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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2358 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (201 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1240 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 264)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 272)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 209)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 244)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 182)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Acta Geotechnica
  [SJR: 1.818]   [H-I: 22]   [7 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1861-1133 - ISSN (Online) 1861-1125
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Soil wettability in ground engineering: fundamentals, methods, and
    • Authors: S. D. N. Lourenço; Y. Saulick; S. Zheng; H. Kang; D. Liu; H. Lin; T. Yao
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Wettability is a fundamental property controlling the extent of wetting in flat and granular solids. In natural soils, wettability affects a wide variety of processes including infiltration, preferential flow and surface runoff. In mineral processing, wettability is paramount in enhancing the efficiency of separation of minerals from gangue. The manipulation of surface wettability is equally crucial in many industrial applications. For instance, superhydrophobic surfaces are those on which water drops roll off easily and as such are used for self-cleaning applications. Therefore, while wettability is strongly cross-disciplinary, its evolution has been discipline-specific with a direct extrapolation or transfer of concepts, approaches, and methods to ground engineering unlikely to remain valid. This paper synthesizes relevant aspects from surface chemistry, materials science, mining engineering, and soil science, and discusses their implications within the context of new granular materials that resist wetting, for use in barriers or ground improvement and, in unsaturated soils, where the effects of wettability have been documented.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0570-0
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • From saturated to unsaturated conditions and vice versa
    • Authors: Martí Lloret-Cabot; Simon J. Wheeler; Jubert A. Pineda; Enrique Romero; Daichao Sheng
      Pages: 15 - 37
      Abstract: Representing transitions between saturated and unsaturated conditions, during drying, wetting and loading paths, is a necessary step for a consistent unification between saturated and unsaturated soil mechanics. Transitions from saturated to unsaturated conditions during drying will occur at a nonzero air-entry value of suction, whereas transitions from unsaturated to saturated conditions during wetting or loading will occur at a lower nonzero air-exclusion value of suction. Air-entry and air-exclusion values of suction for a given soil will differ (representing hysteresis in the retention behaviour) and both are affected by changes in the dry density of the soil or by the occurrence of plastic volumetric strains. The paper demonstrates, through model simulations and comparison with experimental data from the literature (covering drying, wetting and loading tests), that the Glasgow Coupled Model (GCM), a coupled elasto-plastic constitutive model covering both mechanical and retention behaviour, represents transitions between unsaturated and saturated behaviour in a consistent fashion. Key aspects of the GCM are the use of Bishop’s stress tensor for mechanical behaviour, the additional influence of degree of saturation on mechanical yielding, inclusion of hysteresis in the retention behaviour, and the role of plastic volumetric strains (and not total volumetric strains) in the description of the water retention response. The success of the GCM in representing consistently transitions between saturated and unsaturated conditions, together with subsequent mechanical and retention responses, demonstrates the potential of this coupled constitutive model for numerical modelling of boundary value problems involving saturated and unsaturated conditions.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0577-6
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Numerical modelling of a field soil desiccation test using a cohesive
           fracture model with Voronoi tessellations
    • Authors: Y. L. Gui; W. Hu; Z. Y. Zhao; X. Zhu
      Pages: 87 - 102
      Abstract: Numerical modelling of a field soil desiccation test is performed using a hybrid continuum-discrete element method with a mix-mode cohesive fracture model and Voronoi tessellation grain assemblages. The fracture model considers material strength and contact stiffness degradation in both normal and tangential directions of an interface. It is found that the model can reasonably reproduce the special features of the field soil desiccation, such as curling and sub-horizontal crack. In addition, three significant factors controlling field desiccation cracking, fracture energy, grain heterogeneity and grain size are identified.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0558-9
