Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 928 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (59 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (661 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (661 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 401 - 600 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of Molecular Liquids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Molecular Recognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Molecular Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology     Open Access  
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C: Photochemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Polymer & Composites     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92)
Journal of Polymers     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Progressive Research in Chemistry     Open Access  
Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Research and Education Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research Updates in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Rubber Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Saudi Chemical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Solid State Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Solution Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sulfur Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Supercritical Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Superhard Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Surface Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Surfactants and Detergents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Taibah University for Science     Open Access  
Journal of the American Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 326)
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of the Indian Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of The Indonesian Society of Integrated Chemistry     Open Access  
Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of the Mexican Chemical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society     Open Access  
Journal of the Turkish Chemical Society, Section A : Chemistry     Open Access  
Journal of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Jurnal Inovasi Pendidikan Kimia     Open Access  
Jurnal Kimia (Journal of Chemistry)     Open Access  
Jurnal Kimia Riset     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Kimia     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sains (JPS)     Open Access  
Karbala International Journal of Modern Science     Open Access  
Kinetics and Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Konfigurasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Kimia dan Terapan     Open Access  
Korea-Australia Rheology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Langmuir     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Lebensmittelchemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Lipid Insights     Open Access  
Luminescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Macromolecular Materials & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Macromolecular Rapid Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Macromolecular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Macromolecular Symposia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Macromolecular Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Macromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Magnetochemistry     Open Access  
Marine Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Marine Drugs     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
MATEC Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Materials Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Materials and Devices     Open Access  
Materials Characterization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Materials Chemistry Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Materials Horizons     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Materials Research Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Materials Science-Poland     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Materials Sciences and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Medicinal Chemistry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Mediterranean Journal of Chemistry     Open Access  
Metallography, Microstructure, and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Micro and Nano Systems Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Microchimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Microporous and Mesoporous Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Modern Chemistry & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modern Research in Catalysis     Open Access  
Molbank     Open Access  
Molecular Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Molecules     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Molecules and Cells     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Monatshefte für Chemie - Chemical Monthly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mongolian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access  
Moscow University Chemistry Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
MRS Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Nachrichten aus der Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nano Convergence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nano Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nano Reviews & Experiments     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Nano Select     Open Access  
Nanochemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nanoscale     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Nanoscale Advances     Open Access  
Nanoscale Horizons     Hybrid Journal  
Nanoscale Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Natural Product Communications     Open Access  
Natural Product Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Natural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils     Open Access  
Nature Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 96)
Nature Protocols     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 73)
Nature Reviews Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
New Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Nitric Oxide     Hybrid Journal  
Nitrogen     Open Access  
Nukleonika     Open Access  
Open Chemistry Journal     Open Access  
Open Conference Proceedings Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Chemistry     Open Access  
Open Journal of Composite Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Open Journal of Inorganic Non-metallic Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Polymer Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Open Journal of Synthesis Theory and Applications     Open Access  
Open Medicinal Chemistry Journal     Open Access  
Orbital - The Electronic Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Organometallics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Oxidation of Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Passer Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Peptide Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmaceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Phosphorus, Sulfur, and Silicon and the Related Elements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Photochemistry and Photobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Physical Science International Journal     Open Access  
Physics and Materials Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Phytochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Phytochemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Plasma     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Polyhedron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Polymer Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Polymer crystallization     Hybrid Journal  
Polymer Degradation and Stability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Polymer Engineering & Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Polymer Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Polymer Science Series D     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Polymer Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 198)
Polymer-Plastics Technology and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Polymers     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Polymers from Renewable Resources     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the Combustion Institute     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Processes     Open Access  
Progress in Lipid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Progress in Organic Coatings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Progress in Polymer Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Progress in Reaction Kinetics and Mechanism     Open Access  
Progress in Solid State Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Progress in Surface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Protein Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Radiochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Reaction Chemistry & Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Reactions     Open Access  
Reportes Científicos de la FaCEN     Open Access  
Research Journal of Phytochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Resources Chemicals and Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Results in Chemistry     Open Access  
Results in Geochemistry     Open Access  
Results in Surfaces and Interfaces     Open Access  
Review Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Revista Boliviana de Química     Open Access  
Revista CENIC. Ciencias Quimicas     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Química     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Química     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencias     Open Access  
Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales     Open Access  
Revista de la Sociedad Química del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de la Societat Catalana de Química     Open Access  
Revista de Química     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Revista Debates em Ensino de Química     Open Access  
Revista ION     Open Access  
RSC Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
RSC Chemical Biology     Open Access  
RSC Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Russian Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Russian Journal of Coordination Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Russian Journal of General Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Russian Journal of Inorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Sainstek : Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi     Open Access  
Science China Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Science Talks     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Sciences & Technologie A : sciences exactes     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Frontier Chemical Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Reactions
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ISSN (Online) 2624-781X
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Reactions, Vol. 3, Pages 233-253: Recent Progresses in the Preparation of
           Chlorinated Molecules: Electrocatalysis and Photoredox Catalysis in the
           Spotlight

