Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 928 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (59 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (661 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (661 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 201 - 400 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
Comptes Rendus : Physique     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Corrosion Communications     Open Access  
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Croatica Chemica Acta     Open Access  
CrystEngComm     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Protocols in Protein Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Chemical Biology     Open Access  
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Current Research in Green and Sustainable Chemistry     Open Access  
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 117)
Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Dalton Transactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Educação Química en Punto de Vista     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
EDUSAINS     Open Access  
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
Elements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Energetic Materials Frontiers     Open Access  
EnergyChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology     Open Access  
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Science & Technology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Environmental Science : Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eurasian Chemico-Technological Journal     Open Access  
European Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
European Journal of Histochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry Reports     Open Access  
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Faraday Discussions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Fine Chemical Technologies / Тонкие химические технологии     Open Access  
FirePhysChem     Open Access  
Fitoterapia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
FlatChem : Chemistry of Flat Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Fluid Phase Equilibria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Microbiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Chemistry : Molecular Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Digestion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Food Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Forensic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Foundations of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Soil Science     Open Access  
Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fullerenes, Nanotubes and Carbon Nanostructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Future Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Gases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gels     Open Access  
Geochemical Transactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Giant     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Graphene     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Graphene     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Graphene Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Green Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Green and Sustainable Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Green Chemistry Letters and Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Green Synthesis and Catalysis     Open Access  
GSTF Journal of Chemical Sciences (JChem)     Open Access  
Helvetica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Heritage Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
High Energy Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Chemical Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Chemical Technology (IJCT)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Indian Journal of Chemistry - Section B (IJC-B)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources (IJNPR)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Chemical Science     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Partially Free  
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
InfoMat     Open Access  
Inorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Inorganic Chemistry Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Inorganic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Inorganica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Instrumentation Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal for Ion Mobility Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Advanced Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Agrochemistry     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Analytical Mass Spectrometry and Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biological Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biological, Physical and Chemical Studies     Open Access  
International Journal of Chemical Kinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Chemistry and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Chemoinformatics and Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Energetic Materials     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Environmental Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Materials and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Molecular Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Nano Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Spray and Combustion Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Thermodynamics and Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Tryptophan Research     Open Access  
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Polymer Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy     Open Access  
Israel Journal of Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
IUCrData     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JACS Au     Open Access  
JBIC Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
JCIS Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JOT Journal für Oberflächentechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
JOT-International Surface Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Adhesion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Al-Qadisiyah for Pure Science     Open Access  
Journal of Amino Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of AOAC International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Solution Chemistry and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Boron     Open Access  
Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Catalyst & Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Chemical Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Chemical Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Chemical Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Cheminformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Chemistry, Environmental Sciences and its Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Chemometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Chromatography A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Journal of Chromatography Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Coating Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Computational Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Coordination Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Education and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Energy Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Flow Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fluorescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Fluorine Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Fuel Chemistry and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Great Lakes Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Ionic Liquids     Open Access  
Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A: Pure and Applied Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Materials Chemistry A : Materials for Energy and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Materials Chemistry B : Materials for Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Materials Chemistry C : Materials for Optical, Magnetic and Electronic Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Materials Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mathematical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 136)
Journal of Membrane Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Metastable and Nanocrystalline Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Modern Chemistry & Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Number of Followers: 1  

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ISSN (Online) 2673-5628
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Gases, Vol. 2, Pages 22-32: Electrostatic Shock Structures in a Magnetized
           Plasma Having Non-Thermal Particles

    • Authors: Sharmin Jahan, Subrata Banik, Nure Alam Chowdhury, Abdul Mannan, A A Mamun
      First page: 22
      Abstract: A rigorous theoretical investigation has been made on the nonlinear propagation of dust-ion-acoustic shock waves in a multi-component magnetized pair-ion plasma (PIP) having inertial warm positive and negative ions, inertialess non-thermal electrons and positrons, and static negatively charged massive dust grains. The Burgers’ equation is derived by employing the reductive perturbation method. The plasma model supports both positive and negative shock structures in the presence of static negatively charged massive dust grains. It is found that the steepness of both positive and negative shock profiles declines with the increase of ion kinematic viscosity without affecting the height, and the increment of negative (positive) ion mass in the PIP system declines (enhances) the amplitude of the shock profile. It is also observed that the increase in oblique angle raises the height of the positive shock profile, and the height of the positive shock wave increases with the number density of positron. The applications of the findings from the present investigation are briefly discussed.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2022-03-25
      DOI: 10.3390/gases2020002
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
  • Gases, Vol. 2, Pages 33-60: Risk Management Assessment in Oil and Gas
           Construction Projects Using Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM)

