Thadée; Pierre Cézac; Jean-Paul Serin
      Pages: 126 - 139
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 61
      Author(s): Arnault Lassin, Laurent André, Adeline Lach, Anne-Laure Thadée, Pierre Cézac, Jean-Paul Serin
      A large part of Li production comes from the exploitation of saline lakes and salars. Industrial processes for Li recovery from such resources have to deal with highly saline waters. It is therefore necessary to develop the knowledge of Li chemistry adapted to these contexts. The present work aims to present a new set of Pitzer interaction parameters able to describe the chemical behavior of the H-Li-Na-K-Ca-Mg-Cl-H2O system up to salt solubility, at 25 °C. In a previous work, the model was limited to the H-Li-Na-K-Cl-H2O system. It is extended here by including Ca and Mg, taking into account recently revised parameters allowing the thermal properties of the binary CaCl2-H2O and MgCl2-H2O systems to be represented. The consistent extension of the thermodynamic database was made possible by the study of the binary CaCl2-H2O system up to the supersaturated metastable region and of nine ternary systems, namely X-Ca-Cl, X-Mg-Cl and Ca-Mg-Cl (where X = H, Li, Na, K). The model was finally tested on five quaternary systems.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T07:59:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2018.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2018)
  • Thermodynamic evaluation and optimization of the BaO-SiO2 and BaO-CaO-SiO2
    • Authors: Adarsh Shukla; In-Ho Jung; Sergei A. Decterov; Arthur D. Pelton
      Pages: 140 - 147
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 61
      Author(s): Adarsh Shukla, In-Ho Jung, Sergei A. Decterov, Arthur D. Pelton
      The binary BaO-CaO and BaO-SiO2 systems have been critically evaluated based upon available phase equilibrium and thermodynamic data and optimized model parameters have been obtained giving the Gibbs energies of all phases as functions of temperature and composition. The liquid solution has been modeled with the Modified Quasichemical Model (MQM) to account for the short-range ordering. The results have been combined with those of previous optimizations of the CaO-SiO2 system to optimize the BaO-CaO-SiO2 system.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T07:59:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2018.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2018)
  • Thermodynamics of the ZnSO4-H2SO4-H2O system
    • Authors: T. Vielma; J. Salminen; U. Lassi
      Pages: 126 - 133
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 60
      Author(s): T. Vielma, J. Salminen, U. Lassi
      Internally consistent set of thermodynamic parameters was derived for the binary ZnSO4–H2O -system using the CALPHAD method. Available data on water activity, EMF measurements, solubility and heat of solution and dilution measurements was reviewed. Additional parameters for the ternary ZnSO4–H2SO4–H2O system were derived based on the available solubility and boiling point data. Solubility of zinc sulfate was predicted successfully under conditions relevant in hydrometallurgical processing of zinc, and even up to 15molkg−1 sulfuric acid solutions. Temperature dependent Pitzer parameters for the binary and ternary systems are reported.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T17:03:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2017.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2018)
  • Critical assessment and thermodynamic modeling of the Cu-As system
    • Authors: Denis Shishin; Evgueni Jak
      Pages: 134 - 143
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 60
      Author(s): Denis Shishin, Evgueni Jak
      Thermodynamic assessment and modeling of the Cu-As system are presented. The experimental dataset includes phase equilibrium data, activity measurements, heat contents, enthalpies of formation and mixing. The liquid phase and two non-stoichiometric copper arsenide solid solutions are developed within the framework of the Modified Quasichemical Model (MQM) in pair approximation. It is demonstrated that the unconventional choice of model for solid solution phases is beneficial for this particular system. The resulting set of model parameters will be a part of a large multicomponent thermodynamic database. It is aimed for predictions of phase equilibria, heat balance and distribution of elements in arsenic-containing chemical systems in pyrometallurgical copper and lead industrial operations.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T17:03:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2017.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2018)
  • A thermodynamic description of data for pure Pb from 0K using the expanded
    • Authors: A.V. Khvan; A.T. Dinsdale; I.A. Uspenskaya; M. Zhilin; T. Babkina; A.M. Phiri
      Pages: 144 - 155
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 60
      Author(s): A.V. Khvan, A.T. Dinsdale, I.A. Uspenskaya, M. Zhilin, T. Babkina, A.M. Phiri
      Thermodynamic data for the crystalline and liquid phases of pure lead were critically assessed. A thermodynamic description was obtained using an extended Einstein model for the crystalline phase and a two state model for the liquid phase. The assessment was carried out through careful analysis of the experimental data published in the scientific literature. Additional measurements using enthalpy drop were also carried out in the present work to remove ambiguities in published experimental data.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T17:03:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2017.12.008
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2018)
  • Experimental and thermodynamic study of the influence of the base elements
           on the carbides natures in {Ni,Co}-based {25Cr, 0.4C, 6Ta}-containing
    • Authors: Patrice Berthod; Zohra Himeur
      Pages: 156 - 162
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 60
      Author(s): Patrice Berthod, Zohra Himeur
      Primary carbides may be important for the high temperature strength of polycrystalline Cr-rich cast alloys. TaC are among the best carbides for this role. Their presence depends on the base elements of the alloys. This dependence is here studied in the case of a series of Cr-rich alloys based on Ni and/or Co and containing Ta and C in equal molar fractions. Real alloys were cast and exposed at 1400K and 1510K, and their as-cast and aged microstructures were characterized. In parallel thermodynamic calculations using Thermo-Calc and a home-made database were carried out. It appears that TaC is the single carbide present in the alloy stabilized at high temperature only if the Co content is higher than the Ni one. Discrepancies appeared between calculations and the experimental results, showing that the used database must be improved. The experimental part of this work provides microstructures data which can be used to test databases and to enrich them if necessary.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T17:03:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2018)
  • Phase diagrams and thermochemical modeling of salt lake brine systems.