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Capillary collapse of loose pyroclastic unsaturated sands characterized at
           grain scale
    • Authors: Mariagiovanna Moscariello; Sabatino Cuomo; Simon Salager
      Pages: 117 - 133
      Abstract: The reduction in volume for unsaturated soils wetted at constant total stress is indicated as capillary collapse. Several studies conducted on standard laboratory specimens (macro-scale) outlined the role of initial void ratio, confining pressure and matric suction on collapse onset. Conversely, few observations were made at grain scale, although an important influence of soil structure has been supposed since years. This paper investigated the collapse of coarse and fine sands derived from a pyroclastic soil of Southern Italy. The X-ray computed tomography was used to identify the mechanisms acting at grain scale and to measure the local variations of soil structure. The experimental procedure consisted in preparing remoulded unsaturated specimens and reducing the matric suction until the collapse occurred under self-weight. At different stages of the process, the sample was imaged by X-ray tomography. The experimental results provided original insight into: (1) transformation of soil structure during the wetting tests; (2) variation of porosity, water content and degree of saturation for the whole specimen; and (3) local variations of those variables in several representative sub-volumes. It is worth noting that collapse of coarse sand specimen occurred before saturation. This was also emphasized by the presence of macro-voids at collapse.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0603-8
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Tide-induced hydraulic response in a semi-infinite seabed with a
           subaqueous drained tunnel
    • Authors: Hongwei Ying; Chengwei Zhu; Xiaonan Gong
      Pages: 149 - 157
      Abstract: In this study, analytical solutions for tide-induced pore pressure, seepage force and water inflow into a subaqueous drained tunnel are developed. The results are compared with numerical solutions from a commercial software. The effects of the soil permeability, shear modulus, lining thickness and buried depth of the tunnel on tide-induced pore pressure, seepage force and water inflow are discussed. Larger tide-induced pore pressure and seepage force are obtained for smaller tunnel depth and higher soil permeability. The phase lags of the maximal tide-induced pore pressure at different depths are determined and investigated.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0525-5
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Three-dimensional numerical and analytical study of horizontal group of
           square anchor plates in sand
    • Authors: Hicham Mokhbi; Mekki Mellas; Abdelhak Mabrouki; Jean-Michel Pereira
      Pages: 159 - 174
      Abstract: In this paper, numerical and analytical methods are used to evaluate the ultimate pullout capacity of a group of square anchor plates in row or square configurations, installed horizontally in dense sand. The elasto-plastic numerical study of square anchor plates is carried out using three-dimensional finite element analysis. The soil is modeled by an elasto-plastic model with a Mohr–Coulomb yield criterion. An analytical method based on a simplified three-dimensional failure mechanism is developed in this study. The interference effect is evaluated by group efficiency η, defined as the ratio of the ultimate pullout capacity of group of N anchor plates to that of a single isolated plate multiplied by number of plates. The variation of the group efficiency η was computed with respect to change in the spacing between plates. Results of the analyses show that the spacing between the plates, the internal friction angle of soil and the installation depth are the most important parameters influencing the group efficiency. New equations are developed in this study to evaluate the group efficiency of square anchor plates embedded horizontally in sand at shallow depth (H = 4B). The results obtained by numerical and analytical solutions are in excellent agreement.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0557-x
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • A multiscale homogenization model for strength predictions of fully and
           partially frozen soils
    • Authors: Meng-Meng Zhou; Günther Meschke
      Pages: 175 - 193
      Abstract: Soil freezing is often used to provide temporary support of soft soils in geotechnical interventions. During the freezing process, the strength properties of the soil–water–ice mixture change from the original properties of the water-saturated soil to the properties of fully frozen soils. In the paper, a multiscale homogenization model for the upscaling of the macroscopic strength of freezing soil based upon information on three individual material phases—the solid particle phase (S), the crystal ice phase (C) and the liquid water phase (L)—is proposed. The homogenization procedure for the partially frozen soil–water–ice composite is based upon an extension of the linear comparison composite (LCC) method for a two-phase matrix–inclusion composite, using a two-step homogenization procedure. In each step, the LCC methodology is implemented by estimating the strength criterion of a two-phase nonlinear matrix–inclusion composite in terms of an optimally chosen linear elastic comparison composite with a similar underlying microstructure. The solid particle phase (S) and the crystal ice phase (C) are assumed to be characterized by two different Drucker–Prager strength criteria, and the liquid water phase (L) is assumed to have zero strength capacity under drained conditions. For the validation of the proposed upscaling strategy, the predicted strength properties for fully and partially frozen fine sands are compared with experimental results, focussing on the investigation of the influence of the porosity and the degree of ice saturation on the predicted failure envelope.