Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2918 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (259 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (255 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (182 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1464 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (476 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (60 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (101 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (121 journals)

ENGINEERING (1464 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 448)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Nova     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advanced Engineering Research     Open Access  
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Quantum Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Natural Sciences : Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Al-Nahrain Journal for Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
Al-Qadisiya Journal for Engineering Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annual Journal of Technical University of Varna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applications in Energy and Combustion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applications in Engineering Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Applied Engineering Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Arctic     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ArtefaCToS : Revista de estudios sobre la ciencia y la tecnología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
AURUM : Mühendislik Sistemleri ve Mimarlık Dergisi = Aurum Journal of Engineering Systems and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Autocracy : Jurnal Otomasi, Kendali, dan Aplikasi Industri     Open Access  
Automotive and Engine Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Automotive Experiences     Open Access  
Automotive Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingenierías     Open Access  
Avances: Investigación en Ingeniería     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Batteries & Supercaps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Beyond : Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Black Sea Journal of Engineering and Science     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers Droit, Sciences & Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Calphad     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Carbon Resources Conversion     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Carpathian Journal of Electronic and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cell Reports Physical Science     Open Access  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Population, Resources and Environment     Open Access  
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coastal Engineering Proceedings : Proceedings of the International Conference on Coastal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 334)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 275)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 311)
Composites Part C : Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 245)
Comptes Rendus : Mécanique     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 20)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Acta Geotechnica
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.588
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 7  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1861-1133 - ISSN (Online) 1861-1125
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2658 journals]
  • Thermal and mechanical characteristics of recycled concrete aggregates
           mixed with plastic wastes: experimental investigation and mathematical
           modeling

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      Abstract: The growing rate of plastic waste generation is becoming a global concern due to the adverse impacts of plastics on the environment. Recycling and reusing plastic waste has been identified as a sustainable approach to mitigate the environmental concerns associated with landfilling of plastics. This study aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) on the thermal conductivity, resilient modulus, and strength properties of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) as an alternative pavement construction material. A suite of laboratory tests including thermal conductivity, repeated load triaxial, unconfined compressive strength, and triaxial shear tests were undertaken to evaluate the effect of up to 10% waste PET on the performance of RCA as a pavement material. A relatively simple, yet robust, resilient modulus constitutive model was developed for RCA/PET blends using the multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS) approach. The proposed model incorporated thermal conductivity, unconfined compressive strength, confining stress, and deviator stress for modeling the resilient modulus response of the RCA/PET blends. A unique feature of the developed model is the incorporation of thermal conductivity as model input. Several verification phases were conducted to validate the accuracy and reliability of the MARS model. The performance of the MARS model was compared with a neural network model to further evaluate the predictive capability of the developed model. The results indicated that the MARS model was an efficient and accurate tool in predicting the resilient modulus of recycled material blends. The experimental and numerical investigations aimed to provide novel insight into the thermal and mechanical properties of recycled materials to expand their usage in pavement and geotechnical applications.
      PubDate: 2021-10-09
       
  • Hybrid machine learning model with random field and limited CPT data to
           quantify horizontal scale of fluctuation of soil spatial variability

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      Abstract: The scale of fluctuation (SOF) is the critical parameter to describe the soil spatial variability, which significantly influences the embedded geostructures. Due to the limited data in the horizontal direction, horizontal SOF estimation is relatively challenging and not well studied yet. This paper aims to develop an efficient convolutional neural network (CNN)-based approach for estimating the horizontal SOF by coupling random field and limited CPT data. Two or three columns (i.e. pseudo-CPT) were selected from the simulated 2D random field with prescribed SOF at the same spacing and combined into a two-dimensional matrix as input data to train the CNN model, namely CNN2 and CNN3 models. The dataset of CNN2 and CNN3 models contains 196,670 and 149,420 samples. Results on the training and testing datasets show that the trained CNN model has a good estimation performance as the mean squared error value is less than 0.1 and the correlation coefficient value is larger than 0.99. The effectiveness of trained CNN models was further verified by the new simulated CPT data with untrained SOF from the random field and CPT data from real site in Hollywood, South Carolina. The excellent agreement indicates that the trained CNN model has the ability to capture the horizontal SOF for limited CPT data from the actual project. Finally, the collected CPT data from the Shanghai site was applied for application. The COV of the estimated results of CNN3 and CNN2 models for the Shanghai site is 0.09 and 0.40, indicating the estimation performance of the CNN3 model has less variability than the CNN2 model. The proposed method provides the potential to characterize the soil spatial variability using very limited CPT data.
      PubDate: 2021-10-08
       
