Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2844 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (247 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (248 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (176 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1448 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (451 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (62 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (97 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (115 journals)

ENGINEERING (1448 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8     

Showing 1201 - 1205 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
Purinergic Signalling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Quaderns d’Història de l’Enginyeria     Open Access  
Quality and Reliability Engineering International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Quality Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Quantum Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
R&D Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Radiochimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Rare Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Reactive and Functional Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Recent Patents on Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Recent Patents on Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Recherche Transports Sécurité     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Redes de Ingeniería     Open Access  
Regional Maritime University Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Regular and Chaotic Dynamics     Hybrid Journal  
Rem : Revista Escola de Minas     Open Access  
Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 54)
Remote Sensing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Requirements Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research Ideas and Outcomes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Research in Engineering Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Research Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Respuestas     Open Access  
Results in Engineering     Open Access  
Review of Symbolic Logic     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Reviews in Advanced Sciences and Engineering     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Revista AIDIS de Ingeniería y Ciencias Ambientales. Investigación, desarrollo y práctica     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Inovação     Open Access  
Revista Campus     Open Access  
Revista Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Revista Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Revista Ciencia y Tecnología El Higo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Científica de la UCSA     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana fe Technologias de Avanzada (RCTA)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revista Cubana de Ingeniería     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Exatas Aplicadas e Tecnológicas da Universidade de Passo Fundo : CIATEC-UPF     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Ingeniería     Open Access  
Revista de Ingenieria Sismica     Open Access  
Revista de Investigación     Open Access  
Revista de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones en Energía, Medio Ambiente y Tecnología     Open Access  
Revista de la Universidad del Zulia     Open Access  
Revista EIA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Facultad de Ingeniería     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Facultad de Ingenieria - Universidad de Tarapaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Facultad de Ingeniería Universidad de Antioquia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Fatec Zona Sul : REFAS     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Automática e Informática Industrial RIAI     Open Access  
Revista Informador Técnico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ingenieria de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Interdisciplinar de Pesquisa em Engenharia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Internacional de Métodos Numéricos para Cálculo y Diseño en Ingeniería     Open Access  
Revista Logos Ciencia & Tecnología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Técnica de la Facultad de Ingeniería : Universidad del Zulia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Tecnología en Marcha     Open Access  
Revista Tecnológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista UIS Ingenierías     Open Access  
Revue de Métallurgie     Full-text available via subscription  
RUDN Journal of Engineering Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Russian Engineering Research     Hybrid Journal  
Russian Journal of Non-Ferrous Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Russian Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sadhana     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Safety Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Scholedge International Journal of Multidisciplinary & Allied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Science & Technique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Science and Education : Scientific Publication of BMSTU     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Science and Engineering Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Science and Technology Indonesia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Science China Technological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Science in Context     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Science Journal of Volgograd State University. Technology and innovations     Open Access  
Science Progress     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Sciences & Technologie B : Sciences de l'ingénieur     Open Access  
Scientia cum Industria     Open Access  
Scientific Drilling     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Control Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Scientific Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SCITECH Nepal     Open Access  
Sealing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Securitas Vialis     Hybrid Journal  
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Selcuk University Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Semiconductors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sensor Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Separation and Purification Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Shock and Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
SIAM Journal on Applied Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
SIAM Journal on Mathematical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
SIAM Journal on Matrix Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
SIAM Journal on Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
SIAM Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
SILICON     Hybrid Journal  
SINERGI     Open Access  
Sistemas & Telemática     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sleep and Biological Rhythms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Small     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Smart Grid     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SN Applied Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sociología y Tecnociencia     Open Access  
Soft Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Solar RRL     Hybrid Journal  
Soldagem & Inspeção     Open Access  
SourceOCDE Developpement urbain, rural et regional     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SourceOCDE Energie     Full-text available via subscription  
SourceOECD Energy     Full-text available via subscription  
SourceOECD Science and Technology Statistics - SourceOCDE Base de donnees des sciences et de la technologie     Full-text available via subscription  
SourceOECD Transport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
SourceOECD Urban, Rural and Regional Development     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Computer Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Journal of Agricultural Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
South African Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Sports Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Stahlbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Steel in Translation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Steel Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Stochastic Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Stochastic Processes and their Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Stochastics and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal  
Strain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Strategic Planning for Energy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Engineering and Technology     Open Access  
Studies in Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Studies in Logic and Practical Reasoning     Full-text available via subscription  
Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sud-Sciences et Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Surface Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Surface Review and Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Surface Science Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Surfaces and Interfaces     Hybrid Journal  
Survey Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Surveying and Land Information Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Surveys in Operations Research and Management Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sustainability Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Sustainability Science and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Sustainable Management of Sediment Resources     Full-text available via subscription  
Swiss Journal of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Symmetry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Synthesis Lectures on Algorithms and Software in Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Synthesis Lectures on Antennas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Synthesis Lectures on Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
Synthesis Lectures on Computational Electromagnetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Synthesis Lectures on Energy and the Environment: Technology, Science, and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Synthesis Lectures on Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
Synthesis Lectures on Global Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
Synthesis Lectures on Professionalism and Career Advancement for Scientists and Engineers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Synthetic Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Systems Engineering - Theory & Practice     Full-text available via subscription  
Systems Engineering Procedia     Open Access  
Systems Research Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Systems Science & Control Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Tableros     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tapuya : Latin American Science, Technology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Technical Tips Online     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Technological Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
TECHNOLOGY     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Technology and Economics of Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy     Hybrid Journal  
Technology and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Technology in Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Technometrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Tecnología y Ciencia     Open Access  
Tecnología y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
TecnoLógicas     Open Access  
Tecnura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tekhné     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tekniikan Waiheita     Open Access  
Teknologi dan Kejuruan : Jurnal Teknologi, Kejuruan, dan Pengajarannya     Open Access  
Telecommunications Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Textile Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Thalassas : An International Journal of Marine Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
The Engineer     Partially Free  
The Journal of Supercomputing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
The Scientific World Journal     Open Access  
Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Thermal Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Tikrit Journal of Engineering Science     Open Access  
tm - Technisches Messen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Topics in Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Traffic Injury Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Transactions of the Indian National Academy of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Transactions of the VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, Safety Engineering Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transactions of Tianjin University     Full-text available via subscription  
Transport and Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Transport and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transport World Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8     

