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ENGINEERING (1203 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 233)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 257)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 216)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 58)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment
  [SJR: 0.525]   [H-I: 35]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1435-9537 - ISSN (Online) 1435-9529
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Determining the optimum cutting direction in granite quarries through
           experimental studies: a case study of a granite quarry
    • Abstract: Abstract Optimization of cutting operations in quarrying and processing of building stones leads to certain reductions in operational costs. Despite the developments of cutting technology and employment of more efficient cutting machines, there is still a need to optimize a series of operational parameters; the cutting direction is one of them. In order to optimize the cutting direction parameter in cutting processes, an experimental study was designed in a granite quarry. For this purpose, 12 granite samples along 12 different directions with 15° intervals were cut by a special laboratory wire cutting machine. The obtained cutting rate showed that different cutting directions demonstrate very diverse cutting rates. A significant difference of 43% was found between the highest and lowest cutting rates. Also, the optimal cutting direction was found to be 185° relative to the geographical north. Furthermore, microscopic studies on petrographic thin sections were performed to analyze the cutting rate results. Analysis showed that the rock’s equivalent hardness was not correlated to the cutting rate, while there is a possible direct relationship between the quartz content and the cutting rate. Besides, results confirmed the currently identified splitting planes of the quarry and showed a potential relationship with the main fault system of the area.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20
  • Classification of geological and engineering properties in weak rock: a
           case study of a tunnel in a fault zone in southeastern Korea
    • Abstract: Abstract Given that the rock mass classifications of weak rocks observed in tunnels are evaluated only as ‘poor rock mass’ or grades IV–V using existing rock mass classification methods, a new scheme is needed that would better distinguish the various geological properties of weak rocks. In this study, geological and engineering properties of weak rocks were classified based on the analysis results of a total of 55 faces in a tunnel that passes through a fault zone in southeastern South Korea. Geological observations, point load tests, and Schmidt hammer tests were conducted to analyze the properties of the weak rocks. Through this analysis, the weak rocks were classified into two weathering types: ‘disintegrated rocks’ and ‘decomposed rocks’. This division is based on the tectonic mechanisms and parameters necessary to determine the engineering geological properties of individual rock-weathering types according to their geological properties. The ‘disintegrated rocks’ have been physically weathered by brittle deformation and are classified into three subtypes using the rock quality designation (RQD) and joint set number (Jn), which can characterize the discontinuity properties of the rocks. Point load tests were conducted on these individual subtypes to calculate the point load index (Is(50)). The resultant values are clearly related to the assigned three subtypes. The ‘decomposed rocks’ have been chemically weathered by ductile deformation and are classified into five subtypes based on the results of Schmidt hammer tests conducted on faces and Is(50) values calculated using the average of the Schmidt hammer values. The geological properties of the individual subtypes of the ‘disintegrated rocks’ and ‘decomposed rocks’ are clearly related to their engineering properties. Based on these results, rock mass classification diagrams are proposed that can be simply and easily applied to weak rocks.
      PubDate: 2017-09-19
  • A revised, geotechnical classification GSI system for tectonically
           disturbed heterogeneous rock masses, such as flysch
    • Abstract: Abstract Use of the geological strength index (GSI) rock mass classification system and the associated m, s and a parameter relationships linking GSI with the Hoek–Brown failure criterion provides a demonstrated, effective and reliable approach for prediction of rock mass strength for surface and underground excavation design and for rock support selection for most “normal” rock masses. One of the key advantages of the index is that it allows characterization of rock masses difficult to describe, such as flysch, and the geological reasoning it embodies, allowing adjustments to be made to its ratings to cover a wide range of rock masses and conditions compared to a typical engineering approach. Flysch, having high heterogeneity in its petrographic nature and a tectonically disturbed structure, forms very weak rock masses in many cases and needs a particular geotechnical classification according to the engineering geological characteristics it presents. After a decade of application of the GSI for the classification of heterogeneous rock masses (Marinos and Hoek 2001), this paper attempts to re-evaluate or verify the original values and to contribute to the appropriate selection of the index for various conditions. A revised GSI diagram for heterogeneous rock masses, such as flysch, is presented, where a certain range of GSI values for every rock mass type is proposed according to the siltstone-sandstone participation and their tectonic disturbance. Data from the design and construction of a large number of tunnels in a variety of geological conditions were assessed for this purpose. In addition to the GSI values, the selection of the appropriate “intact” rock properties for this type of heterogeneous rock mass is also discussed, where characteristic σci, Ei and modulus ratio (MR) values are proposed.
