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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2268 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (190 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (183 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (103 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1201 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (380 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (67 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (89 journals)

ENGINEERING (1201 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 247)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 266)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 188)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 279)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 182)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CTheory     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Biomedical Microdevices
  [SJR: 0.805]   [H-I: 66]   [9 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1572-8781 - ISSN (Online) 1387-2176
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Irreversible electroporation of the uterine cervix in a rabbit model
    • Authors: Wei Chai; Wenlong Zhang; Zhentong Wei; Ying Xu; Jian Shi; Xiaomei Luo; Jianying Zeng; Manhua Cui; Jiannan Li; Lizhi Niu
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE) on the uterine cervix in a rabbit model. IRE ablation was performed in the cervices of 48 New Zealand rabbits, with one ablation lesion in each animal. Gross pathology, transmission electron microscopy, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Masson’s trichrome (MT) stain, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays were performed at pre-set time points (0 h, 12 h, 1 d, 2 d, 4 d, 7 d, 14 d, and 28 d post-IRE). All the rabbits tolerated the IRE ablation without serious complications. IRE caused complete cell death of the ablated cervix via cell apoptosis. However, fast recovery of the cervix was observed from 7 d post-IRE, with the signs of collagen fibers hyperplasia, the disappearance of the necrotic cells and muscle fibers, and regeneration and extension of the cervical epithelium. At 28 d post-IRE, the ablated cervices recovered to almost normal. Our study suggested that IRE might be an efficient and safe technology to treat cervical tumors, without causing serious cervical damage.
      PubDate: 2017-11-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0248-2
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Engineered bone scaffolds with Dielectrophoresis-based patterning using 3D
           printing
    • Authors: Zhijie Huan; Henry K. Chu; Hongbo Liu; Jie Yang; Dong Sun
      Abstract: Patterning of cells into a specific pattern is an important procedure in tissue engineering to facilitate tissue culture and ingrowth. In this paper, a new type of 3D–printed scaffold utilizing dielectrophoresis (DEP) for active cell seeding and patterning was proposed. This scaffold adopted a concentric-ring design that is similar to native bone tissues. The scaffold was fabricated with a commercial three-dimensional (3D) printer. Polylactic Acid (PLA) was selected as the material for the printer and the fabricated scaffold was coated with gold to enhance the conductivity for DEP manipulation. Simulation from COMSOL confirmed that non-uniform electric fields were successfully generated under a voltage input. The properties of the scaffold were first characterized through a series of experiments. Then, preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded onto the coated scaffold and multiple cellular rings were observed under the microscope. The biocompatibility of the material was also examined and mineralized bone nodules were detected using Alizarin Red S Staining after 28 days of culture. The proposed scaffold design can enable formation of multiple ring patterns via DEP and the properties of the scaffold are suitable for bone tissue culture. This new type of 3D–printed scaffold with cell seeding mechanism offers a new and rapid approach for fabricating engineered scaffolds that can arrange cells into different patterns for various tissue engineering applications.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0245-5
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • A microfluidic in-line ELISA for measuring secreted protein under
           perfusion
    • Authors: Qiyue Luan; Stacey Cahoon; Agnes Wu; Shyam Sundhar Bale; Martin Yarmush; Abhinav Bhushan
      Abstract: Recent progress in the development of microfluidic microphysiological systems such as ‘organs-on-chips’ and microfabricated cell culture is geared to simulate organ-level physiology. These tissue models leverage microengineering technologies that provide capabilities of presenting cultured cells with input signals in a more physiologically relevant context such as perfused flow. Proteins that are secreted from cells have important information about the health of the cells. Techniques to quantify cellular proteins include mass spectrometry to ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Although our capability to perturb the cells in the microphysiological systems with varying inputs is well established, we lack the tools to monitor in-line the cellular responses. User intervention for sample collection and off-site is cumbersome, causes delays in obtaining results, and is especially expensive because of collection, storage, and offline processing of the samples, and in many case, technically impractical to carry out because of limitated sample volumes. To address these shortcomings, we report the development of an ELISA that is carried out in-line under perfusion within a microfluidic device. Using this assay, we measured the albumin secreted from perfused hepatocytes without and under stimulation by IL-6. Since the method is based on a sandwich ELISA, we envision broad application of this technology to not just organs-on-chips but also to characterizing the temporal release and measurement of soluble factors and response to drugs.
