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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2417 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (207 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (202 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (111 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1267 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (400 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (56 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (76 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (98 journals)

ENGINEERING (1267 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 274)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beyond : Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access  
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Bitlis Eren University Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 279)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 213)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 248)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 195)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover
Biomedical Microdevices
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.538
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 8  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1572-8781 - ISSN (Online) 1387-2176
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • In-vitro perforation of the round window membrane via direct 3-D printed
           microneedles
    • Authors: Aykut Aksit; Daniel N. Arteaga; Miguel Arriaga; Xun Wang; Hirobumi Watanabe; Karen E. Kasza; Anil K. Lalwani; Jeffrey W. Kysar
      Abstract: The cochlea, or inner ear, is a space fully enclosed within the temporal bone of the skull, except for two membrane-covered portals connecting it to the middle ear space. One of these portals is the round window, which is covered by the Round Window Membrane (RWM). A longstanding clinical goal is to reliably and precisely deliver therapeutics into the cochlea to treat a plethora of auditory and vestibular disorders. Standard of care for several difficult-to-treat diseases calls for injection of a therapeutic substance through the tympanic membrane into the middle ear space, after which a portion of the substance diffuses across the RWM into the cochlea. The efficacy of this technique is limited by an inconsistent rate of molecular transport across the RWM. A solution to this problem involves the introduction of one or more microscopic perforations through the RWM to enhance the rate and reliability of diffusive transport. This paper reports the use of direct 3D printing via Two-Photon Polymerization (2PP) lithography to fabricate ultra-sharp polymer microneedles specifically designed to perforate the RWM. The microneedle has tip radius of 500 nm and shank radius of 50 μ m, and perforates the guinea pig RWM with a mean force of 1.19 mN. The resulting perforations performed in vitro are lens-shaped with major axis equal to the microneedle shank diameter and minor axis about 25% of the major axis, with mean area 1670 μ m2. The major axis is aligned with the direction of the connective fibers within the RWM. The fibers were separated along their axes without ripping or tearing of the RWM suggesting the main failure mechanism to be fiber-to-fiber decohesion. The small perforation area along with fiber-to-fiber decohesion are promising indicators that the perforations would heal readily following in vivo experiments. These results establish a foundation for the use of Two-Photon Polymerization lithography as a means to fabricate microneedles to perforate the RWM and other similar membranes.
      PubDate: 2018-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0287-3
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • A novel electrochemical immunosensor based on Au nanoparticles and
           horseradish peroxidase signal amplification for ultrasensitive detection
           of α-fetoprotein
    • Authors: Dingqiang Lu; Qiuda Xu; Guangchang Pang; Fuping Lu
      Abstract: An electrochemical double-layer Au nanoparticle membrane immunosensor was developed using an electrochemical biosensing signal amplification system with Au nanoparticles, thionine, chitosan, and horseradish peroxidase, which was fabricated using double self-adsorption of Au nanoparticle sol followed by anti-α-fetoprotein Balb/c mouse monoclonal antibody adsorption. The AuNPs sol was characterized by spectrum scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The immunosensor was characterized by atomic force microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and alternating-current impedance during each stage of adsorption and assembly. The amperometric I-t curve method was used to measure α-fetoprotein (AFP) diluted in phosphate buffered saline. The result indicated a wide linear range, and the change rate of steady-current before and after immune response had linear correlation within the range 0.1–104 pg/mL AFP. The current change rate equation was △I = 5.82334 lgC + 37.01195 (R2 = 0.9922). The lowest limit of detection was 0.03 pg/mL (S/N = 3), and the reproducibility of the sensor was good. Additionally, the sensor could be stably stored above phosphate buffered saline at 4 °C for more than 24 days. More importantly, the sensor is label-free, reagentless and low fouling, making it capable of assaying AFP in real serum samples without suffering from significant interference or biofouling.