      PubDate: 2017-09-16
  • GPR measurements to detect major discontinuities at Cheshmeh-Shirdoosh
           limestone quarry, Iran
    • Authors: Luigi Zanzi; Azadeh Hojat; Hojjatollah Ranjbar; Saeed Karimi-Nasab; Asghar Azadi; Diego Arosio
      Abstract: Abstract In recent years, the Iranian rich quarry industry has been looking for efficient scientific investigations to improve the extraction operations in different dimension stone quarries. Kerman Province is one of the most potential zones with a variety of dimension stone quarries near the city of Kerman. In this research, GPR measurements were carried out to detect major discontinuities at Cheshmeh-Shirdoosh limestone quarry, northeast of Kerman city. This quarry is being extracted by the diamond wire sawing method. As the first GPR study in Iranian quarries, a total length of about 1200 m was surveyed with 50 MHz and 250 MHz GPR antennas collecting data on the surface of the three extraction benches of the quarry. A 800 MHz antenna was also used to map the main defects of a block, which was extracted from a fractured section of the quarry. Six parallel profiles at 10 cm intervals were measured along one side of the block. The results obtained from the 250 MHz dataset were very encouraging and could detect all the major discontinuities. Interpreted profiles were also used to prepare depth slices of the density of joints for two main survey areas. As expected, GPR sections obtained from the 50 MHz antenna had a lower resolution but could clearly detect fault zones. The 800 MHz antenna could map the main defects of the extracted block. However, a higher frequency antenna (e.g., 2GHz or more) is recommended for mapping thin fractures.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1153-x
  • Mechanisms of large deformation in soft rock tunnels: a case study of
           Huangjiazhai Tunnel
    • Authors: Kang Bian; Jian Liu; Zhenping Liu; Shangge Liu; Fei Ai; Xiaoqing Zheng; Shaohu Ni; Wei Zhang
      Abstract: Abstract Typical large-deformation phenomena of soft rock occurred frequently during the tunneling process in Huangjiazhai Tunnel, Hubei Province, China, including extrusion at the tunnel wall and severe damage of the primary support and secondary lining. To reveal the mechanisms of these anomalies, comprehensive investigations have been undertaken combining engineering, laboratory, and microscopic analyses. Since the monitoring results show that there might be a close relationship between the large deformation phenomena and water infiltration into the tunnel, the water–rock interaction is the research focus in the investigations. The experimental results reveal that the deforming resistance and strength of shales exposed at the excavation face weaken quickly in the first 20 days after the shales have contact with water. The results obtained by mineral composition detection and microstructure observation illustrate the microscopic reasons for the decreasing strength and deforming resistance of the tunnel surrounding rock after water infiltration. The results from in situ geostress tests indicate that as a result of high tectonic stress and low rock strength, the field of Huangjiazhai Tunnel is an extremely high geostress area. By combining analyses from the mechanical and geological perspectives, there are two main reasons for the large deformations in the Huangjiazhai Tunnel: the plastic flow caused by tunnel excavation under high geostress and low rock strength and a hydrated-mechanical coupling process between the shales and water.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1155-8
  • Field, experimental, and numerical investigation of a rockfall above a
           tunnel portal in southwestern China
    • Authors: Jie Hu; Shucai Li; Liping Li; Shaoshuai Shi; Zongqing Zhou; Hongliang Liu; Peng He