      PubDate: 2017-11-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0244-6
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Fabrication of flexible thin polyurethane membrane for tissue engineering
           applications
    • Authors: A. Arefin; J-H. Huang; D. Platts; V. D. Hypes; J. F. Harris; R. Iyer; P. Nath
      Abstract: Thin and flexible polymeric membranes play a critical role in tissue engineering applications for example organs-on-a-chip. These flexible membranes can enable mechanical stretch of the engineered tissue to mimic organ-specific biophysical features, such as breathing. In this work, we report the fabrication of thin (<20 μm), stretchable, and biocompatible polyurethane (PU) membranes. The membranes were fabricated using spin coating technique on silicon substrates and were mounted on a frame for ease of device integration and handling. The membranes were characterized for their optical and elastic properties and compatibility with cell/tissue culture. It was possible to apply up to 10 kilopascal (kPa) pressure to perform cyclic stretch on 4 mm-diameter membranes for a period of 2 weeks at 0.2 hertz (Hz) frequency without mechanical failure. Adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial (A549) cells were cultured on the apical side of the PU membrane. The morphology and viability of the cells were comparable to those of cells cultured on standard tissue culture plates. Our experiments suggest that the stretchable PU membrane will be broadly useful for various tissue engineering applications in vitro.
      PubDate: 2017-11-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0236-6
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • A microfluidic device for quantitative investigation of zebrafish
           larvae’s rheotaxis
    • Authors: Amir Reza Peimani; Georg Zoidl; Pouya Rezai
      Abstract: Zebrafish is a model organism for various sensory-motor biological studies. Rheotaxis, or the ability of zebrafish to orient and swim against the water stream, is a common behavior that involves multiple sensory-motor processes such as their lateral line and visual systems. Due to the lack of a controllable and easy-to-use assay, zebrafish rheotaxis at larval stages is not well-understood. In this paper, we report a microfluidic device that can be used to apply the flow stimulus precisely and repeatedly along the longitudinal axis of individual zebrafish larvae to study their coaxial rheotaxis. We quantified rheotaxis in terms of the response rate and location along the channel at various flow velocities (9.5–38 mm.sec−1). The larvae effectively exhibited a similarly high rheotactic response at low and medium velocities (9.5 and 19 mm.sec−1); however, at high velocity of 38 mm.sec−1, despite sensing the flow, their rheotactic response decreased significantly. The flow velocity also affected the response location along the channel. At 9.5 mm.sec−1, responses were distributed evenly along the channel length while, at 19 and 38 mm.sec−1, the larvae demonstrated higher rheotaxis responses at the anterior and posterior ends of the channel, respectively. This result shows that although the response is similarly high at low and medium flow velocities, zebrafish larvae become more sensitive to the flow at medium velocity, demonstrating a modulated rheotactic behavior. Employing our device, further investigations can be conducted to study the sensory-motor systems involved in rheotaxis of zebrafish larvae and other fish species.
      PubDate: 2017-11-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0240-x
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • 3D gut-liver chip with a PK model for prediction of first-pass metabolism
    • Authors: Dong Wook Lee; Sang Keun Ha; Inwook Choi; Jong Hwan Sung
      Abstract: Accurate prediction of first-pass metabolism is essential for improving the time and cost efficiency of drug development process. Here, we have developed a microfluidic gut-liver co-culture chip that aims to reproduce the first-pass metabolism of oral drugs. This chip consists of two separate layers for gut (Caco-2) and liver (HepG2) cell lines, where cells can be co-cultured in both 2D and 3D forms. Both cell lines were maintained well in the chip, verified by confocal microscopy and measurement of hepatic enzyme activity. We investigated the PK profile of paracetamol in the chip, and corresponding PK model was constructed, which was used to predict PK profiles for different chip design parameters. Simulation results implied that a larger absorption surface area and a higher metabolic capacity are required to reproduce the in vivo PK profile of paracetamol more accurately. Our study suggests the possibility of reproducing the human PK profile on a chip, contributing to accurate prediction of pharmacological effect of drugs.