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0538-0
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Separate-ice frost heave model for one-dimensional soil freezing process
    • Authors: Guo-qing Zhou; Yang Zhou; Kun Hu; Yi-jiang Wang; Xiang-yu Shang
      Pages: 207 - 217
      Abstract: For one-dimensional soil freezing process, a separate-ice frost heave model is established, and the coupled process of heat transfer, fluid flow and stress development is considered in the model. First, a coupled heat–fluid–stress model describing the growth of a single ice lens is developed by extending the coupled heat–fluid model presented by Zhou and Zhou (Can Geotech J 49(6):686–693, 2012). Second, the mechanism for the formation of a new ice lens in the frozen fringe is studied, and we indicate that if the total vertical disjoining pressure at certain place exceeds the sum of the external pressure and the critical pressure, a new ice lens will emerge. By combining the growth model of a single ice lens and the criterion for the formation of a new ice lens, the separate-ice frost heave model is then established. The difference between the separate-ice model and the rigid-ice model is explained, and the relations for different mathematical models which describe the soil freezing process are also discussed. Numerical analysis of the separate-ice model is conducted using the finite volume method. The freezing tests for Devon silt under no external pressure and Xuzhou silty clay under a constant external pressure are applied to verify the computational results. The consistence between the calculation and the observation validates the separate-ice frost heave model.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0579-4
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Fines adsorption on nanoparticle-coated surface
    • Authors: Xianglei Zheng; François Perreault; Jaewon Jang
      Pages: 219 - 226
      Abstract: Fluid flow through porous media is inherently associated with the detachment and migration of fine particles. The migration of fine particles and ensuing clogging is the main reason of flow rate decrease in porous media. Nanoparticle coating can be a promising method to prevent fines’ detachment and migration by changing electrical surface forces between the pore wall surface and the fine particles. In this study, the attraction and adhesion forces of the nanoparticle-coated surface are measured by atomic force microscope. The effect of the nanoparticle coating on the fines adsorption efficiency is then investigated. The results show that there is an increase in the adhesion force on the nanoparticle-coated surface and the significant improvement of the fines adsorption capacity by the nanoparticle coating. The research results are relevant to other research areas whenever migrating fines cause engineering problems.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0528-2
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • A new double-cell system for measuring volume change of a soil specimen
           under monotonic or cyclic loading
    • Authors: Wen-Bo Chen; Jian-Hua Yin; Wei-Qiang Feng
      Abstract: For accurately measuring the volume change of a soil specimen under monotonic and cyclic loading, a new double-cell system is described in this paper. This newly designed double-cell system is equipped with local linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs) and can also accommodate large specimens. Careful calibrations, including the effect of cell pressure change, “creep” of inner cell volume, the effect of temperature fluctuation, and loading ram movement, are presented and discussed by comparing the possible errors with those of other existing apparatuses. This system exhibits superior performances in volume change due to cell pressure, temperature sensitivity, and accuracy of loading ram movement. Three monotonic compression tests under saturated and unsaturated conditions were conducted to evaluate the performance of volume change measurement and local LVDTs. Moreover, six different frequencies were used to verify the workability and accuracy of this system in conducting cyclic testing. The results indicate that the maximum frequency this system can achieve, with a satisfactory precision, is 0.2 Hz, which is four times higher than what the previous systems could achieve. Finally, several suggestions are made on how to improve the system’s performance even better.