      PubDate: 2018-06-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0291-7
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Robust label-free microRNA detection using one million ISFET array
    • Authors: Anurup Ganguli; Yoshihiko Watanabe; Michael T. Hwang; Jui-Cheng Huang; Rashid Bashir
      Abstract: Detection of nucleic acid molecules is one of the most pervasive assays in biology, medicine, and agriculture applications. Currently, most comely used DNA/RNA detection platforms use fluorescence labeling and require lab-scale setting for performing the assay. There is a need for developing less expensive, label-free, and rapid detection of biomolecules with minimal utilization of resources. Use of electrical approaches for detection of biomolecules by utilizing their inherent charge is a promising direction for biosensing assays. Here, we report a 1024 × 1024 array of Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistors (ISFET) as label free sensors for detection of nucleic acid molecules. Using PNA probe functionalized on these ISFET array, we robustly detected miRNA Let-7b by measuring changes in drain current after hybridization of target molecules with concentration as low as 1 nM. We demonstrate that mismatched or non-complementary target molecules resulted in statistically smaller changes. Most importantly, the high-density sensor array shows unprecedented reliability and robustness with P values <0.0001 for all experiments. Practical implementation of this platform could have a wide range of applications in high-throughput nucleic acid genotyping, detection of amplified pathogenic nucleic acid, detection of cell-free DNA, and electrical readouts for current hybridization-based DNA biomolecular assays.
      PubDate: 2018-06-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0290-8
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • A vacuum-actuated microtissue stretcher for long-term exposure to
           oscillatory strain within a 3D matrix
    • Authors: Matthew Walker; Michel Godin; Andrew E. Pelling
      Abstract: Although our understanding of cellular behavior in response to extracellular biological and mechanical stimuli has greatly advanced using conventional 2D cell culture methods, these techniques lack physiological relevance. To a cell, the extracellular environment of a 2D plastic petri dish is artificially flat, extremely rigid, static and void of matrix protein. In contrast, we developed the microtissue vacuum-actuated stretcher (MVAS) to probe cellular behavior within a 3D multicellular environment composed of innate matrix protein, and in response to continuous uniaxial stretch. An array format, compatibility with live imaging and high-throughput fabrication techniques make the MVAS highly suited for biomedical research and pharmaceutical discovery. We validated our approach by characterizing the bulk microtissue strain, the microtissue strain field and single cell strain, and by assessing F-actin expression in response to chronic cyclic strain of 10%. The MVAS was shown to be capable of delivering reproducible dynamic bulk strain amplitudes up to 13%. The strain at the single cell level was found to be 10.4% less than the microtissue axial strain due to cellular rotation. Chronic cyclic strain produced a 35% increase in F-actin expression consistent with cytoskeletal reinforcement previously observed in 2D cell culture. The MVAS may further our understanding of the reciprocity shared between cells and their environment, which is critical to meaningful biomedical research and successful therapeutic approaches.
      PubDate: 2018-05-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0286-4
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • An ultrasonically controlled switching system for power management in
           implantable devices
    • Authors: Jiawei Zhou; Albert Kim; Babak Ziaie
      Abstract: In this paper, we present an ultrasonically controlled switching system that can save the battery power for implantable devices by turning the system on and off, on-demand. Ultrasonic control is employed to reduce the device size, increase the penetration depth, and reduce misalignment sensitivity associated with alternative techniques using permanent magnet and RF signal. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, a 665 kHz ultrasonic signal is used to activate a piezoelectric receiver which in turn switches a battery-powered RF system on-and-off. In-vitro tests show a reliable switching functionality at distances of up to 8 cm while consuming 43.5 nW (14.5 nA current consumption with 3 V power supply) when the system is in off-state, a factor of 10–100 times lower than the sleep-mode power consumption of typical RF SoC systems. The dimension of fabricated prototype is 6.3 × 16.7 × 2‍ mm3 allowing it to be easily incorporated into many existing implantable devices.