           III. Li2SO4+H2O, Na2SO4+H2O, K2SO4+H2O, MgSO4+H2O and CaSO4+H2O systems
    • Authors: Dongdong Li; Dewen Zeng; Xia Yin; Dandan Gao
      Pages: 163 - 176
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 60
      Author(s): Dongdong Li, Dewen Zeng, Xia Yin, Dandan Gao
      This paper is part of a series of studies on the development of a multi-temperature thermodynamically consistent model for salt lake brine systems. Under the comprehensive thermodynamic framework proposed in our previous study, the thermodynamic and phase equilibria properties of the sulfate binary systems (i.e., Li2SO4 + H2O, Na2SO4 + H2O, K2SO4 + H2O, MgSO4 + H2O and CaSO4 + H2O) were simulated using the Pitzer-Simonson-Clegg (PSC) model. Various type of thermodynamic properties (i.e., water activity, osmotic coefficient, mean ionic activity coefficient, enthalpy of dilution and solution, relative apparent molar enthalpy, heat capacity of aqueous phase and solid phases) were collected and fitted to the model equations. The thermodynamic properties of these systems can be well reproduced or predicted using the obtained model parameters. Comparisons with the experimental or model values in literature indicate that the model parameters determined in this study can describe all of the thermodynamic and phase equilibria properties of these binary sulfate systems from infinite dilution to saturation and freezing point temperature to approx. 500K.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T17:03:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2018.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2018)
  • HitDIC: A free-accessible code for high-throughput determination of
           interdiffusion coefficients in single solution phase
    • Authors: Jing Zhong; Weimin Chen; Lijun Zhang
      Pages: 177 - 190
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 60
      Author(s): Jing Zhong, Weimin Chen, Lijun Zhang
      In this paper, a free-accessible code for High-throughput Determination of Interdiffusion Coefficients (HitDIC, based on the numerical inverse method is introduced. HitDIC is developed to robotize the procedures to retrieve the reliable composition-dependent interdiffusivities from the experimental composition profiles of single or multiple diffusion couples by minimizing the misfit between the experimental and model-predicted compositions profiles. The code is an efficient C++ implementation and provided as a free-accessible one, as well as demos and assistant toolkits. The underlying physics and mathematics of the modules of HitDIC, (i.e., database, simulation, error and minimization modules) are also demonstrated. Such an implementation is further proved to be feasible and reliable according to the results and discussion of the benchmarks and real cases. Moreover, some hints for the usage of HitDIC are also given.
      Graphical abstract image Highlights fx1

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T17:03:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2017.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2018)
  • Measurement of phase equilibria in Ti-Co-Pt ternary system
    • Authors: K. Hu; X.M. Huang; J. Lu; H.S. Liu; G.M. Cai; Z.P. Jin
      Pages: 191 - 199
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 60
      Author(s): K. Hu, X.M. Huang, J. Lu, H.S. Liu, G.M. Cai, Z.P. Jin
      Phase equilibria in the Ti-Co-Pt ternary system were measured through diffusion triple and alloy sampling. Based on the results from Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques, the isothermal sections of the Ti-Co-Pt system were constructed, which consist of 16 and 13 three-phased regions at 973 and 1173K, respectively. A new ternary phase τ was detected, which contains 23.6–29.9at% Pt at 973K and 27.4–40.1at% Pt at 1173K. Furthermore, an invariant reaction between 973 and 1173K was deduced, i.e. τ + Ti4Pt3 ↔ Ti3Pt + TiPt. By the way, the solubilities of Pt mainly substituting for Co in TiCo and TiCo3 respectively increase from 22.4at% and 26.1at% at 973K to 23.8at% and 33.1at% at 1173K.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T17:03:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2017.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2018)
  • Modified embedded-atom method interatomic potentials for pure Zn and Mg-Zn
           binary system
    • Authors: Hyo-Sun Jang; Kyeong-Min Kim; Byeong-Joo Lee
      Pages: 200 - 207
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 60
      Author(s): Hyo-Sun Jang, Kyeong-Min Kim, Byeong-Joo Lee
      Interatomic potentials for pure Zn and Mg–Zn binary system have been developed on the basis of the second nearest-neighbor modified embedded-atom method formalism. The potentials describe fundamental material properties of pure Zn (bulk, defect, and thermal properties) reasonably and reproduce the alloy behavior (thermodynamic, structural, and elastic properties of compounds and solution phases) of Mg-Zn alloys well in good agreement with experiments, first-principles and CALPHAD. The applicability of the developed potentials to atom-scale investigations on the slip behavior of Mg-Zn alloys is also demonstrated by showing that the calculated effects of Zn on the general stacking fault energy on the basal, prismatic and pyramidal planes are consistent with first-principles calculations.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T17:03:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2018)
  • Thermodynamic modeling of Ag – Cu nanoalloy phase diagram
    • Authors: Mohammad Amin Jabbareh; Fatemeh Monji
      Pages: 208 - 213
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 60
      Author(s): Mohammad Amin Jabbareh, Fatemeh Monji
      Ag – Cu nanoparticles has been attracted a considerable attention due to their potential to use as catalysts, sensors and nano – solders. It is well known that the alloy nanoparticles have different phase stabilities than those observed in the bulk systems. Previous calculated results on phase stability of Ag – Cu nanoparticles showed relatively large differences with reported experimental data. Using recently modified CALPHAD type thermodynamic model, we reassess the phase diagram of Ag – Cu nanoalloy. Effect of particle size has been discussed. The results compared with the experimental and calculated data from the literature. In comparison with previous calculated phase diagrams, calculated phase diagram in this work shows better agreements with the experimental data.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T17:03:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2018.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2018)
