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ENGINEERING (1203 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 246)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 265)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 260)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 185)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CTheory     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Basin Research
  [SJR: 1.54]   [H-I: 60]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0950-091X - ISSN (Online) 1365-2117
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1589 journals]
  • Refining stratigraphy and tectonic history using detrital zircon maximum
           depositional age: An example from the Cerro Fortaleza Formation, Austral
           Basin, southern Patagonia
    • Authors: Zachary T. Sickmann; Theresa M. Schwartz, Stephan A. Graham
      Abstract: The north-south trending, Late Cretaceous to modern Magallanes-Austral foreland basin of southernmost Patagonia lacks a unified, radiometric age-controlled stratigraphic framework. By simplifying the sedimentary fill of the basin to deep-marine, shallow-marine and terrestrial deposits and combining thirteen new U-Pb detrital zircon maximum depositional ages (DZ MDAs) with published DZ MDAs and U-Pb ash ages, we provide the first attempt at a unified, longitudinal stratigraphic framework constrained by radiometric age controls. We divide the foreland basin history into two phases including (1) an initial Late Cretaceous shoaling upward phase and (2) a Cenozoic phase that overlies a Paleogene unconformity. New DZ samples from the shallow marine La Anita Formation, the terrestrial Cerro Fortaleza Formation, and several previously unrecognized Cenozoic units provide necessary radiometric age controls for the end of the Late Cretaceous foreland phase and the magnitude of the Paleogene unconformity in the Austral sector of the basin. These samples show that the La Anita and Cerro Fortaleza Formations have Campanian DZ MDAs and that overlying Cenozoic strata have Eocene to Miocene DZ MDAs. By filling this data gap, we are able to provide a first attempt at constructing a basin wide, age controlled, stratigraphic framework for the Magallanes-Austral foreland basin. Results show southward progradation of shallow-marine and terrestrial environments from the Santonian through the Maastrichtian, as well as a northward increase in the magnitude of the Paleogene unconformity. Furthermore, our new age data significantly impact the chronology of fossil flora and dinosaur faunas in Patagonia.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-11-28T08:40:54.866887-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12272
  • Growth-faults from delta collapse – structural and sedimentological
           investigation of the Last Chance delta, Ferron Sandstone, Utah
    • Authors: A Braathen; I Midtkandal, M.J Mulrooney, T.R. Appleyard, B Haile, A. E Van Yperen
      Abstract: Investigations of syn-sedimentary growth faults in the Last Chance delta (Ferron Sandstone, Utah, USA) show that fault-bounded half-grabens arrested high amounts of sand in the mouth bar and/or distributary channel areas. Fault-controlled morphology causes changes in routing of the delta top to delta front drainage towards the long axis of half-grabens. Faulting was spatially and temporally non-systematic, and polyphase, with 3D cusp/listric fault geometries instigated by linkage of variously oriented segments. Hanging wall rollover folds consisting of wedge-shaped syn-kinematic sand attest to rapid < 1-m slip increments on faults followed by mild erosion along crests of fault blocks and sedimentary infill of adjacent accommodation.Triangle-zones in prodelta to delta front muds are located underneath steeper faults and interconnected rotated fault-flats. Their geometry is that of antiformal stack duplexes, in an arrangement of low-angle-to-bedding normal faults at the base, replaced by folded thrusts upwards. These faults show a brittle, frictional flow deformation mechanism ascribed to early compaction of mud. For syn-kinematic sand, there is a change from general granular/hydroplastic flow in shear zones to later brittle failure and cataclasis, a transition instigated by precipitation of calcite cement.Extensional faulting in the Last Chance delta was likely controlled by gravity driven collapse towards the delta slope and prodelta, as is commonly observed in collapsing deltas. The trigger and driving mechanism is envisioned as localized loads from sand deposited within distributary channels/mouth bars and fault-controlled basins along the delta top. A regional tilt and especially displacement of compacted mud below sand bodies towards less compacted muds also contributed to the faulting.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-11-24T19:05:29.02336-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12271
  • A Prograding Margin during Global Sea Level Maxima – An Example from
           Mahajanga Basin, Northwest Madagascar
    • Authors: Jonathan Obrist-Farner; Philip J. Ball, Thomas A. (Mac) McGilvery, Raymond Rogers
      Abstract: The Mesozoic shelf margin in the Mahajanga Basin, northwest Madagascar, provides an example where inherited paleobathymetry, coupled with sea level changes, high sediment supply, and fluctuations in accommodation influenced the stacking patterns and geometry of clinoforms that accreted onto a passive rifted margin. 2D seismic profiles are integrated with existing field data and geological maps to study the evolution of the margin. The basin contains complete records of transgression, highstand, regression, and lowstand phases that took place from Jurassic to Cretaceous. Of particular interest is the Cretaceous, Albian to Turonian (~113-93 Ma), siliciclastic shelf margin that prograded above a drowned Middle Jurassic carbonate platform. The siliciclastic phase of the shelf margin advanced ~70 km within ~20 My, and contains ten distinct clinoforms mapped along a 2D seismic reflection dataset. The clinoforms show a progressive decrease in height and slope length, and a fairly constant slope gradient through time. The successive shelf-edges begin with a persistent flat- to slightly-downward directed shelf-edge trajectory that changes to an ascending trajectory at the end of clinoform progradation. The progressive decrease in clinoform height and slope length is attributed to a decrease in accommodation. The prograding margin is interpreted to have formed when siliciclastic input increased as eastern Madagascar was uplifted. This work highlights the importance of sediment supply and inherited paleobathymetry as controls on the evolution of shelf margins and it provides a new understanding of the evolution of the Mahajanga Basin during the Mesozoic.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-10-25T06:50:36.514465-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12270
  • Sedimentation in a foreland basin within synorogenic orocline: Palaeogene
           of the Isparta Bend, Taurides, SW Turkey
    • Authors: Wojciech Nemec; M. Cihat Alçiçek, Volkan Özaksoy
      Abstract: The Palaeogene Isparta Basin of southwestern Anatolia formed between two convergent arms of the Isparta Bend orocline of the Tauride orogen. The origin of this tightening orocline is hypothetically explained in plate-tectonic terms. Basin sedimentation commenced on a down-warped Mesozoic carbonate platform of a crustal block accreted at the end of Cretaceous to the southern margin of the Anatolian plate. The basin earliest deposits are Palaeocene reddish mudstones with a fossil-barren condensed basal part and increasingly interspersed with thin calcarenitic turbidites towards the top. The supply of turbiditic sediment to the basin plain subsequently increased, as the upper-bathyal basin plain became surrounded from both sides by a narrow littoral shelf with an advancing turbiditic slope ramp. A major forced regression occurred at the end of Bartonian, causing incision of subaerial to submarine valleys up 600 m deep, filled in with gravelly to sandy turbidites and debrisflow deposits during the subsequent rise of relative sea level. The half-filled valleys were re-incised due to a Rupelian forced regression and were fully filled with fluvio-deltaic bayhead deposits during a final marine transgression that re-established the basin-margin biocalcarenitic shelf. The littoral environment then expanded across the shallowing basin, as the basin axial zone was up-domed and eroded to bedrock level at the end of Oligocene and the basin was tectonically inverted in Miocene. The pattern of intra-orocline foreland sedimentation documented by this case study provides tentative criteria for the recognition of synorogenic oroclines and for their distinction from post-orogenic oroclines.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-10-20T05:51:34.498508-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12269
  • Geochronology of detrital muscovite and zircon constrains the sediment
           provenance changes of the Yangtze River during the late Cenozoic
    • Authors: Xilin Sun; Chang'an Li, K.F. Kuiper, Jietao Wang, Yuntao Tian, Pieter Vermeesch, Zengjie Zhang, Juxing Zhao, J.R. Wijbrans
      Abstract: The geometry and evolution of rivers originating from the Tibetan plateau are influenced by topography and climate change during the India-Asian collision. The Yangtze River is the longest among these rivers and formed due to capturing many rivers on the eastern Tibetan Plateau by the middle Yangtze. The timing of these capture events is still controversial. Here we use detrital muscovite 40Ar/39Ar and zircon U-Pb ages to constrain the provenance of late Cenozoic sediments in the Jianghan Basin in the middle reaches of the Yangtze river. The combined data suggest that late Pliocene sediments were mainly derived from a local source in the Jianghan Basin including the Dabie Shan. The middle Pleistocene sediments were derived from the Min River west of the Three Gorges. This implies that at least one river, perhaps the paleo-Han River, originating from the Dabie Shan region, flowed through the center of the Jianghan Basin during the late Pliocene. The appearance of sediment from the Min River in the Jianghan Basin somewhere between late Pliocene and middle Pleistocene suggests that the Three Gorges section of the Yangtze River was formed somewhere between late Pliocene and middle Pleistocene (N2– Q2).This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-10-20T05:40:49.975519-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12268
  • Lag and mixing during sediment transfer across the Tian Shan piedmont
           caused by climate-driven aggradation-incision cycles
    • Authors: Luca C. Malatesta; Jean-Philippe Avouac, Nathan D. Brown, Sebastian F. M. Breitenbach, Jiawei Pan, Marie-Luce Chevalier, Edward Rhodes, Dimitri Saint-Carlier, Wenjing Zhang, Julien Charreau, Jérôme Lavé, Pierre-Henri Blard
      Abstract: Transient sediment storage and mixing of deposits of various ages during transport across alluvial piedmonts alters the clastic sedimentary record. We quantify buffering and mixing during cycles of aggradation-incision in the north piedmont of the Eastern Tian Shan. We complement existing chronologic data with 20 new luminescence ages and one cosmogenic radionuclide age of terrace abandonment and alluvial aggradation. Over the last 0.5 Myrs, the piedmont deeply incised and aggraded many times per 100 kyr. Aggradation is driven by an increased flux of glacial sediment accumulated in the high range and flushed onto the piedmont by greater water discharge at stadial-interstadial transitions. After this sediment is evacuated from the high range, the reduced input sediment flux results in fluvial incision of the piedmont as fast as 9 cm/yr and to depths up to 330 m. The timing of incision onset is different in each river and does not directly reflect climate forcing but the necessary time for the evacuation of glacial sediment from the high range. A significant fraction of sediments evacuated from the high range is temporarily stored on the piedmont before a later incision phase delivers it to the basin. Coarse sediments arrive in the basin with a lag of at least 7 to 14 kyrs between the first evacuation from the mountain and later basinward transport. The modern output flux of coarse sediments from the piedmont contains a significant amount of recycled material that was deposited on the piedmont as early as the Middle Pleistocene. Variations in temperature and moisture delivered by the Westerlies are the likely cause of repeated aggradation-incision cycles in the north piedmont instead of monsoonal precipitation. The arrival of the gravel front into the proximal basin is delayed relative to the fine-grained load and both are separated by a hiatus. This work shows, based on field observations and data, how sedimentary systems respond to climatic perturbations, and how sediment recycling and mixing can ensue.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T07:06:21.545038-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12267