      PubDate: 2018-02-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-018-0629-6
  • Liquefaction analysis and damage evaluation of embankment-type structures
    • Authors: Ioanna Rapti; Fernando Lopez-Caballero; Arezou Modaressi-Farahmand-Razavi; Alexandre Foucault; Francois Voldoire
      Abstract: The increasing importance of performance-based earthquake engineering analysis points out the necessity to assess quantitatively the risk of liquefaction of embankment-type structures. In this extreme scenario of soil liquefaction, devastating consequences are observed, e.g., excessive settlements, lateral spreading and slope instability. The present work discusses the global dynamic response and interaction of an earth structure-foundation system, so as to determine quantitatively the collapse mechanism due to foundation’s soil liquefaction. A levee-foundation system is simulated, and the influence of characteristics of input ground motion, as well as of the position of liquefied layer on the liquefaction-induced failure, is evaluated. For the current levee model, its induced damage level (i.e., induced crest settlements) is strongly related to both liquefaction apparition and dissipation of excess pore water pressure on the foundation. The respective role of input ground motion characteristics is a key component for soil liquefaction apparition, as long duration of mainshock can lead to important nonlinearity and extended soil liquefaction. A circular collapse surface is generated inside the liquefied region and extends toward the crest in both sides of the levee. Even so, when the liquefied layer is situated in depth, no significant effect on the levee response is found. This research work provides a reference case study for seismic assessment of embankment-type structures subjected to earthquake and proposes a high-performance computational framework accessible to engineers.
      PubDate: 2018-02-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-018-0631-z
  • Use of a non-associated flow rule for determining the stability of a
           vertical circular excavation
    • Authors: Debarghya Chakraborty
      Abstract: An axisymmetric lower bound limit analysis technique in combination with the finite elements has been used to investigate the effect of considering a non-associated flow rule on the stability number (γH/c) for a vertical circular unsupported excavation in a general cohesive–frictional soil medium, where (1) H is the excavation height, (2) γ defines the unit weight of the soil mass, and (3) c indicates the cohesion of the soil mass. The results are derived for different magnitudes of dilative coefficient (η), friction angle (ϕ), and normalized excavation height (H/b), where b = the radius of the excavation. The results clearly indicate the increase in γH/c with an increase in η value. It is expected that the charts provided in this note will be quite helpful for the practicing engineers.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-018-0633-x
  • An improved numerical approach in surrounding rock incorporating rockbolt
           effectiveness and seepage force
    • Authors: Jinfeng Zou; Kaifu Chen; Qiujing Pan
      Abstract: The solutions of stress and displacement of a circular opening excavated in brittle and strain-softening rock mass incorporating rockbolts effectiveness and seepage force are presented in this study. The evolution equation is reconstructed for the strength parameters that incorporate these factors. Based on the evolution equation, an improved numerical method and stepwise procedure are presented which are compatible with the Mohr–Coulomb (M–C) and the generalized Hoek–Brown (H–B) failure criteria, respectively. Then given three interaction mechanisms between rockbolts and surrounding rock, solutions for stress and displacement are proposed in line with the improved numerical method and numerical stepwise procedure. The proposed approach can be reduced to Fahimifar and Soroush’s (Tunn Undergr Space Technol 20:333–343, 2005) solutions for special cases. The proposed method was validated by field monitoring data and FLAC results of Yanzidong tunnel. Examples under the M–C and generalized H–B failure criteria for rock mass are generated through MATLAB programming. Moreover, parametric studies are conducted to highlight the influence of rockbolts effectiveness in combination with seepage force on the stress and displacement of very good, average, and very poor surrounding rock. Results show that in this case, stress confinement is higher and tunnel convergences are lower than the corresponding stresses and displacements obtained in non-reinforced tunnels. Displacement and plastic radius are also higher than those without considering seepage force.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-018-0635-8
  • Bearing capacity of strip footings on c – φ soils with square
    • Authors: Haizuo Zhou; Gang Zheng; Xiaopei He; Xiaomin Xu; Tianqi Zhang; Xinyu Yang
      Abstract: The presence of underground voids has an adverse influence on the performance of shallow foundations. In this study, the bearing capacity and failure mechanism of footings placed on cohesive-frictional soils with voids are evaluated using discontinuity layout optimization. By introducing a reduction coefficient, a set of design charts that can be directly applied to the classical bearing capacity formulation is presented. The results indicate that the undrained bearing capacity with voids is sensitive to soil weight and cohesion, as both the bearing capacity and stability issues exist in the problem. The failure mechanism is directly related to a variety of soil properties, the locations of single voids, and the horizontal distance between two voids. The presence of voids has a more dominant effect on c–φ soils compared to that on undrained soil. An interpretation of the critical and adverse locations for single-void and dual-void cases with various soil strengths is presented.