      PubDate: 2018-05-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0288-2
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • A bead-based immunogold-silver staining assay on capillary-driven
           microfluidics
    • Authors: Ngoc M. Pham; Sebastian Rusch; Yuksel Temiz; Robert D. Lovchik; Hans-Peter Beck; Walter Karlen; Emmanuel Delamarche
      Abstract: Point-of-care (POC) diagnostics are critically needed for the detection of infectious diseases, particularly in remote settings where accurate and appropriate diagnosis can save lives. However, it is difficult to implement immunoassays, and specifically immunoassays relying on signal amplification using silver staining, into POC diagnostic devices. Effective immobilization of antibodies in such devices is another challenge. Here, we present strategies for immobilizing capture antibodies (cAbs) in capillary-driven microfluidic chips and implementing a gold-catalyzed silver staining reaction. We illustrate these strategies using a species/anti-species immunoassay and the capillary assembly of fluorescent microbeads functionalized with cAbs in “bead lanes”, which are engraved in microfluidic chips. The microfluidic chips are fabricated in silicon (Si) and sealed with a dry film resist. Rabbit IgG antibodies in samples are captured on the beads and bound by detection antibodies (dAbs) conjugated to gold nanoparticles. The gold nanoparticles catalyze the formation of a metallic film of silver, which attenuates fluorescence from the beads in an analyte-concentration dependent manner. The performance of these immunoassays was found comparable to that of assays performed in 96 well microtiter plates using “classical” enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The proof-of-concept method developed here can detect 24.6 ng mL−1 of rabbit IgG antibodies in PBS within 20 min, in comparison to 17.1 ng mL−1 of the same antibodies using a ~140-min-long ELISA protocol. Furthermore, the concept presented here is flexible and necessitate volumes of samples and reagents in the range of just a few microliters.
      PubDate: 2018-05-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0284-6
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Cardiac support device (ASD) delivers bone marrow stem cells repetitively
           to epicardium has promising curative effects in advanced heart failure
    • Authors: Shizhong Yue; Muhammad Naveed; Wang Gang; Dingding Chen; Zhijie Wang; Feng Yu; Xiaohui Zhou
      Abstract: Ventricular restraint therapy is a non-transplant surgical option for the management of advanced heart failure (HF). To augment the therapeutic applications, it is hypothesized that ASD shows remarkable capabilities not only in delivering stem cells but also in dilated ventricles. Male SD rats were divided into four groups (n = 6): normal, HF, HF + ASD, and HF + ASD-BMSCs respectively. HF was developed by left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation in all groups except normal group. Post-infarcted electrocardiography (ECG) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) showed abnormal heart function in all model groups and HF + ASD-BMSCs group showed significant improvement as compared to other HF, HF + ASD groups on day 30. Masson’s trichrome staining was used to study the histology, and a large blue fibrotic area has been observed in HF and HF + ASD groups and quantification of fibrosis was assessed. ASD-treated rats showed normal heart rhythm, demonstrated by smooth -ST and asymmetrical T-wave. The mechanical function of the heart such as left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) and heart rate was brought to normal when treated with ASD-BMSCs. This effect was more prominent than that of ASD therapy alone. In comparison to HF group, the SD rats in HF + ASD-BMBCs group showed a significant decline in BNP levels. So ASD can deliver BMSCs to the cardiomyocytes successfully and broaden the therapeutic efficacy, in comparison to the restraint device alone. An effective methodology to manage the end-stage HF has been proved.
      PubDate: 2018-05-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0282-8
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Correction to: Design and validation of an osteochondral bioreactor for
           the screening of treatments for osteoarthritis
    • Authors: Derek A. Nichols; Inderbir S. Sondh; Steven R. Little; Paolo Zunino; Riccardo Gottardi
      Abstract: The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake.