      Abstract: Abstract Combining the results of detailed field investigation, laboratory tests, and numerical simulations, this paper studies the rockfall problem above a tunnel portal. The mechanism of potential rock instability was analyzed, and model tests were conducted based on geological conditions and described in detail, so as to study the restitution coefficients used in programs simulating rockfall trajectory. Improvements in the tests were made in terms of experimental techniques and creative similar materials. A newly developed test bench was built by steel frames and can be assembled or disassembled at will according to requirement of model size. An innovative block-release device was adopted and controlled by computer to change the release position of block. During the model construction, the slope and blocks were fabricated with similar materials developed through quantities of mixing proportion tests. Then experiments were conducted with varied shape, mass, and release height of blocks to clarify their effect on restitution coefficients. Results indicate that restitution coefficients are apparently related to these factors and their values decrease when block mass and releasing height increase. Restitution coefficients of the wedge block are larger than those of a sphere or cuboid block. Subsequently, numerical simulations adopting the calibrated parameters were performed, and the velocities, bounce heights, and kinetic energies of rockfall along the slope profiles were obtained. Based on the research, this paper provides a useful reference for practical remediation design.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1152-y
  • Effects of thermal treatment on physico-morphological properties of Indian
           fine-grained sandstone
    • Abstract: Abstract The physical, mechanical and morphological properties of a rock undergo substantial change when exposed to the extreme temperatures that are encountered in processes such as nuclear waste disposal, underground coal gasification (UCG) and building fires. An attempt has been made in this article to study the different physical and morphological changes that occur within Indian sandstone due to thermal treatment. Tests were performed on a thermally treated air-cooled and non-cooled set of samples in order to observe the change in the physico-morphological properties. Heating has a profound effect on the physical properties such as density, porosity and compression wave velocity (V P ), which have been further explained by thin-section, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies. Thermal analyses such as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were performed to observe the chemical changes occurring in the specimen. Since Dholpur sandstone is a quartz-dominant rock, the thermally induced chemical degradation is minimal in nature. DTA studies revealed the quartz inversion to occur at 579.19 °C. Structural changes that are caused due to the random alignment and the thermal anisotropic behaviour of different minerals lead to microcracking, thereby affecting the physical properties. This study will provide an understanding of the thermal behaviour of rocks and the relationship of the thermal behaviour with physico-mechanical behaviour. The study can prove useful while designing structures in processes such as UCG, nuclear waste disposal, deep mining and geothermal energy; the study can also enable the formation of a protocol to restore the structural integrity and aesthetic value of fire-damaged buildings.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1149-6
  • Estimating the three-dimensional joint roughness coefficient value of rock
    • Abstract: Abstract Measurement and estimation of the joint roughness coefficient (JRC) is a critical but also difficult challenge in the field of rock mechanics. Parameters for estimating JRC based on a profile derived from a fracture surface are generally two-dimensional (2D), where a single or multiple straight profiles derived from a surface cannot reflect the roughness of the entire surface. It is therefore necessary to derive the three-dimensional (3D) roughness parameters from the entire surface. In this article, a detailed review is made on 3D roughness parameters along with classification and discussion of their usability and limitations. Methods using Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) and 3D wireframe to derive 3D roughness parameters are described. Thirty-eight sets of fresh rock blocks with fractures in the middle were prepared and tested in direct shear. Based on these, empirical equations for JRC estimation using 3D roughness parameters have been derived. Nine parameters (θ s , θ g , θ 2s , S sT , S sF , V an , Z sa , Zrms, and Z range ) are found to have close correlations with JRC and are capable of estimating JRC of rock fracture surfaces. Other parameters (Z ss , Z sk , V svi , V sci , S dr and S ts ) show no good correlations with JRC. The sampling interval has little influence when using volume and amplitude parameters (V an, Z sa , Z rms , and Z range ) for JRC estimation, while it influences to some extent when other parameters (θ s , θ g , θ 2s , S sT and S sF ) are used. For their easy calculation, the equations with amplitude parameters are recommended to facilitate rapid estimation of JRC in engineering practice.