      PubDate: 2017-11-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0242-8
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Measurement of cell traction force with a thin film PDMS cantilever
    • Authors: Merrel T. Holley; Ashkan YekrangSafakar; Mazvita Maziveyi; Suresh K. Alahari; Kidong Park
      Abstract: Adherent cells produce cellular traction force (CTF) on a substrate to maintain their physical morphologies, sense external environment, and perform essential cellular functions. Precise characterization of the CTF can expand our knowledge of various cellular processes as well as lead to the development of novel mechanical biomarkers. However, current methods that measure CTF require special substrates and fluorescent microscopy, rendering them less suitable in a clinical setting. Here, we demonstrate a rapid and direct approach to measure the combined CTF of a large cell population using thin polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) cantilevers. Cells attached to the top surface of the PDMS cantilever produce CTF, which causes the cantilever to bend. The side view of the cantilever was imaged with a low-cost camera to extract the CTF. We characterized the CTF of fibroblasts and breast cancer cells. In addition, we were able to directly measure the contractile force of a suspended cell sheet, which is similar to the CTF of the confluent cell layer before detachment. The demonstrated technique can provide rapid and real-time measurement of the CTF of a large cell population and can directly characterize its temporal dynamics. The developed thin film PDMS cantilever can be fabricated affordably and the CTF extraction technique does not require expensive equipment. Thus, we believe that the developed method can provide an easy-to-use and affordable platform for CTF characterization in clinical settings and laboratories.
      PubDate: 2017-11-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0239-3
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Correction to: Polymer-based interconnection cables to integrate with
           flexible penetrating microelectrode arrays
    • Authors: Keonghwan Oh; Donghak Byun; Sohee Kim
      Abstract: The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. In Eqs. (1) to (3), the gas constant ‘R’ should be replaced with Boltzmann constant ‘k B.’ This change accompanies the change in the paragraph following Eq. (3) as below:
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0232-x
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Dielectrophoretic microbead sorting using modular electrode design and
           capillary-driven microfluidics
    • Authors: Jaione Tirapu-Azpiroz; Yuksel Temiz; Emmanuel Delamarche
      Abstract: Multiplexing assays using microbeads in microfluidics offers high flexibility and throughput, but requires the ability to sort particles based on their physical properties. In this paper, we present a continuous method for separating microbeads that is compact, modular and adaptive, employing an optimized electrode layout that alternates sorting and concentration of microbeads using dielectrophoresis and a nested design. By simulating the combined effects of the hydrodynamic drag and dielectrophoresis forces on polystyrene beads, the parameters of the electrode layout and voltage configuration are optimized for maximum separation based on particle size with a small number of slanted planar electrodes. Experimental verification confirms the efficient separation of 10 μm and 5 μm beads, with ~98% of all concentrated beads sorted in two separate streams and only ~2% of 5 μm beads leaking into the 10 μm bead stream. In addition, this method is implemented on capillary-driven microfluidic chips for maximum portability and ease of use.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0238-4
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Effect of drug-loaded TiO 2 nanotube arrays on osseointegration in an
           orthodontic miniscrew: an in-vivo pilot study
    • Authors: Insan Jang; Dong-Soon Choi; Jae-Kwan Lee; Wan-Tae Kim; Bong-Kuen Cha; Won-Youl Choi
      Abstract: Osseointegration was evaluated for the surface of miniscrews with TiO2 nanotube arrays containing drugs in this in-vivo study. The diameter and length of the TiO2 nanotube arrays were about 70 nm and 5 μm, respectively. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) or ibuprofen was loaded in the TiO2 nanotube arrays with 12 miniscrews. The 12 drug-loaded miniscrews, 6 miniscrews with no drug-loaded TiO2 nanotube arrays and 6 conventional miniscrews, were placed on the tibias of New Zealand white rabbits. Histological osseointegration was assessed 8 weeks after implantation by measuring the bone-to-implant contact (BIC) ratio. Ibuprofen-loaded miniscrews showed a significantly higher BIC of 71.6% over conventional miniscrews of 44.3% on average. The mean BIC ratios of rhBMP-2-loaded miniscrews and no drug-loaded miniscrews was 24.6% and 60.1%, respectively. Our results suggest that TiO2 nanotube arrays on the surface of miniscrews could be used as carriers of drugs, and loading ibuprofen in TiO2 nanotube arrays may improve osseointegration of miniscrews. However, the effect of rhBMP-2 loaded in TiO2 nanotube arrays on osseointegration of miniscrews was questionable in this pilot study.