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Science and Engineering Ethics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.466
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 9  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1471-5546 - ISSN (Online) 1353-3452
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Fully Autonomous AI
    • Abstract: Abstract In the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics, the term “autonomy” is generally used to mean the capacity of an artificial agent to operate independently of human guidance. It is thereby assumed that the agent has a fixed goal or “utility function” with respect to which the appropriateness of its actions will be evaluated. From a philosophical perspective, this notion of autonomy seems oddly weak. For, in philosophy, the term is generally used to refer to a stronger capacity, namely the capacity to “give oneself the law,” to decide by oneself what one’s goal or principle of action will be. The predominant view in the literature on the long-term prospects and risks of artificial intelligence is that an artificial agent cannot exhibit such autonomy because it cannot rationally change its own final goal, since changing the final goal is counterproductive with respect to that goal and hence undesirable. The aim of this paper is to challenge this view by showing that it is based on questionable assumptions about the nature of goals and values. I argue that a general AI may very well come to modify its final goal in the course of developing its understanding of the world. This has important implications for how we are to assess the long-term prospects and risks of artificial intelligence.
      PubDate: 2020-07-28
       
  • Creative Anticipatory Ethical Reasoning with Scenario Analysis and Design
           Fiction
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper presents an experimental approach for engaging undergraduate STEM students in anticipatory ethical reasoning, or ethical reasoning applied to the analysis of potential mid- to long-term implications and outcomes of technological innovation. The authors implemented two variations of an approach that integrates three key components—scenario analysis, design fiction, and ethical frameworks—into five sections of an introductory course on the social contexts of science and technology that is required of STEM majors. The authors dub this approach Creative Anticipatory Ethical Reasoning, or CAER. Scenario analysis is a strategy emerging from business consulting for grounded analysis of plausible future trajectories to inform planning. Design fiction is a creative hands-on activity that blends science fiction and design prototyping to facilitate critical thinking with respect to the societal dimensions of a plausible future technology. The authors present the following findings: in each of the variations, students demonstrated significant engagement with CAER and a substantive shift in their conception of what constitutes responsible innovation and ethical conduct in science and technology. Specifically, their integration of ethical reasoning with stakeholder perspectives and scenario analysis reframed technologies, from unproblematic solutions for societal problems to socially-embedded forms of life that might diverge from designers’ intentions. This suggests that CAER could be a useful pedagogical intervention for expanding students’ ethical engagement to consider the potential unintended consequences of technological innovation.
      PubDate: 2020-07-23
       