  • Mechanical properties of cementitious sand and sand with small cyclic
           shear strain to assess aging effects on liquefaction

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      Abstract: Liquefaction damage from earthquakes frequently indicates effects of sand aging on liquefaction resistance: Liquefaction damage in natural or aged reclaimed ground has been much less than that in young reclaimed ground. However, the mechanisms underlying aging effects remain unclear. Cementation and stress history of sand strongly influence aging effects: Cementation raises liquefaction resistance, whereas liquefaction history sometimes reduces liquefaction resistance. Small cyclic shear strain, from which the induced density change is almost negligible, was adopted as representing the stress history. To evaluate liquefaction resistance, initial shear modulus, and deformation characteristics of sand, we prepared specimens by adding cement and by applying a small cyclic shear strain. In cementitious sand, liquefaction resistance increased when cement contents exceeded 0.3% by mass. The initial shear modulus apparently increased at the same degree of cement addition as that which increased the liquefaction resistance. For sand with a small cyclic shear strain, the liquefaction resistance increased when the applied cyclic axial strain exceeded 0.01%. Application of small cyclic shear strain only slightly increased the initial shear modulus, but the linear elastic region tended to expand to greater shear strain. Shear properties of sand with small cyclic shear strain resembled those found for sand that had been consolidated for a long time.
      PubDate: 2021-10-08
       
  • Stability evaluation of rock slope based on discrete fracture network and
           discrete element model: a case study for the right bank of Yigong Zangbu
           Bridge

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      Abstract: Distribution characteristics and strength of 3D discrete fractures have a decisive effect on the rock slope stability. How to use the fractures obtained on site to establish a 3D fractured rock slope for stability analysis is a difficult problem in the field of rock mass engineering. This study selected the rock slope on the right bank of Yigong Zangbu Bridge for a detailed field investigation. Exposed joints and fractures were measured and counted. Occurrence, size, and position distribution models of the fractures were used to obtain the parameters of the spatial distribution using probability and statistic theory. Then, a complex 3D discrete fracture network (DFN) was established and simplified. After that, a 3D rock slope model was built and the DFN was used to cut the slope model. Finally, the strength reduction method was used to analyze the slope stability. The results reveal that the overall slope stability is good (safety factor is 2.0), but the local block deformations are large and are mainly concentrated in the lower part of the slope. Due to the existence of structural planes dipping outside the slope on the right bank, local unstable blocks are easily formed. In this study, the whole process from field fracture acquisition to the DFN generation is applied to the 3D fracture rock slope stability analysis, which is of great importance for complex rock mass engineering assessment and disaster prevention.
      PubDate: 2021-10-08
       
  • Experimental study on the influence of hydro-chemical erosion on
           morphology parameters and shear properties of limestone fractures

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      Abstract: Hydro-chemical erosion has a great effect on the micro-structure morphology and macroscopic mechanical properties of the rock mass. In this paper, direct shear test system was used to study the hydro-chemical effect on the shear strength characteristics of limestone fractures. Besides, morphology parameters of the fracture under different chemical solutions were also analyzed through three-dimensional laser scanning and electron microscope imaging. Experimental results showed that after hydro-chemical erosion, the profile mean square root deviation Sq, the profile area ratio Rs, the profile peak point density Spd increased, while the slope mean square root Sdq decreased. Combined with scanning electron microscope (SEM) images, it is found that due to the hydro-chemical erosion, the roughness of limestone fracture surface, the discreteness of height distribution of the asperities and the JRC2D values increased, but the slope of asperities decreased. There was a good exponential relation between the decrease percentage of limestone internal friction angle and soaking time, and a logarithmic relation between the decrease percentage of cohesion and soaking time. According to the gray correlation method, the influencing factors were ranked in descending order as follows: normal stress, soaking time and pH values. In addition, the JRC2D value had a negative linear correlation with internal friction angle and cohesion of limestone fracture.
      PubDate: 2021-10-07
       