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1150-0
  • Deterioration of weak rocks over time and its effect on designing tunnel
           support systems
    • Authors: Roohollah Narimani Dehnavi; Masoud Sadeghi
      Abstract: Abstract The long-term behavior of rock mass plays a vital role in the overall stability of underground structures. One possible long-term scenario is the degradation of the rock mass, especially in unstable clay-bearing rocks susceptible to water ingress. Lack of efficient countermeasures in extreme cases could significantly affect the physical and mechanical properties of rocks and alter the engineering behavior to some extent. In this research, we describe the case of the Golab access tunnel where it is subject to failure in a specific section containing meta-shales. The situation was considered to have occurred as a consequence of long-term deteriorating phenomenon after a 5-year period. To characterize the rock mass, point load tests were conducted on the rock samples in failure zones and values were compared with the ones obtained through primary geotechnical studies. Slake durability index (SDI) was also used to assess the vulnerability of rocks to changes in moisture content and was correlated to point load values. Additionally, GSI was measured in the failed regions, and the decreasing trend was presented in accordance with time. By taking advantage of the engineering characteristics, ground reaction curves in short-term and long-term conditions were obtained. It was deduced that the temporary support system applied to the tunnel in this section cannot provide a safe margin against long-term strains imposed by the ground. Therefore, another support system was suggested and applied to the unstable sections of tunnel to prevent further hazards.
      PubDate: 2017-09-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1154-9
  • Investigation of spatial variability of SPT data in Mashhad City (NE Iran)
           using a geostatistical approach
    • Authors: Sepideh Nasseh; Naser Hafezi Moghaddas; Mohammad Ghafoori; Omid Asghari; Jafar Bolouri Bazaz
      Abstract: Abstract Precisely investigating subsurface conditions is a major concern for both geotechnical and geological engineers. In recent years, growing urbanization and construction of high-rise buildings in Mashhad City, Iran, have increased the demand for 3D models as a basis for subsurface characterization. In this regard, this study deals with the development of a 3D geological engineering model for standard penetration test (SPT) results on Mashhad City sedimentary deposits using sequential indicator simulation (SIS) and sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) approaches. Reliable estimation of SPT values can be helpful in prediction of other geotechnical properties such as soil strength parameters and bearing capacity. The intense variability of the Mashhad sedimentary basin gives rise to complex and challenging ground conditions for civil engineering work. A better understanding of these deposits is crucial for many current and future civil engineering projects. Since design parameters in the study area are usually determined based on SPT results, 12,440 SPT data collected from 1380 boreholes were employed as the input data. After variability analysis, the SIS procedure was applied to coded data to determine areas with very dense sediments (areas with SPT > 50). Then, data with SPT values < 50 were transformed into normal scores in order for them to be applicable as input data in SGS. Finally, coupled maps showing the results of these two approaches were provided for different depths.