    • Authors: Mukhtar A. Kassem
      First page: 33
      Abstract: Oil and gas construction projects are of great importance to support and facilitate the process of operation and production. However, these projects usually face chronic risks that lead to time overrun, cost overrun, and poor quality, affecting the projects’ success. Hence, this study focused on identifying, classifying, and modeling the risk factors that have negative effects on the success of construction projects in Yemen. The data were collected through a structured questionnaire. Statistical analysis, relative important index method, and probability impact matrix analysis were carried out to classify and rank the risk factors. The partial least squares path modeling or partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-PM, PLS-SEM) is a method for structural equation modeling that allows an estimation of complex cause–effect relationships in path models with latent variables. PLS-SEM was employed to analyze data collected from a questionnaire survey of 314 participants comprising the clients, contractors, and consultants working in oil and gas construction projects. The results showed that the goodness of fit index of the model is 0.638. The developed model was deemed to fit because the analysis result of the coefficient of determination test (R2) of the model was 0.720, which indicates the significant explanation of the developed model for the relationship between the causes of risks and their effects on the success of projects. The most impacted internal risk categories include project management, feasibility study design, and resource material availability. The main external risk elements include political, economic, and security considerations. The created risk factor model explained the influence of risk factors on the success of construction projects effectively, according to statistical and expert validation tests.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/gases2020003
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
  • Gases, Vol. 2, Pages 61-73: Efficiency of U.S. Oil and Gas Companies
           toward Energy Policies

    • Authors: Sami Jarboui, Achraf Ghorbel, Ahmed Jeribi
      First page: 61
      Abstract: The petroleum industry faces crucial environmental problems that exacerbate business instability, such as climate change and greenhouse gas emission regulations. Generally, governments focus on pricing, environmental protection, and supply security when developing energy policy. This article evaluates the technical efficiency of 53 oil and gas companies in the United States during the period 1998–2018 using the stochastic frontier analysis methods and investigates the degree to which energy policies influence the efficiency levels in these companies. Our empirical results show that the average technical efficiency of the 53 U.S. oil and gas companies is 0.75 and confirm that prices, production, consumption, and reserves of the U.S. petroleum and gas have a significant influence on technical efficiency levels. Specifically, our findings show that renewable energy and nuclear power contribute to explaining the distortion between the optimal and observed output of the U.S. oil and gas companies.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/gases2020004
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
  • Gases, Vol. 2, Pages 1-21: Adsorption Factors in Enhanced Coal Bed Methane
           Recovery: A Review

    • Authors: Theodora Noely Tambaria, Yuichi Sugai, Ronald Nguele
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Enhanced coal bed methane recovery using gas injection can provide increased methane extraction depending on the characteristics of the coal and the gas that is used. Accurate prediction of the extent of gas adsorption by coal are therefore important. Both experimental methods and modeling have been used to assess gas adsorption and its effects, including volumetric and gravimetric techniques, as well as the Ono–Kondo model and other numerical simulations. Thermodynamic parameters may be used to model adsorption on coal surfaces while adsorption isotherms can be used to predict adsorption on coal pores. In addition, density functional theory and grand canonical Monte Carlo methods may be employed. Complementary analytical techniques include Fourier transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, XR diffraction, and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This review summarizes the cutting-edge research concerning the adsorption of CO2, N2, or mixture gas onto coal surfaces and into coal pores based on both experimental studies and simulations.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2022-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/gases2010001
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
  • Gases, Vol. 1, Pages 156-179: An Investigation into the Volumetric Flow
           Rate Requirement of Hydrogen Transportation in Existing Natural Gas
           Pipelines and Its Safety Implications