  • Pore-water pressure development in a frozen saline clay under isotropic
           loading and undrained shearing

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      Abstract: A systematical testing program on frozen Onsøy clay under isotropic loading and undrained shearing at different temperatures (− 3 ~ − 10 °C), strain rates (0.2~5%/h) and initial Terzaghi effective stress (20~400 kPa) was conducted with the focus on pore pressure development. It is meant to increase the understanding and facilitate the development of an ‘effective stress’-based model for multi-physical analysis for frozen soils. This study adopted the pore pressure measurement method suggested by Arenson and Springman (Can Geotech J 42 (2):412–430, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1139/t04-111) and developed a new testing procedure for frozen soils, including a ‘slow’ freezing method for sample preparation and post-freezing consolidation for securing hydraulic pressure equilibrium. The B-value of frozen soils is less than 1 and significantly dependent on temperature and loading history. The dilative tendency or pore pressure development in an undrained shearing condition is found to be dependent on both unfrozen water content and mean stress, which is consistent with unfrozen soils. Besides, the experimental results reported in the literature regarding uniaxial tests show that the shear strength does not share the same temperature- and salinity-dependency for different frozen soil types. The rate dependency of frozen soils is characterized between rate dependency of pure ice and that of the unfrozen soil and is therefore highly determined by the content of ice and the viscous behavior of ice (through temperature dependency). This paper also explains the pore pressure response in freezing and thawing is dependent on volumetric evolution of soil skeleton.
      PubDate: 2021-10-07
       
  • A table method for coded target decoding with application to 3-D
           reconstruction of soil specimens during triaxial testing

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      Abstract: Photogrammetry-based method is gaining popularity in many fields. One of the main tasks of photogrammetry is to identify the homologous points in multiple images, which is commonly referred to as the corresponding problem. Coded targets are often placed on the surfaces of the targeted objects and have been widely used as a reliable method for solving the corresponding problem in photogrammetry for high-accuracy three-dimensional measurements. Automated recognition and identification of coded targets are of great importance in the coded target-based photogrammetry. However, false coded target identifications are inevitable due to large perspective distortion, unfavorable lighting conditions, and low-resolution, low-quality images, etc. As a result, manual corrections are often required, which are tedious, prone to error, and inefficient. In this paper, a faster R-CNN-based method has been proposed to recognize coded targets. Then, a table method has been developed to automatically identify and reject the falsely identified coded targets by taking advantages of the prior knowledge of the geometric arrangement of the coded targets. Based on that, missing coded targets can be recovered using either interpolation or extrapolation method. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method are validated by implementing it into three-dimensional reconstruction of soil specimens during triaxial testing in geotechnical engineering. Experimental validation results indicate that the proposed method can achieve accurate and efficient coded target recognition and identification.
      PubDate: 2021-10-07
       
  • The impact of stress disturbance on undrained cyclic behaviour of a kaolin
           clay and settlement of tunnels under cyclic loading

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      Abstract: The excavation of a pit or tunnel induces stress disturbances in soils under different stress paths. The cyclic deformation behaviour of soft clay would be affected by the induced stress disturbances. A series of undrained cyclic triaxial tests were performed on a normally consolidated kaolin clay. The stress disturbance was simulated by changing the radial and axial stresses between loading cycles under different stress paths. The effects of stress disturbance schemes on the axial strain and excess pore water pressure accumulation in the clay were presented and discussed. The results indicate that for the samples experiencing stress disturbance with no change in static deviatoric stress, during the subsequent bundle of loading cycles, the axial strain and excess pore water pressure accumulate slightly in the early few cycles and then roughly follow the accumulation tendency similar to that of the sample under continuous cyclic loading. If the static deviatoric stress reduces, after including stress disturbance, axial strain and excess pore water pressure accumulate slightly in the early few cycles and keep almost constant afterwards, regardless of stress disturbance schemes. The accumulation rates of axial strain and excess pore water pressure during the subsequent loading cycles increase if positive static deviatoric stress is induced, and the greater the induced additional static deviatoric stress, the greater the strain accumulation. The axial strain accumulation is governed by static deviatoric stress ratio (q/p′), and independent to stress disturbance schemes. Based on the variation of axial strain accumulation under different stress disturbance schemes, two examples are presented to explain the impact of nearby excavations to the long-term deformation of existing tunnels under cyclic loading.
      PubDate: 2021-10-06
       