      PubDate: 2018-05-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0283-7
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Solid-state nanopore fabrication in LiCl by controlled dielectric
           breakdown
    • Authors: Julian Bello; Jiwook Shim
      Abstract: Nanopore fabrication via the controlled dielectric breakdown (CDB) method offers an opportunity to create solid-state nanopores directly in salt solution with sub-nanometer precision. Driven by trap assisted current tunneling, the method uses localized defects, or traps, in the dielectric material to isolate a breakdown point and fabricate a single pore in less than 10 minutes. Here we present an approach to controlled dielectric breakdown of SiNx in which the nanopore is fabricated in LiCl buffer instead of the traditional KCl buffer. Direct fabrication in LiCl buffer promotes a uniform, symmetric, cylindrical nanopore structure that is fully wet and can be used for experiments in situ. We have shown that fabrication in LiCl reduces the necessity for overnight pore stabilization and allows for the desired analyte to be added in significantly less time than it would take if fabrication was performed in KCl. Pores created by this approach can be used for biosensing applications, including the detection of double-stranded DNA. DNA translocation experiments were conducted in both LiCl and KCl buffer. Experiments conducted in LiCl buffer resulted in about a 2-fold increase in dsDNA transport duration when compared to experiments conducted in KCl buffer of the same concentration. An increase in transport duration of over 10-fold in comparison to KCl was observed when the concentration of the LiCl buffer was increased by a factor of 3.
      PubDate: 2018-04-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0281-9
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Study on real-time force feedback for a master–slave interventional
           surgical robotic system
    • Authors: Shuxiang Guo; Yuan Wang; Nan Xiao; Youxiang Li; Yuhua Jiang
      Abstract: In robot-assisted catheterization, haptic feedback is important, but is currently lacking. In addition, conventional interventional surgical robotic systems typically employ a master–slave architecture with an open-loop force feedback, which results in inaccurate control. We develop herein a novel real-time master–slave (RTMS) interventional surgical robotic system with a closed-loop force feedback that allows a surgeon to sense the true force during remote operation, provide adequate haptic feedback, and improve control accuracy in robot-assisted catheterization. As part of this system, we also design a unique master control handle that measures the true force felt by a surgeon, providing the basis for the closed-loop control of the entire system. We use theoretical and empirical methods to demonstrate that the proposed RTMS system provides a surgeon (using the master control handle) with a more accurate and realistic force sensation, which subsequently improves the precision of the master–slave manipulation. The experimental results show a substantial increase in the control accuracy of the force feedback and an increase in operational efficiency during surgery.
      PubDate: 2018-04-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0278-4
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • The evaluation of E. faecalis colonies dissolution ability of sodium
           hypochlorite in microenvironment by a novel device
    • Authors: Xiaoqiang Sun; Shaorong Li; Shujing Wang; Chunxiong Luo; Benxiang Hou
      Abstract: Enterococcus faecalis(E. faecalis) is a common microorganism could be isolated from the infected canals, especially in the case of refractory apical periodontitis. Due to its ability to invade the dentinal tubules and highly resistant to antimicrobial strategies, the thorough debridement of E.faecalis is hard to achieve. And that may be one of the reasons to cause reinfection and therapeutic failure. According to the anatomy of dentinal tubules published before and the results of our team previous work, we designed six types of microtubes with different sizes. By using the method of centrifugation and incubation, a standard infected model mimicking dentinal tubules was established. Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) is the most popular irrigant applied in root canal treatment. We used three different concentrations with four distinct irrigation duration to observe the antibacterial process of E. faecalis colonies within microtubes dynamically. We concluded that the role of NaClO in the microtubes is concentration dependent and duration dependent. And the interpretation of the results has a certain reference value for clinicians.