  • Thermodynamic optimizations of the Nd-Sn and Sn-Tb systems
    • Authors: S.L. Wang; X.H. Su; S.S. Li; C.Y. Fu; Y.H. Guo; Y.X. Huang; D.H. Xiang; C.P. Wang; X.J. Liu
      Pages: 214 - 221
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 60
      Author(s): S.L. Wang, X.H. Su, S.S. Li, C.Y. Fu, Y.H. Guo, Y.X. Huang, D.H. Xiang, C.P. Wang, X.J. Liu
      The thermodynamic optimizations of the Nd-Sn and Sn-Tb binary systems were carried out by means of the Calculation of Phase Diagram (CALPHAD) method on the basis of the available experimental data including the thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria. The Gibbs free energies of the liquid, bcc, bct, dhcp and hcp phases were described by the substitutional solution model with the Redlich-Kister equation, while all of the intermetallic compounds (Nd5Sn3, Nd5Sn4, Nd11Sn10, NdSn, Nd3Sn5, NdSn2, Nd3Sn7, Nd2Sn5, NdSn3, Sn3Tb, βSn7Tb3, αSn7Tb3, Sn2Tb, Sn5Tb4, SnTb4, Sn10Tb11, Sn4Tb5 and Sn3Tb5) were described by the sublattice model. A set of self-consistent thermodynamic parameters of each phase in the Nd-Sn and Sn-Tb binary systems has been obtained, and the calculated results are in good agreement with the available experimental data.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T17:03:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2017.12.009
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2018)
  • Thermodynamic modeling of the Al-C-Mn system supported by ab initio
    • Authors: Weisen Zheng; Xiao-Gang Lu; Huahai Mao; Yanlin He; Malin Selleby; Lin Li; John Ågren
      Pages: 222 - 230
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 60
      Author(s): Weisen Zheng, Xiao-Gang Lu, Huahai Mao, Yanlin He, Malin Selleby, Lin Li, John Ågren
      A CALPHAD-type thermodynamic assessment of the Al-C-Mn system was carried out in the present work. Special attention was paid to the ternary κ-phase with the aid of ab initio calculations. The enthalpies of formation at 0 K of all end-members of the κ phase were derived from the ab initio calculations and utilized in the present optimization. The κ phase was modeled as an ordered form of the fcc structure for the substitutional sub-lattices, employing the following formula within the framework of compound energy formalism: (Al,Mn)0.25(Al,Mn)0.25(Al,Mn)0.25(Al,Mn)0.25(C,Va)0.25. With the present optimized model parameters, the wide homogeneity range of the κ phase was reproduced satisfactorily. Comparison between the predicted and measured phase equilibria as well as the ab initio calculation results validates the present optimized model parameters.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T17:03:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2018.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2018)
  • A CALPHAD assessment of the Al–Mn–C system supported by ab
           initio calculations
    • Authors: Florian Tang; Dimitri Bogdanovski; Irina Bajenova; Alexandra Khvan; Richard Dronskowski; Bengt Hallstedt
      Pages: 231 - 239
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 60
      Author(s): Florian Tang, Dimitri Bogdanovski, Irina Bajenova, Alexandra Khvan, Richard Dronskowski, Bengt Hallstedt
      frequently toggled from 1The Al–Mn–C ternary system has been thermodynamically evaluated using the CALPHAD method. Published data on phase equilibria have been critically examined and used to optimize the model parameters. The phase model for the κ AlMn3C phase (E21) has been changed to (Al,Mn)1(Al,Mn)3(C,Va)1 for improved reproduction of stability ranges and phase equilibria at 1100 °C and 1200 °C. The solid solution phase parameters of γ -Mn, ε -AlMn, ε -Mn4C have been adjusted to reproduce experimental ternary phase equilibria. Density functional theory-based ab initio calculations of enthalpies of formation at 0 K were performed to guide the modeling of the κ phase and elucidate general energetic trends. Reasonable liquidus temperatures were achieved by adjustments to the stability of the liquid phase. The Mn5C2 phase model was extended to Mn5(C,Al)2 which allows aluminium on the carbon sublattice. The CALPHAD calculations were performed with the optimized set of parameters and compared with the available experimental data and changes to previous work were elucidated.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T17:03:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2018)
  • Summary report of CALPHAD XLV - Awaji Island, Japan, 2016
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2018

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T16:39:18Z
  • Reconciling SGTE and ab initio enthalpies of the elements
    • Authors: Axel van de Walle
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 60
      Author(s): Axel van de Walle
      The CALPHAD framework is built on assumption that all phases have a well-defined free energy over all accessible composition, temperature and pressure conditions. Unfortunately, it is common for phases to exhibit mechanical instabilities in at least some range of conditions, thus precluding direct experimental measurements and hindering computational efforts. A pragmatic solution has often been to extrapolate free energies from stable region into the unstable regions, but extrapolations from different systems that share a common phase may not agree and extrapolated free energies can unintentionally lie below the free energy of stable phases. Computational approaches that aim to directly calculate the free energy of unstable phases offer a promising avenue to address these issues. Among them, the recently proposed “inflection detection” scheme lies on a strong theoretical footing. We provide further support for this approach by demonstrating that it yield free energies that agree very well with the widely used SGTE (Scientific Group Thermodata Europe) data for pure elements. This finding suggest that it may be possible to get the best of both worlds: obtain a theoretically justified definition of the free energy of mechanically unstable phases and preserve much of existing empirical standards for the assignments of such free energies.