  • Ethical and Social Aspects of Neurorobotics
    • Abstract: Abstract The interdisciplinary field of neurorobotics looks to neuroscience to overcome the limitations of modern robotics technology, to robotics to advance our understanding of the neural system’s inner workings, and to information technology to develop tools that support those complementary endeavours. The development of these technologies is still at an early stage, which makes them an ideal candidate for proactive and anticipatory ethical reflection. This article explains the current state of neurorobotics development within the Human Brain Project, originating from a close collaboration between the scientific and technical experts who drive neurorobotics innovation, and the humanities and social sciences scholars who provide contextualising and reflective capabilities. This article discusses some of the ethical issues which can reasonably be expected. On this basis, the article explores possible gaps identified within this collaborative, ethical reflection that calls for attention to ensure that the development of neurorobotics is ethically sound and socially acceptable and desirable.
      PubDate: 2020-07-22
       
  • Machine Learning Against Terrorism: How Big Data Collection and Analysis
           Influences the Privacy-Security Dilemma
    • Abstract: Abstract Rapid advancements in machine learning techniques allow mass surveillance to be applied on larger scales and utilize more and more personal data. These developments demand reconsideration of the privacy-security dilemma, which describes the tradeoffs between national security interests and individual privacy concerns. By investigating mass surveillance techniques that use bulk data collection and machine learning algorithms, we show why these methods are unlikely to pinpoint terrorists in order to prevent attacks. The diverse characteristics of terrorist attacks—especially when considering lone-wolf terrorism—lead to irregular and isolated (digital) footprints. The irregularity of data affects the accuracy of machine learning algorithms and the mass surveillance that depends on them which can be explained by three kinds of known problems encountered in machine learning theory: class imbalance, the curse of dimensionality, and spurious correlations. Proponents of mass surveillance often invoke the distinction between collecting data and metadata, in which the latter is understood as a lesser breach of privacy. Their arguments commonly overlook the ambiguity in the definitions of data and metadata and ignore the ability of machine learning techniques to infer the former from the latter. Given the sparsity of datasets used for machine learning in counterterrorism and the privacy risks attendant with bulk data collection, policymakers and other relevant stakeholders should critically re-evaluate the likelihood of success of the algorithms and the collection of data on which they depend.
      PubDate: 2020-07-21
       
  • The Boeing 737 MAX: Lessons for Engineering Ethics
    • Abstract: Abstract The crash of two 737 MAX passenger aircraft in late 2018 and early 2019, and subsequent grounding of the entire fleet of 737 MAX jets, turned a global spotlight on Boeing’s practices and culture. Explanations for the crashes include: design flaws within the MAX’s new flight control software system designed to prevent stalls; internal pressure to keep pace with Boeing’s chief competitor, Airbus; Boeing’s lack of transparency about the new software; and the lack of adequate monitoring of Boeing by the FAA, especially during the certification of the MAX and following the first crash. While these and other factors have been the subject of numerous government reports and investigative journalism articles, little to date has been written on the ethical significance of the accidents, in particular the ethical responsibilities of the engineers at Boeing and the FAA involved in designing and certifying the MAX. Lessons learned from this case include the need to strengthen the voice of engineers within large organizations. There is also the need for greater involvement of professional engineering societies in ethics-related activities and for broader focus on moral courage in engineering ethics education.
      PubDate: 2020-07-10
       
  • Keeping the “Human in the Loop” in the Age of Artificial
           Intelligence
    • Abstract: Abstract The benefits of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in medicine are unquestionable and it is unlikely that the pace of its development will slow down. From better diagnosis, prognosis, and prevention to more precise surgical procedures, AI has the potential to offer unique opportunities to enhance patient care and improve clinical practice overall. However, at this stage of AI technology development it is unclear whether it will de-humanize or re-humanize medicine. Will AI allow clinicians to spend less time on administrative tasks and technology related procedures and more time being present in person to attend to the needs of their patients' Or will AI dramatically increase the presence of smart technology in the clinical context to a point of undermining the humane dimension of the patient–physician relationship' In this brief commentary, we argue that technological solutions should be only integrated into clinical medicine if they fulfill the following three conditions: (1) they serve human ends; (2) they respect personal identity; and (3) they promote human interaction. These three conditions form the moral imperative of humanity.
      PubDate: 2020-07-08
       