  • Size distribution of free particles in soils: a geometric modelling
           approach

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      Abstract: Suffusion is a typical form of internal erosion for gravel soils in which fine particles are detached by seepage and transport by water through pores. The prediction of erodible particles can improve the assessment of the development of suffusion. The current research on the composition of erodible particles is not sufficiently detailed. The content of erodible particles cannot be accurately determined for a particular gradation. In this paper, a geometric method of generating a particle packing model is proposed. The particles are classified as free or skeleton particles depending on their coordination numbers; thus, their particle size distributions are obtained. Soils with different gradations were analysed using the proposed method. The results indicated that if the grading curve of a soil can be expressed using a fractal relationship, the gradation of free particles also satisfies an exponential function. This is useful in promoting the research on establishing accurate internal erosion criteria, evaluating the performance of filter layers, and predicting the degree of seepage failure caused by internal erosion.
      PubDate: 2021-10-05
       
  • A 2D mixed fracture–pore seepage model and hydromechanical coupling
           for fractured porous media

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      Abstract: A novel two-dimensional mixed fracture–pore seepage model for fluid flow in fractured porous media is presented based on the computational framework of finite-discrete element method (FDEM). The model consists of a porous seepage model in triangular elements bonded by unbroken joint elements, as well as a fracture seepage model in broken joint elements. The principle for determining the fluid exchange coefficient of the unbroken joint element is provided to ensure numerical accuracy and efficiency. The mixed fracture–pore seepage model provides a simple but effective tool for solving fluid flow in fractured porous media. In this paper, examples of 1D and 2D seepage flow in porous media and porous media with a single fracture or multiple fractures are studied. The simulation results of the model match well with theoretical solutions or results obtained by commercial software, which verifies the correctness of the mixed fracture–pore seepage model. Furthermore, combining FDEM mechanical calculation and the mixed fracture–pore seepage model, a coupled hydromechanical model is built to simulate fluid-driven dynamic propagation of cracks in the porous media, as well as its influence on pore seepage and fracture seepage.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
       
  • Effects of internal pores on the mechanical properties of marine
           calcareous sand particles

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      Abstract: Calcareous sand is a typical problematic marine sediment because of its angular and porous particles. The effects of internal pores on the mechanical properties of calcareous sand particles have rarely been investigated. In this paper, the apparent morphology and internal structure of calcareous sand particles are determined by scanning electron microscopy and computed tomography tests, finding that the superficial pores connect inside and outside of the particles, forming a well-developed network of cavities and an internal porosity of up to 40%. The effects of particle morphology and internal porosity on the mechanical responses of particle were investigated by conducting photo-related compression test and 3D numerical simulations. Two failure modes are observed for the porous calcareous sand, i.e., compressive failure indicates that the particle skeleton is continually compressed and fragmented into small detritus without obvious splitting, and tensile failure indicates that the particles are broken into several fragments when the axial force clearly peaks. Calcareous sand particles with a high internal porosity or with small and dense pores often exhibit compressive failure, and vice versa. The particle strength is considerably reduced by increasing the internal porosity, but affected by pore size in nonlinear correlation. The crushing stress–strain points can be well fitted by an exponential curve, which is supplied for discussion.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
       
  • A new framework to determine general multimodal soil water characteristic
           curves

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      Abstract: A soil water characteristic curve (SWCC) model named as discrete-continuous multimodal van Genuchten model with a convenient parameter calibration method is developed to describe the relationship between soil suction and the water content of a soil with complex pore structure. The modality number N of the SWCC in the proposed model can be any positive integer (the so-called multimodal or N-modal SWCC). A unique set of parameters is determined by combining curve fitting and a graphical method based on the shape features of the SWCC in the log s–log Se plane. In addition, a modality number reduction method is proposed to minimize the number of parameters and simplify the form of SWCC function. The proposed model is validated using a set of bimodal and trimodal SWCC measurements from different soils, which yield a strong consistency between the fitted curves and the measured SWCC data. The uniqueness in the set of parameters provides the possibility to further improve the proposed model by correlating the parameters to soil properties and state parameters.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
       