      Graphical abstract image Highlights fx1

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T10:46:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2017.10.008
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2017)
  • Density functional study of the thermodynamic properties and phase diagram
           of the magnesium hydride
    • Authors: Hasan S. AlMatrouk; Viorel Chihaia; Valentin Alexiev
      Pages: 7 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 60
      Author(s): Hasan S. AlMatrouk, Viorel Chihaia, Valentin Alexiev
      This paper focuses primarily on the P-T phase diagram determination by considering six polymorphs of magnesium hydride (α - rutile TiO2, P4 2 /mnm, β - cubic modified CaF2, Pa 3 ¯ , γ - orthorhombic PbO2, Pbcn, δ' - orthorhombic, Pbca and cubic - Fm 3 ¯ m). The Gibbs free energy and other thermodynamic properties were evaluated by DFT-based thermodynamic calculations, within the frame of the quasi-harmonic approximation, for the pressure range 0–10GPa and temperatures between 0 and 1200K. Furthermore, the structural, energetic, and electronic properties of the investigated structures are conversed.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T10:46:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2017.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2017)
  • Revised thermodynamic description of the Fe-Cr system based on an improved
           sublattice model of the σ phase
    • Authors: Aurélie Jacob; Erwin Povoden-Karadeniz; Ernst Kozeschnik
      Pages: 16 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 60
      Author(s): Aurélie Jacob, Erwin Povoden-Karadeniz, Ernst Kozeschnik
      The Fe-Cr system is re-assessed, focusing on an improved modeling of σ phase. The three sublattice model (Cr,Fe)10(Cr,Fe)4(Cr,Fe)16 is parameterized to model the σ phase, solving discrepancies between computed and experimental site fractions of previous descriptions. Taking into account relative metastability trends of end-member compounds from first-principles analysis, only two additional interaction parameters of the σ-FeCr description were required for the reproduction of the chemical structure, thermodynamic properties and phase boundaries.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T12:27:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2017.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2017)
  • Thermodynamic assessment of binary erythritol-xylitol phase diagram for
           phase change materials design
    • Authors: Saman Nimali Gunasekara; Huahai Mao; Sedigheh Bigdeli; Justin NingWei Chiu; Viktoria Martin
      Pages: 29 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 60
      Author(s): Saman Nimali Gunasekara, Huahai Mao, Sedigheh Bigdeli, Justin NingWei Chiu, Viktoria Martin
      Here, the erythritol-xylitol binary system was thermodynamically optimized based on available experimental phase equilibrium data, to explore compositions suitable as phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage (TES). A previous experimental study revealed that erythritol-xylitol was a partially isomorphous system with a eutectic. In the thermodynamic evaluation, the CALPHAD method was employed coupling the phase diagram and thermodynamic property information. There, both unary and binary systems’ experimental data were taken into account, and all phases were described using the substitutional solution model. Finally, a self-consistent thermodynamic description for the erythritol-xylitol system was achieved. The calculated eutectic point is at 76.7°C and 26.8mol% erythritol, agreeing well with the experimental data. The calculated phase diagram better-verifies the systems’ solidus and the solvus, disclosing the stable phase relations. Based on the Gibbs energy minimization, phase diagrams can be predicted for the binary and higher order systems, provided the component subsystems are thermodynamically assessed beforehand. In conclusion, to move forward beyond e.g. non-isomorphous simple eutectic systems, methods using Gibbs free energy minimization from a fundamental point-of-view such as CALPHAD are essential.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T09:33:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2017.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2017)
  • Assessment of the Al-Bi-Mg system and extrapolation to the Al-Bi-Mg-Sn
           quaternary system
    • Authors: Chunju Niu; Changrong Li
      Pages: 37 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 60
      Author(s): Chunju Niu, Changrong Li
      The phase equilibria in the Al-Bi-Mg-Sn quaternary system have been studied using the CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram) method. One of the four ternary systems constituting the quarternary system, the Al-Bi-Mg system, is re-assessed by means of the CALPHAD technique and Thermo-Calc software package, in consideration of the associate model for the liquid phase instead of the Modified Quasi-chemical Model used in the literature report. While for the other three ternary systems, the Al-Bi-Sn, the Al-Mg-Sn and the Bi-Mg-Sn systems, the thermodynamic parameters are mainly adopted from the literature reported optimization results with a little modification to the Al-Bi-Sn and the Al-Mg-Sn systems for the compatibility of all the constituent binary systems. The assessment results of the Al-Bi-Mg ternary system are in good agreement with the available experimental phase relations, including the liquidus surface projection and the vertical sections. The thermodynamic database of the Al-Bi-Mg-Sn quaternary system was developed without the consideration of the quaternary interactions and the quaternary compounds. With this newly developed thermodynamic database, the phase equilibria and the solidification processes of the ternary and the quarternary systems are calculated and analyzed.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T09:33:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2017)