    • Authors: Stefano Parisotto, Emanuele Azzi, Alberto Lanfranco, Polyssena Renzi, Annamaria Deagostino
      First page: 233
      Abstract: Among halogenated molecules, those containing chlorine atoms are fundamental in many areas such as pharmaceuticals, polymers, agrochemicals and natural metabolites. Despite the fact that many reactions have been developed to install chlorine on organic molecules, most of them rely on toxic and hazardous chlorinating reagents as well as harsh conditions. In an attempt to move towards more sustainable approaches, photoredox catalysis and electrocatalysis have emerged as powerful alternatives to traditional methods. In this review, we collect the most recent and significant examples of visible-light- or current-mediated chlorination published in the last five years.
      Citation: Reactions
      PubDate: 2022-04-03
      DOI: 10.3390/reactions3020018
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Reactions, Vol. 3, Pages 254-264: Regioselective Bond-Forming and
           Hydrolysis Reactions of Doubly Charged Vanadium Oxide Anions in the Gas
           Phase

    • Authors: Chiara Salvitti, Federico Pepi, Anna Troiani, Giulia de Petris
      First page: 254
      Abstract: The gas-phase reactivity of vanadium-containing dianions, NaV3O92− and its hydrated form H2NaV3O102−, were probed towards sulphur dioxide at room temperature by ion-molecule reaction (IMR) experiments in the collision cell of an ion trap mass spectrometer. The sequential addition of two SO2 molecules to the NaV3O92− dianion leads to the breakage of the stable V3O9 backbone, resulting in a charge separation process with the formation of new V-O and S-O bonds. On the contrary, the H2NaV3O102− hydroxide species reacts with SO2, promoting regioselective hydrolysis and bond-forming processes, the latter similar to that observed for the NaV3O92− reactant anion. Kinetic analysis shows that these reactions are fast and efficient with rate constants of the 10−9 (±30) cm3 s−1 molecule−1 order of magnitude.
      Citation: Reactions
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
      DOI: 10.3390/reactions3020019
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Reactions, Vol. 3, Pages 265-282: Catalytic Performances of Sn-Beta
           Catalysts Prepared from Different Heteroatom-Containing Beta Zeolites for
           the Retro-Aldol Fragmentation of Glucose

    • Authors: Ricardo Navar, Luca Botti, Giulia Tarantino, Ceri Hammond
      First page: 265
      Abstract: Beta zeolites with different heteroatoms incorporated into the lattice at two loadings (Si/M = 100 or 200, where M = Al, Fe, Ga, B) were hydrothermally synthesised and used as starting materials for the preparation of Sn-Beta using Solid-State Incorporation. 119Sn CPMG MAS NMR showed that various Sn species were formed, the distribution of which depended on the identity of the initial heteroatom and the original Si/M ratio. The final Sn-Beta materials (with Si/Sn = 200) were explored as catalysts for the retro-aldol fragmentation of glucose to α-hydroxy-esters in the continuous regime. Amongst these materials, B-derived Sn-Beta was found to exhibit improved levels of selectivity and stability, particularly compared to Sn-Beta catalysts synthesised from commercially available Al-Beta materials, achieving a combined yield of methyl lactate and methyl vinyl glycolate > 80% at short times on the stream. Given that B atoms can be removed from the Beta lattice in mild conditions without the use of highly concentrated acidic media, this discovery demonstrates that B-Beta is an attractive starting material for the future post-synthetic preparation of Lewis acidic zeolites.
      Citation: Reactions
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/reactions3020020
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Reactions, Vol. 3, Pages 283-299: Valorization of Microcrystalline
           Cellulose Using Heterogeneous Protonated Zeolite Catalyst: An Experimental
           and Kinetics Approach

    • Authors: Samuel Kassaye, Dinesh Gupta, Kamal Kishore Pant, Sapna Jain
      First page: 283
      Abstract: This study aimed to valorize microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) using protonated zeolite catalysts such as (H-ZSM-5) and Cr/H-ZSM-5 (5%) in ionic liquid. The catalytic effect in synergy with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium Chloride ([BMIM] Cl) ionic liquid was studied in detail. The total reducing sugar (TRS) was determined using the 3, 5-dinitrisalcylic acid (DNS) array method. The catalysts were characterized using techniques such as Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH3-TPD), and BET-surface area analyzer. H-ZSM-5 effectively depolymerized cellulose with a maximum yield of 70% total reducing sugar (34% glucose, 8% fructose, and 4.5% 5-HMF). Cr/H-ZSM-5 catalyst dehydrated fructose to 5-HMF with a yield of 53%. The use of ionic liquid significantly reduced the activation energy of formation and decomposition. The activation energy determined in cellulose hydrolysis was 85.83 KJ mol−1 for a reaction time of 180 min while the decomposition energy was found to be 42.5 kJ mol−1.
      Citation: Reactions
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/reactions3020021
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Reactions, Vol. 3, Pages 300-311: C-N, C-O and C-S Ullmann-Type Coupling
           Reactions of Arenediazonium o-Benzenedisulfonimides