  • Effectiveness of a buttress wall in reducing retaining wall movement
           during dewatering before bulk excavation

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      Abstract: Retaining wall movements are often estimated from a datum at the start of soil excavation. However, recent studies indicate that significant wall movements may occur during pre-excavation dewatering. In this study, the effectiveness of a buttress wall (that is, a short length of wall at 90° to the main wall) in limiting wall movement during pre-excavation dewatering is investigated numerically, focusing in particular on the buttress wall length (LB). Results indicate that wall movement decreases as LB increases. However, a smaller LB (less than 50% of the excavation width) may be sufficient if the drawdown or pumped depth is small (less than 30% of the total depth of retaining wall). With drawdowns greater than 60% of the total wall depth, a larger LB (greater than 75% of the excavation width) is needed to effectively control the deformation.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
       
  • Continuous characterization of dynamic soil behavior by Digital Image
           Correlation in a transparent shear laminar box

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      Abstract: This work characterizes and analyzes the dynamic behavior of a sandy soil due to one-dimensional propagation of mechanical waves into a transparent laminar shear box. The outstanding char acteristic of this laminar box is a transparent front glass, which allows monitoring the soil behavior by a high-speed and high-resolution camera, and then computing the displacement field in the soil by the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique. The response of the laminar container was evaluated using ambient vibrations, harmonic signals and Ricker wavelets. Afterward, dynamic soil properties derived from DIC analysis are compared against theoretical and laboratory results. Finally, a numerical simulation is carried out using the finite element method, where the influence of the lateral friction of the glass on the motion is assessed and discussed. It is concluded that the transparent laminar shear box provides a useful tool for studying the continuous dynamic soil behavior; additionally, the transparent boundary has a minor impact on the results and a minimum observable cyclic shear strain of about 10–4 was reached.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
       
  • Kinetic biomineralization through microfluidic chip tests

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      Abstract: A homogeneous microfluidic chip was used to investigate the pore-scale characteristics during the process of microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP). An image-processing scheme was developed to measure the projecting areas of the precipitated calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate first precipitated on the bacterium side before spreading to the rest of the chip. The distribution of calcium carbonate was more uniform along the length of the microchip than along the width. Raman back-scattering spectroscopy was used to examine the chemical composition of the precipitate, identifying calcite and vaterite as the main mineral phases. Bacterium traces were noted on crystal surfaces in SEM images, suggesting a higher adsorptive capacity for irregular precipitates than well-shaped crystals.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
       
  • Numerical simulation of direct shear test of rockfill based on particle
           breaking

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      Abstract: In the traditional Mohr–Coulomb criterion, the shear strength is determined by cohesion and friction angle. However, the particle breakage that occurs on the shear failure surface of rockfill makes it difficult to express the shear strength of rockfill using the traditional Mohr–Coulomb criterion. It is assumed that the shear strength is the friction force of the particle contact surface, and the power function relationship between the shear strength of rockfill and the normal stress is derived, where the index is a function of the particle fractal dimension. The discrete element software PFC-2D was used for numerical simulation of rock single particle crushing and rockfill direct shear test. The single particle crushing test simulates the whole process of particle crushing and verifies the size effect of particle crushing strength. In the direct shear test simulation, 8 different test parameter groups are set up to explore the effects of basic particle adhesion, single particle porosity, rockfill porosity on shear strength and body strain and verify the correctness of the derived power law shear strength formula.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
       
  • Experimental and numerical study of failure characteristics of brittle
           rocks with single internal 3D open-type flaw