  • Unraveling key controls on the rift-climax to post-rift fill of marine
           rift basins: insights from 3D seismic analysis of the Lower Cretaceous of
           the Hammerfest Basin, SW Barents Sea
    • Authors: Dora Marín; Alejandro Escalona, Sten-Andreas Grundvåg, Snorre Olaussen, Sara Sandvik, Kasia K. Śliwińska
      Abstract: In this study we investigate key factors controlling the rift climax to post-rift marine basin fill. We use two- and three-dimensional seismic data in combination with sedimentological core descriptions from the Hammerfest Basin, southwestern Barents Sea in order to characterize and analyze the tectonostratigraphy and seismic facies of the Lower Cretaceous succession. Based on our biostratigraphic analyses, the investigated seismic facies are correlated to 5-10 million year duration sequences that make up the stratigraphic framework of the basin fill. The seismic facies suggest the basin fill was deposited in shallow to deep marine conditions. During rift climax in Volgian/Berriasian to Barremian times, a fully linked fault array controlled the formation of slope systems consisting of gravity flow deposits along the southern margin of the basin. Renewed uplift of the Loppa High north of the basin provided coarse-grained sediments for fan deltas and shorelines that developed along the northern basin margin. During the early to middle late Aptian, the input of coarse-grained sediments occurred mainly in the NW and SW corners of the basin, reflecting renewed uplift-induced topography in the western flank of the Loppa High and along the western Finnmark Platform. The lower Albian part of the basin fill is interpreted as a post-rift succession, where the remnant topography associated with the Finnmark Platform continued to provide sediments to prograding fan deltas and adjacent shorelines. During the Albian, a series of faults were reactivated in the northern part of the basin, and footwall wedges comprising various gravity flow deposits occur along these faults. During the latest Albian to Cenomanian, the southeastern part of the Loppa High was flooded by a rise in eustatic sea-level and differential subsidence. However, the western part of the high remained exposed and acted as a sediment source for a shelf-margin system prograding towards the SE. It is concluded that the rift climax succession is controlled by: along strike variability of throw and steps of the main bounding faults; the diachronous movement of the faults and the nature of the feeder system. The evolution of the post-rift succession may be controlled by: rifting in adjacent basins which preferentially renew sources of sediments; local reactivation of faults and local remnant topography of the basin flanks. We suggest that existing tectonostratigraphic models for rift basins should be updated, to incorporate a more regional perspective and integrating variables such as the influence of adjacent rift systems.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-09-19T08:05:51.027973-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12266
  • Using basin thermal history to evaluate the role of Miocene – Pliocene
           flat-slab subduction in the southern Central Andes (27° S – 30° S)
    • Authors: Andrea L. Stevens Goddard; Barbara Carrapa
      Abstract: Studies in both modern and ancient Cordilleran-type orogenic systems suggest that processes associated with flat-slab subduction control the geological and thermal history of the upper plate; however, these effects prove difficult to deconvolve from processes associated with normal subduction in an active orogenic system. We present new geochronological and thermochronological data from four depositional areas in the western Sierras Pampeanas above the Central Andean flat-slab subduction zone between 27° S - 30° S evaluating the spatial and temporal thermal conditions of the Miocene – Pliocene foreland basin. Our results show that a relatively high late Miocene – early Pliocene geothermal gradient of 25°C/km - 35°C/km was typical of this region. The absence of along-strike geothermal heterogeneities, as would be expected in the case of migrating flat-slab subduction, suggests that either the response of the upper plate to refrigeration may be delayed by several millions of years or that subduction occurred normally throughout this region through the late Miocene. Exhumation of the foreland basin occurred nearly synchronously along strike from 27° S - 30° S between ca. 7 – 4 Ma. We propose that coincident flat-slab subduction facilitated this wide-spread exhumation event. Flexural modeling coupled with geohistory analysis show that dynamic subsidence/and or uplift associated with flat-slab subduction is not required to explain the unique deep and narrow geometry of the foreland basin in the region implying that dynamic processes were a minor component in the creation of accommodation space during Miocene-Pliocene deposition.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01T03:40:26.158824-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12265
  • Topographic growth of the Jishi Shan and its impact on basin and hydrology
           evolution, NE Tibetan Plateau
    • Authors: Joel E. Saylor; Jessica C. Jordan, Kurt E. Sundell, Xiaoming Wang, Shiqi Wang, Tao Deng
      Abstract: Previous research demonstrates that large basins on the periphery of the northern edge of the Tibetan Plateau were partitioned during development of intra-basin mountain ranges. These topographic barriers segregated basins with respect to surface flow and atmospheric circulation, ponded sediments, and formed rain shadows. However, complex mixing between airmasses and non-systematic isotope-elevation lapse rates have hampered application of quantitative paleoaltimetry to determine the timing of development of critical topographic barriers. We address the timing and drivers for changes in surface connectivity and atmospheric circulation in the Linxia and Xunhua basins using a multidisciplinary approach incorporating detrital zircon geochronology, Monte Carlo inverse flexural modeling, and published stable isotope data.Disruption of surface flow between the two basins during exhumation of the Jishi Shan preceded development of topography sufficient to intercept moisture-bearing airmasses. Detrital zircon data point to disruption of an eastward-flowing axial fluvial network between 14.7 and 13.1 Ma, coincident with the onset of exhumation in the Jishi Shan. Flexural modeling suggests that by 13 Ma, the Jishi Shan had developed 0.3 ± 0.1 km of relief; sufficient to disrupt eastward-flowing drainage networks but insufficient to intercept moisture-bearing airmasses. Stable isotope data indicates that, though surface connections between the Xunhua and Linxia basins were broken, they continued to be dominated by a common climate regime until 9.3 Ma. and Subsequent reintegration of surface flow between the basins occurred between 9.3 and 7.6 Ma. Divergence in the stable-isotope and depositional-environment records between the two basins suggests that at 9.3 Ma the paleo-Yellow River breached the growing Jishi Shan dam, and may have reintegrated surface flow between the two basins via erosion of the modern Yellow River gorge, which transects the Jishi Shan. The reintegration of the Xunhua and Linxia basins’ surface connection is confirmed by reintroduction of a Songpan-Ganzi flysch sediment source by 7.6 Ma. Continued exhumation and uplift of the Jishi Shan developed 0.8 ± 0.2 km of relief by ~8 Ma capable of intercepting moisture-bearing airmasses; isolating and increasing aridity in the Xunhua Basin while decreasing it in the Linxia Basin. Our findings demonstrate protracted development of the modern ~1 km of relief in the Jishi Shan between 14 and ~4.5 Ma followed by attainment of a topographic equilibrium which persists into modern times.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01T02:45:34.378581-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12264
  • Source-to-sink analysis in an active extensional setting: Holocene erosion
           and deposition in the Sperchios rift, central Greece
    • Authors: Sofia Pechlivanidou; Patience A. Cowie, Bjarte Hannisdal, Alexander C. Whittaker, Robert L. Gawthorpe, Christos Pennos, Ole S. Riiser
      Abstract: We present a source-to-sink analysis to explain sediment supply variations and depositional patterns over the Holocene within an active rift setting. We integrate a range of modeling approaches and data types with field observations from the Sperchios rift basin, Central Greece that allow us to analyze and quantify (1) the size and characteristics of sediment source areas, (2) the dynamics of the sediment routing system from upstream fluvial processes to downstream deposition at the coastline, and (3) the depositional architecture and volumes of the Holocene basin fill. We demonstrate that the Sperchios rift comprises a ‘closed’ system over the Holocene and that erosional and depositional volumes are thus balanced. Furthermore, we evaluate key controls in the development of this source-to-sink system, including the role of pre-existing topography, bedrock erodibility and lateral variations in the rate of tectonic uplift/subsidence. We show that tectonic subsidence alone can explain the observed grain size fining along the rift axis resulting in the downstream transition from a braided channel to an extensive meander belt (> 15 km long) that feeds the fine-grained Sperchios delta. Additionally, we quantify the ratios of sediment storage to bypass for the two main footwall-sourced alluvial fan systems and relate the fan characteristics to the pattern and rates of fault slip. Finally, we show that ≥ 40% of the sediment that builds the Sperchios delta is supplied by ≤ 22% of the entire source area and that this can be primarily attributed to a longer-term (~106 years) transient landscape response to fault segment linkage. Our multidisciplinary approach allows us to quantify the relative importance of multiple factors that control a complex source-to-sink system and thus improve our understanding of landscape evolution and stratigraphic development in active extensional tectonic settings.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-27T20:30:27.344523-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12263
  • Supradetachment basin evolution unraveled by detrital apatite fission
           track analysis: the Gediz Graben (Menderes Massif, Western Turkey)
    • Authors: Riccardo Asti; Marco Giovanni Malusà, Claudio Faccenna
      Abstract: The Menderes Massif is a Tertiary metamorphic core complex tectonically exhumed in the late Oligocene – Miocene during coeval development of a series of E-W trending basins. This study analyzes the source-to-sink evolution of the Gediz Graben and the exhumation pattern of the Central Menderes Massif at the footwall and hanging wall of the Gediz Detachment Fault. We use a comprehensive approach to detrital apatite fission-track dating combining analysis of modern river sediments, analysis of fossil sedimentary successions, and mineral fertility determinations. This approach allowed us to: i) define the modern short-term erosion pattern of the study area, ii) unravel the long-term exhumation history, iii) identify major exhumation events recorded in the sedimentary basin fill and iv) constrain the maximum depositional age of the sedimentary succession. Three main exhumation events are recorded in the analyzed detrital samples: i) a late Oligocene/early Miocene exhumation event involving the whole Menderes Massif; ii) a late Miocene event involving the northern edge of the Central Menderes Massif; iii) a Plio-Quaternary more localized event involving only the western part of the southern margin of the basin (Salihli area) and bringing to the surface the Gediz Detachment and its intrusive footwall (Salihli granodiorite). The modern short-term erosion pattern closely reflects this latter Plio-Quaternary event. Single grain-age distributions in the sedimentary basin fill highlight drainage pattern reorganizations in correspondence of the transition between different stratigraphic units, and allowed to better constrain the depositional age of the sedimentary units of the basin pointing to a possible onset of sedimentation in the basin during the middle Miocene.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-22T00:45:45.623534-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12262