      PubDate: 2017-10-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0237-5
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Highly efficient isolation and release of circulating tumor cells based on
           size-dependent filtration and degradable ZnO nanorods substrate in a
           wedge-shaped microfluidic chip
    • Authors: Songzhan Li; Yifan Gao; Xiran Chen; Luman Qin; Boran Cheng; Shubin Wang; Shengxiang Wang; Guangxin Zhao; Kan Liu; Nangang Zhang
      Abstract: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been regarded as the major cause of metastasis, holding significant insights for tumor diagnosis and treatment. Although many efforts have been made to develop methods for CTC isolation and release in microfluidic system, it remains significant challenges to realize highly efficient isolation and gentle release of CTCs for further cellular and bio-molecular analyses. In this study, we demonstrate a novel method for CTC isolation and release using a simple wedge-shaped microfluidic chip embedding degradable znic oxide nanorods (ZnNRs) substrate. By integrating size-dependent filtration with degradable nanostructured substrate, the capture efficiencies over 87.5% were achieved for SKBR3, PC3, HepG2 and A549 cancer cells spiked in healthy blood sample with the flow rate of 100 μL min−1. By dissolving ZnNRs substrate with an extremely low concentration of phosphoric acid (12.5 mM), up to 85.6% of the captured SKBR3 cells were released after reverse injection with flow rate of 100 μL min−1 for 15 min, which exhibited around 73.6% cell viability within 1 h after release to around 93.9% after re-cultured for 3 days. It is conceivable that our microfluidic device has great potentials in carrying on cell-based biomedical studies and guiding individualized treatment in the future.
      PubDate: 2017-10-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0235-7
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • A novel method to understand tumor cell invasion: integrating
           extracellular matrix mimicking layers in microfluidic chips by
           “selective curing”
    • Authors: H. Eslami Amirabadi; S. SahebAli; J. P. Frimat; R. Luttge; J. M. J. den Toonder
      Abstract: A major challenge in studying tumor cell invasion into its surrounding tissue is to identify the contribution of individual factors in the tumor microenvironment (TME) to the process. One of the important elements of the TME is the fibrous extracellular matrix (ECM) which is known to influence cancer cell invasion, but exactly how remains unclear. Therefore, there is a need for new models to unravel mechanisms behind the tumor-ECM interaction. In this article, we present a new microfabrication method, called selective curing, to integrate ECM-mimicking layers between two microfluidic channels. This method enables us to study the effect of 3D matrices with controlled architecture, beyond the conventionally used hydrogels, on cancer invasion in a controlled environment. As a proof of principle, we have integrated two electrospun Polycaprolactone (PCL) matrices with different fiber diameters in one chip. We then studied the 3D migration of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells into the matrices under the influence of a chemotactic gradient. The results show that neither the invasion distance nor the general cell morphology is affected significantly by the difference in fiber size of these matrices. The cells however do produce longer and more protrusions in the matrix with smaller fiber size. This microfluidic system enables us to study the influence of other factors in the TME on cancer development as well as other biological applications as it provides a controlled compartmentalized environment compatible with cell culturing.
