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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2358 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (201 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (107 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1240 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (394 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (56 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (72 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (96 journals)

ENGINEERING (1240 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 264)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 272)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 209)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 245)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 182)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Biomedical Microdevices
  [SJR: 0.805]   [H-I: 66]   [9 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1572-8781 - ISSN (Online) 1387-2176
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • A stretchable conductive Polypyrrole Polydimethylsiloxane device
           fabricated by simple soft lithography and oxygen plasma treatment
    • Authors: Xu-Cheng Guo; Wei-Wen Hu; Say Hwa Tan; Chia-Wen Tsao
      Abstract: Abstract This paper reports a simple method used to fabricate a stretchable conductive polypyrrole (PPy) rough pore-shape polydimethylsiloxane (p-PDMS) device. An abrasive paper is first used to imprint rough micro-structures on the SU-8 micromold. The p-PDMS microchannel is then fabricated using a standard soft-lithography process. An oxygen plasma treatment is then applied to form an irreversible sealing between the microchannel and a blank cover PDMS. The conductive layer is formed by injecting the PPy mixture into the microchannel which polymerizes in the rough pore-shape micro-structures; The PPy/p-PDMS hybrid device shows good electrical property and stretchability. The electrical properties of different geometrical designs of the PPy/p-PDMS microchannel under stretching were investigated, including straight, curved, and serpentine. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (NIH/3 T3) were also cultured inside the PPy/p-PDMS device to demonstrate good biocompatibility and feasibility using the conductive and stretchable microchannel in cell culture microfluidics applications. Finally, cyclic stretching and bending tests were performed to evaluate the reliability of PPy/p-PDMS microchannel.
      PubDate: 2018-03-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0273-9
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Pre-clinical evaluation of OxyChip for long-term EPR oximetry
    • Authors: Huagang Hou; Nadeem Khan; Sangeeta Gohain; M. Lakshmi Kuppusamy; Periannan Kuppusamy
      Abstract: Abstract Tissue oxygenation is a critical parameter in various pathophysiological situations including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Hypoxia can significantly influence the prognosis of solid malignancies and the efficacy of their treatment by radiation or chemotherapy. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry is a reliable method for repeatedly assessing and monitoring oxygen levels in tissues. Lithium octa-n-butoxynaphthalocyanine (LiNc-BuO) has been developed as a probe for biological EPR oximetry, especially for clinical use. However, clinical applicability of LiNc-BuO crystals is hampered by potential limitations associated with biocompatibility, biodegradation, or migration of individual bare crystals in tissue. To overcome these limitations, we have embedded LiNc-BuO crystals in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), an oxygen-permeable biocompatible polymer and developed an implantable/retrievable form of chip, called OxyChip. The chip was optimized for maximum spin density (40% w/w of LiNc-BuO in PDMS) and fabricated in a form suitable for implantation using an 18-G syringe needle. In vitro evaluation of the OxyChip showed that it is robust and highly oxygen sensitive. The dependence of its EPR linewidth to oxygen was linear and highly reproducible. In vivo efficacy of the OxyChip was evaluated by implanting it in rat femoris muscle and following its response to tissue oxygenation for up to 12 months. The results revealed preservation of the integrity (size and shape) and calibration (oxygen sensitivity) of the OxyChip throughout the implantation period. Further, no inflammatory or adverse reaction around the implantation area was observed thereby establishing its biocompatibility and safety. Overall, the results demonstrated that the newly-fabricated high-sensitive OxyChip is capable of providing long-term measurements of oxygen concentration in a reliable and repeated manner under clinical conditions.
      PubDate: 2018-03-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0272-x
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Closed loop control of microscopic particles incorporating steady
           streaming and visual feedback
    • Authors: Avi Abadi; Gabor Kosa
      Abstract: Abstract Automatic manipulation of microscopic particles is very important in biology, especially in new lab-on-chip systems for automatic testing and DNA manipulation. We suggest a particle manipulation system (PMS) based on vibrating piezoelectric beams creating steady streaming flow in a viscous liquid. The flow is nearly unidirectional and it is used to control the position and velocity of the particles in the workspace of the PMS. The particles position in the PMS are controlled by visual feedback. This study presents the manipulation method, the system’s model describing its behavior and characterizes experimentally its performance. The PMS is capable moving a 2-200 μm particle in a workspace of 8x8 mm2 with an absolute accuracy of 0.2 μm. The characteristic velocity in 500 cP Si oil, is 20 μm/s using an actuation voltage amplitude of 5 V and can reach 250 μm/s using 15 V respectively. We can also move a constellation of several particles in various sizes without changing the distance between them. The accuracy of the manipulation can be increased by enhancing the amplification of the microscope on the expanse of a smaller workspace field of view.