  • Tracking sand-fairways through a deformed turbidite system: the Numidian
           (Miocene) of Central Sicily, Italy
    • Authors: Patricia R. Pinter; Robert W. H. Butler, Adrian J. Hartley, Rosanna Maniscalco, Niccolò Baldassini, Agata Di Stefano
      Abstract: Understanding ancient deep-water sedimentary systems that accumulated at complex plate boundaries requires confronting the stratigraphic record of deformed sedimentary successions by tracking sand-fairways and identifying original relationships in later deformed sequences. Here, we investigate the Numidian turbidite system (early to mid-Miocene) of Central-East Sicily to explore a deep-water sedimentary system deposited at an active thrust belt on the Central Mediterranean. Turbidites include multi-metre thick-bedded, ultra-mature quartz sandstones that were sourced from North Africa and are now deformed and dismembered within the Apennine-Maghrebian orogen. To date, much research has focused on the little-deformed sections that sample discrete parts of the original turbidite pathways. Yet the bulk of these systems are represented by deformed successions and these have attracted little modern sedimentological and stratigraphic investigation. We present new data based on field mapping, sedimentological/structural fieldwork, and biostratigraphy (planktonic foraminifera and nannofossils) that focus on the Numidian turbidites of Central-East Sicily. Thickness and facies variations, together with evidence of large-scale sediment bypass and local substrate reworking, characterise the Numidian turbidites of the study area, consistent with a partially confined turbidite system. Our work demonstrates that the Numidian turbidite system accumulated across active structures and these provided tortuous, evolving corridors through which turbidity currents were routed, transporting coarse sand over many hundreds of km. These results provide insight on structurally confined turbidites in analogous tectonic settings and demonstrate the need to seek sedimentological and stratigraphic data from deformed and dismembered parts of deep-water systems.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-10T04:52:51.529058-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12261
  • Tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Plio-Pleistocene Corinth rift, Greece
    • Authors: Rob Gawthorpe; Mike Leeder, Haralambos Kranis, Emmanuel Skourtsos, Julian Andrews, Gijs Henstra, Greg Mack, Martin Muravchik, Jenni Turner, Michael Stamatakis
      Abstract: The onshore central Corinth rift contains a syn-rift succession>3 km thick deposited in 5–15 km-wide tilt blocks, all now inactive, uplifted and deeply incised. This part of the rift records upward deepening from fluviatile to lake-margin conditions and finally to sub-lacustrine turbidite channel and lobe complexes, and deep-water lacustrine conditions (Lake Corinth) were established over most of the rift by 3.6 Ma. This succession represents the first of two phases of rift development – Rift 1 from 5.0–3.6 to 2.2–1.8 Ma and Rift 2 from 2.2–1.8 Ma to present. Rift 1 developed as a 30 km-wide zone of distributed normal faulting. The lake was fed by four major N- to NE-flowing antecedent drainages along the southern rift flank. These sourced an axial fluvial system, Gilbert fan deltas and deep lacustrine turbidite channel and lobe complexes. The onset of Rift 2 and abandonment of Rift 1 involved a 30 km northward shift in the locus of rifting. In the west, giant Gilbert deltas built into a deepening lake depocentre in the hanging wall of the newly developing southern border fault system. Footwall and regional uplift progressively destroyed Lake Corinth in the central and eastern parts of the rift, producing a staircase of deltaic and, following drainage reversal, shallow marine terraces descending from>1000 m to present-day sea level. The growth, linkage and death of normal faults during the two phases of rifting is interpreted to reflect self-organisation and strain localisation along co-linear border faults. In the west, interaction with the Patras rift occurred along the major Patras dextral strike-slip fault. This led to enhanced migration of fault activity, uplift and incision of some early Rift 2 fan deltas, and opening of the Rion Straits at c. 400–600 ka. The landscape and stratigraphic evolution of the rift was strongly influenced by regional palaeotopographic variations and local antecedent drainage, both inherited from the Hellenide fold and thrust belt.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-05T03:15:30.45667-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12260
  • Sediment routing evolution in the North Alpine Foreland Basin, Austria:
           interplay of transverse and longitudinal sediment dispersal
    • Authors: Glenn R. Sharman; Stephen M. Hubbard, Jacob A. Covault, Ralph Hinsch, Hans-Gert Linzer, Stephan A. Graham
      Abstract: Integration of detrital zircon geochronology and three-dimensional (3D) seismic-reflection data from the Molasse basin of Austria yields new insight into Oligocene-early Miocene paleogeography and patterns of sediment routing within the Alpine foreland of central Europe. Three-dimensional seismic-reflection data show a network of deep-water tributaries and a long-lived (>8 Ma) foredeep-axial channel belt that transported Alpine detritus greater than 100 km from west to east. We present 793 new detrital zircon ages from ten sandstone samples collected from subsurface cores located within the seismically mapped network of deep-water tributaries and the axial channel belt. Grain age populations correspond with major pre-Alpine orogenic cycles: the Cadomian (750-530 Ma), the Caledonian (490-380 Ma), and the Variscan (350-250 Ma). Additional age populations correspond with Eocene-Oligocene Periadriatic magmatism (40-30 Ma) and pre-Alpine, Precambrian sources (>750 Ma). Although many samples share the same age populations, the abundances of these populations vary significantly. Sediment that entered the deep-water axial channel belt from the west (Freshwater Molasse) and southwest (Inntal fault zone) is characterized by statistically indistinguishable age distributions that include populations of Variscan, Caledonian, and Cadomian zircon at modest abundances (15-32% each). Sandstone from a shallow marine unit proximal to the northern basin margin consists of>75% Variscan (350-300 Ma) zircon, which originated from the adjacent Bohemian Massif. Mixing calculations based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnoff statistic suggest that the Alpine fold-thrust belt south of the foreland was also an important source of detritus to the deep-water Molasse basin.We interpret evolving detrital zircon age distributions within the axial foredeep to reflect a progressive increase in longitudinal sediment input from the west (Freshwater Molasse) and/or southwest (Inntal fault zone) relative to transverse sediment input from the fold-thrust belt to the south. We infer that these changes reflect a major reorganization of catchment boundaries and denudation rates in the Alpine Orogen that resulted in the Alpine foreland evolving to dominantly longitudinal sediment dispersal. This change was most notably marked by the development of a submarine canyon during deposition of the Upper Puchkirchen Formation that promoted sediment bypass eastward from Freshwater Molasse depozones to the Molasse basin deep-water axial channel belt. The integration of 3D seismic-reflection data with detrital zircon geochronology illustrates sediment dispersal patterns within a continental-scale orogen, with implications for the relative role of longitudinal versus transverse sediment delivery in peripheral foreland basins.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T14:00:29.179993-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12259
  • Supergene and exotic Cu mineralization occurs during periods of landscape
           stability in the Centinela Mining District, Atacama Desert'
    • Authors: Rodrigo Riquelme; Miguel Tapia, Eduardo Campos, Constantino Mpodozis, Sebastien Carretier, Rodrigo González, Sebastian Muñoz, Alberto Fernandez-Mort, Caroline Sanchez, Carlos Marquardt
      Abstract: The Centinela Mining District (CMD), Atacama Desert (northern Chile), include several mid-late Eocene porphyry Cu deposits that contains supergene mineralization and provide access to a record of gravel deposits that host syn-sedimentary exotic Cu mineralized bodies. By studying these gravels, we reconstruct the unroofing history and constrain the geomorphological conditions that produced supergene and exotic Cu mineralization. We present an integrated study based on stratigraphic and sedimentological data, lithology clast counts, 40Ar/39Ar and U/Pb ages from interbedded tuff layers and U/Pb detrital zircon geochronology data. To relate the gravel deposition episodes to the timing of the supergene mineralization, we provide in-situ and exotic supergene mineral ages (40Ar/39Ar and K-Ar). Six gravel units were deposited between the mid-Eocene and the mid-Miocene. The Esperanza gravels were deposited concurrently with the emplacement of porphyry Cu deposits at depth. The subsequent Tesoro I, II and III and Atravesado gravels register the unroofing of these deposits, from the advanced argillic zone to the sericitic and prophylytic hypogene zones. The Arrieros gravels register landscape pediplanation, i.e. denudational removal and wear of the landscape to base level on a relatively stable tectonic regime, occurring roughly contemporaneous with supergene activity. The supergene mineral ages of the CMD define a time span (~25 to ~12 Ma) during which most of the supergene ages cluster in northern Chile. This time span corresponds with a period of warm and humid climate conditions in the southern hemisphere. We conclude that landscape pediplanation favors supergene mineralization and helps preserve the former supergene mineralized zones from significant erosion. Low erosion rates during pediplanation may constitute a necessary condition for the efficiency of the supergene processes in such semiarid climate.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-26T23:01:24.53549-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12258
  • The role of pre-existing structures during rifting, continental breakup
           and transform system development, offshore West Greenland
    • Authors: Alexander Peace; Ken McCaffrey, Jonathan Imber, Jeroen Hunen, Richard Hobbs, Robert Wilson