    • Authors: Achille Antenucci, Stefano Dughera
      First page: 300
      Abstract: Arenediazonium o-benzenedisulfonimides have been used as efficient electrophilic partners in Cu(I) catalysed Ullmann-type coupling. The synthetic protocols are mild and easy, and produced either N-alkylanilines, aryl ethers, or thioethers in fairly good yields (18 positive examples, average yield 66%). o-Benzenedisulfonimide was recovered at the end of the reactions and was reused to prepare the starting salts for further reactions. It is noteworthy that diazonium salts have been used as electrophilic partners in the Ullmann-type protocol for the first time.
      Citation: Reactions
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/reactions3020022
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Reactions, Vol. 3, Pages 312-328: Application of Mixed Potential Theory to
           Leaching of Mineral Phases

    • Authors: César A. C. Sequeira
      First page: 312
      Abstract: Leaching is a central unit operation in the hydrometallurgical processing of minerals, which often occurs by means of electrochemical reactions. Application of mixed potential theory to explain the kinetics of oxidative and reductive leaching processes is a useful concept in explaining observed results. Native metals, selected oxides, and most base metal sulfides are electron-conducting phases. For these minerals, leaching may take place by normal corrosion, passivation or galvanic couple mechanisms, which provide individual electrode kinetics enabling the calculation of mixed potentials and overall reaction kinetics. Examples of the electrochemical nature of selected leaching processes are presented and include the effect of mixed potentials, geometry, and associated kinetic reactions.
      Citation: Reactions
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/reactions3020023
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Reactions, Vol. 3, Pages 59-69: High Yielding, One-Pot Synthesis of
           Bis(1H-indazol-1-yl)methane Catalyzed by 3d-Metal Salts

    • Authors: Natalie M. Lind, Natalie S. Joe, Brian S. Newell, Aimee M. Morris
      First page: 59
      Abstract: Synthetic access to poly(indazolyl)methanes has limited their study despite their structural similarity to the highly investigated chelating poly(pyrazolyl)methanes and their potentially important indazole moiety. Herein is presented a high yielding, one-pot synthesis for the 3d-metal catalyzed formation of bis(1H-indazol-1-yl)methane from 1H-indazole utilizing dimethylsulfoxide as the methylene source. Complete characterization of bis(1H-indazol-1-yl)methane is given with 1H and 13C NMR, UV/Vis, FTIR, high resolution mass spectrometry and for the first time, single crystal X-ray diffraction. This simple, inexpensive pathway to yield exclusively bis(1H-indazol-1-yl)methane provides synthetic access to further investigate the coordination and potential applications of the family of bis(indazolyl)methanes.
      Citation: Reactions
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/reactions3010005
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Reactions, Vol. 3, Pages 70-86: The Rearrangement of Alkylallenes to
           1,3-Dienes

    • Authors: Yassir Al-Jawaheri, Marc Colin Kimber
      First page: 70
      Abstract: 1,3-Dienes are vital building blocks in organic synthesis. They underpin many fundamental synthetic transformations and are present in numerous natural products and drug candidate molecules. The rearrangement of an alkylallene to a 1,3-diene is an atom efficient, redox neutral, transformation that provides a straightforward synthetic route to functionalized 1,3-dienes. Herein, we provide an account of this transformation using allenes that are not predisposed by the presence of heteroatoms or electron-withdrawing groups directly attached to the allene. Early reports of this skeletal rearrangement are acid-mediated approaches, with limited substrate scope, but they provide valuable mechanistic insights. More recent transition metal-mediated approaches that exhibit improved substrate scope are described, together with isolated examples that have utilized this rearrangement.
      Citation: Reactions
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/reactions3010006
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Reactions, Vol. 3, Pages 87-88: Editorial for Special Issue
           “Hydrogen Production and Storage”

    • Authors: Valérie Meille, Luis M. Gandía, Sibudjing Kawi, Francesco Frusteri
      First page: 87
      Abstract: Hydrogen appears as an unavoidable energy vector and an almost miracle solution to global warming for many people [...]
      Citation: Reactions
      PubDate: 2022-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/reactions3010007
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Reactions, Vol. 3, Pages 89-117: Thermal Input/Concentration Output
           Systems Processed by Chemical Reactions of Helicene Oligomers