      PubDate: 2017-09-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1136-y
  • Liquefaction hazard mapping in the city of Boumerdès, Northern
    • Authors: Hamid Bourenane; Youcef Bouhadad; Mohamed Tas
      Abstract: Abstract The city of Boumerdès, located in Northern Algeria, was badly affected during the May 21, 2003 Zemmouri (Mw = 6.8) earthquake where extensive liquefaction has been reported. The aim of this paper is to assess and to map the liquefaction potential for Boumerdès. We collected and used data from 154 boreholes, 10 down-hole tests, 56 standard penetrations tests (SPT), and inventory of 35 water level points. This data has been analyzed in the framework of geographical information systems (GIS). We assessed the liquefaction potential index (LPI) by considering a seismic hazard scenario corresponding to amax = 0.48 g calculated, using a probabilistic approach, for a return period of 500 years. LPI values have been correlated to compile the liquefaction hazard map that indicates the quantitative characteristics of the liquefiable layers and the induced disruption probability area. Results show that the main part of the city of Boumerdès belongs to a low liquefaction potential area except for a narrow corridor along the Corso waterway, where the liquefaction potential is moderate to high. The obtained results are compatible with the geological, geotechnical and hydrogeological susceptibility to liquefaction of the area. The results also show a good agreement with the observations made after the May 21, 2003 Zemmouri earthquake. The obtained liquefaction hazard maps may serve as useful tools for land management and planning in the city of Boumerdès and as an example of liquefaction hazard assessment that may be applied in other populated cities in northern Algeria’s seismic prone areas.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1137-x
  • Biocementation of calcareous sand using soluble calcium derived from
           calcareous sand
    • Authors: Lu Liu; Hanlong Liu; Yang Xiao; Jian Chu; Peng Xiao; Yang Wang
      Abstract: Abstract A soil improvement method based on a microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) process has been developed in recent years. In this method, calcium carbonate is precipitated in-situ to act as a cementing agency. Calcium chloride is normally used as the calcium source for the MICP process. The use of calcium chloride causes two problems. The first is chloride is corrosive to concrete, and the second is the cost of calcium chloride is relatively high. An improvement to this method is to use other alternative calcium sources. A method to produce soluble calcium using calcium rich calcareous sand and use it as a calcium source for the MICP process to improve the properties of soil has been proposed in this paper. A comparative study between the effect of MICP treatment using soluble calcium produced from calcareous sand and that using calcium chloride with the same concentration of calcium was carried out. The results from both series of tests showed that with increasing amounts of cementation solutions, the strength and stiffness of the treated calcareous sand increased and the permeability decreased. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that the aragonite crystals with an acicular mineral morphology were formed when the soluble calcium was used, whereas the calcite crystals with a rhombohedral mineral morphology were formed when calcium chloride was used. This study also shows that it is feasible to treat calcareous sand using a MICP method with soluble calcium produced from calcareous sand.
      PubDate: 2017-08-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1106-4
  • Erosion resistance and scouring depth of fine-grained seabed of the
           Huanghe River estuary, China
    • Authors: Chenglin Cao; Yongfu Sun; Huifeng Sun; Yupeng Song
      Abstract: Abstract Numerical calculation is an effective method to predict the scouring depth of fine-grained sediments. However, as many soil properties affect sediment erodibility, numerically simulated parameters, such as critical erosion stress τ c , may result in wrong prediction. To understand the erosion resistance and scouring depth of fine-grained seabed in the Huanghe (Yellow) River estuary, China, the authors calculated the critical erosion stress τ c of the bottom sediments using regression equations that correlated physical properties to critical shear stress of silty fine-grained sediment of the research area and predicted the scouring depth of the study area using different available formulae. The results indicate that τ c ranges from 0.48 to 1.74 Pa. Comparisons show that the results calculated from the empirical formula proposed by Kandiah are close to the measured data, and choosing the right parameters of sediment in the formula decides the accuracy of the scouring depth calculation. With the Kandiah τ c value, the seabed scouring amplitudes in wave action periods of 5, 10, 25 and 50 years were simulated. The calculated results of scouring depth are between 0 and 0.23 m and the corresponding scouring center was predicted to be in the region of depths between 5 and 9 m. Meanwhile, the scouring center was found to be highly correlated with wave breaking and sediment properties.