      Abstract: Continental breakup between Greenland and North America produced the small oceanic basins of the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay, which are connected via the Davis Strait, a region mostly comprised of continental crust. This paper contributes to the debate regarding the role of pre-existing structures on rift development in this region using seismic reflection data from the Davis Strait data to produce a series of seismic surfaces, isochrons and a new offshore fault map from which three normal fault sets were identified as 1) NE-SW, 2) NNW-SSE and 3) NW-SE. These results were then integrated with plate reconstructions and onshore structural data allowing us to build a two stage conceptual model for the offshore fault evolution in which basin formation was primarily controlled by rejuvenation of various types of pre-existing structures. During the first phase of rifting between at least Chron 27 (ca. 62 Ma; Paleocene), but potentially earlier, and Chron 24 (ca. 54 Ma; Eocene) faulting was primarily controlled by pre-existing structures with oblique-normal reactivation of both the NE-SW and NW-SE structural sets in addition to normal reactivation of the NNW-SSE structural set. In the second rifting stage between Chron 24 (ca. 54 Ma; Eocene) and Chron 13 (ca. 35 Ma; Oligocene), the sinistral Ungava transform fault system developed due to the lateral offset between the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. This lateral offset was established in the first rift stage possibly due to the presence of the Nagssugtoqidian and Torngat terranes being less susceptible to rift propagation. Without the influence of pre-existing structures the manifestation of deformation cannot be easily explained during either of the rifting phases. While basement control diminished into the post-rift, the syn-rift basins from both rift stages continued to influence the location of sedimentation possibly due to differential compaction effects. Variable lithospheric strength through the rifting cycle may provide an explanation for the observed diminishing role of basement structures through time.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22T02:55:33.69103-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12257
  • Exogenic forcing and autogenic processes on continental divide location
           and mobility
    • Authors: Andrew J. Moodie; Frank J. Pazzaglia, Claudio Berti
      Abstract: The position and mobility of drainage divides is an expression of exogenic landscape forcing and autogenic channel network processes integrated across a range of scales. At the large scale, represented by major rivers and continental drainage divides, the organization of drainage patterns and divide migration reflects the long-wavelength gradients of the topography, which are exogenically influenced by tectonics, isostasy, and/or dynamic topography. This analysis utilizes long-wavelength topography synthesized by a low-pass filter, which provides a novel framework for predicting the direction of divide movement as well as an estimate of the ultimate divide location, that is complementary to recent studies that have focused on the χ channel metric. The Gibraltar Arc active plate boundary and Appalachian stable plate interior, two tectonically diverse settings with ongoing drainage system reorganization, are chosen to explore the length scales of exogenic forcings that influence continental drainage divide location and migration. The major watersheds draining both the active and decay-phase orogens studied here are organized by topographic gradients that are expressed in long-wavelength low-pass filtered topography (λ ≥ 100 km). In contrast, the river network and divide location is insensitive to topographic gradients measured over filtered wavelengths < 100 km that are set by local crustal structures and rock type. The lag time between exogenic forcing and geomorphic response and feedbacks cause divide migration to be unsteady, and occur through pulses of drainage capture and drainage network reorganization that are recorded in sedimentological, geomorphic, or denudation data.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10T10:10:26.223328-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12256
  • Response of unconfined turbidity current to relay-ramp topography:
           insights from process-based numerical modelling
    • Authors: Zhiyuan Ge; Wojciech Nemec, Rob L. Gawthorpe, Atle Rotevatn, Ernst W.M. Hansen
      Abstract: This natural-scale experimental study combines structural modelling of soft-linked normal-fault relays with a CFD (computational fluid dynamics) numerical simulation of a range of unconfined turbidity currents overrunning the relay-system topography. The flow, released from an upslope inlet gate 2000 m wide and 50 m to 100 m high, rapidly expands and adjusts its thickness, velocity and sediment load to the substrate slope of 1.5°. A lower initial sediment concentration or smaller thickness renders the quasi-steady flow slower and its sediment transport capacity lower. A 3D pattern of large interfering Kelvin-Helmholtz waves causes fluctuations of the local flow velocity magnitude and sediment concentration. Four zones of preferential sediment deposition are recognized: a near-gate zone of abrupt flow expansion and self-regulation; a flow-transverse zone on the counter-slope of fault footwall edges; a flow-transverse zone at the fault-scarp toes; and a similar transverse zone near the crest of the hanging wall counter-slopes. The sand deposited on the counter-slope tends to be re-entrained and fed back to the current by a secondary reverse underflow. The spatial extent and sediment accumulation capacity of depozones depend upon the released current volume. The impact of relay system on an overrunning current depends upon the fault separation distance and stage of tectonic evolution. An early-stage relay system, with small vertical displacement and little overlap of faults, is bypassed by the current with minimum flow disturbance and no pronounced deposition. An advanced-stage system, with greater fault displacement and overlap, gives a similar hydraulic effect as a single fault segment if the fault separation is small. If the separation is relatively large, the flow tends to be internally redirected sideways from the ramp into the hanging wall synclinal depressions. Since normal-fault relays are common features in extensional basins, the study bears important implications for turbiditic slope-fan models and for the spatial sand prediction in subsurface exploration of faulted submarine slopes.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-08T02:56:11.519681-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12255
  • Holocene Brahmaputra River path selection and variable sediment bypass as
           indicators of fluctuating hydrologic and climate conditions in Sylhet
           Basin, Bangladesh
    • Authors: Ryan Sincavage; Steven Goodbred, Jennifer Pickering
      Abstract: The Holocene stratigraphy of Sylhet basin, a tectonically influenced sub-basin within the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GMBD), provides evidence for autogenic and allogenic controls on fluvial system behavior. Using Holocene lithology and stratigraphic architecture from a dense borehole network, patterns of bypass-dominated and extraction-enhanced modes of sediment transport and deposition have been reconstructed. During a ~3-kyr mid-Holocene occupation of Sylhet basin by the Brahmaputra River, water and sediment were initially (~7.5-6.0 ka) routed along the basin's western margin, where limited downstream facies changes reflect minimal mass extraction and bypass-dominated transport to the basin outlet. Sediment-dispersal patterns became increasingly depositional ~6.0-5.5 ka with the activation of a large (~2250 km2) splay that prograded toward the basin center while maintaining continued bypass along the western pathway. Beginning ~5.0 ka, a second splay system constructed an even larger (~3800 km2) lobe into the most distal portions of the basin along the Shillong foredeep. This evolution from a bypass-dominated system to one of enhanced mass extraction is well reflected in (1) the rapid downstream fining of deposited sand, and (2) a change in facies from amalgamated channel deposits to mixed sands and muds within discrete depositional lobes. The persistence of sediment bypass suggests that seasonal flooding of the basin by local runoff exerts a hydrologic barrier to overbank flow and is thus a principal control on river path selection. This control is evidenced by (1) repeated, long-term preference for occupying a course along the basin margin rather than a steeper path to the basin center; and (2) the persistence of an under-filled, topographically low basin despite sediment load sufficient to fill the basin within a few hundred years. The progradation of two 10-20 m thick, sandy mega-splays into the basin interior reflects an alternative mode of sediment dispersal that appears to have operated only in the mid Holocene (~6.0-4.0 ka) during a regional weakening of the summer monsoon. The reduced water budget at that time would have lowered seasonal water levels in the basin, temporarily lessening the hydrologic barrier effect and facilitating splay development into the basin interior. Overall, these results place basin hydrology as a first-order control on fluvial system behavior, strongly modifying the perceived dominance of tectonic subsidence. Such coupling of subsidence, fluvial dynamics, and local hydrology have been explored through tank experiments and modeling; this field study demonstrates that complex, emergent behaviors can also scale to the world's largest fluvial system.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-08T02:55:27.529399-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12254
  • Structural evolution of sheared margin basins: the role of strain
           partitioning. Sørvestsnaget Basin, Norwegian Barents Sea
    • Authors: Thomas B. Kristensen; Atle Rotevatn, Maria Marvik, Gijs A. Henstra, Rob L. Gawthorpe, Rodmar Ravnås
      Abstract: Spatio-temporal analysis of basins formed along sheared margins has received much less attention than those formed along orthogonally extended margins. Knowledge about the structural evolution of such basins is important for petroleum exploration but there has been a lack of studies that document these based on 3D seismic reflection data. In this study we demonstrate how partitioning of strain during deformation of the central and southern part of the Sørvestsnaget Basin along the Senja Shear Margin, Norwegian Barents Sea, facilitated coeval shortening and extension. This is achieved through quantitative analysis of syn-kinematic growth strata using 3-D seismic data. Our results show that during Cenozoic extensional faulting, folds and thrusts developed coevally and orthogonal to sub-orthogonal to normal faults. We attribute this strain partitioning to be a result of the right-lateral oblique plate motions along the margin. Rotation of fold hinge-lines and indications of hinge-parallel extension indicate that the dominating deformation mechanism in the central and southern Sørvestsnaget Basin during opening along the Senja Shear Margin was transtensional. We also argue that interpretation of shortening structures attributed to inversion along the margin should consider that partitioning of strain may result in shortening structures that are coeval with extensional faults and not a result of a separate compressional phase.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-08T02:51:31.235136-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12253
  • Basin-axial progradation of a sediment supply-driven distributive fluvial
           system in the Late Cretaceous southern Utah foreland
    • Authors: Jonathan W. Primm; Cari L. Johnson, Michael Stearns
      Abstract: The Turonian-Coniacian Smoky Hollow Member of the Straight Cliffs Formation in the Kaiparowits basin of southern Utah records a stratigraphic transition from isolated fluvial channel bodies to increasingly amalgamated channel belts capped by the Calico bed, a sheet-like sand-gravel unit. Characteristics of the Smoky Hollow Member are consistent with a prograding distributive fluvial system including: up-section increases in average grain size, bed thickness, and channel-body amalgamation, a fan-shaped planform morphology, and a downstream increase in channel sinuosity. The system prograded to the northeast based on thickness and facies patterns, and paleocurrent indicators. This basin-axial sediment-dispersal trend, which was approximately parallel to the fold-thrust belt at this latitude, is supported by provenance data including detrital zircons and modal sandstone compositions indicating sediment derivation mainly from the Mogollon Highlands and Cordilleran magmatic arc to the southwest, with episodic input from the more proximal Sevier fold-thrust belt to the west. Progradation occurred during a eustatic still-stand, relatively stable climatic conditions, and continuous tectonic subsidence, thus suggesting increased extrabasinal sediment supply as a primary control on basin-fill. Progradation of the Smoky Hollow Member fluvial system culminated in a ~2–3 My hiatus at the top of the lower Calico bed. Correlation with the Notom delta of the Ferron Sandstone, 80 km northeast in the Henry basin, is proposed on the basis of facies relationships and geochronology. The Calico bed unconformity is linked to regional tectonically-driven tilting and erosion observed in both basins.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27T10:40:23.683666-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12252