      PubDate: 2018-03-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0271-y
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • A novel approach to producing uniform 3-D tumor spheroid constructs using
           ultrasound treatment
    • Authors: Solmaz Karamikamkar; Ehsan Behzadfar; Karen C. Cheung
      Abstract: Abstract Producing three-dimensional (3-D) multicellular tumor spheroids (TSs) is valuable for characterizing anticancer drugs since they provide a more representative model of the 3-D in vivo tumor than conventional two-dimensional (2-D) monolayer culture. The interaction of tumor cells with the extracellular matrix (ECM) in a 3-D culture environment is more similar to a tumor in vivo than in a 2-D environment; cell-cell and cell-ECM interaction can influence cell behaviour, such as in response to drug treatment. In vitro tumor spheroid models have been developed using microfluidic systems to generate 3-D hydrogel beads containing components of alginate and ECM protein, such as collagen, with high uniformity and throughput. Cell-laden hydrogel droplets are formed using a flow focusing process wherein the hydrogel precursors should be a homogeneous mixture. During gelation of the droplets into beads, the alginate acts as a fast gelling component helping to maintain the spherical shape of beads and preventing coalescence as the temperature-sensitive collagen I component gels more slowly. To produce uniform hydrogel droplets using the microfluidic flow focusing system, the mixtures must be homogeneous. However, collagen’s sensitivity to temperature can lead to formation of chunks of collagen gel inside of the mixture, causing the mixture to become non-uniform and risking chip clogging. In order to overcome this limitation, previous approaches have used a cooling system during bead encapsulation while tumor cells were also present in the mixture, but this procedure can contribute to a delay in cell proliferation. Here a novel yet simple method is developed to prepare homogeneous pre-bead-encapsulation-mixtures containing collagen type I through ultrasonication. This method allows the cultivation of homogenous TS cultures with high uniformity and compact structure, and not only maintains cell viability but also the proliferation of cells in alginate/collagen hydrogel bead cultures. Depending on the sonication parameters, time and temperature, collagen can form small sized fibrils to thick fibers. Here, the mixtures containing collagen are assessed for morphology of collagen fibers/fibrils, cell viability, and proliferation. Human source Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) breast cancer cells are successfully incorporated into alginate/collagen mixtures, followed by sonication, and then bead production. After bead gelation, the encapsulated MCF-7 cells remained viable and proliferated to form uniform TSs when the beads contained alginate and collagen. Results indicate that ultrasound treatment (UST) provides a powerful technique to change the structure of collagen from fiber to fibril, and to disperse collagen fibers in the mixture homogeneously for an application to generate uniform hydrogel beads and spheroids while not inhibiting cell proliferation.
      PubDate: 2018-03-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0260-1
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Proliferation of human aortic endothelial cells on Nitinol thin films with
           varying hole sizes
    • Authors: Ming Lun Wu; Mohanchandra K. Panduranga; Gregory P. Carman
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, we present the effect of micron size holes on proliferation and growth of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Square shaped micron size holes (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 μm) separated by 10 μm wide struts are fabricated on 5 μm thick sputter deposited Nitinol films. HAECs are seeded onto these micropatterned films and analyzed after 30 days with fluorescence microscopy. Captured images are used to quantify the nucleus packing density, size, and aspect ratio. The films with holes ranging from 10 to 20 μm produce the highest cell packing densities with cell nucleus contained within the hole. This produces a geometrically regular grid like cellular distribution pattern. The cell nucleus aspect ratio on the 10–20 μm holes is more circular in shape when compared to aspect ratio on the continuous film or larger size holes. Finally, the 25 μm size holes prevented the formation of a continuous cell monolayer, suggesting the critical length that cells cannot bridge is between 20 to 25 μm.