  • Experimental investigation and simulation of precipitation evolution in
           Mg-3Nd-0.2Zn alloy
    • Authors: Xiangyu Xia; Amirreza Sanaty-Zadeh; Chuan Zhang; Alan A. Luo; Donald S. Stone
      Pages: 58 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 60
      Author(s): Xiangyu Xia, Amirreza Sanaty-Zadeh, Chuan Zhang, Alan A. Luo, Donald S. Stone
      In this research, precipitation evolution and strengthening behavior in Mg-3Nd-0.2Zn alloy during isothermal age treatment at 200°C are quantitatively studied by a combination of experimental investigation and computational simulation. Microstructure evolution, including volume fraction, number density, and size of precipitates are first measured by TEM and DSC techniques and then modeled using an integrated computational simulation method combining the CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram) approach and classical nucleation model. The focus of the analysis is set on the evolution of key strengthening precipitate β’. Critical kinetic parameters such as particle interfacial energy and nucleation site number are obtained computationally by fitting the model to the experimental data. Mechanical properties of a series of Mg-Nd-Zn alloys are predicted using the simulated microstructure evolution as inputs. Good agreement is found between simulated and measured results. Strategies for enhancing the precipitation hardening effect are presented and discussed based on the simulation results. The merit of this study is to use the obtained parameters to extrapolate microstructure evolution and mechanical properties when adjusting alloy composition and/or heat treatment conditions within a certain range, which will be very useful for further development and optimization of multi-component Mg alloys.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T09:33:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2017.11.006
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2017)
  • Genetic programming based models for prediction of vapor-liquid
    • Authors: Veena Patil-Shinde; Sanjeev S. Tambe
      Pages: 68 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 60
      Author(s): Veena Patil-Shinde, Sanjeev S. Tambe
      The design, operation, and control of chemical separation processes heavily rely on the knowledge of the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE). Often, conducting experiments to gain an insight into the separation behavior becomes tedious and expensive. Thus, standard thermodynamic models are used in the VLE prediction. Sometimes, exclusively data-driven models are also used in VLE prediction although this method too possesses drawbacks such as a trial and error approach in specifying the data-fitting function. For overcoming these difficulties, this paper employs a machine learning (ML) formalism namely “genetic programming (GP)” possessing certain attractive features for the VLE prediction. Specifically, three case studies have been performed wherein GP-based models have been developed using experimental data, for predicting the vapor phase composition of a ternary, and a group of non–ideal binary systems. The inputs to models consists of three pure component attributes (acentric factor, critical temperature, and critical pressure), and as many intensive thermodynamic parameters (liquid phase composition, pressure, and temperature). A comparison of the VLE prediction and generalization performance of the GP-based models with the corresponding standard thermodynamic models reveals that the former class of models possess either superior or closely comparable performance vis-a-vis thermodynamic models. Noteworthy features of this study are: (i) a single GP-based model can predict VLE of a group of binary systems, and (ii) applicability of a GP-based model trained on an alcohol-acetate series data for its higher homolog. The VLE modeling approach exemplified here can be gainfully extended to other ternary and non-ideal binary systems, and for designing corresponding experiments in different pressure and temperature ranges.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T09:33:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2017.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2017)
  • Experimental reinvestigation and thermodynamic description of Bi-Te binary
    • Authors: Cun Mao; Mingyue Tan; Ligang Zhang; Di Wu; Weiming Bai; Libin Liu
      Pages: 81 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 60
      Author(s): Cun Mao, Mingyue Tan, Ligang Zhang, Di Wu, Weiming Bai, Libin Liu
      The Bi-Te phase diagram was determined by equilibrium alloy method, combined with electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis (DSC). The experimental result shows that there is a β-phase with a large composition range at low temperature, while Bi2Te and Bi4Te3 are relatively stable in the solid-liquid region. A consistent phase diagram that covers the experimental findings has been achieved. Based on the new experimental phase diagram, coupling with the reported thermodynamic data, the thermodynamic optimization of the Bi-Te binary system was carried out with the help of CALPHAD approach. A group of reasonable thermodynamic parameters was obtained.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T09:33:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2017.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2017)
  • A thermodynamic description of the U−Ti−Zr system
    • Authors: Yinping Zeng; Peng Zhou; Yong Du; Wenlin Mo; Bin Bai; Xiaolin Wang; Jingrui Zhao
      Pages: 90 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 60
      Author(s): Yinping Zeng, Peng Zhou, Yong Du, Wenlin Mo, Bin Bai, Xiaolin Wang, Jingrui Zhao