  • Link between growth faulting and initiation of a mass transport deposit in
           the northern Taranaki Basin, New Zealand
    • Authors: N Panpichityota; C.K Morley, J. Ghosh
      Abstract: The Neogene section in the northern Taranaki Basin, offshore New Zealand, displays an interaction between prograding clinoforms, listric growth faults formed at the base of slope, and mass transport deposits that fill the growth fault depocentres. This study focuses on one of these systems, the Karewa Fault and mass transport deposit (MTD), in order to understand the genetic relationship between the fault and the MTD in its hangingwall depocentre, i.e. did the MTD fill existing accommodation space' Did the MTD trigger growth fault displacement' Or is there some other relationship' Most mass transport deposits are elongate in the transport direction and exhibit a length:width aspect ratio of more than 1. However, the 90 km2 Karewa Fault MTD is at least three times wider than it is long, which is atypical for MTDs reported in the literature, where ~80% have a length:width ratio> 1. The transport direction of the MTD is to the WNW, as indicated by the location and internal structure of the compressional toe and the headwall scarp region of the Karewa Fault. The structural and sequence geometries on seismic reflection data indicate the MTD formed during the late stage of growth fault activity, and locally truncates the upper part of the Karewa Fault. The MTD is inferred to have originated by local destabilization of the sediment package overlying the Karewa Fault related to the escape of overpressured fluids along the fault. The resulting MTD was translated locally by only a few kilometres. This unusual cause for an MTD also resulted in its atypical length-width-thickness aspect ratios.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20T03:42:03.555462-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12251
  • The genesis of mud volcano conduits through thick evaporite sequences
    • Authors: C. Kirkham; J. Cartwright, C. Hermanrud, C. Jebsen
      Abstract: This paper documents the seismic expression of the conduits underlying over 350 mud volcanoes that were erupted in an area of the western Nile Cone in the past 5.3 Myrs. The study is based on a c. 4300 km2 3D seismic survey. The conduits are interpreted to transect the> 1000 m thick Messinian Evaporite succession, demonstrating that the eruptive process is sufficiently dynamic to breach the formidable seal represented by the evaporites. The mud volcano conduits are remarkably similar in geometry and seismic characteristics to many previously described examples of fluid escape pipes. They are vertical to sub-vertical structures with a crudely cylindrical geometry, but that can either widen or narrow upwards towards their upper terminations in the mud volcano edifices. Imaging at depth within the Messinian Evaporites and pre-evaporite successions is more uncertain, but direct sampling of mud from surface volcanoes suggests a pre-Messinian source, confirming the seismic interpretation that they root within pre-salt stratigraphy. A conceptual model for the genesis of these mud volcano conduits through salt is proposed, for which hydraulic fracturing is driven by high overpressures that developed in the pre-salt source stratigraphy as a response to the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Dissolution and removal of evaporites resulting in fracturing and collapse via a stoping mechanism which is a slow process by comparison to hydraulic fracturing but is argued to potentially contribute to conduit formation. The analysis presented here demonstrates the potential for bypassing a> 1 km thick unit of sealing evaporites via focused fluid and sediment mobilisation from deeper overpressured cells in other salt basins worldwide, and has significant implications for hydrocarbon exploration, CO2 sequestration and nuclear waste disposal.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20T02:56:22.490438-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12250
  • Cenozoic sediment budget of West Africa and the Niger delta
    • Authors: Jean-Louis Grimaud; Delphine Rouby, Dominique Chardon, Anicet Beauvais
      Abstract: Long-term (106-7 yr) clastic sedimentary fluxes to the ocean provide first-order constraints on the response of continental surfaces to both tectonic and climatic forcing as well as the supply that builds the stratigraphic record. Here we use the dated and regionally correlated relict lateritic landforms preserved over Sub-Saharan West Africa to map and quantify regional denudation as well as the export of main catchments for 3 time intervals (45-24, 24-11 and 11-0 Ma). At the scale of West Africa, denudation rates are low (~7 m Myr−1) and total clastic export rate represents 18.5 x 103 km3 Myr−1. Export rate variations among the different drainage groups depend on the drainage area and, more importantly, rock uplift. Denuded volumes and offshore accumulations are of the same magnitude, with a noticeably balanced budget between the Niger River delta and its catchment. This supports the establishment of the modern Niger catchment before 29 Ma, which then provided sufficient clastic material to the Niger delta by mainly collecting the erosion products of the Hoggar hotspot swell. Accumulations on the remaining Equatorial Atlantic margin of Africa suggest an apparent export deficit but the sediment budget is complicated by the low resolution of the offshore data and potential lateral sediment supply from the Niger delta. Further distortion of the depositional record by intracontinental transient storage and lateral input or destabilization of sediments along the margin have been identified in several locations, prompting caution when deducing continental denudation rates from accumulation only.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-16T12:35:27.069598-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12248
  • Syn-orogenic fluid flow in the Jaca basin (South Pyrenean Fold and Thrust
           Belt) from fracture and vein analyses
    • Authors: N. Crognier; G. Hoareau, C. Aubourg, M. Dubois, B. Lacroix, M. Branellec, J.P. Callot, T. Vennemann
      Abstract: This study aims at understanding the origin and nature of syn-orogenic fluid flow in the Jaca basin from the South Pyrenean fold and thrust-belt, as recorded in calcite and quartz veins of the Sierras Interiores (Spain) and the turbiditic basin, which cover upper Cretaceous t Late Eocene syntectonic deposits. The fracture network consists of a classical pattern of transverse and longitudinal fractures related to Layer Parallel Shortening (LPS) and folding respectively. Veins filled equally about the third of fractures in the carbonate shelf and turbidites. Carbon and oxygen isotopes of calcite veins mostly indicate precipitation from isotopically buffered water, consistent with high water-rock interaction. In the Sierras Interiores, petrographical observations and fluid inclusion microthermometry are consistent with two distinct stages of precipitation. The first stage is characterized by relatively low Th and low salinities (155-205° C and 0.5-3.2 wt% eq. NaCl). The second stage, which was characterized both by the formation of mode-I joints and by mode-I reactivation of preexisting veins, shows higher Th and salinities (215-270°C and 2.2-5.7 wt% eq. NaCl). Waters recorded in the second stage are interpreted to have interacted with underlying Triassic evaporites and flowed along major thrusts before vein precipitation, which are locally in thermal disequilibrium with host-rocks. We suggest the transition from a rather closed hydrological system during the first stage of vein formation, interpreted to have occurred during Eaux-chaudes thrusting (upper Lutetian-Bartonian), to a more open hydrological system during the second stage, which likely occurred during Gavarnie thrusting (Priabonian-early Rupelian). Finally, we also document the migration in space and time of hydrothermal pulses along the South Pyrenean Foreland Basin, related to the westward propagation of major thrusts during the Pyrenean orogeny.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-16T12:35:25.479907-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12249
  • Fluvial architecture in actively deforming salt basins: Chinle Formation,
           Paradox Basin, Utah
    • Authors: Adrian Hartley; Laura Evenstar
      Abstract: Determining the response of fluvial systems to syn-sedimentary halokinesis is important for reconstructing the palaeogeography of salt basins, determining the history of salt movement and predicting development and architecture of sandstone bodies for subsurface fluid extraction. To assess both the influence of salt movement on fluvial system development and the use of lithostratigraphic correlation schemes in salt basins we have analysed the Triassic Chinle Formation in the Paradox Basin, Utah.Results indicate that sandstone body development proximal to salt bodies should be considered at two scales: intra- (local) and inter- (regional) mini-basin scale. At the intra-mini basin or local scale, conformable packages up to 12 m of deep meandering fluvial channel deposits and associated overbank deposits are developed, which may thin, pinch-out or become truncated towards salt highs. When traced down the axis of a mini-basin, individual stories extend for a few hundred metres, and form part of amalgamated channel-belt packages up to 60 m thick that can be traced for at least 25 km parallel to palaeoflow. Where salt movement outpaces sediment accumulation, progressive low angle unconformities are developed along the flanks of salt highs. Significantly, in mini-basins with high sand supply, sandstone bodies are present across salt highs where they show increased amalgamation, decrease in thickness due to truncation and no change in internal sandstone body character.At inter mini-basin or regional scale, spatial and temporal variations in accommodation space generated by differential salt movement strongly influence facies distributions and facies correlation lengths. Broad lithostratigraphic packages (5 to 50 m thick) can be correlated within mini-basins, but correlation of these units between adjacent mini-basins is problematic. Knowledge of fluvial system development at a regional scale is critical as, fluvial sediment distribution is focussed by topography generated by growing salt bodies, such that adjacent mini-basins can have significant differences in sandstone body thickness, distribution and lateral extent.The observations from the Chinle Formation indicate that lithostratigraphic-based correlation schemes can only be applied within mini-basins and cannot be used to correlate between adjacent mini-basins or across a salt mini-basin province. The key to predicting sandstone body development is an understanding of the timing of salt movement and reconstructing fluvial drainage system development.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17T15:45:26.854057-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12247
  • Fracturing and fluid flow during post-rift subsidence in carbonate of the
           Jandaíra Formation, Potiguar Basin, NE Brazil
    • Authors: Giovanni Bertotti; Stefan de Graaf, Kevin Bisdom, Brigit Oskam, Hubert Vonhof, Francisco Hilario Bezerra, John Reijmer, Caroline Cazarin