    • Authors: Abubakar Jibrin Abbas, Hossein Hassani, Martin Burby, Idoko Job John
      First page: 156
      Abstract: As an alternative to the construction of new infrastructure, repurposing existing natural gas pipelines for hydrogen transportation has been identified as a low-cost strategy for substituting natural gas with hydrogen in the wake of the energy transition. In line with that, a 342 km, 36″ natural gas pipeline was used in this study to simulate some technical implications of delivering the same amount of energy with different blends of natural gas and hydrogen, and with 100% hydrogen. Preliminary findings from the study confirmed that a three-fold increase in volumetric flow rate would be required of hydrogen to deliver an equivalent amount of energy as natural gas. The effects of flowing hydrogen at this rate in an existing natural gas pipeline on two flow parameters (the compressibility factor and the velocity gradient) which are crucial to the safety of the pipeline were investigated. The compressibility factor behaviour revealed the presence of a wide range of values as the proportions of hydrogen and natural gas in the blends changed, signifying disparate flow behaviours and consequent varying flow challenges. The velocity profiles showed that hydrogen can be transported in natural gas pipelines via blending with natural gas by up to 40% of hydrogen in the blend without exceeding the erosional velocity limits of the pipeline. However, when the proportion of hydrogen reached 60%, the erosional velocity limit was reached at 290 km, so that beyond this distance, the pipeline would be subject to internal erosion. The use of compressor stations was shown to be effective in remedying this challenge. This study provides more insights into the volumetric and safety considerations of adopting existing natural gas pipelines for the transportation of hydrogen and blends of hydrogen and natural gas.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2021-10-21
      DOI: 10.3390/gases1040013
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 4 (2021)
  • Gases, Vol. 1, Pages 180-198: Evaluation of Heat Decarbonization
           Strategies and Their Impact on the Irish Gas Network

    • Authors: Aruna Chandrasekar, Eoin Syron
      First page: 180
      Abstract: Decarbonization of the heating sector is essential to meet the ambitious goals of the Paris Climate Agreement for 2050. However, poorly insulated buildings and industrial processes with high and intermittent heating demand will still require traditional boilers that burn fuel to avoid excessive burden on electrical networks. Therefore, it is important to assess the impact of residential, commercial, and industrial heat decarbonization strategies on the distribution and transmission gas networks. Using building energy models in EnergyPlus, the progressive decarbonization of gas-fueled heating was investigated by increasing insulation in buildings and increasing the efficiency of gas boilers. Industrial heat decarbonization was evaluated through a progressive move to lower-carbon fuel sources using MATLAB. The results indicated a maximum decrease of 19.9% in natural gas utilization due to the buildings’ thermal retrofits. This, coupled with a move toward the electrification of heat, will reduce volumes of gas being transported through the distribution gas network. However, the decarbonization of the industrial heat demand with hydrogen could result in up to a 380% increase in volumetric flow rate through the transmission network. A comparison between the decarbonization of domestic heating through gas and electrical heating is also carried out. The results indicated that gas networks can continue to play an essential role in the decarbonized energy systems of the future.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2021-12-17
      DOI: 10.3390/gases1040014
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 4 (2021)
  • Gases, Vol. 1, Pages 133-147: CFD Modeling of a Lab-Scale Microwave Plasma
           Reactor for Waste-to-Energy Applications: A Review

    • Authors: Owen Sedej, Eric Mbonimpa
      First page: 133
      Abstract: Rapidly increasing solid waste generation and energy demand are two critical issues of the current century. Plasma gasification, a type of waste-to-energy (WtE) technology, has the potential to produce clean energy from waste and safely destroy hazardous waste. Among plasma gasification technologies, microwave (MW)-driven plasma offers numerous potential advantages to be scaled as a leading WtE technology if its processes are well understood and optimized. This paper reviews studies on modeling experimental microwave-induced plasma gasification systems. The system characterization requires developing mathematical models to describe the multiphysics phenomena within the reactor. The injection of plasma-forming gases and carrier gases, the rate of the waste stream, and the operational power heavily influence the initiation of various chemical reactions that produce syngas. The type and kinetics of the chemical reactions taking place are primarily influenced by either the turbulence or temperature. Navier–Stokes equations are used to describe the mass, momentum, and energy transfer, and the k-epsilon model is often used to describe the turbulence within the reactor. Computational fluid dynamics software offers the ability to solve these multiphysics mathematical models efficiently and accurately.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2021-07-24
      DOI: 10.3390/gases1030011
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 3 (2021)
  • Gases, Vol. 1, Pages 148-155: Modulational Instability of Ion-Acoustic
           Waves and Associated Envelope Solitons in a Multi-Component Plasma