      PubDate: 2018-04-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0279-3
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • A paperfluidic platform to detect Neisseria gonorrhoeae in clinical
           samples
    • Authors: Audrey L. Horst; Justin M. Rosenbohm; Nikunja Kolluri; Justin Hardick; Charlotte A. Gaydos; Mario Cabodi; Catherine M. Klapperich; Jacqueline C. Linnes
      Abstract: ABSTRACT Globally, the microbe Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) causes 106 million newly documented sexually transmitted infections each year. Once appropriately diagnosed, NG infections can be readily treated with antibiotics, but high-risk patients often do not return to the clinic for treatment if results are not provided at the point of care. A rapid, sensitive molecular diagnostic would help increase NG treatment and reduce the prevalence of this sexually transmitted disease. Here, we report on the design and development of a rapid, highly sensitive, paperfluidic device for point-of-care diagnosis of NG. The device integrates patient swab sample lysis, nucleic acid extraction, thermophilic helicase-dependent amplification (tHDA), an internal amplification control (NGIC), and visual lateral flow detection within an 80 min run time. Limits of NG detection for the NG/NGIC multiplex tHDA assay were determined within the device, and clinical performance was validated retroactively against qPCR-quantified patient samples in a proof-of-concept study. This paperfluidic diagnostic has a clinically relevant limit of detection of 500 NG cells per device with analytical sensitivity down to 10 NG cells per device. In triplicate testing of 40 total urethral and vaginal swab samples, the device had 95% overall sensitivity and 100% specificity, approaching current laboratory-based molecular NG diagnostics. This diagnostic platform could increase access to accurate NG diagnoses to those most in need.
      PubDate: 2018-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0280-x
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Operation evaluation in-human of a novel remote-controlled vascular
           interventional robot
    • Authors: Xianqiang Bao; Shuxiang Guo; Nan Xiao; Youxiang Li; Cheng Yang; Rui Shen; Jinxin Cui; Yuhua Jiang; Xinke Liu; Keyun Liu
      Abstract: Remote-controlled vascular interventional robots (RVIRs) are being developed to increase the accuracy of surgical operations and reduce the number of occupational risks sustained by intervening physicians, such as radiation exposure and chronic neck/back pain. However, complex control of the RVIRs improves the doctor’s operation difficulty and reduces the operation efficiency. Furthermore, incomplete sterilization of the RVIRs will increase the risk of infection, or even cause medical accidents. In this study, we introduced a novel method that provides higher operation efficiency than a previous prototype and allows for complete robot sterilization. A prototype was fabricated and validated through laboratory setting experiments and an in-human experiment. The results illustrated that the proposed RVIR has better performance compared with the previous prototype, and preliminarily demonstrated that the proposed RVIR has good safety and reliability and can be used in clinical surgeries.
      PubDate: 2018-04-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0277-5
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Operating force information on-line acquisition of a novel slave
           manipulator for vascular interventional surgery
    • Authors: Yan Zhao; Shuxiang Guo; Nan Xiao; Yuxin Wang; Youxiang Li; Yuhua Jiang
      Abstract: Vascular interventional surgery has its advantages compared to traditional operation. Master-slave robotic technology can further improve the operation accuracy, efficiency and safety of this complicated and high risk surgery. However, on-line acquisition of operating force information of catheter and guidewire remains to be a significant obstacle on the path to enhancing robotic surgery safety. Thus, a novel slave manipulator is proposed in this paper to realize on-line sensing of guidewire torsional operating torque and axial operation force during robotic assisted operations. A strain sensor is specially designed to detect the small scale torsional operation torque with low rotational frequency. Additionally, the axial operating force is detected via a load cell, which is incorporated into a sliding mechanism to eliminate the influence of friction. For validation, calibration and performance evaluation experiments are conducted. The results indicate that the proposed operation torque and force detection device is effective. Thus, it can provide the foundation for enabling accurate haptic feedback to the surgeon to improve surgical safety.
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0275-7
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • A sample-to-answer droplet magnetofluidic assay platform for quantitative
           methylation-specific PCR
    • Authors: Alejandro Stark; Dong Jin Shin; Tza-Huei Wang
      Abstract: Dysregulation of DNA methylation has been identified as an epigenetic biomarker for numerous cancer types. Gene-specific identification techniques relying on methylation-specific PCR (MSP) require a lengthy manual benchtop process that is susceptible to human-error and contamination. This MSP assay requires a series of discrete sample processing steps including genomic DNA extraction, bisulfite conversion and readout via PCR. In this work, we present a streamlined assay platform utilizing droplet magnetofluidic principles for integration of all sample processing steps required to obtain quantitative MSP signal from raw biological samples. We present a streamlined protocol for solid-phase extraction and bisulfite conversion of genomic DNA, which minimizes reagent use and simplifies the sample preparation protocol for implementation on a compact assay platform. Furthermore, we present a thermally robust assay chip that enables DNA extraction, bisulfite conversion and quantitative PCR from biological samples on a single device. Technical improvements to facilitate DNA extraction and PCR on a single chip in addition to chip performance characterization data are presented.