      Abstract: Pervasive fracture networks are common in many reservoir-scale carbonate bodies even in the absence of large deformation and exert a major impact on their mechanical and flow behavior. The Upper Cretaceous Jandaíra Formation is a few hundred meters thick succession of shallow water carbonates deposited during the early post-rift stage of the Potiguar rift (NE Brazil). The Jandaíra Formation in the present onshore domain experienced 1000 km2. The carbonates have a gentle, 400-500 m. Deformation was accommodated by a dense network of sub-vertical mode I and hybrid fractures associated with sub-vertical stylolites developed in a stress field characterized by a sub-horizontal σ1 and sub-vertical σ2. The development of a network of hybrid fractures, rarely reported in the literature, activated the circulation of waters charged in the mountainous region, flowing along the porous Açu sandstone underlying the Jandaíra carbonates and rising to the surface through the fractured carbonates. With persisting subsidence, carbonates reached depths of 800-900 m entering a depth interval characterized by a sub-vertical σ1. At this stage, sub-horizontal stylolites developed liberating calcite which sealed the sub-vertical open fractures transforming them in veins and preventing further flow. During Tertiary exhumation, pre-existing veins and stylolites were opened and became longer, and new fractures were created typically with the same directions of the older features. The simplicity of our model and findings suggest that most rocks in passive margin settings might have followed a similar evolution and thus display similar structures.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T09:15:30.126827-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12246
  • Visualizing, interpreting and comparing detrital zircon age and Hf isotope
           data in basin analysis - a graphical approach
    • Authors: Tom Andersen; Magnus Kristoffersen, Marlina A. Elburg
      Abstract: The development of fast and reliable instrumental methods for U-Pb dating and Lu-Hf isotope analysis of zircon has caused detrital zircon to become a popular provenance indicator for clastic sediments and an important tool in basin analysis. In parallel with the increasing ease of access to data, advanced methods of data interpretation have been developed. The downside of some techniques for visualization and comparison of detrital zircon distribution patterns is that the results are difficult to relate to what the zircon grains really record: The age and nature of geological processes in a protosource terrane. Some simple methods of data presentation and inter-sample comparison that preserve a direct and intuitively understandable relationship between the data and the age of zircon-forming processes in the protosource are proposed here: Comparison of confidence intervals around empirical, cumulative distribution curves combined with the use of a plot of upper vs. lower quartile values of cumulative zircon U-Pb age or Lu-Hf model age distributions. This approach allows a robust and transparent separation to be made between samples whose detrital zircon distributions are indistinguishable from each other, and those that are more or less similar. Furthermore, it allows simple comparison between detrital zircon distributions and the geological age record of potential protosource terranes, or the detrital zircon distributions of possible sedimentary precursors.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T03:01:31.377965-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12245
  • Changes in Cenozoic depositional environment and sediment provenance in
           the Danube Basin
    • Authors: Michal Kováč; Samuel Rybár, Eva Halásová, Natália Hudáčková, Katarína Šarinová, Michal Šujan, Victoria Baranyi, Marianna Kováčová, Andrej Ruman, Tomáš Klučiar, Adriena Zlinská
      Abstract: The Danube Basin is situated between the Eastern Alps, Western Carpathians and Transdanubian mountain ranges and represents a classic petroleum prospection site. The basin fill is known from many 2D reflection seismic lines and deep wells with measured e-logs which provided a good opportunity for theories about its evolution. New analyses of deep wells situated in the Danube Basin northeastern margin allowed us to refine stratigraphy and to interpret various depositional systems. This also allowed us to outline changes in provenance of sediment during the Cenozoic. The performed interpretation of the Paleogene and Neogene depositional systems also confirmed the Oligocene-NDASH-Early Miocene exhumation of the basin pre-Neogene basement. Opening and development of the Middle to Late Miocene basin depocentres above the boundary between the Western Carpathians and Northern Pannonian domain was recognized. Our analysis contributed to a better understanding of the Hurbanovo-NDASH-Diösjenő fault which acts as an inherited weakness zone along the boundary of two crustal fragments with different provenance. We document various basin types stacked one on another (retro-arc, back-arc, and extensional hinterland basin). The analysis of sediment sources reveals intricate geodynamic processes during the Eastern Alpine-NDASH-Western Carpathian orogenic system collision with European platform (formation of ALCAPA microplate) and its successive tectonics escape during the Pannonian Basin System origination.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05T15:52:08.276083-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12244
  • Tectonic uplift of the Xichang Basin (SE Tibetan Plateau) revealed by
           structural geology and thermochronology data
    • Authors: Bin Deng; Shugen Liu, Lei Jiang, Gaoping Zhao, Rui Huang, Zhiwu Li, Jinxi Li, Luba Jansa
      Abstract: The Xichang Basin in southeastern Tibet provides crucial information about formation and tectonic processes affecting the eastern Tibetan Plateau. To determine when and how the uplift developed, we conducted detailed studies of structures and obtained thermochronology data from the Xichang Basin and its periphery. The Xichang Basin is characterized by gentle deformation of the strata, segmented by an E-vergent boundary thrust fault. Two stages of deformation, strike-slip followed by an E-W oriented shortening resulted in oblique shortening between the southeastern Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin. New apatite fission track data interpreted together with (U-Th)/He data confirm a simple burial/heating and exhumation/cooling history across the Xichang Basin and its periphery. Subsidence and burial of the Xichang Basin peaked between 80~30 Ma, followed by mountain building with a protracted cooling starting at around 40-20 Ma, with rates of ~2.0-8.0 °C/Myr (i.e., 0.1-0.3 mm/yr). Our data indicate that the Xichang Basin has experienced ~2.5-5 km of exhumation, much more intensive than the ~1-2 km of exhumation inferred for the southwestern Sichuan Basin. Restored balanced cross-sections of post-Late-Triassic strata along a ~250 km traverse indicate ~10-20% east-west shortening strain (i.e., ~20-30 km) at the southeastern Tibetan Plateau during Cenozoic time. Study of crustal thickening and erosion supports a tectonic shortening mechanism to account for the uplift of the Xichang Basin on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T19:10:22.208406-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12243
  • Weathering regime in the Eastern Himalaya since the mid-Miocene:
           Indications from detrital geochemistry and clay mineralogy of the Kameng
           River Section, Arunachal Pradesh, India
    • Authors: Natalie Vögeli; Pascale Huyghe, Peter van der Beek, Yani Najman, Eduardo Garzanti, Catherine Chauvel
      Abstract: It is crucial to understand lateral differences in paleo-climate and weathering in order to fully understand the evolution of the Himalayan mountain belt. While many studies have focused on the western and central Himalaya, the eastern Himalaya remains poorly studied with regard to paleoclimate and past weathering history. Here we present a multi-proxy study on the Mio-Pliocene sedimentary foreland-basin section along the Kameng River in Arunachal Pradesh, northeast India, in order to obtain better insight in the weathering history of the eastern Himalaya. We analyzed a continuous sedimentary record over the last 13 Ma. Heavy-mineral and petrography data give insight into diagenesis and provenance, showing that the older part of the section is influenced by diagenesis and that sediments were not only deposited by a large Trans-Himalayan river and the palaeo-Kameng river, but also by smaller local tributaries. By taking into account changes in diagenesis and provenance, results of clay mineralogy and major element analysis show an overall increase in weathering intensity over time, with a remarkable change between ~10 and ~8 Ma.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T08:05:39.145566-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12242
  • Cenozoic evolution of the Altyn Tagh and East Kunlun fault zones inferred
           from detrital garnet, tourmaline and rutile in southwestern Qaidam Basin
           (Northern Tibetan Plateau)
    • Authors: Li Linlin; Wu Chaodong, Yu Xiangjiang
      Abstract: This study focuses on the Cenozoic provenance and tectonic evolution of the southwestern Qaidam Basin through geochemical analysis of detrital garnet, tourmaline and rutile. The variation of detrital mineral compositions indicates that the Cenozoic evolution can be divided into 3 stages: 1) before the deposition of the upper Xiaganchaigou Formation (before 37.8 Ma); 2) between the deposition of the upper Xiaganchaigou Formation and the Shangganchaigou Formation (from 37.8 Ma to 22 Ma); 3) since the deposition of the Xiayoushashan Formation (since 22 Ma). In the first stage, abundant garnets from high-grade meta-basic and ultramafic rocks in the sediments from the Ganchaigou area support a provenance from the South Altyn Tagh HP/UHP metamorphic zone. The low percentage of tourmalines from granitoid rocks in the sediments in the Kunbei-Lücaotan area suggests a provenance from the East Kunlun fault zone, indicating that the Qimen Tagh Shan was not high enough to prevent the transport of sediments from the southern Qaidam Basin. The sediments in the Qigequan area were derived from both the Altyn Tagh fault zone and the East Kunlun fault zone. In the second stage, the tectonic activity consisted in the rapid uplift of the Altyn Shan. Changes in garnet composition indicate a lower detrital contribution from high-grade metamorphic rocks. In the third stage, the disappearance of garnets from high-grade metamorphic rocks and scattered temperatures of rutiles in the Ganchaigou area suggest that the source area shifted from the South Altyn Tagh HP/UHP metamorphic rocks to weakly metamorphosed Meso-Neoproterozoic sedimentary rocks. The increase in granitoid-derived tourmalines in the Kunbei-Lücaotan area is indicative of the rapid uplift of the Qimen Tagh Shan. The provenance evolution in the southwestern Qaidam Basin indicates that the tectonic activity along the Altyn Tagh fault zone can be divided into an early stage of Altyn Shan uplift and a later stage of left-lateral slip. At the same time, tectonic movement along the East Kunlun fault zone initiated.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-02T07:21:13.351634-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12241
  • The role of fault length, overlap and spacing in controlling extensional
           relay ramp fluvial system geometry
    • Authors: Michael C. Hopkins; Nancye H. Dawers
      Abstract: Relay ramps are integral components of normal fault systems that control sediment transport pathways in evolving rifts. We attribute differences in the geometry of fluvial systems that drain relay ramps to the scale of the ramp bounding fault segments, the spacing between segments and the amount of overlap between segments. Previous conceptual models for relay ramp geomorphological evolution have assumed that ramp fluvial catchments develop on the ramp surfaces and flow parallel to fault strike into the adjacent basin. Numerous examples exist in nature, however, that show that this is not ubiquitous. The fundamental question of what drives differences in fluvial geometry in these settings has, to date, not been fully addressed. We selected 27 relay ramps across the Basin and Range, western North America, and mapped, via GPS and remote sensing, the faults and ramp fluvial systems associated with each site. The sites represent a range of fault scales, which we define by the total outboard fault length, and a range of spacing and overlap values in order to better understand the structural controls on differences among ramp fluvial systems. Results show that the majority of a relay ramp surface drains parallel to fault strike when the outboard fault is less than about 15 km long. High overlap/spacing ratios are associated with relays along shorter (< 15 km long) outboard faults, whereas lower overlap/spacing ratios are associated with relays along longer faults. Relays with lower overlap/spacing values may be more common along longer outboard faults because they survive for longer periods of time in the landscape. Our geomorphological observations can be used to predict synrift depocenter locations along segmented faults, but these observations only apply if the faults are short (