      PubDate: 2018-02-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-018-0630-0
  • Grain-scale characterization of water retention behaviour of sand using
           X-ray CT
    • Authors: Ghonwa Khaddour; Ismael Riedel; Edward Andò; Pascal Charrier; Pierre Bésuelle; Jacques Desrues; Gioacchino Viggiani; Simon Salager
      Abstract: This paper introduces X-ray tomography as an experimental method that allows grain-scale measurements for both porosity and degree of saturation. A whole configuration and set-up were developed specifically for the study of unsaturated Hostun sand and its water retention behaviour, using X-ray CT. A “step-by-step” protocol to obtain reconstructed volumes of sufficient quality where the three phases of the specimen can be clearly distinguished (i.e., grain, water and air) was also presented. A post-processing of the images helped the visualization and the characterization of the three phases within the specimen. A region growing separation tool was used to obtain trinarized volumes, allowing a qualitative/quantitative analysis to be performed. A qualitative interpretation of the resulting images has been done focusing on the water retention domains, where images of each different domain were retrieved for different suction values. Later, local measurements of relevant soil variables were conducted for a chosen subvolume of ≈ 3 × D50. This helped to build a map of measurement that covers the entire specimen field. Finally, water retention curve of Hostun sand was plotted and compared to a reference one. An investigation about the relation between the state variables: porosity and degree of saturation, for a constant suction, was performed. A noteworthy trend between porosity and degree of saturation was identified and discussed. The analysis presented in this study could be adapted for other granular materials, combined with pore size distribution and pore shape description, in order to understand the local relation between water retention behaviour characteristics and build a model that covers the whole retention behaviour of unsaturated granular materials.
      PubDate: 2018-02-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-018-0628-7
  • Statistical assessment of load model accuracy for steel grid-reinforced
           soil walls
    • Authors: Yoshihisa Miyata; Richard J. Bathurst
      Abstract: The focus of this paper is on quantitative evaluation of four different methods that use closed-form equations to calculate the nominal load in steel grid-reinforced soil walls under operational (end of construction) conditions. The four methods are the Coherent Gravity Method used in the UK, the AASHTO Simplified Method (USA), the PWRC Method used in Japan and the Simplified Stiffness Method. The accuracy of the methods is quantified based on analysis of bias statistics where bias is the ratio of measured to predicted (nominal) load. A large database of 113 measured reinforcement loads collected from 11 instrumented field walls is used in the study. For walls constructed with frictional soils, the Coherent Gravity Method and PWRC Method were the least accurate. The AASHTO Simplified Method demonstrated better accuracy and the Simplified Stiffness Method was the most accurate of all methods examined. The Coherent Gravity Method and the updated Simplified Stiffness Method for steel grid walls in the current study have the advantage that they can be used with soils that have a dependable soil cohesive strength component. However, the accuracy of the Simplified Stiffness Method was much better for all soil types based on bias analyses.
      PubDate: 2018-02-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-018-0638-5
  • DEM modeling of hydraulic fracturing in permeable rock: influence of
           viscosity, injection rate and in situ states
    • Authors: Kang Duan; Chung Yee Kwok; Wei Wu; Lu Jing
      Abstract: Hydraulic fracturing in permeable rock is a complicated process which might be influenced by various factors including the operational parameters (e.g., fluid viscosity, injection rate and borehole diameter) and the in situ conditions (e.g., in situ stress states and initial pore pressure level). To elucidate the effects of these variables, simulations are performed on hollow-squared samples at laboratory scale using fully coupled discrete element method. The model is first validated by comparing the stress around the borehole wall measured numerically with that calculated theoretically. Systematic parametric studies are then conducted. Modeling results reveal that the breakdown pressure and time to fracture stay constant when the viscosity is lower than 0.002 Pa s or higher than 0.2 Pa s but increases significantly when it is between 0.002 and 0.2 Pa s. Raising the injection rate can shorten the time to fracture but dramatically increase the breakdown pressure. Larger borehole diameter leads to the increase in the time to fracture and the reduction in the breakdown pressure. Higher in situ stress requires a longer injection time and higher breakdown pressure. The initial pore pressure, on the other hand, reduces the breakdown pressure as well as the time to fracture. The increase in breakdown pressure with viscosity or injection rate can be attributed to the size effect of greater tensile strength of samples with smaller infiltrated regions.