      PubDate: 2018-02-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0267-7
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Development of 3D printed fibrillar collagen scaffold for tissue
           engineering
    • Authors: Aden Díaz Nocera; Romina Comín; Nancy Alicia Salvatierra; Mariana Paula Cid
      Abstract: Abstract Collagen is widely used in tissue engineering because it can be extracted in large quantities, and has excellent biocompatibility, good biodegradability, and weak antigenicity. In the present study, we isolated printable collagen from bovine Achilles tendon and examined the purity of the isolated collagen using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The bands obtained corresponded to α1, α2 and β chains with little contamination from other small proteins. Furthermore, rheological measurements of collagen dispersions (60 mg per ml of PBS) at pH 7 revealed values of viscosity of 35.62 ± 1.42 Pa s at shear rate of 10 s − 1 and a shear thinning behavior. Collagen gels and solutions can be used for building scaffolds by three-dimensional (3D) printing. After designing and fabricating a low-cost 3D printer we assayed the collagen printing and obtaining 3D printed scaffolds of collagen at pH 7. The porosity of the scaffold was 90.22% ± 0.88% and the swelling ratio was 1437% ± 146%. The microstructure of the scaffolds was studied using scanning electron microscopy, and a porous mesh of fibrillar collagen was observed. In addition, the 3D printed collagen scaffold was not cytotoxic with cell viability higher than 70% using Vero and NIH 3 T3 cells. In vitro evaluation using both cells lines demonstrated that the collagen scaffolds had the ability to support cell attachment and proliferation. Also a fibrillar collagen mesh was observed after two weeks of culture at 37 °C. Overall, these results are promising since they show the capability of the presented protocol to obtain printable fibrillar collagen at pH 7 and the potential of the printing technique for building low-cost biocompatible 3D plotted structures which maintained the fibrillar collagen structure after incubation in culture media without using additional strategies as crosslinking.
      PubDate: 2018-02-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0270-z
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • A practical approach for the optimization of channel integrity in the
           sealing of shallow microfluidic devices made from cyclic olefin polymer
    • Authors: Philipp Ganser; Christoph Baum; David Chargin; Alexis F. Sauer-Budge; Andre Sharon
      Abstract: Abstract A reduced channel height in microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) devices enables a reduction in the required volume of sample and reagents. LOC devices are most often manufactured by microstructuring a planar substrate and subsequently sealing it with a cover film. However, shallow chip designs, made from polymers, are sensitive to channel deformation during the sealing of the microfluidic device. Inappropriate bonding conditions often result in the loss of the microfluidic functionality. A systematic and practical approach for the identification of suitable bonding process parameters is missing. In this article, a straightforward approach for the optimization of channel integrity in the sealing of shallow microfluidic devices made from Cyclic Olefin Polymer (COP) is presented. Two COP materials were tested: COP Zeonex 690R (Glass transition temperature Tg = 135 °C) both as a cover film and substrate material, and COP ZF14 (Tg = 135 °C) as a film material. A mechanical analysis using microstructured Zeonex 690R substrates was performed to generate a matrix of low-distortion bonding parameters, including temperature, pressure and time. The well-established method of solvent-assisted bonding was used to enhance the characteristically low bond strengths of the native COP material. In addition, plasma-assisted bonding was tested and compared. The optimization approach was validated by the manufacture of a microfluidic test device, the demonstration of its microfluidic functionality, and the quantitative evaluation of the achieved channel integrity.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0265-9
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Enhanced particle self-ordering in a double-layer channel
    • Authors: Sheng Yan; Yuxing Li; Qianbin Zhao; Dan Yuan; Guolin Yun; Shi-Yang Tang; Weihua Li
      Abstract: Abstract In this work, a novel double-layer microfluidic device for enhancing particle focusing was presented. The double-layer device consists of a channel with expansion-contraction array and periodical slanted grooves. The secondary flows induced by the grooves modulate the flow patterns in the expansion-contraction-array (ECA) channel, further affecting the particle migration. Compared with the single ECA channel, the double-layer channel can focus the particles over a wider range of flow rate. Due to the differentiation of lateral migration, the double-layer channel is able to distinguish the particles with different sizes. Furthermore, the equilibrium positions could be modulated by the orientation of grooves. This work demonstrates the possibility to enhance and adjust the inertial focusing in an ECA channel with the assistance of grooves, which may provide a simple and portable platform for downstream filtration, separation, and detection.