      PubDate: 2018-03-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0276-6
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Bioprinted gelatin hydrogel platform promotes smooth muscle cell
           contractile phenotype maintenance
    • Authors: Ajay Tijore; Jean-Marc Behr; Scott Alexander Irvine; Vrushali Baisane; Subbu Venkatraman
      Abstract: Three dimensional (3D) bioprinting has been proposed as a method for fabricating tissue engineered small diameter vascular prostheses. This technique not only involves constructing the structural features to obtain a desired pattern but the morphology of the pattern may also be used to influence the behavior of seeded cells. Herein, we 3D bioprinted a gelatin hydrogel microchannel construct to promote and preserve the contractile phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs), which is crucial for vasoresponsiveness. The microchanneled surface of a gelatin hydrogel facilitated vSMC attachment and an elongated alignment along the microchannel direction. The cells displayed distinct F-actin anisotropy in the direction of the channel. The vSMC contractile phenotype was confirmed by the positive detection of contractile marker gene proteins (α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and smooth muscle-myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC)). Having demonstrated the effectiveness of the hydrogel channels bioprinted on a film, the bioprinting was applied radially to the surface of a 3D tubular construct by integrating a rotating mandrel into the 3D bioprinter. The hydrogel microchannels printed on the 3D tubular vascular construct also orientated the vSMCs and strongly promoted the contractile phenotype. Together, our study demonstrated that microchannels bioprinted using a transglutaminase crosslinked gelatin hydrogel, could successfully promote and preserve vSMC contractile phenotype. Furthermore, the hydrogel bioink could be retained on the surface of a rotating polymer tube to print radial cell guiding channels onto a vascular graft construct.
      PubDate: 2018-03-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0274-8
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • A stretchable conductive Polypyrrole Polydimethylsiloxane device
           fabricated by simple soft lithography and oxygen plasma treatment
    • Authors: Xu-Cheng Guo; Wei-Wen Hu; Say Hwa Tan; Chia-Wen Tsao
      Abstract: This paper reports a simple method used to fabricate a stretchable conductive polypyrrole (PPy) rough pore-shape polydimethylsiloxane (p-PDMS) device. An abrasive paper is first used to imprint rough micro-structures on the SU-8 micromold. The p-PDMS microchannel is then fabricated using a standard soft-lithography process. An oxygen plasma treatment is then applied to form an irreversible sealing between the microchannel and a blank cover PDMS. The conductive layer is formed by injecting the PPy mixture into the microchannel which polymerizes in the rough pore-shape micro-structures; The PPy/p-PDMS hybrid device shows good electrical property and stretchability. The electrical properties of different geometrical designs of the PPy/p-PDMS microchannel under stretching were investigated, including straight, curved, and serpentine. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (NIH/3 T3) were also cultured inside the PPy/p-PDMS device to demonstrate good biocompatibility and feasibility using the conductive and stretchable microchannel in cell culture microfluidics applications. Finally, cyclic stretching and bending tests were performed to evaluate the reliability of PPy/p-PDMS microchannel.