      PubDate: 2018-02-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-018-0627-8
  • A new incompatible mode element with selective mass scaling for saturated
           soil dynamics
    • Authors: P. Mira; A. S. Benítez; M. Pastor; J. A. Fernández Merodo
      Abstract: It is a well-known fact that addressing hydromechanical problems in saturated soils with the finite element method and equal-order interpolation formulations in displacements and pore pressures produces unstable results. Classically, stabilization has been achieved by increasing the interpolation degree of displacement with respect to pore pressure, hence fulfilling the Babuska–Brezzi condition. However, the use of quadratic elements involves high computational costs. From that point of view, the use of stabilized low-order elements is a more desirable option. Much research has been carried out in different directions in the stabilization of low-order formulations for saturated soils in quasistatic conditions, among others with the technique based on strain field enhancement through internal degrees of freedom. This article presents an alternative displacement–pore pressure formulation for saturated soil dynamics based on the enhancement of the displacement field through incompatible modes.
      PubDate: 2018-02-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0623-4
  • Freezing of water confined in porous materials: role of adsorption and
           unfreezable threshold
    • Authors: Chao Zhang; Zhen Liu
      Abstract: It has been widely accepted in scientific communities that water confined in porous materials gradually freezes from large pores to small pores at subfreezing temperatures (< 0 °C), though we still describe a soil as frozen or unfrozen in engineering practice and daily life. Therefore, it is more accurate to say “how frozen” instead of “whether frozen.” This gradual freezing process is temperature-dependent because water in pores of different sizes has different energy levels, which requires different temperatures for its phase transition, leading to a relationship between unfrozen water content and temperature in soils. However, the understanding of this relationship, i.e., the Phase Composition Curves (PCC), is still incomplete, especially in the low-temperature range. We still lack answers to even the most fundamental questions for frozen soils and their PCCs: (1) How much pore water could be frozen' (2) How do capillarity and adsorption control the freezing of pore water' This study investigates two basic physical mechanisms, i.e., unfreezable threshold and adsorption, for their dominant roles in the low-temperature range of the PCC. To quantify the effects of the unfreezable threshold, molecular dynamics simulation was employed to identify the unfreezable threshold of cylindrical pores. The simulation results, for the first time, revealed that the unfreezable threshold corresponds to a pore diameter of 2.3 ± 0.1 nm and is independent of the wettability of the solid substrates. Combining this unfreezable threshold with a modified Gibbs–Thomson equation, a mathematical model was proposed to predict the melting temperature in pores of different sizes, which considers both unfreezable threshold and adsorption. Comparisons of the results calculated with the new model and other two conventional equations against experimental results indicated that the model can improve conventional equations which have been used for centuries by including the two mechanisms, which significantly improved our understanding of frozen soils.
      PubDate: 2018-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-018-0637-6
  • Effects of the micro-structure and micro-parameters on the mechanical
           behaviour of transversely isotropic rock in Brazilian tests
    • Authors: Guowen Xu; Chuan He; Ziquan Chen; Di Wu
      Abstract: Based on the Brazilian test results of 23 kinds of transversely isotropic rocks, five trends are obtained for the variation of normalized failure strength (NFS) as a function of the weak plane-loading angles. For each angle, three kinds of fracture patterns are obtained. Furthermore, a new numerical approach based on the particle discrete element method is put forward to systematically investigate the influence of the micro-structure of rock matrix and strength of weak plane on NFS and fracture patterns. The results reveal that the trend of NFS and fracture patterns are slightly influenced by coordination number of rock particles and tensile strength of weak plane, but greatly influenced by percentage of pre-existing cracks and shear strength of weak plane. Micro-parameters of the numerical approach are calibrated to reproduce behaviours of transversely isotropic rocks with different trends, and the simulation results are well matched with experimental results in terms of NFS and fracture patterns. Finally, the numerical approach is applied to study the failure process of layered surrounding rock after tunnel excavation. The simulation results also agree well with observation results of engineering projects.
      PubDate: 2018-02-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-018-0636-7
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