      PubDate: 2018-02-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0269-5
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Design and performance evaluation of collision protection-based safety
           operation for a haptic robot-assisted catheter operating system
    • Authors: Linshuai Zhang; Shuxiang Guo; Huadong Yu; Yu Song; Takashi Tamiya; Hideyuki Hirata; Hidenori Ishihara
      Abstract: Abstract The robot-assisted catheter system can increase operating distance thus preventing the exposure radiation of the surgeon to X-ray for endovascular catheterization. However, few designs have considered the collision protection between the catheter tip and the vessel wall. This paper presents a novel catheter operating system based on tissue protection to prevent vessel puncture caused by collision. The integrated haptic interface not only allows the operator to feel the real force feedback, but also combines with the newly proposed collision protection mechanism (CPM) to mitigate the collision trauma. The CPM can release the catheter quickly when the measured force exceeds a certain threshold, so as to avoid the vessel puncture. A significant advantage is that the proposed mechanism can adjust the protection threshold in real time by the current according to the actual characteristics of the blood vessel. To verify the effectiveness of the tissue protection by the system, the evaluation experiments in vitro were carried out. The results show that the further collision damage can be effectively prevented by the CPM, which implies the realization of relative safe catheterization. This research provides some insights into the functional improvements of safe and reliable robot-assisted catheter systems.
      PubDate: 2018-02-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0266-8
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Flexible 3D carbon nanotubes cuff electrodes as a peripheral nerve
           interface
    • Authors: Pan Tian; Wenwen Yi; Chaoyang Chen; Jie Hu; Jin Qi; Boshen Zhang; Mark Ming-Cheng Cheng
      Abstract: Abstract The cuff electrode provides a stable interface with peripheral nerves, which has been widely used in basic research and clinical practice. Currently, the cuff electrodes are limited by the planar processing of microfabrication. This paper presents a novel cuff electrode using high-aspect ratio carbon nanotubes (CNTs) integrated on a flexible biocompatible parylene. The microfabrication process unites the high quality vertical CNTs grown at high temperature with the heat sensitive parylene substrate in a highly controllable manner. The fabricated cuff electrodes have been utilized for extracellular nerve stimulation in rats. The experimental results demonstrate the proposed CNT electrode has a better performance than Pt electrode in nerve stimulation. Moreover, the effect of electrode position and stimulation frequency is demonstrated in this paper. This preliminary data indicates that flexible 3D CNTs cuff electrode provides an excellent platform for functional electrical stimulation.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0268-6
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • A cooperation of catheters and guidewires-based novel remote-controlled
           vascular interventional robot
    • Authors: Xianqiang Bao; Shuxiang Guo; Nan Xiao; Youxiang Li; Cheng Yang; Yuhua Jiang
      Abstract: Abstract Remote-controlled vascular interventional robots (RVIRs) are being developed to increase the overall accuracy of surgical operations and reduce the occupational risks of intervening physicians, such as radiation exposure and chronic neck/back pain. Several RVIRs have been used to operate catheters or guidewires accurately. However, a lack of cooperation between the catheters and guidewires results in the surgeon being unable to complete complex surgery by propelling the catheter/guidewire to the target position. Furthermore, it is a significant challenge to operate the catheter/guidewire accurately and detect their proximal force without damaging their surfaces. In this study, we introduce a novel method that allows catheters and guidewires to be operated simultaneously in complex surgery. Our method accurately captures force measurements and enables precisely controlled catheter and guidewire operation. A prototype is validated through various experiments. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed RVIR to operate a catheter and guidewire accurately, detect the resistance forces, and complete complex surgical operations in a cooperative manner.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0261-0
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Finite element analysis of hollow out-of-plane HfO 2 microneedles for
           transdermal drug delivery applications
    • Authors: Yong-hua Zhang; Stephen A. Campbell; Sreejith Karthikeyan
      Abstract: Abstract Transdermal drug delivery (TDD) based on microneedles is an excellent approach due to its advantages of both traditional transdermal patch and hypodermic syringes. In this paper, the fabrication method of hollow out-of-layer hafnium oxide (HfO2) microneedles mainly based on deep reactive ion etching of silicon and atomic layer deposition of HfO2 is described, and the finite element analysis of the microneedles based on ANSYS software is also presented. The fabrication process is simplified by using a single mask. The finite element analysis of a single microneedle shows that the flexibility of the microneedles can be easily adjusted for various applications. The finite element analysis of a 3 × 3 HfO2 microneedle array applied on the skin well explains the “bed of nail” effect, i.e., the skin is not liable to be pierced when the density of microneedles in array increases. The presented research work here provides useful information for design optimization of HfO2 microneedles used for TDD applications.