      PubDate: 2017-08-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1148-7
  • A hybrid fuzzy zoning approach for 3-dimensional exploration geotechnical
           modeling: a case study at Semilan dam, southern Iran
    • Authors: Amin Hossein Morshedy; Seyed Ali Torabi; Hossein Memarian
      Abstract: Abstract This paper proposes a hybrid fuzzy zoning approach to compute the spatial variation and design the layout of additional samples during geotechnical investigation of an engineering structure. The geotechnical and geological data of Semilan dam site in southern Iran are utilized to evaluate this methodology. The optimal zoning of the site is found using the Fuzzy c-means (FCM) and comparison of results of various fuzzy clustering validity indices. The borehole samples are assigned to the selected zones according to their fuzzy membership degrees. In each zone, the geostatistical procedures are performed to model the 3-dimensional spatial variability and the related kriging variances. The estimated outputs of four zones are merged to generate the unit and reliable model. After fuzzifying the variables, the uncertainty index is defined as the function of rock quality designation (RQD), Lugeon, lithology index, index of dam structures, and estimation error. To model uncertainty in this site, the Mamdani fuzzy inference system (FIS) is used to establish the rule base relationship between the input and output variables. These outputs of uncertainty can be implemented as a guideline to design the layout of additional exploratory boreholes. In the studied area, five additional boreholes are suggested between the primary network.
      PubDate: 2017-08-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1133-1
  • Evolution of anti-liquefaction performance of foundation soils after dam
    • Authors: Yu Huang; Yang Yang; Lin Wang
      Abstract: Abstract This research examines the foundation of a 7-year-old reservoir dam. No anti-liquefaction reinforcement treatment was applied before or during dam construction because the designers believed that the overburden load of the levee improved the soil liquefaction resistance. Here, we reassess the anti-liquefaction performance of the foundation and evaluate the reinforcement effect of the levee overburden load. Standard penetration tests and cone penetration tests were conducted to assess and compare the liquefaction potential of the foundation soils before and after the dam construction to reveal the evolution of anti-liquefaction performance. The confining pressure and relative density of the liquefiable soils were obtained before and after dam construction. Laboratory resonant column tests and dynamic triaxial tests were conducted under different confining pressures to obtain the dynamic properties of the soils before and after dam construction and the evolution mechanism of the anti-liquefaction performance of the foundation soils.
      PubDate: 2017-08-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1147-8
  • Theoretical analysis and model test for rainfall-induced shallow
           landslides in the red-bed area of Sichuan
    • Authors: L. Z. Wu; L. M. Zhang; Y. Zhou; Q. Xu; B. Yu; G. G. Liu; L. Y. Bai
      Abstract: Abstract Heavy rainfall is a key cause of shallow landslides in red-bed terrains with steep topography and residual soils of degradable strength. In this study, laboratory model tests were carried out to examine the characteristics of rainfall infiltration, deformation, and failures of slopes in the red-bed area of Sichuan. The hydrological response and deformation of the slope soil during rainfall are addressed. Based on a modified Green–Ampt infiltration model, ponding along the bedrock surface is incorporated. A physically based model for shallow landslides caused by rainfall is developed. The theoretical analysis and the model test results indicate that the slope failures are related to erosion in the shallow soil layer and rainwater infiltration, particularly along preferential seepage channels. The process of rainfall-induced shallow landslides can be separated into three stages: erosion at the slope toe, tension crack formation at the slope crest, and shallow sliding. When initial underground water level is located at the bedrock surface or the preferential seepage flow quickly reaches the bedrock surface, it is easier for the soil slopes to slide along the bedrock surface than along the wetting front.