    • Authors: Subrata Banik, Nadiya Mehzabeen Heera, Tasfia Yeashna, Md. Rakib Hassan, Rubaiya Khondoker Shikha, Nure Alam Chowdhury, Abdul Mannan, A A Mamun
      First page: 148
      Abstract: A generalized plasma model with inertial warm ions, inertialess iso-thermal electrons, super-thermal electrons and positrons is considered to theoretically investigate the modulational instability (MI) of ion-acoustic waves (IAWs). A standard nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived by applying the reductive perturbation method. It is observed that the stable domain of the IAWs decreases with ion temperature but increases with electron temperature. It is also found that the stable domain increases by increasing (decreasing) the electron (ion) number density. The present results will be useful in understanding the conditions for MI of IAWs which are relevant to both space and laboratory plasmas.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2021-08-27
      DOI: 10.3390/gases1030012
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 3 (2021)
  • Gases, Vol. 1, Pages 68-79: Effects of the Henry Hub Price on U.S. LNG
           Exports and on Gas Flows in Western Europe

    • Authors: Maik Günther, Volker Nissen
      First page: 68
      Abstract: Natural gas plays an important role in energy supply, and its fields of application are diverse. However, the world’s largest growth potential among fossil fuels is attributed to liquefied natural gas (LNG). In the last few years, the U.S. rapidly increased LNG exports, and it is expected that they will further increase the liquefaction capacities. The cost of the LNG value chain is composed of the natural gas price in the country of origin, and the LNG process costs for liquefaction, transportation, storage, and regasification. Thus, the Henry Hub (HH) price in the U.S. is important for U.S. LNG exports to Western Europe. In this paper, gas flows in Western Europe at the beginning of the 2030s are analyzed if the price at HH is higher or lower than expected. Furthermore, the effect of the HH price on monthly U.S. LNG exports are studied. For the calculations, the global gas market model WEGA is used. The results reveal that the price at HH has a significant effect on annual gas flows in Western Europe and also on U.S. LNG exports during the summer. Furthermore, it is shown that pipeline gas in Western Europe will absorb fluctuations of U.S. LNG exports between the presented scenarios.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2021-03-25
      DOI: 10.3390/gases1020006
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2021)
  • Gases, Vol. 1, Pages 80-91: Liquefied Synthetic Natural Gas Produced
           through Renewable Energy Surplus: Impact Analysis on Vehicular
           Transportation by 2040 in Italy

    • Authors: Linda Barelli, Gianni Bidini, Panfilo Andrea Ottaviano, Michele Perla
      First page: 80
      Abstract: Time mismatch between renewable energy production and consumption, grid congestion issues, and consequent production curtailment lead to the need for energy storage systems to allow for a greater renewable energy sources share in future energy scenarios. A power-to-liquefied synthetic natural gas system can be used to convert renewable energy surplus into fuel for heavy duty vehicles, coupling the electric and transportation sectors. The investigated system originates from power-to-gas technology, based on water electrolysis and CO2 methanation to produce a methane rich mixture containing H2, coupled with a low temperature gas upgrading section to meet the liquefied natural gas requirements. The process uses direct air CO2 capture to feed the methanation section; mol sieve dehydration and cryogenic distillation are implemented to produce a liquefied natural gas quality mixture. The utilization of this fuel in heavy duty vehicles can reduce greenhouse gases emissions if compared with diesel and natural gas, supporting the growth of renewable fuel consumption in an existing market. Here, the application of power-to-liquefied synthetic natural gas systems is investigated at a national level for Italy by 2040, assessing the number of plants to be installed in order to convert the curtailed energy, synthetic fuel production, and consequent avoided greenhouse gases emissions through well-to-wheel analysis. Finally, plant investment cost is preliminarily investigated.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2021-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/gases1020007
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2021)
  • Gases, Vol. 1, Pages 92-105: Comparative Analysis of Gasification and
           Adiabatic Digestion of Corn for Practical Implementation in Conventional
           Gas Turbines

    • Authors: Milana Guteša Božo, Agustin Valera-Medina
      First page: 92
      Abstract: Clean, more responsible energy production in gas turbine power plants is a challenge. Interestingly, various alternative sources could be found in agricultural locations with great potential of being transformed from agricultural waste to energy. Corn cob gasification gas could be successfully implemented in gas turbines through co-firing with natural gas. Concurrently, agricultural biogas could also be employed for such a purpose. The technology could be implemented in locations such as Vojvodina, Serbia, which is an agricultural region with great potential for producing biogas from agricultural waste. Therefore, this paper approaches the practical implementation of gas produced by adiabatic corn digestion with CO2 recirculation. Five different cases were assessed. The results are compared to previous analyses that used co-firing of the corn cob gasification gas in representative gas turbine systems. Impacts of the fuel composition on the characteristics of combustion were analyzed using CHEMKIN PRO with GRI–Mech 3.0. Impacts of fuel quality on the power plant performance were analyzed through calculations with a numerical model based on a Brayton cycle of 3.9 MW power output. The application shows acceptable values during co-firing with natural gas without modification of the overall system, with better outlet parameters compared to pure corn gasification gas.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2021-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/gases1020008
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2021)
  • Gases, Vol. 1, Pages 106-116: Dust-Ion-Acoustic Rogue Waves in a Dusty
           Plasma Having Super-Thermal Electrons