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T06:15:33.726704-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12240
  • New insights in the development of syn-depositional fractures in rimmed
           flat-topped carbonate platforms, Neogene carbonate complexes, Sorbas
           Basin, SE Spain
    • Authors: Casimir W. Nooitgedacht; Lucas M. Kleipool, Bernd Andeweg, Jesús Reolid, Christian Betzler, Sebastian Lindhorst, John J.G. Reijmer
      Abstract: The formation of syn-depositional fractures in carbonate platforms is considered an important feature in the understanding of platform evolution. This study investigates the mechanisms of fracture formation in rimmed flat-topped carbonate platforms in the very well exposed Cariatiz Miocene Fringing Reef Unit, SE Spain. Fracture data were obtained using a combination of LIDAR and field mapping techniques, which proved useful in understanding general fracture trends. The morphological expression of fracture sets, preferred fracture localisation, crosscutting relationships and fracture fill are characteristics that provide constraints on the timing of fracture formation and opening. Three dominant fracture populations were identified, amongst which a margin parallel and a margin perpendicular fracture set. Margin parallel fractures localise around the platform margin and form vertically extensive dikes that crosscut facies boundaries. The sedimentary fill of such fractures suggests syn-depositional fracture formation under marine conditions. Together, fracture characteristics suggest a gravitational driver for the formation of tensile stress and the development of margin parallel fractures along the platform edge. Margin perpendicular structures form sub-vertical dikes and fracture corridors. Margin perpendicular fractures localise on the platform slope and show two types of fracture fill, indicating marine and continental origins. Based on variations of fracture morphology along the carbonate platform, fracture localisation, petrographic analysis of sedimentary fill and stable isotope analysis on sparite cements, we suggest a gravitational control on the formation of these fractures. Two mechanisms for the formation of subvertical margin perpendicular fractures are proposed: (1) principal stress rotation as a result of downslope loading. (2) Differential compaction over buried gulley systems on antecedent clinoform slopes. We suggest that the formation of sub-vertical margin perpendicular fractures might be a systematic feature in slopes of flat-topped carbonate platforms.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T10:35:43.927426-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12239
  • Paleo-fluid expulsion and contouritic drift formation on the Chatham Rise,
           New Zealand
    • Authors: Kate Alyse Waghorn; Ingo Pecher, Lorna J. Strachan, Gareth Crutchley, Jörg Bialas, Richard Coffin, Bryan Davy, Stephanie Koch, Karsten F. Kroeger, Cord Papenberg, Sudipta Sarkar,
      Abstract: The Chatham Rise is located offshore of New Zealand's South Island. Vast areas of the Chatham Rise are covered in circular to elliptical seafloor depressions that appear to be forming through a bathymetrically controlled mechanism, as seafloor depressions 2–5 km in diameter are found in water depths of 800–1100 m. High-resolution P-Cable 3D seismic data were acquired in 2013 across one of these depressions. The seafloor depression is interpreted as a mounded contourite. Our data reveal several smaller buried depressions (
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:36:56.017197-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12237
  • Burial and exhumation of the western border of the Ukrainian Shield
           (Podolia): a multi-disciplinary approach
    • Authors: Andrea Schito; Benedetta Andreucci, Luca Aldega, Sveva Corrado, Lea Di Paolo, Massimiliano Zattin, Rafal Szaniawski, Leszek Jankowski, Stefano Mazzoli
      Abstract: The Podolia region is located along the western border of the Eastern European Craton, which is also known as Ukrainian Shield. From the Ordovician to the Miocene, this area formed part of an epicontinental basin system. In order to investigate the effects of orogenic cycles occurring along the plate margin, a multi-disciplinary approach was used in this study. Paleotemperature analysis and low-temperature thermochronometry were combined with stratigraphic data to obtain a burial model for the Paleozoic succession exposed in the study area. Maximum burial for Silurian and Devonian rocks occurred during the Devonian and Early Carboniferous at depths of 4–5 km, as constrained by vitrinite reflectance and illite content in mixed illite-smectite layers. Thermochronometric data indicate that exhumation through the 45–120 °C temperature range took place between the Late Triassic and the Early Jurassic, and that no significant burial occurred afterwards (temperatures characterising the stratigraphically lowermost units remaining below ca. 60 °C). These results point to a major exhumation event coeval with the Cimmerian orogenesis, which took place a few hundreds of kilometres away from the study area. On the other hand, no significant effect of the Alpine orogenesis was recorded, although the collisional front was located
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T23:05:43.052729-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12235
  • The drowning of a siliciclastic shelf: insights into oceanographic
           reconstructions of the northern Arabian Platform during the Early
    • Authors: Or M. Bialik; Nicolas Waldmann
      Abstract: Barremian-Aptian sedimentary successions along the northern Arabian margin have been described as a transition from a siliciclastic to a carbonate-dominated marine environment, deposited upon a low-relief shelf or platform formed as a consequence of continuous regional subsidence. A long (360 m) core from northern Israel offers a unique look at this transition, providing valuable insights for the palaeoceanography, geometry and ventilation conditions that lead to Oceanic Anoxic Event 1 (OAE1) in this region. Results from high-resolution elemental, mineralogical, sedimentological and petrophysical analyses carried out revealed the emplacement of abundant mass-transport deposits (MTDs) during the Late Barremian and the Aptian. The transplanted units are characterized by fine grained calcareous shales with elevated organic matter, sulphur and iron contents. The scarcity or absence of bioturbation in the disturbed sequences provides a hint to the sediment/water interface conditions. However, a decrease in sulphur and iron occurring at the contact between the shales and the MTDs is explained as increased oxic conditions at the sediment-water interface as a result of turbulence and mixing associated with the descending sediment masses. Such recurrent events ventilation of the low-energy basinal environment during the Late Barremian and Aptian, predate the wide-scale establishment of OAE1 in the northern Arabian margin. Moreover, the identification of coarse-grained MTDs within deep-water calcareous sediments indicates a much steeper gradient of the northern Arabian margin, challenging previous studies.
      PubDate: 2017-03-05T23:20:45.144681-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12234
  • Sequence Architecture and Depositional Evolution of the Northern
           Continental Slope of the South China Sea: Responses to Tectonic Processes
           and Changes in Sea Level
    • Authors: Changsong Lin; Jing Jiang, Hesheng Shi, Zhongtao Zhang, Jingyan Liu, Qin Chenggang, Hao Li, Huaijiang Ran, An Wei, Hongxun Tian, Zuochang Xing, Qingyu Yao
      Abstract: The continental slopes of the South China Sea (SCS), the largest marginal sea on the continental shelf of Southeast Asia, are among the most significant shelf-margin basins in the world because of their abundant petroleum resources and a developmental history related to sea floor spreading since Late Oligocene time. Based on integrated analyses of seismic, well-logging and core data, we systematically document the sequence architecture and depositional evolution of the northern continental slope of the SCS and reveal its responses to tectonism, sea-level change and sediment supply. The infill of this shelf-margin basin can be divided into seven composite sequences (CS1‒CS7) that are bounded by regional unconformities. Composite sequences CS3 to CS7 have formed since Late Oligocene time, and each of them generally reflects a regional transgressive–regressive cycle. These large cycles can be further divided into 20 sequences that are defined by local unconformities or transgressive–regressive boundaries. Depositional–geomorphologic systems represented on the continental slope mainly include shelf-edge deltas, prodelta-slope fans, clinoforms of the shelf-margin slope, unidirectionally migrating slope channels, incised slope valleys, muddy slope fans, slope slump-debris-flow complexes, and large-scale soft-sediment deformation of bedding. Changing sea levels, reflected by evidence from sequence architecture in the study area, are generally comparable with those of the Haq (1987) global sea level curve, whereas the regional transgressions and regressions were apparently controlled by tectonic uplift and subsidence. Composite sequences CS3 and CS4 formed from Late Oligocene to Middle Miocene time and represent continental-slope deposition during a time of northwest-northeast seafloor spreading and subsequent development of sub-basins in the southwest-central SCS. The development of composite sequences CS5 to CS7 after Middle Miocene time was obviously influenced by the Dongsha Movement during convergence between the SCS and Philippine Sea plates. Climatic variations and monsoon intensification may have enhanced sediment supply during Late Oligocene‒Early Miocene (25-21 Ma) and Late Pliocene‒Pleistocene (3-0.8 Ma) times. This study indicates that shelf-edge delta and associated slope fan systems are the most important oil/gas-bearing reservoirs in the SCS continental-slope area.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:55:54.439773-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12238
  • Terrace formation in the upper Bengal basin since the middle pleistocene:
           Brahmaputra fan delta construction during multiple highstands
    • Authors: Jennifer L. Pickering; Steven L. Goodbred, Jeremiah C. Beam, John C. Ayers, Aaron K. Covey, Haresh M. Rajapara, Ashok K. Singhvi
      Abstract: Floodplains, paleosols, and antecedent landforms near the apex of the Brahmaputra fan delta in north-central Bangladesh preserve cycles of fluvial sediment deposition, erosion, and weathering. Together these landforms and their associated deposits comprise morphostratigraphic units that define the river's history and have influenced its channel position and avulsion behavior through the Late Quaternary. Previously, temporal differentiation within these units has not been sufficient to decipher their sequence of deposition, an important step in understanding the spatial pattern of migration of the Brahmaputra River. Holocene units in this region are fairly well established by radiocarbon dating of in situ organic material, but pre-Holocene units are considered Pleistocene-aged if organic material is dated> 48000 yr BP (the limit of radiocarbon dating) or the sediments are positioned beneath a prominent paleosol, interpreted as a buried soil horizon that developed during a previous sea level lowstand. In such cases, these morphostratigraphic units have been broadly interpreted as Pleistocene without knowing their absolute depositional ages or relative evolutionary chronology. Here we use detailed sediment analysis to better differentiate morphostratigraphic units at the Brahmaputra's avulsion node, establishing the sequence of deposition and subsequent weathering of these bodies. We then test this relative chronology by luminescence dating of the sands beneath these landform surfaces. This work provides the first absolute depositional age constraints of terrace sediments for the Middle to Late Pleistocene Brahmaputra River and upper Bengal basin. The luminescence ages are complemented by detailed compositional trends in the terraces deposits, including clay mineralogy and the degree of weathering. Together, these newly dated and carefully described morphostratigraphic units reflect eustasy-driven cycles of terrace development by way of highstand floodplain deposition and subsequent lowstand exposure and weathering, along with active tectonic deformation. Defining this Late Quaternary history of terrace development and position of the Brahmaputra River is a first step toward an integrated understanding of basin and delta evolution over multiple glacioeustatic cycles and tectonically relevant timescales.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T07:05:28.747195-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12236