  • Landscape of Machine Implemented Ethics
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper surveys the state-of-the-art in machine ethics, that is, considerations of how to implement ethical behaviour in robots, unmanned autonomous vehicles, or software systems. The emphasis is on covering the breadth of ethical theories being considered by implementors, as well as the implementation techniques being used. There is no consensus on which ethical theory is best suited for any particular domain, nor is there any agreement on which technique is best placed to implement a particular theory. Another unresolved problem in these implementations of ethical theories is how to objectively validate the implementations. The paper discusses the dilemmas being used as validating ‘whetstones’ and whether any alternative validation mechanism exists. Finally, it speculates that an intermediate step of creating domain-specific ethics might be a possible stepping stone towards creating machines that exhibit ethical behaviour.
      PubDate: 2020-07-08
       
  • The Human Side of Artificial Intelligence
    • Abstract: Abstract Artificial moral agents raise complex ethical questions both in terms of the potential decisions they may make as well as the inputs that create their cognitive architecture. There are multiple differences between human and artificial cognition which create potential barriers for artificial moral agency, at least as understood anthropocentrically and it is unclear that artificial moral agents should emulate human cognition and decision-making. It is conceptually possible for artificial moral agency to emerge that reflects alternative ethical methodologies without creating ontological challenges or existential crises for human moral agents.
      PubDate: 2020-07-07
       
  • Integrating Value Considerations in the Decision Making for the Design of
           Biorefineries
    • Abstract: Abstract Biobased production has been promoted as a sustainable alternative to fossil resources. However, controversies over its impact on sustainability highlight societal concerns, value tensions and uncertainties that have not been taken into account during its development. In this work, the consideration of stakeholders’ values in a biorefinery design project is investigated. Value sensitive design (VSD) is a promising approach to the design of technologies with consideration of stakeholders’ values, however, it is not directly applicable for complex systems like biorefineries. Therefore, some elements of VSD, such as the identification of relevant values and their connection to a technology’s features, are brought into biorefinery design practice. Midstream modulation (MM), an approach to promoting the consideration of societal aspects during research and development activities, is applied to promote reflection and value considerations during the design decision making. As result, it is shown that MM interventions during the design process led to new design alternatives in support of stakeholders' values, and allowed to recognize and respond to emerging value tensions within the scope of the project. In this way, the present work shows a novel approach for the technical investigation of VSD, especially for biorefineries. Also, based on this work it is argued that not only reflection, but also flexibility and openness are important for the application of VSD in the context of biorefinery design.
      PubDate: 2020-07-07
       
  • Towards Establishing Criteria for the Ethical Analysis of Artificial
           Intelligence
    • Abstract: Abstract Ethical reflection on Artificial Intelligence (AI) has become a priority. In this article, we propose a methodological model for a comprehensive ethical analysis of some uses of AI, notably as a replacement of human actors in specific activities. We emphasize the need for conceptual clarification of relevant key terms (e.g., intelligence) in order to undertake such reflection. Against that background, we distinguish two levels of ethical analysis, one practical and one theoretical. Focusing on the state of AI at present, we suggest that regardless of the presence of intelligence, the lack of morally relevant features calls for caution when considering the role of AI in some specific human activities.
      PubDate: 2020-07-07
       
  • Shifting Perspectives
    • PubDate: 2020-07-06
       
  • Blame-Laden Moral Rebukes and the Morally Competent Robot: A Confucian
           Ethical Perspective
    • Abstract: Abstract Empirical studies have suggested that language-capable robots have the persuasive power to shape the shared moral norms based on how they respond to human norm violations. This persuasive power presents cause for concern, but also the opportunity to persuade humans to cultivate their own moral development. We argue that a truly socially integrated and morally competent robot must be willing to communicate its objection to humans’ proposed violations of shared norms by using strategies such as blame-laden rebukes, even if doing so may violate other standing norms, such as politeness. By drawing on Confucian ethics, we argue that a robot’s ability to employ blame-laden moral rebukes to respond to unethical human requests is crucial for cultivating a flourishing “moral ecology” of human–robot interaction. Such positive moral ecology allows human teammates to develop their own moral reflection skills and grow their own virtues. Furthermore, this ability can and should be considered as one criterion for assessing artificial moral agency. Finally, this paper discusses potential implications of the Confucian theories for designing socially integrated and morally competent robots.
      PubDate: 2020-07-06
       