      PubDate: 2018-03-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0273-9
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Pre-clinical evaluation of OxyChip for long-term EPR oximetry
    • Authors: Huagang Hou; Nadeem Khan; Sangeeta Gohain; M. Lakshmi Kuppusamy; Periannan Kuppusamy
      Abstract: Tissue oxygenation is a critical parameter in various pathophysiological situations including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Hypoxia can significantly influence the prognosis of solid malignancies and the efficacy of their treatment by radiation or chemotherapy. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry is a reliable method for repeatedly assessing and monitoring oxygen levels in tissues. Lithium octa-n-butoxynaphthalocyanine (LiNc-BuO) has been developed as a probe for biological EPR oximetry, especially for clinical use. However, clinical applicability of LiNc-BuO crystals is hampered by potential limitations associated with biocompatibility, biodegradation, or migration of individual bare crystals in tissue. To overcome these limitations, we have embedded LiNc-BuO crystals in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), an oxygen-permeable biocompatible polymer and developed an implantable/retrievable form of chip, called OxyChip. The chip was optimized for maximum spin density (40% w/w of LiNc-BuO in PDMS) and fabricated in a form suitable for implantation using an 18-G syringe needle. In vitro evaluation of the OxyChip showed that it is robust and highly oxygen sensitive. The dependence of its EPR linewidth to oxygen was linear and highly reproducible. In vivo efficacy of the OxyChip was evaluated by implanting it in rat femoris muscle and following its response to tissue oxygenation for up to 12 months. The results revealed preservation of the integrity (size and shape) and calibration (oxygen sensitivity) of the OxyChip throughout the implantation period. Further, no inflammatory or adverse reaction around the implantation area was observed thereby establishing its biocompatibility and safety. Overall, the results demonstrated that the newly-fabricated high-sensitive OxyChip is capable of providing long-term measurements of oxygen concentration in a reliable and repeated manner under clinical conditions.
      PubDate: 2018-03-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0272-x
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Closed loop control of microscopic particles incorporating steady
           streaming and visual feedback
    • Authors: Avi Abadi; Gabor Kosa
      Abstract: Automatic manipulation of microscopic particles is very important in biology, especially in new lab-on-chip systems for automatic testing and DNA manipulation. We suggest a particle manipulation system (PMS) based on vibrating piezoelectric beams creating steady streaming flow in a viscous liquid. The flow is nearly unidirectional and it is used to control the position and velocity of the particles in the workspace of the PMS. The particles position in the PMS are controlled by visual feedback. This study presents the manipulation method, the system’s model describing its behavior and characterizes experimentally its performance. The PMS is capable moving a 2-200 μm particle in a workspace of 8x8 mm2 with an absolute accuracy of 0.2 μm. The characteristic velocity in 500 cP Si oil, is 20 μm/s using an actuation voltage amplitude of 5 V and can reach 250 μm/s using 15 V respectively. We can also move a constellation of several particles in various sizes without changing the distance between them. The accuracy of the manipulation can be increased by enhancing the amplification of the microscope on the expanse of a smaller workspace field of view.
      PubDate: 2018-03-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0271-y
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Self-powered infusion microfluidic pump for ex vivo drug delivery
    • Abstract: In this work, we present a new iSIMPLE concept (infusion Self-powered Imbibing Microfluidic Pump by Liquid Encapsulation), which requires no external power for activation nor liquid manipulation, it is easy to use while its fabrication method is extremely simple, inexpensive and suited for mass replication. The pump consists of a working liquid, which is - after finger activation - absorbed in a porous material (e.g. filter paper). The air expelled from the porous material increases the pressure in the downstream outlet channel and propels the outlet liquid (i.e. the sample) through the channel or ejects it. Here we investigated the influence of different filter papers on the iSIMPLE flow rates, achieving a wide range from 30 down to 0.07 μL/min. We also demonstrated the versatility of the iSIMPLE in terms of the liquid volume that can be manipulated (from 0.5 μL up to 150 μL) and the working pressure reaching 64 kPa, unprecedented high for a self-powered microfluidics pump. In addition, using a 34 G microneedle mounted on the iSIMPLE, we successfully injected liquids with different viscosities (from 0.93 up to 55.88 cP) both into an agarose matrix and a skin-like biological ex vivo substrate (i.e. chicken breast tissue). This work validated the compatibility of the iSIMPLE with drug delivery in a controlled way into a skin-like matrix, envisioning a whole new scenario for intradermal injections using self-contained skin patch. In addition, due to the extreme flexibility of the design and manufacturing, the iSIMPLE concept offers enormous opportunities for completely autonomous, portable and cost effective LOC devices.
      PubDate: 2018-05-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0289-1
       
 
 
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