  • Tectonic compaction shortening in toe region of isolated listric normal
           fault, North Taranaki Basin, New Zealand
    • Authors: Chris K. Morley; Diako Hariri Naghadeh
      Abstract: Industry 2D and 3D seismic data across the North Taranaki Basin displays two listric normal faults that formed during Pliocene shelf edge clinoform progradation. The faults die out in the down-transport direction with no evidence for contractional structures, except for two small thrust faults in one narrow zone. When active, the detachments lay at depths of about 1000 m below the seafloor. The overlying section had high initial porosities (30–60%). It is estimated that loss of about 17–20% pore volume by lateral compaction, and fluid expulsion over a distance of about 4–6 km in the transport direction occurred in place of folding and thrusting. Seismic and well evidence for abnormally highly compacted shales suggests there is about 6% less porosity than expected for in the prekinematic section, which possibly represents a residual of the porosity anomaly caused by lateral compaction. The observations indicate significant shortening (~20%) by lateral compaction and probably some layer parallel thickening are important deformation mechanisms in near-surface deepwater sediments that needs to be incorporated into shortening estimates and ‘balanced’ cross-sections. A key factor in listric fault initiation near the base of slope is inferred to be transient, increased pore fluid pressure due to lateral expulsion of fluids from beneath the prograding Giant Foresets Formation.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01T06:51:14.607729-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12227
  • Application of multi-kinetic apatite fission track and (U-Th)/He
           thermochronology to source rock thermal history: A case study from the
           Mackenzie Plain, NWT, Canada
    • Authors: Jeremy Powell; David Schneider, Dale Issler
      Abstract: Shale of the Upper Cretaceous Slater River Formation extends across the Mackenzie Plain of the Canadian Northwest Territories and has potential as a regional source rock due to the high organic content and presence of both oil- and gas-prone kerogen. An understanding of the thermal history experienced by the shale is required to predict any potential petroleum systems. Our study integrates multi-kinetic apatite fission track (AFT) and apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) thermochronometers from a basal bentonite unit to understand the timing and magnitude of Late Cretaceous burial experienced by the Slater River Formation along the Imperial River. We use LA-ICP-MS and EPMA methods to assess the chemistry of apatite, and use these values to derive the AFT kinetic parameter rmr0. Our AFT dates and track lengths, respectively, range from 201.5 ± 36.9 Ma to 47.1 ± 12.3 Ma, and 16.8 to 10.2 μm, and single crystal AHe dates are between 57.9 ± 3.5 and 42.0 ± 2.5 Ma with effective uranium concentrations from 17.3 ppm to 35.6 ppm. The fission track data show no relationship with the kinetic parameter Dpar and fail the χ2 test indicating that the data do not comprise a single statistically significant population. However, when plotted against their rmr0 value, the data are separated into two statistically significant kinetic populations with distinct track length distributions. Inverse thermal history modeling of both the multi-kinetic AFT and AHe datasets, reveal that the Slater River Formation reached maximum burial temperatures of ~65-90°C between the Turonian and Paleocene, indicating that the source rock matured to the early stages of hydrocarbon generation, at best. Ultimately, our data highlight the importance of kinetic parameter choice for AFT and AHe thermochronology, as slight variations in apatite chemistry may have significant implications on fission track and radiation damage annealing in apatite with protracted thermal histories through the uppermost crust.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01T01:51:07.516727-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12233
  • Sedimentary environment evolution in a marine hangingwall dipslope
           setting. El Qaa Fault Block, Suez Rift, Egypt
    • Authors: Martin Muravchik; Rob L. Gawthorpe, Ian R. Sharp, Franklin Rarity, David Hodgetts
      Abstract: Sedimentation in hangingwall dipslope settings is still a relatively underexplored topic in rift basin studies. A better understanding of the evolution of marine sedimentary environments in this kind of settings has to address the variations occurring both along the strike and down the dipslope. Previous work was mainly built on the analysis of subsurface data, relying on the visualization of coarse resolution (10s of m) seismic sections and sparsely located borehole logs (km apart). This study focuses on the sedimentology and stratal arrangement of excellent quality Miocene marine early syn-rift and rift climax successions continuously exposed for more than 20 km along the strike of the hangingwall dipslope in the El Qaa Fault Block, Suez Rift, Egypt. The integration of traditional sedimentary field techniques and terrestrial LIDAR scanning allowed for a detailed analysis of dip and dip direction for the different depositional units. Three different phases of tilting were identified for the hangingwall dipslope, which controlled the overall evolution of the marine sedimentary environment in the area. The tilt of the hangingwall not only determined variations in facies, thickness and grain-size of the deposits down the dipslope but also along its strike. The studied exposures of the El Qaa Fault Block dipslope constitute a unique outcrop analogue for marine sedimentation in hangingwall dipslopes.
      PubDate: 2017-01-24T00:21:36.304821-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12231
  • An integrated model of clastic injectites and basin floor lobe complexes:
           implications for stratigraphic trap plays
    • Authors: Sarah Louise Cobain; David Mark Hodgson, Jeff Peakall, Michelle Nicole Shiers
      Abstract: Injectites sourced from base-of-slope and basin-floor parent sandbodies are rarely reported in comparison to submarine slope channel systems. This study utilizes the well-constrained palaeogeographic and stratigraphic context of three outcrop examples exposed in the Karoo Basin, South Africa, to examine the relationship between abrupt stratigraphic pinchouts in basin-floor lobe complexes, and the presence, controls, and character of injectite architecture. Injectites in this palaeogeographic setting occur where there is: (i) sealing mudstone both above and below the parent sand to create initial overpressure; (ii) an abrupt pinchout of a basin-floor lobe complex through steep confinement to promote compaction drive; (iii) clean, proximal sand beds aiding fluidization; and (iv) a sharp contact between parent sand and host lithology generating a source point for hydraulic fracture and resultant injection of sand. In all outcrop cases, dykes are orientated perpendicular to palaeoslope, and the injected sand propagated laterally beneath the parent sand, paralleling the base to extend beyond its pinchout. Understanding the mechanisms that determine and drive injection is important in improving the prediction of the location and character of clastic injectites in the subsurface. Here, we highlight the close association of basin-floor stratigraphic traps and sub-seismic clastic injectites, and present a model to explain the presence and morphology of injectites in these locations.
      PubDate: 2017-01-20T00:27:34.857947-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12229
  • Geological controls on the present temperature field of the western
           Sverdrup Basin, Canadian Arctic Archipelago
    • Authors: Zhuoheng Chen; Stephen E. Grasby, Keith Dewing, Kirk G. Osadetz, Tom Brent
      Abstract: Analysis of current temperature data in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago results in the recognition of two major thermal regimes. High temperature regions are observed where salt diapirs and salt cored anticlines are present. Low temperature fields are observed along the western and southern basin margins and around Cornwall-Amund Ringnes islands, where regional Mesozoic aquifers are exposed to surface, connected to basin boundary faults, or regional unconformities. Meteoric and Holocene sub-glacial water recharge are inferred to be responsible for the low geothermal regime and low formation water salinity. Neither exhumation associated with the Eocene “Eurekan” orogeny nor volcanic intrusion associated with opening of Amerasia Basin in late Jurassic-early Cretaceous have been interpreted to be a significant influence on the present day temperature field, although thermal indicators show evidence of elevated thermal alteration of organic matter pointing to earlier, but now dissipated, thermal anomalies.
      PubDate: 2017-01-20T00:27:18.049369-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12232
  • The architecture of submarine monogenetic volcanoes – insights from
           3D seismic data
    • Authors: Peter Reynolds; Nick Schofield, Richard J. Brown, Simon Paul Holford
      Abstract: Many prospective sedimentary basins contain a variety of extrusive volcanic products that are ultimately sourced from volcanoes. However, seismic reflection-based studies of magmatic rift basins have tended to focus on the underlying magma plumbing system, meaning that the seismic characteristics of volcanoes are not well understood. Additionally, volcanoes have similar morphologies to hydrothermal vents, which are also linked to underlying magmatic intrusions. In this study, we use high resolution 3D seismic and well data from the Bass Basin, offshore southern Australia, to document 34 cone- and crater-type vents of Miocene age. The vents overlie magmatic intrusions and have seismic properties indicative of a volcanic origin: their moderate–high amplitude upper reflections and zones of “wash-out” and velocity pull-up beneath. The internal reflections of the vents are similar to those found in lava deltas, suggesting they are composed of volcaniclastic material. This interpretation is corroborated by data from exploration wells which penetrated the flanks of several vents. We infer that the vents we describe are composed of hyaloclastite and pyroclasts produced during submarine volcanic eruptions. The morphology of the vents is typical of monogenetic volcanoes, consistent with the onshore record of volcanism on the southern Australian margin. Based on temporal, spatial and volumetric relationships, we propose that submarine volcanoes can evolve from maars to tuff cones as a result of varying magma-water interaction efficiency. The morphologies of the volcanoes and their links to the underlying feeder systems are superficially similar to hydrothermal vents. This highlights the need for careful seismic interpretation and characterization of vent structures linked to magmatic intrusions within sedimentary basins.
      PubDate: 2017-01-20T00:27:05.023437-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bre.12230
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