      PubDate: 2017-10-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0234-8
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Characterisation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived
           endothelial cells under shear stress using an easy-to-use microfluidic
           cell culture system
    • Authors: Rsituko Ohtani-Kaneko; Kenjiro Sato; Atsuhiro Tsutiya; Yuka Nakagawa; Kazutoshi Hashizume; Hidekatsu Tazawa
      Abstract: Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells (iPSC-ECs) can contribute to elucidating the pathogenesis of heart and vascular diseases and developing their treatments. Their precise characteristics in fluid flow however remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to characterise these features. We cultured three types of ECs in a microfluidic culture system: commercially available human iPS-ECs, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human umbilical artery endothelial cells (HUAECs). We then examined the mRNA expression levels of endothelial marker gene cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31), fit-related receptor tyrosine kinase (Flk-1), and the smooth muscle marker gene smooth muscle alpha-actin, and investigated changes in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) secretion and intracellular F-actin arrangement following heat stress. We also compared expressions of the arterial and venous marker genes ephrinB2 and EphB4, and the endothelial gap junction genes connexin (Cx) 37, 40, and 43 under fluidic shear stress to determine their arterial or venous characteristics. We found that iPS-ECs had similar endothelial marker gene expressions and exhibited similar increases in PAI-1 secretion under heat stress as HUVECs and HUAECs. In addition, F-actin arrangement in iPSC-ECs also responded to heat stress, as previously reported. However, they had different expression patterns of arterial and venous marker genes and Cx genes under different fluidic shear stress levels, showing that iPSC-ECs exhibit different characteristics from arterial and venous ECs. This microfluidic culture system equipped with variable shear stress control will provide an easy-to-use assay tool to examine characteristics of iPS-ECs generated by different protocols in various laboratories and contribute to basic and applied biomedical researches on iPS-ECs.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0229-5
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Irreversible electroporation in the eradication of rabbit VX2 cervical
           tumors
    • Authors: Wei Chai; Ying Xu; Wenlong Zhang; Zhentong Wei; Jiannan Li; Jian Shi; Xiaomei Luo; Jianying Zeng; Manhua Cui; Lizhi Niu
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE) on the eradication of rabbit VX2 cervical tumors. A VX2 cervical cancer model was first made in 20 New Zealand rabbits. IRE ablation was performed for the cervical cancers of 15 rabbits when the diameter of the tumor was about 1.0–1.5 cm. The control group (n = 5) did not receive IRE ablation. The gross pathology, ultrasound, computed tomography, hematoxylin and eosin, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemical staining were performed to evaluate the efficacy of IRE on cervical cancer. All the rabbits tolerated the IRE ablation without serious complications. The tumors treated by IRE slightly increased in size during the first two days, but decreased gradually. IRE caused tumor cell death efficiently, mainly through cell apoptosis; however, it did not induce complete tumor ablation in our study. The results suggested that IRE could eradicate rabbit VX2 cervical tumors efficiently. However, the optimal IRE parameters remain to be determined.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0231-y
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Microfluidic device for novel breast cancer screening by blood test using
           miRNA beacon probe
    • Authors: Bindu Salim; M. V. Athira; A. Kandaswamy; Madhulika Vijayakumar; T. Saravanan; Thiagarajan Sairam
      Abstract: Breast cancer is identified as the highest cause of death in women suffering from cancer. Early diagnosis is the key to increase the survival of breast cancer victims. Molecular diagnosis using biomarkers have advanced much in the recent years. The cost involved in such diagnosis is not affordable for most of the population. The concept being investigated here is to realize a simple diagnosis system for screening cancer by way of a blood test utilizing a miRNA based biomarker with a complementary molecular beacon probe. A microfluidic platform was designed and attached with a fluorescence reader, which is portable and cost effective. Experiments were performed with 51 blood samples of which 30 were healthy and 21 were positive for breast cancer, collected against institutional human ethical clearance, IHEC 16/180–7–9-2016. miRNA 21 was chosen as the biomarker because it is overexpressed 4-fold in the serum of breast cancer patients. This work involved design of an experiment to prove the concept of miRNA over expression followed by detection of miRNA 21 using the microfluidic platform attached with a fluorescence reader and validation of the results using quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). The results obtained from the microfluidic device concurred with qRT-PCR results. The device is suitable for point-of-care application in a mass-screening programme. The study also has revealed that the stage of the cancer could be indicated by this test, which will be further useful for deciding a therapeutic regime.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0230-z
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Interventional magnetic resonance imaging guided carotid embolectomy using