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      Abstract: Open flaws without any filling material are common fracture structures in real rock. To study the failure characteristics of this fracture structure, small-scale rock-like samples with single internal 3D open flaws are prepared, and uniaxial compression tests are conducted. Digital image correlation (for surface strain and failures) and acoustic emission (for internal microfracture behaviors) monitoring technologies are also employed to analyze the flaws. The test results are verified through numerical simulations. Different inclination angles of the internal preset flaws are found to have little influence on the strength of the samples, and the surface and internal secondary failures of the samples exhibit very different development processes and distributions. The particle displacement trend method is applied to explain the initiation mechanism of secondary cracks, but the corresponding analyses are only reasonable if particle information along the y-axis is considered. Therefore, the particle information in the y-axis is incorporated by defining new 2D sections (with y-axis) or partial 3D models. Based on these research methods, the initiation mechanism of secondary cracks is reasonably explained, and the influence of the preset flaw thickness on the particle displacement trend fields and secondary failures in surrounding rocks can be discussed. Finally, the simulation results prove that the Mode II and III failures are usually coupled, and direct Mode III failures (displacement of two parts of rock parallel to each other and in opposite directions) only occur in the front and rear surrounding rocks of the preset flaw.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
       
  • Poroelastic coefficients for anisotropic single and double porosity media

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      Abstract: Closed-form expressions for poroelastic coefficients are derived for anisotropic materials exhibiting single and double porosity. A novel feature of the formulation is the use of the principle of superposition to derive the governing mass conservation equations from which analytical expressions for the Biot tensor and Biot moduli, among others, are derived. For single-porosity media, the mass conservation equation derived from the principle of superposition is shown to be identical to the one derived from continuum principle of thermodynamics, thus confirming the veracity of both formulations and suggesting that this conservation equation can be derived in more than one way. To provide further insight into the theory, numerical values of the poroelastic coefficients are calculated for granite and sandstone that are consistent with the material parameters reported by prominent authors. In this way, modelers are guided on how to determine these coefficients in the event that they use the theory for full-scale modeling and simulations.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
       
  • Macroscale friction of granular soils under monotonic and cyclic loading
           based upon micromechanical determination of dissipated energy

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      Abstract: Macroscopic frictional behavior of granular materials is of great importance for studying several complex problems associated with fault slip and landslides. The main objective of this study is to model the macroscale frictional behavior of granular soils under monotonic and cyclic loadings based upon micromechanical determination of dissipated energy at particle contacts. This study is built on the general observation that the externally computed energy dissipation should be equal to the total internal energy dissipation derived from inter-particle sliding and rolling, energy losses from inter-particle collisions, and damping. For this purpose, the discrete element method is used to model a granular soil and determine the stored, dissipated, and damping energies associated with shear loading for applied monotonic and cyclic velocities. These energies are then related to the friction by an application of the Taylor-critical state power balance relationship. Also, the contributions of the different modes of energy dissipation (normal, shear, and rolling) to the total frictional resistance were studied. By changing the inter-particle friction, the simulations showed that the macroscopic friction was nearly constant, the slip friction increased almost linearly with increasing inter-particle friction, and the difference between the two was attributed to the non-energy dissipating dilatancy component. By providing a clear relationship between energy dissipated by micro-scale mechanisms versus the traditional engineering definition based on macro-scale (continuum) parameters, this study provides a means to develop a better understanding for the frictional behavior of granular media.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
       
  • Efficient approach in modeling the shear strength of unsaturated soil
           using soil water retention curve

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      Abstract: Currently, there are debates on the relationship between the effective stress and shear strength of unsaturated soils. Thus, it is imperative to present an efficient method that could contribute to the existing knowledge in this aspect while ensuring an easy and fast operation. In this study, a novel approach for modeling the shear strength of unsaturated soils using soil water retention curve (SWRC) is proposed. The method considers a coherent thermodynamic expression of Bishop’s effective stress parameter χ and a physical model of the SWRC that depends only on one parameter. First, an expression for unsaturated effective stress was obtained. The starting point to develop the shear strength equation was then determined. The obtained equation can estimate Bishop’s parameter for unsaturated soil using only the SWRC and the relationship between unsaturated shear strength and soil suction. A sensitivity analysis and comparison with other methods that obtained different parameter expressions were also provided. The results showed that the results obtained from the proposed model fits with experimental data, indicating its applicability in studying the average behavior of unsaturated sands.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
       
 
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