      The U−Ti−Zr system was assessed by means of the CALPHAD method for the first time. Based on a critical evaluation of experimental phase diagram data available in the literature, a thermodynamic modeling was conducted for the individual phases. The solution phases including the liquid, hcp and bcc were described by a substitutional solution model. The binary compounds, U2Ti and UZr2, with a ternary extension were treated as one single phase using a sublattice model of (U,Zr)2/3(Ti,Zr)1/3. There is no ternary compound in this system. A set of self-consistent thermodynamic parameters for the U−Ti−Zr system was then obtained. Comparisons between the calculated and measured phase diagrams show that the experimental information is satisfactorily accounted for by the present thermodynamic description. The solvus projection and reaction scheme were generated using the present thermodynamic parameters. The presently calculated phase diagrams of U–Zr−Ti alloys can be used for further industrial application.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T12:27:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2017.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2017)
  • Interdiffusion and atomic mobility in bcc Ti–rich
           Ti–Nb–Zr system
    • Authors: Weimin Chen
      Pages: 98 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 60
      Author(s): Weimin Chen
      Accurate interdiffusion information is the necessity for the control of the production of homogeneous biomedical alloys. Ternary interdiffusivities in bcc Ti–rich Ti–Nb–Zr alloys at 1273K were determined by using the combination of the diffusion couple technique and the Matano–Kirkaldy method. Subsequently, on the basis of the presently obtained interdiffusivities together with the diffusivity and mobility parameters of sub–binary Ti–Nb–Zr system and the thermodynamic descriptions for bcc Ti–Nb–Zr system, the atomic mobilities of Ti, Nb and Zr in bcc Ti–Nb–Zr alloys were assessed by means of DICTRA (DIffusion Controlled TRAnsformation) software package. Moreover, the comprehensive comparisons between the experimental diffusion properties (i.e., interdiffusivities, composition profiles, interdiffusion fluxes and diffusion paths) and the calculated/model–predicted data due to the present atomic mobilities were conducted in order to verify the reliability of the mobilities. The present atomic mobilities for bcc Ti–Nb–Zr system can provide the accurate interdiffusivity matrix over the wide composition range.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T12:27:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2017)
  • Composition-dependent interdiffusivity matrices in face centered cubic
           Ni–Al–X (X = Rh and W) alloys at 1423, 1473 and 1523K: A
           high-throughput experimental measurement
    • Authors: Juan Chen; Lijun Zhang
      Pages: 106 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 60
      Author(s): Juan Chen, Lijun Zhang
      Based on 18 face centered cubic (fcc) single-phase diffusion couples in ternary Ni–Al–X (X = Rh and W) systems together with the recently developed numerical inverse method, high-throughput measurements of the composition-dependent interdiffusivity matrices in fcc Ni–Al–X (X = Rh and W) alloys at 1423, 1473 and 1523K were performed in the present work. Their reliability was comprehensively validated through comparison between the model-predicted composition/interdiffusion flux profiles for each diffusion couple and the corresponding experimental data. Moreover, the direct comparison with the interdiffusivities evaluated from traditional Matano-Kirkaldy method as well as those from the literature and in the boundary binary systems was also made. The errors for the determined interdiffusivities were evaluated by a scientific method considering the error propagation. The three-dimensional main interdiffusivity planes for fcc Ni–Al–X (X = Rh and W) systems over the investigated concentration ranges at 1423, 1473 and 1523K were subsequently constructed. It was then found that D ˜ A l A l N i is generally larger than D ˜ R h R h N i , while D ˜ W W N i is the smallest.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T12:27:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2017)
  • Phase equilibria studies of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-Fe2O3-MgO system using CALPHAD
    • Authors: Tazuddin; Hemantkumar N. Aiyer; Amit Chatterjee
      Pages: 116 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 60
      Author(s): Tazuddin, Hemantkumar N. Aiyer, Amit Chatterjee
      A detailed CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram) based thermodynamic study on CaO- SiO2-Al2O3-Fe2O3-MgO system (C-A-S-F-M) has been carried out to study the evolution of phases during heating and to investigate the effects of individual oxides. The important phases present at high temperature in the system are tricalcium silicate (C3S), dicalcium silicate (C2S), tricalcium aluminate (C3A), dicalcium ferrite (C2F) and a liquid phase. The evolution of liquid phase and other important phases predicted by CALPHAD closely matches with the experimental results. It was observed that in C-A-S-F-M system, there is a critical percentage of CaO and SiO2 at which C3S is maximum. Both Fe2O3 and Al2O3 significantly increase the amount of liquid phase. Both Fe2O3 and Al2O3 reduce C3S and increase C2S in the system. Up to 1.5wt%, MgO also helps in increasing liquid phase. A mathematical model to predict phases has been developed as an alternative to the Bougue's equation which is very effective in predicting phase fractions.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T12:27:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2017)
  • Experimental investigation and thermodynamic description of the Cu-Cr-Zr
    • Authors: Yuling Liu; Peng Zhou; Shuhong Liu; Yong Du
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Calphad, Volume 59
      Author(s): Yuling Liu, Peng Zhou, Shuhong Liu, Yong Du