           a novel resonant marker catheter: demonstration of preclinical feasibility
           
    • Authors: Jeffrey K. Yang; Andre M. Cote; Caroline D. Jordan; Sravani Kondapavulur; Aaron D. Losey; David McCoy; Andrew Chu; Jay F. Yu; Teri Moore; Carol Stillson; Fabio Settecase; Matthew D. Alexander; Andrew Nicholson; Daniel L. Cooke; Maythem Saeed; Dave Barry; Alastair J. Martin; Mark W. Wilson; Steven W. Hetts
      Abstract: To assess the visualization and efficacy of a wireless resonant circuit (wRC) catheter system for carotid artery occlusion and embolectomy under real-time MRI guidance in vivo, and to compare MR imaging modality with x-ray for analysis of qualitative physiological measures of blood flow at baseline and after embolectomy. The wRC catheter system was constructed using a MR compatible PEEK fiber braided catheter (Penumbra, Inc, Alameda, CA) with a single insulated longitudinal copper loop soldered to a printed circuit board embedded within the catheter wall. In concordance with IACUC protocol (AN103047), in vivo carotid artery navigation and embolectomy were performed in four farm pigs (40–45 kg) under real-time MRI at 1.5T. Industry standard clots were introduced in incremental amounts until adequate arterial occlusion was noted in a total of n=13 arteries. Baseline vasculature and restoration of blood flow were confirmed via MR and x-ray imaging, and graded by the Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) scale. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to analyze differences in recanalization status between DSA and MRA imaging. Successful recanalizations (TICI 2b/3) were compared to clinical rates reported in literature via binomial tests. The wRC catheter system was visible both on 5° sagittal bSSFP and coronal GRE sequence. Successful recanalization was demonstrated in 11 of 13 occluded arteries by DSA analysis and 8 of 13 by MRA. Recanalization rates based on DSA (0.85) and MRA (0.62) were not significantly different from the clinical rate of mechanical aspiration thrombectomy reported in literature. Lastly, a Wilcoxon signed rank test indicated no significant difference between TICI scores analyzed by DSA and MRA. With demonstrated compatibility and visualization under MRI, the wRC catheter system is effective for in vivo endovascular embolectomy, suggesting progress towards clinical endovascular interventional MRI.
      PubDate: 2017-09-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0225-9
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Passive, wireless transduction of electrochemical impedance across
           thin-film microfabricated coils using reflected impedance
    • Authors: Alex Baldwin; Lawrence Yu; Madelina Pratt; Kee Scholten; Ellis Meng
      Abstract: A new method of wirelessly transducing electrochemical impedance without integrated circuits or discrete electrical components was developed and characterized. The resonant frequency and impedance magnitude at resonance of a planar inductive coil is affected by the load on a secondary coil terminating in sensing electrodes exposed to solution (reflected impedance), allowing the transduction of the high-frequency electrochemical impedance between the two electrodes. Biocompatible, flexible secondary coils with sensing electrodes made from gold and Parylene C were microfabricated and the reflected impedance in response to phosphate-buffered saline solutions of varying concentrations was characterized. Both the resonant frequency and impedance at resonance were highly sensitive to changes in solution conductivity at the secondary electrodes, and the effects of vertical separation, lateral misalignment, and temperature changes were also characterized. Two applications of reflected impedance in biomedical sensors for hydrocephalus shunts and glucose sensing are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-09-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0226-8
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • All-in-one low-intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulation system using
           piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer (pMUT) arrays for
           targeted cell stimulation
    • Authors: Wonjun Lee; Seungjun Yoo; Joontaek Jung; Woojin Kang; Wei Wang; Cheil Moon; Hongsoo Choi
      Abstract: A novel cell-stimulation system was fabricated using 10 × 29 piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer (pMUT) arrays for targeted ultrasonic cell stimulation. Both the diameter of a single pMUT element and the edge-to-edge gap were 120 μm, and the size of a pMUT array was 2.27 × 6.84 mm, to be placed at the bottom of a Transwell. The measured resonance frequency of a single pMUT element was 1.48 ± 0.13 MHz and the measured acoustic intensity of the pMUT array was 0.15 ± 0.03 MPa at 1 mm away from the transducer. A pMUT array was mounted on a print circuit board (PCB), which was designed in accordance with the size of a 12-well Transwell. The Transwell was placed on the PCB and wire bonding was performed to electrically connect the PCB and pMUT arrays. After wiring, the PCB and pMUT arrays were coated with 2.6-μm thick parylene-C to ensure biocompatibility and waterproofing. PC12 cells were used for ultrasonic cell stimulation tests to examine the proposed all-in-one low-intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulation system. Various stimulation times and duty cycles were used simultaneously for cell proliferation in a confined cell culture environment. All stimulation groups showed increased cell proliferation rates, in the range 138–166%, versus the proliferation rate of the control group.