  • Expanding Nallur's Landscape of Machine Implemented Ethics
    • PubDate: 2020-07-06
       
  • Toward Implementing the ADC Model of Moral Judgment in Autonomous Vehicles
    • Abstract: Abstract Autonomous vehicles (AVs)—and accidents they are involved in—attest to the urgent need to consider the ethics of artificial intelligence (AI). The question dominating the discussion so far has been whether we want AVs to behave in a ‘selfish’ or utilitarian manner. Rather than considering modeling self-driving cars on a single moral system like utilitarianism, one possible way to approach programming for AI would be to reflect recent work in neuroethics. The agent–deed–consequence (ADC) model (Dubljević and Racine in AJOB Neurosci 5(4):3–20, 2014a, Behav Brain Sci 37(5):487–488, 2014b) provides a promising descriptive and normative account while also lending itself well to implementation in AI. The ADC model explains moral judgments by breaking them down into positive or negative intuitive evaluations of the agent, deed, and consequence in any given situation. These intuitive evaluations combine to produce a positive or negative judgment of moral acceptability. For example, the overall judgment of moral acceptability in a situation in which someone committed a deed that is judged as negative (e.g., breaking a law) would be mitigated if the agent had good intentions and the action had a good consequence. This explains the considerable flexibility and stability of human moral judgment that has yet to be replicated in AI. This paper examines the advantages and disadvantages of implementing the ADC model and how the model could inform future work on ethics of AI in general.
      PubDate: 2020-07-06
       
  • Correcting the Brain' The Convergence of Neuroscience,
           Neurotechnology, Psychiatry, and Artificial Intelligence
    • Abstract: Abstract The incorporation of neural-based technologies into psychiatry offers novel means to use neural data in patient assessment and clinical diagnosis. However, an over-optimistic technologisation of neuroscientifically-informed psychiatry risks the conflation of technological and psychological norms. Neurotechnologies promise fast, efficient, broad psychiatric insights not readily available through conventional observation of patients. Recording and processing brain signals provides information from ‘beneath the skull’ that can be interpreted as an account of neural processing and that can provide a basis to evaluate general behaviour and functioning. But it ought not to be forgotten that the use of such technologies is part of a human practice of neuroscience informed psychiatry. This paper notes some challenges in the integration of neural technologies into psychiatry and suggests vigilance particularly in respect to normative challenges. In this way, psychiatry can avoid a drift toward reductive technological approaches, while nonetheless benefitting from promising advances in neuroscience and technology.
      PubDate: 2020-07-06
       
  • Role-Playing Computer Ethics: Designing and Evaluating the Privacy by
           Design (PbD) Simulation
    • Abstract: Abstract There is growing consensus that teaching computer ethics is important, but there is little consensus on how to do so. One unmet challenge is increasing the capacity of computing students to make decisions about the ethical challenges embedded in their technical work. This paper reports on the design, testing, and evaluation of an educational simulation to meet this challenge. The privacy by design simulation enables more relevant and effective computer ethics education by letting students experience and make decisions about common ethical challenges encountered in real-world work environments. This paper describes the process of incorporating empirical observations of ethical questions in computing into an online simulation and an in-person board game. We employed the Values at Play framework to transform empirical observations of design into a playable educational experience. First, we conducted qualitative research to discover when and how values levers—practices that encourage values discussions during technology development—occur during the design of new mobile applications. We then translated these findings into gameplay elements, including the goals, roles, and elements of surprise incorporated into a simulation. We ran the online simulation in five undergraduate computer and information science classes. Based on this experience, we created a more accessible board game, which we tested in two undergraduate classes and two professional workshops. We evaluated the effectiveness of both the online simulation and the board game using two methods: a pre/post-test of moral sensitivity based on the Defining Issues Test, and a questionnaire evaluating student experience. We found that converting real-world ethical challenges into a playable simulation increased student’s reported interest in ethical issues in technology, and that students identified the role-playing activity as relevant to their technical coursework. This demonstrates that roleplaying can emphasize ethical decision-making as a relevant component of technical work.
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
       