      The Cu-Cr-Zr ternary system was investigated via thermodynamic modeling coupled with key experiments. The isothermal section of the Cu-Cr-Zr system at 1123K was determined by means of optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron probe microanalysis, and the phase transformation temperatures were measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The Cu-Cr sub-binary system was re-assessed with a substitutional solution model for the solution phases to ensure its compatibility in multi-component system. A set of self-consistent thermodynamic parameters for the Cu-Cr-Zr systems was obtained using the CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram) approach, and the calculated phase diagram is in a satisfactory agreement with the present experimental results and literature information. An increase of the thermodynamic stability for the CuZr and Cr2Zr phases due to the ternary solubility is verified by calculation.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T11:16:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2017)
  • Ab initio-assisted assessment of the CaO-SiO2 system under pressure
    • Authors: D. Belmonte; G. Ottonello; M. Vetuschi Zuccolini
      Pages: 12 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Calphad, Volume 59
      Author(s): D. Belmonte, G. Ottonello, M. Vetuschi Zuccolini
      We present the results of an ab initio-assisted assessment of melting and subsolidus phase relations in the system CaO-SiO2 up to high pressure conditions. All solid compounds known to nucleate in the system have been treated as purely stoichiometric and the liquid resolved in the framework of a simple polymeric model. Mixing properties of the binary liquid phase are fully described by a single-parameter purely enthalpic chemical interaction plus a strain energy contribution. The latter is required to predict liquid immiscibility of SiO2-rich liquid compositions at ambient conditions and becomes irrelevant at P>2GPa. A detailed survey of thermodynamic properties of silica polymorphs and calcium oxide and silicates in a broad range of P-T conditions reveals quite controversial stability relations and melting behavior. First-principles calculations on CaO and SiO2 pure liquid components and solid phases (lime and stishovite) have been used, along with a sound assessment of first- and second-order phase transitions, to reconcile thermochemical data with topological details of the observed phase diagrams. A physically-consistent coupling between thermodynamic and thermoelastic properties (viz. compressibility and thermal expansion) turns out to be of fundamental importance to infer reliable stability relations both at subsolidus and melting conditions. Pressure effects shift the composition of the main invariant points in the CaO-SiO2 system and also change the melting behavior of the CaSiO3 metasilicate in a complex manner.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:41:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2017.07.009
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2017)
  • Phase equilibria in the ternary Fe-Co-S system
    • Authors: Mariia O. Ilatovskaia; Svetlana I. Sinyova; Roman V. Starykh
      Pages: 31 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Calphad, Volume 59
      Author(s): Mariia O. Ilatovskaia, Svetlana I. Sinyova, Roman V. Starykh
      The Fe-FeS-CoS-Co system has been investigated experimentally from 1073K up to liquidus temperature. Samples of the system have been investigated using DTA/TGA, SEM/EDX, and XRD methods. Liquidus and solidus projections have been plotted based on experimental data.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:41:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2017.07.007
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2017)
  • Vapor pressure of alkali-metal binary alloys in glass cells
    • Authors: Kiyoshi Ishikawa
      Pages: 40 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Calphad, Volume 59
      Author(s): Kiyoshi Ishikawa
      The alkali partial pressures of composite alkali-metal vapor are crucial in atomic-physics optical experiments. The vapor pressures of alkali-metal binary alloys can be calculated by using the activity and the mixing enthalpy for homogeneous alloys from early measurements. We show that the results of sodium-containing alloys deviate appreciably from the prediction of Raoult's law. Experimentally, the phase and the mixing ratio of binary alloys are non-destructively measured by nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectroscopy in glass cells. We find that many droplets of the sodium-rubidium alloy exist on the cell walls, and they have different mixing ratios. Therefore, the vapor density varies microscopically around the glass cells. To achieve precision optical measurements, we should take account of the pressure change due to the equilibrium process and further sodium contamination over the lifetime of glass cells.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:41:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2017.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2017)
  • The reassessment of the Al-V system and new assessment of the Al-Si-V
    • Authors: A. Kroupa; M. Mazalová; K.W. Richter
      Pages: 47 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Calphad, Volume 59
      Author(s): A. Kroupa, M. Mazalová, K.W. Richter
      The theoretical assessment of the Al-Si-V system has been carried out and has been presented here. The experimental results from Huber et al. [1,2] were used as the basis of the assessment. The relevant binary system assessments for Al-V [9], Al-Si [13] and Si-V [14] were used in the initial stage of the study and it was found that complete reassessment of the Al-V system was necessary. The reassessed dataset for the Al-V system is in very good agreement not only with existing experimental phase diagram and thermodynamic data, but is also consistent with the independent work of Lindahl et al. [22]. The final assessment of the Al-Si-V system using our own reassessed Al-V system is in excellent agreement with the experimental data.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:41:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2017.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2017)