      PubDate: 2018-02-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0262-z
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Design and validation of an osteochondral bioreactor for the screening of
           treatments for osteoarthritis
    • Authors: Derek A. Nichols; Inderbir S. Sondh; Steven R. Litte; Paolo Zunino; Riccardo Gottardi
      Abstract: Abstract Bioreactors are systems that can be used to monitor the response of tissues and cells to candidate drugs. Building on the experience developed in the creation of an osteochondral bioreactor, we have designed a new 3D printed system, which allows optical access to the cells throughout testing for in line monitoring. Because of the use of 3D printing, the fluidics could be developed in the third dimension, thus maintaining the footprint of a single well of a typical 96 well plate. This new design was optimized to achieve the maximum fluid transport through the central chamber, which corresponds to optimal nutrient or drug exposure. This optimization was achieved by altering each dimension of the bioreactor fluid path. A physical model for optimized drug exposure was then created and tested.
      PubDate: 2018-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0264-x
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Correction to: Development of micro mechanical device having
           two-dimensional array of micro chambers for cell stretching
    • Authors: K. Minami; T. Hayashi; K. Sato; T. Nakahara
      Abstract: Abstract The original article has been corrected. Instances of the character "μ" should be replaced by the term "micro".
      PubDate: 2018-02-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0258-8
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Simulative design in macroscale for prospective application to
           micro-catheters
    • Authors: Cheol Woo Ha
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, a motion-transforming element is applied to the development of a new catheter device. The motion-transforming element structure allows a reduction of linear movement and converts linear movement to rotational movement. The simulative design of micro-catheters is based on a proposed structure called the Operating Mini Station (OMS). OMS is operated by movement of a motion-transforming element. A new motion-transforming element is designed using multiple links that are connected by hinged joints based on an elastic design. The design of the links and the hinges are optimized for precise and reliable movement of the motion-transforming element. Because of the elastic design, it is possible to realize a catheter that allows various movements in small spaces like capillaries.
      PubDate: 2018-02-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0259-7
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Rapid enumeration of CD4 + T lymphocytes using an integrated
           microfluidic system based on Chemiluminescence image detection at
           point-of-care testing
    • Authors: Xianbo Qiu; Shuo Yang; Di Wu; Dong Wang; Shan Qiao; Shengxiang Ge; Ningshao Xia; Duli Yu; Shizhi Qian
      Abstract: Abstract An integrated microfluidic system has been developed for rapid enumeration of CD4 + T lymphocytes at point-of-care (POC) settings. A concise microfluidic chip, which consists of three separate chambers, respectively, for reaction, detection and waste storage, is developed to automate CD4 detection. To simplify CD4 + T lymphocyte enumeration, a single polycarbonate bead immobilized with CD4 antibody is adopted by the microfluidic chip to capture the CD4 antigen in the lysed testing sample. Desired performance is achieved by actuating the single bead for efficient mixing, as well as transferring it between different reaction chambers to reduce non-specific reaction. A controllable external magnetic field is applied to drive the single bead with a built-in ferrous core for different purposes. Chemiluminescence reaction is implemented in an independent chamber to reduce non-specific binding of enzyme. A simple flow control strategy is adopted to conveniently release the waste reagent into the waste storage chamber by just opening the vent hole without actively pumping. A sensitive CCD camera is used to collect the reaction signal by taking picture from the single bead, and then the signal intensity is further analyzed for CD4 + T lymphocyte enumeration. Experimental results show that rapid, convenient, accurate and low-cost CD4 + T lymphocyte enumeration can be obtained with the developed microfluidic system at POC test.
      PubDate: 2018-02-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0263-y
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Portable low-power thermal cycler with dual thin-film Pt heaters for a
           polymeric PCR chip
    • Authors: Sangdo Jeong; Juhun Lim; Mi-Young Kim; JiHye Yeom; Hyunmin Cho; Hyunjung Lee; Yong-Beom Shin; Jong-Hyun Lee
      Abstract: Abstract Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been widely used for major definite diagnostic tool, but very limited its place used only indoor such as hospital or diagnosis lab. For the rapid on-site detection of pathogen in an outdoor environment, a low-power cordless polymerase chain reaction (PCR) thermal cycler is crucial module. At this point of view, we proposed a low-power PCR thermal cycler that could be operated in an outdoor anywhere. The disposable PCR chip was made of a polymeric (PI/PET) film to reduce the thermal mass. A dual arrangement of the Pt heaters, which were positioned on the top and bottom of the PCR chip, improved the temperature uniformity. The temperature sensor, which was made of the same material as the heater, utilized the temperature dependence of the Pt resistor to ensure simple fabrication of the temperature sensor. Cooling the PCR chip using dual blower fans enabled thermal cycling to operate with a lower power than that of a Peltier element with a high power consumption. The PCR components were electrically connected to a control module that could be operated with a Li-ion battery (12 V), and the PCR conditions (temperature, time, cycle, etc.) were inputted on a touch screen. For 30 PCR cycles, the accumulated power consumption of heating and cooling was 7.3 Wh, which is easily available from a compact battery. Escherichia coli genomic DNA (510 bp) was amplified using the proposed PCR thermal cycler and the disposable PCR chip. A similar DNA amplification capability was confirmed using the proposed portable and low-power thermal cycler compared with a conventional thermal cycler.