    • Authors: Akib Al Noman, Md Khairul Islam, Mehedi Hassan, Subrata Banik, Nure Alam Chowdhury, Abdul Mannan, A. A. Mamun
      First page: 106
      Abstract: The standard nonlinear Schrödinger Equation (NLSE) is one of the elegant equations to find detailed information about the modulational instability criteria of dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) waves and associated DIA rogue waves (DIARWs) in a three-component dusty plasma medium with inertialess super-thermal kappa distributed electrons, and inertial warm positive ions and negative dust grains. It can be seen that the plasma system supports both fast and slow DIA modes under consideration of inertial warm ions along with inertial negatively charged dust grains. It is also found that the modulationally stable parametric regime decreases with κ. The numerical analysis has also shown that the amplitude of the first and second-order DIARWs decreases with ion temperature. These results are to be considered the cornerstone for explaining the real puzzles in space and laboratory dusty plasmas.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2021-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/gases1020009
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2021)
  • Gases, Vol. 1, Pages 117-132: Impact of Managed-Lane Pricing Strategies on
           Vehicle-Sourced NOx and HC Emissions

    • Authors: Jianbang Du, Fengxiang Qiao, Lei Yu, Ying Lv
      First page: 117
      Abstract: Ground-level ozone is a secondary air pollutant that is formed by chemical reactions between precursors, including nitrogen oxides (NOx) and hydrocarbon (HC). Highway traffic, which can be controlled by traffic operational strategies, is one of the main sources of atmospheric NOx and HC. Managed-lane pricing is one of the popularly used freeway traffic management approaches, while its impacts on ground-level ozone-related vehicle emissions is, however, still unclear. This motivated the purpose of this research. A case study in Houston, USA indicates that, vehicles on managed lanes had fewer hard accelerations/decelerations and higher average speed, which resulted in higher per-vehicle emissions in grams/hour, while the total emissions of a vehicle were roughly comparable to what they would be on a general-purpose lane. Total daily NOx and HC emissions per managed lane were 31.9%–42.6% of those per general-purpose lane. The weight ratios between HC and NOx show that, the ground-level ozone formation of this area is hydrocarbon-limited.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2021-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/gases1020010
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2021)
  • Gases, Vol. 1, Pages 33-50: Effects of Pressurizing Cryogenic Treatments
           on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Shale Core Samples—An
           Experimental Study

    • Authors: Rayan Khalil, Hossein Emadi, Faisal Altawati
      First page: 33
      Abstract: The technique of cryogenic treatments requires injecting extremely cold fluids such as liquid nitrogen (LN2) into formations to create fractures in addition to connecting pre-existing fracture networks. This study investigated the effects of implementing and pressurizing cryogenic treatment on the physical (porosity and permeability) and mechanical properties (Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and bulk compressibility) of the Marcellus shale samples. Ten Marcellus core samples were inserted in a core holder and heated to 66 °C using an oven. Then, LN2 (−177 °C) was injected into the samples at approximately 0.14 MPa. Nitrogen was used to pressurize nine samples at injection pressures of 1.38, 2.76, and 4.14 MPa while the tenth core sample was not pressurized. Using a cryogenic pressure transducer and a T-type thermocouple, the pressure and temperature of the core holder were monitored and recorded during the test. The core samples were scanned using a computed tomography (CT) scanner, and their porosities, permeability, and ultrasonic velocities were measured both before and after conducting the cryogenic treatments. The analyses of CT scan results illustrated that conducting cryogenic treatments created new cracks inside all the samples. These cracks increased the pore volume, and as a result, the porosity, permeability, and bulk compressibility of the core samples increased. The creations of the new cracks also resulted in reductions in the compressional and shear velocities of the samples, and as a result, decreasing the Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio. Moreover, the results revealed that pressurizing the injected LN2 increased the alterations of aforementioned properties.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2021-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/gases1010003
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2021)
  • Gases, Vol. 1, Pages 51-52: Gases—An Open Access Journal