      PubDate: 2017-08-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1126-0
  • Analogy between grid-based modeling of landslide and avalanche using GIS
           with surface flow analysis
    • Authors: Sung-Min Kim; Hyeong-Dong Park
      Abstract: Abstract Mountainous areas with steep slopes are vulnerable to landslide and often to avalanche according to the climate condition. In the rainy season, heavy rainfall causes landslides, and avalanche can be a serious threat to mountainous areas in winter. However, avalanche has not been emphasized relatively as compared with landslides in some nations like Korea. This paper estimates the landslide and avalanche hazard of the mountainous area with distinct seasons such as Provo Canyon in Utah and Seorak Mountain in Korea. To predict susceptibility of landslides and avalanches, several geomorphological factors were considered. These predictive factors were derived from digital elevation map, and the grid-based modeling was applied for landslide and avalanche susceptibility mapping within a geographical information system (GIS). To simulate debris flow and avalanche paths from the high potential areas, GIS-based surface flow analysis was used. As a result, this study provides information about ares prone to natural hazards, and it can be useful ancillary data for people attempting to avoid potentially hazardous areas.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1144-y
  • Calibration of V s -based empirical models for assessing soil liquefaction
           potential using expanded database
    • Authors: Chen Guoxing; Kong Mengyun; Sara Khoshnevisan; Chen Weiyun; Li Xiaojun
      Abstract: Abstract The shear wave velocity (V s)-based method of assessing the liquefaction susceptibility of soils has given geotechnical engineers a promising alternative for determining soil resistance to seismic liquefaction. Through the use of an expanded global case histories of soil liquefaction, the authors obtained a new calibrated correlation equation for liquefaction triggering analysis. This new liquefaction triggering correlation was found to be reasonably conservative, and yet insensitive to the variations in the components of the adopted simplified analysis framework. A probabilistic version of the liquefaction triggering correlation, obtained with the weighted maximum-likelihood technique, was validated using a weighted empirical probability approach. Three zones of liquefaction potential, transitioning from non-liquefaction to liquefaction, were then defined based on liquefaction probability contours.
      PubDate: 2017-08-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1146-9
  • Numerical simulation of caisson installation and dissipation in kaolin
           clay and calcareous silt
    • Authors: Kai Xiang Koh; Dong Wang; Muhammad Shazzad Hossain
      Abstract: Abstract Caissons are widely used to support fixed platforms in shallow water or moor floating platforms in deep water. Although the installation and pullout behaviours of caissons have been explored extensively, few studies are on the dissipation of excess pore pressures induced by installation of the caisson. The pull-out capacity or bearing capacity of the caisson under undrained conditions is enhanced by dissipation of excess pore pressure, given the caisson is installed in normally consolidated cohesive soil. This paper reports numerical simulations of caisson installation and the subsequent dissipation. The analyses were carried out using a coupled effective stress-pore pressure large deformation finite element (LDFE) approach incorporating the modified Cam-Clay model. The robustness of the LDFE model was validated by comparing the penetration resistance with centrifuge testing data and the guidelines. Caissons in two fine grained soils, kaolin clay and calcareous silt, were explored. The geometry of the caisson was varied to encompass the typical sizes of caissons. The dissipation responses at four locations near the caisson tip were interpreted. A normalised dissipation time around caissons is proposed, by modifying the conventional expression for a cone.
      PubDate: 2017-08-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1091-7
  • Numerical study on accumulated deformation of laterally loaded monopiles
           used by offshore wind turbine
    • Authors: Min Yang; Ruping Luo; Weichao Li
      Abstract: Abstract The design of an offshore monopile is generally governed by its accumulated response to lateral cyclic load, e.g., loads induced by winds and waves. In order to investigate the characteristic of this accumulated response, a user subroutine of degradation stiffness model (DSM) is developed and incorporated into a commercial finite difference program. Based on this program, the effect of load character, pile embedded length, and load eccentricity on the displacement development of monopile is quantified, and the applicability and reliability of the two most used models, power function model, and logarithmic function model, for the prediction of accumulated pile displacement are evaluated. Based on the numerical results, a design model which accounts for the influence of number of loading cycles, load amplitudes, and pile embedded length on the accumulated pile displacement is proposed. The proposed design model is validated against measurements from the field test on scaled monopile driven in dense sand deposit, which proves the validity of the recommended design in this paper.
      PubDate: 2017-08-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1138-9
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