      PubDate: 2018-01-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0257-9
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Stromalized microreactor supports murine hematopoietic progenitor
           enrichment
    • Authors: Danika Khong; Matthew Li; Amy Singleton; Ling-Yee Chin; Biju Parekkadan
      Abstract: Abstract There is an emerging need to process, expand, and even genetically engineer hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) prior to administration for blood reconstitution therapy. A closed-system and automated solution for ex vivo HSC processing can improve adoption and standardize processing techniques. Here, we report a recirculating flow bioreactor where HSCs are stabilized and enriched for short-term processing by indirect fibroblast feeder coculture. Mouse 3 T3 fibroblasts were seeded on the extraluminal membrane surface of a hollow fiber micro-bioreactor and were found to support HSPC cell number compared to unsupported BMCs. CFSE analysis indicates that 3 T3-support was essential for the enhanced intrinsic cell cycling of HSPCs. This enhanced support was specific to the HSPC population with little to no effect seen with the Lineagepositive and Lineagenegative cells. Together, these data suggest that stromal-seeded hollow fiber micro-reactors represent a platform to screening various conditions that support the expansion and bioprocessing of HSPCs ex vivo.
      PubDate: 2018-01-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0255-3
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • 2DEP cytometry: distributed dielectrophoretic cytometry for live cell
           dielectric signature measurement on population level
    • Authors: P. Fikar; V. Georgiev; G. Lissorgues; M. Holubova; D. Lysak; D. Georgiev
      Abstract: Abstract In this work, a novel force equilibrium method called distributed dielectrophoretic cytometry (2DEP cytometry) was developed. It uses a dielectrophoresis (DEP)-induced vertical translation of live cells in conjunction with particle image velocimetry (PIV) in order to measure probabilistic distribution of DEP forces acting on an entire cell population. The method is integrated in a microfluidic device. The bottom of the microfluidic channel is lined with an interdigitated electrode array. Cells passing through the micro-channel are acted on by sedimentation forces, while DEP forces either oppose sedimentation, support sedimentation, or neither, depending on the dielectric (DE) signatures of the cells. The heights at which cells stabilize correspond to their DE signature and are measured indirectly using PIV, which enables simultaneous and high-throughput collection of hundreds of single-cell responses in a single PIV frame. The system was validated using polystyrene micro-particles. Preliminary experimental data quantify the DE signatures of immortalized myelogenous leukemia cell lines K562 and KG1. We show DEP-induced cell translation along the parabolic velocity profile can be measured by PIV with sub-micron precision, enabling identification of individual cell DE signatures. DE signatures of the selected cell lines are distinguishable. Throughput of the method enables measurement of DE signatures at 10 different frequencies in almost real time.
      PubDate: 2018-01-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0253-5
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Development of micro mechanical device having two-dimensional array of
           micro chambers for cell stretching
    • Authors: K. Minami; T. Hayashi; K. Sato; T. Nakahara
      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents a novel cell stretching micro device having two-dimensional array of micro chambers. It enables an in situ time-lapse observation of stretched cell by using an optical microscope with high measurement efficiency. The presented device consists of a cell culture dish and the array of micro chambers made of silicone elastomer and extension structures made of photocurable resin, and is fabricated with MEMS technology. The fabrication process of the thin micro chamber array combines photoresist mold and lift-off process based on conventional photolithography. The fabricated device has 134micro chambers in 5μm or less thickness. It was demonstrated that the fabricated micro device could be used to make in-situ time-lapse observation of cell responses to stretching under optical microscopy. In addition, the influence of the chamber thickness to the quality of the microscope image observed was evaluated. It is confirmed that the proposed device having two-dimensional array of the thin micro chambers makes it possible to observe cell response for stretch stimuli with high quality and efficiency.
      PubDate: 2018-01-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0256-2
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2018)
       
 
 
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