    • Authors: Edward J. Anthony
      First page: 51
      Abstract: Gases (ISSN 2673-5628) is an international and interdisciplinary peer-reviewed open access journal on gas science and engineering published quarterly online by MDPI [...]
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2021-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/gases1010004
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2021)
  • Gases, Vol. 1, Pages 53-67: A Visual Investigation of CO2 Convective
           Mixing in Water and Oil at the Pore Scale Using a Micromodel Apparatus at
           Reservoir Conditions

    • Authors: Widuramina Amarasinghe, Seyed Farzaneh, Ingebret Fjelde, Mehran Sohrabi, Ying Guo
      First page: 53
      Abstract: CO2 convective mixing in water has been visualized in Hele-Shaw and PVT cell experiments but not at the pore scale. Furthermore, CO2 convective mixing in a three-phase system (i.e., CO2 in the presence of both water and oil) has not been visually investigated. A vertically placed micromodel setup was used to visualize CO2 convective mixing at 100 bar and 50 °C, representative of reservoir conditions. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, we have visually investigated CO2 convective mixing in water at the pore scale and also CO2 convective mixing in a multiphase system (water and oil). CO2 mixing in water governed by both diffusion and convection mechanisms was observed. The vertical CO2 transport velocity was calculated to be 0.3 mm/min in both a 100% water saturation system and a residual oil-saturated system. First, CO2 always found the easiest path through the connected pores, and then CO2 was transported into less connected pores and dead-end pores. CO2 transport into dead-end pores was slower than through the preferential path. CO2 transport into water-filled ganglia with trapped oil was observed and was slower than in water.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2021-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/gases1010005
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2021)
  • Gases, Vol. 1, Pages 1-18: A Techno-Economic Perspective on Natural Gas
           and Its Value Chain

    • Authors: Ruud Egging-Bratseth
      First page: 1
      Abstract: We describe the elements and actors in the global natural gas value chains with an emphasis on characteristics relevant for large-scale energy system and market modeling. We give backgrounds on natural gas as a hydrocarbon to provide a rationale and understanding for what functional representations in mathematical programming models aim to represent. Simply taking the most advanced and detailed functional forms for all value chain characteristics and activities will typically result in numerical intractability. One should carefully determine what is needed to address a research question or analyze a business case. Recent advances in mathematical programming do allow solving large models with adequate detail for many types of analysis. We discuss which functional forms and modeling approaches can be appropriate for representing various characteristics in different types of analysis and provide a succinct and general mathematical programming formulation reflecting the optimization problems for different types of actors in the value chain. We provide an implementation for a stylized network using GAMS.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2020-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/gases1010001
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2020)
  • Gases, Vol. 1, Pages 19-32: Safe and Effective Use of Ozone as Air and
           Surface Disinfectant in the Conjuncture of Covid-19

    • Authors: Elena Grignani, Antonella Mansi, Renato Cabella, Paola Castellano, Angelo Tirabasso, Renata Sisto, Mariangela Spagnoli, Giovanni Fabrizi, Francesco Frigerio, Giovanna Tranfo
      First page: 19
      Abstract: The present paper extrapolates quantitative data for ozone virucidal activity on the basis of the available scientific literature data for a safe and effective use of ozone in the appropriate cases and to explore the safety measures developed under the stimulus of the current emergency situation. Ozone is a powerful oxidant reacting with organic molecules, and therefore has bactericidal, virucidal, and fungicidal actions. At the same time, it is a toxic substance, having adverse effects on health and safety. Its use is being proposed for the disinfection of workplaces’ and public places’ atmosphere, and for disposable masks and personal protective equipment disinfection for reuse, with particular reference to the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak. Ozone can be generated in situ by means of small, compact ozone generators, using dried ambient air as a precursor. It should be injected into the room that is to be disinfected until the desired ozone concentration is reached; after the time needed for the disinfection, its concentrations must be reduced to the levels required for the workers’ safety. The optimal use of ozone is for air and surface disinfection without human presence, using a concentration that is effective for the destruction of viruses, but not high enough to deteriorate materials.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2020-12-24
      DOI: 10.3390/gases1010002
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2020)
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Heriot-Watt University
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