      PubDate: 2017-09-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0228-6
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Embryonic body culturing in an all-glass microfluidic device with
           laser-processed 4 μm thick ultra-thin glass sheet filter
    • Authors: Y. Yalikun; N. Tanaka; Y. Hosokawa; T. Iino; Y. Tanaka
      Abstract: In this paper, we report the development and demonstration of a method to fabricate an all-glass microfluidic cell culturing device without circulation flow. On-chip microfluidic cell culturing is an indispensable technique for cellular replacement therapies and experimental cell biology. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) have become a popular material for fabricating microfluidic cell culture devices because it is a transparent, biocompatible, deformable, easy-to-mold, and gas-permeable. However, PDMS is also a chemically and physically unstable material. For example, PDMS undergoes aging easily even in room temperature conditions. Therefore, it is difficult to control long term experimental culturing conditions. On the other hand, glass is expected to be stable not only in physically but also chemically even in the presence of organic solvents. However, cell culturing still requires substance exchanges such as gases and nutrients, and so on, which cannot be done in a closed space of a glass device without circulation flow that may influence cell behavior. Thus, we introduce a filter structure with micropores onto a glass device to improve permeability to the cell culture space. Normally, it is extremely difficult to fabricate a filter structure on a normal glass plate by using a conventional fabrication method. Here, we demonstrated a method for fabricating an all-glass microfluidic cell culturing device having filters structure. The function of this all-glass culturing device was confirmed by culturing HeLa, fibroblast and ES cells. Compared with the closed glass devices without a filter structure, the numbers of cells in our device increased and embryonic bodies (EBs) were formed. This method offers a new tool in microfluidic cell culture technology for biological analysis and it expands the field of microfluidic cell culture.
      PubDate: 2017-09-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0227-7
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Analyzing polymeric matrix for fabrication of a biodegradable microneedle
           array to enhance transdermal delivery
    • Authors: Kuo-Yuan Hwa; Vincent H. S. Chang; Yao-Yi Cheng; Yue-Da Wang; Pey-Shynan Jan; Boopathi Subramani; Min-Ju Wu; Bo-Kai Wang
      Abstract: Traditional drug delivery systems, using invasive, transdermal, and oral routes, are limited by various factors, such as the digestive system environment, skin protection, and sensory nerve stimulation. To improve the drug delivery system, we fabricated a polysaccharide-based, dissolvable microneedle-based array, which combines the advantages of both invasive and transdermal delivery systems, and promises to be an innovative solution for minimally invasive drug delivery. In this study, we designed a reusable aluminum mold that greatly improved the efficiency and convenience of microneedle fabrication. Physical characterization of the polysaccharides, individual or mixed at different ratios, was performed to identify a suitable molecule to fabricate the dissolvable microneedle. We used a vacuum deposition-based micro-molding method at low temperature to fabricate the model. Using a series of checkpoints from material into product, a systematic feedback mechanism was built into the “all-in-one” fabrication step, which helped to improve production yields. The physical properties of the fabricated microneedle were assessed. The cytotoxicity analysis and animal testing of the microneedle demonstrated the safety and compatibility of the microneedle, and the successful penetration and effective release of a model protein.
      PubDate: 2017-09-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0224-x
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
 
 
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