  • Dignity and Dissent in Humans and Non-humans
    • Abstract: Abstract Is there a difference between human beings and those based on artificial intelligence (AI) that would affect their ability to be subjects of (human-like) dignity' This paper first examines the philosophical notion of (human) dignity as Immanuel Kant derives it from the moral autonomy of the individual. It then asks whether animals and AI systems can claim Kantian dignity or whether there is a sharp divide between human beings, animals and AI systems regarding their ability to be subjects of dignity. How this question is answered depends crucially on one’s understanding of what constitutes human dignity and autonomy, and what requirements one places upon systems in order for them to be seen as morally autonomous.
      PubDate: 2020-06-29
       
  • Assessing the Organizational Climate for Translational Research with a New
           Survey Tool
    • Abstract: Abstract Promoting translational research as a means to overcoming chasms in the translation of knowledge through successive fields of research from basic science to public health impacts and back is a central challenge for research managers and policymakers. Organizational leaders need to assess baseline conditions, identify areas needing improvement, and to judge the impact of specific initiatives to sustain or improve translational research practices at their institutions. Currently, there is a lack of such an assessment tool addressing the specific context of translational biomedical research. To close this gap, we have developed a new survey for assessing the organizational climate for translational research. This self-assessment tool measures employees’ perceptions of translational research climate and underlying research practices in organizational environments and builds on the established Survey of Organizational Research Climate, assessing research integrity. Using this tool, we show that scientists at a large university hospital (Charité Berlin) perceive translation as a central and important component of their work. Importantly, local resources and direct support are main contributing factors for the practical implementation of translation into their own research practice. We identify and discuss potential leverage points for an improvement of research climate to foster successful translational research.
      PubDate: 2020-06-26
       
  • An Ethical Framework for the Design, Development, Implementation, and
           Assessment of Drones Used in Public Healthcare
    • Abstract: The use of drones in public healthcare is suggested as a means to improve efficiency under constrained resources and personnel. This paper begins by framing drones in healthcare as a social experiment where ethical guidelines are needed to protect those impacted while fully realizing the benefits the technology offers. Then we propose an ethical framework to facilitate the design, development, implementation, and assessment of drones used in public healthcare. Given the healthcare context, we structure the framework according to the four bioethics principles: beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy, and justice, plus a fifth principle from artificial intelligence ethics: explicability. These principles are abstract which makes operationalization a challenge; therefore, we suggest an approach of translation according to a values hierarchy whereby the top-level ethical principles are translated into relevant human values within the domain. The resulting framework is an applied ethics tool that facilitates awareness of relevant ethical issues during the design, development, implementation, and assessment of drones in public healthcare.
      PubDate: 2020-06-23
       
  • Danaher’s Ethical Behaviourism: An Adequate Guide to Assessing the Moral
           Status of a Robot'
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper critically assesses John Danaher’s ‘ethical behaviourism’, a theory on how the moral status of robots should be determined. The basic idea of this theory is that a robot’s moral status is determined decisively on the basis of its observable behaviour. If it behaves sufficiently similar to some entity that has moral status, such as a human or an animal, then we should ascribe the same moral status to the robot as we do to this human or animal. The paper argues against ethical behaviourism by making four main points. First, it is argued that the strongest version of ethical behaviourism understands the theory as relying on inferences to the best explanation when inferring moral status. Second, as a consequence, ethical behaviourism cannot stick with merely looking at the robot’s behaviour, while remaining neutral with regard to the difficult question of which property grounds moral status. Third, not only behavioural evidence ought to play a role in inferring a robot’s moral status, but knowledge of the design process of the robot and of its designer’s intention ought to be taken into account as well. Fourth, knowledge of a robot’s ontology and how that relates to human biology often is epistemically relevant for inferring moral status as well. The paper closes with some concluding observations.
      PubDate: 2020-06-16
       
 
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