  • Thermodynamic reassessment of the novel solid-state thermal energy storage
           materials: Ternary polyalcohol and amine system
    • Authors: Renhai Shi; Dhanesh Chandra; Amrita Mishra; Anjali Talekar; Muralidhar Tirumala; Daryl J. Nelson
      Pages: 61 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Calphad, Volume 59
      Author(s): Renhai Shi, Dhanesh Chandra, Amrita Mishra, Anjali Talekar, Muralidhar Tirumala, Daryl J. Nelson
      Organic polyalcohol and amine globular molecular crystals such as PG, TRIS, and NPG are considered as the most promising potential candidates for solid-state thermal energy storage in the orientationally disordered high temperature phases. In this study, we first propose a new PG-TRIS-NPG phase diagram based on experimental data of the three sub-binary systems NPG-PG, PG-TRIS, and NPG-TRIS with CALPHAD methodology. The NPG-PG binary phase diagram was optimized using sub-regular models that showed complete miscibility in the entire compositional range of high temperature γ′ (FCC) phase region, and an invariant equilibrium point at 299.5K. The NPG-TRIS binary system was also calculated using sub-regular model, from sub-ambient to well above the melting temperatures, and determined three invariant equilibria at 311.1K, 391.8K, and 410.6K, respectively. These calculated binary phase diagrams are in good agreement with the experimental data. The PG-TRIS-NPG ternary system has also been calculated and qualitatively analyzed using the CALPHAD method and Thermo-Calc software. A set of self-consistent thermodynamic parameters formulating the Gibbs energies of various phase in the PG-TIRS-NPG ternary system are obtained in the present work. Thermodynamic properties such as several isotherms, isopleths, and liquidus projections are calculated by using present datasets as shown in this work in which the solid ternary compound (TRIS0.5NPG0.5)XPG1−X (0.1≤x≤0.9), (TRIS0.5PG0.5)XNPG1−X (0.1≤x≤0.9), and (PG0.5NPG0.5)XTRIS1−X (0.1≤x≤0.9) with various solid-solid phase transitions at different temperatures could apply to applications in the solid-state thermal energy storage.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:41:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2017)
  • A method of integrating CALPHAD data into phase-field models using an
           approximated minimiser applied to intermetallic layer growth in the Al-Mg
    • Authors: M.J. Welland; M.H.A. Piro; S. Hibbins; N. Wang
      Pages: 76 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Calphad, Volume 59
      Author(s): M.J. Welland, M.H.A. Piro, S. Hibbins, N. Wang
      This article describes an approach to combine single phase thermodynamic potentials into a multiphase composite potential suitable for integration in a multicomponent phase-field model. The composite potential avoids implicit interfacial energy contributions by starting from a grand potential formulation. The method is made explicit by expanding the minimiser resulting from the Legendre transform between grand and Helmholtz potentials about a known equilibrium state. The resulting composite function is explicit, reproduces the equilibrium states exactly, and is smooth such that it can be differentiated to provide the driving forces for mass transport and phase change in a thermodynamically self-consistent manner. The model is demonstrated by simulating a sequence of phase transformations for intermetallic growth in Al-Mg interdiffusion for advanced nuclear research reactor fuel.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:41:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2017.07.008
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2017)
  • Diffusivities and atomic mobilities for fcc Cu–Ni–Sn alloys
    • Authors: Yuling Liu; Chong Chen; Dandan Liu; Yong Du; Shuhong Liu; Xiaoma Tao; Yifang Ouyang
      Pages: 84 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Calphad, Volume 59
      Author(s): Yuling Liu, Chong Chen, Dandan Liu, Yong Du, Shuhong Liu, Xiaoma Tao, Yifang Ouyang
      Utilizing five groups of bulk diffusion couples together with electron probe microanalysis technique, the composition-dependent ternary interdiffusion coefficients in fcc Cu–Ni–Sn alloys at 1023K were determined via the Whittle and Green method. The presently obtained interdiffusion coefficients at 1023K as well as our previously measured ones at 1073K were combined with the slightly modified thermodynamic descriptions of the fcc Cu–Ni–Sn phase to explore atomic mobilities of Cu, Ni and Sn in fcc Cu–Ni–Sn alloys within the CALPHAD framework. In order to be consistent with the thermodynamic description, atomic mobilities in binary fcc Ni–Sn alloys were re-evaluated in the present work. The quality of the assessed kinetic characteristics was confirmed by the comprehensive comparisons between various model-predicted diffusion behaviors and the experimental ones, including concentration profiles and diffusion paths.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T08:18:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2017.08.005
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2017)
  • Thermodynamics of liquid Sn-Pb alloys determined by vapour pressure
    • Authors: Andrzej
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Calphad, Volume 60
      Author(s): Andrzej Zajączkowski
      Application of Knudsen method in the studies of liquid Sn-Pb alloys, containing from 4.85 to 95.31mol% of lead, in temperatures from 851 to 1186K, and liquid tin and lead, in temperatures 1360 – 1442 and 934 – 1149K, respectively, provided experimental data which made characterization of thermodynamic properties of liquid phase of Sn-Pb system possible. Parameters of the Redlich-Kister equation, describing excess Gibbs energy of liquid phase of the examined system, were determined. With application of the third law method standard enthalpies of sublimation of tin and lead were calculated.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T09:33:36Z
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