    • Authors: Sheng Zhang, Ming Bao, Masahiko Yamaguchi
      First page: 89
      Abstract: This article describes thermal input/concentration output systems processed by chemical reactions. Various sophisticated thermal inputs can be converted into concentration outputs through the double-helix formation of helicene oligomers exhibiting thermal hysteresis. The inputs include high or low temperature, cooling or heating state, slow or fast cooling state, heating state, and cooling history. The chemical basis for the properties of the chemical reactions includes the reversibility out of chemical equilibrium, sigmoidal relationship and kinetics, bistability involving metastable states, positive feedback by self-catalytic chemical reactions, competitive chemical reactions, and fine tunability for parallel processing. The interfacing of concentration outputs in other systems is considered, and biological cells are considered to have been utilizing such input/output systems processed by chemical reactions.
      Citation: Reactions
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/reactions3010008
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Reactions, Vol. 3, Pages 118-137: Bio-Oil: The Next-Generation Source of
           Chemicals

    • Authors: Henrique Machado, Ana F. Cristino, Sofia Orišková, Rui Galhano dos Santos
      First page: 118
      Abstract: Bio-oil, although rich in chemical species, is primarily used as fuel oil, due to its greater calorific power when compared to the biomass from which it is made. The incomplete understanding of how to explore its chemical potential as a source of value-added chemicals and, therefore, a supply of intermediary chemical species is due to the diverse composition of bio-oil. Being biomass-based, making it subject to composition changes, bio-oil is obtained via different processes, the two most common being fast pyrolysis and hydrothermal liquefaction. Different methods result in different bio-oil compositions even from the same original biomass. Understanding which biomass source and process results in a particular chemical makeup is of interest to those concerned with the refinement or direct application in chemical reactions of bio-oil. This paper presents a summary of published bio-oil production methods, origin biomass, and the resulting composition.
      Citation: Reactions
      PubDate: 2022-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/reactions3010009
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Reactions, Vol. 3, Pages 138: Acknowledgment of Reviewers of Reactions in
           2021

    • Authors: Reactions Editorial Office Reactions Editorial Office
      First page: 138
      Abstract: Rigorous peer reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Reactions
      PubDate: 2022-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/reactions3010010
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Reactions, Vol. 3, Pages 139-159: Engineering the 2-Oxoglutarate
           Dehydrogenase Complex to Understand Catalysis and Alter Substrate
           Recognition

    • Authors: Joydeep Chakraborty, Natalia Nemeria, Yujeong Shim, Xu Zhang, Elena L. Guevara, Hetal Patel, Edgardo T. Farinas, Frank Jordan
      First page: 139
      Abstract: The E. coli 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDHc) is a multienzyme complex in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, consisting of multiple copies of three components, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (E1o), dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase (E2o) and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3), which catalyze the formation of succinyl-CoA and NADH (+H+) from 2-oxoglutarate. This review summarizes applications of the site saturation mutagenesis (SSM) to engineer E. coli OGDHc with mechanistic and chemoenzymatic synthetic goals. First, E1o was engineered by creating SSM libraries at positions His260 and His298.Variants were identified that: (a) lead to acceptance of substrate analogues lacking the 5-carboxyl group and (b) performed carboligation reactions producing acetoin-like compounds with good enantioselectivity. Engineering the E2o catalytic (core) domain enabled (a) assignment of roles for pivotal residues involved in catalysis, (b) re-construction of the substrate-binding pocket to accept substrates other than succinyllysyldihydrolipoamide and (c) elucidation of the mechanism of trans-thioesterification to involve stabilization of a tetrahedral oxyanionic intermediate with hydrogen bonds by His375 and Asp374, rather than general acid–base catalysis which has been misunderstood for decades. The E. coli OGDHc is the first example of a 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complex which was evolved to a 2-oxo aliphatic acid dehydrogenase complex by engineering two consecutive E1o and E2o components.
      Citation: Reactions
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/reactions3010011
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Reactions, Vol. 3, Pages 160-171: Photocatalytic Degradation Pathways of
           the Valsartan Drug by TiO2 and g-C3N4 Catalysts

    • Authors: Feidias Bairamis, Ioannis Konstantinou
      First page: 160
      Abstract: The photocatalytic degradation of the valsartan (VLS) pharmaceutical using TiO2 and g-C3N4 catalysts under simulated solar light is studied in this paper by high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry. •OH radicals were the major oxidant species for the degradation of valsartan using TiO2, while positive holes (h+), followed by a much lesser amount of •OH radicals, were the major species in the case of g-C3N4. Valsartan degradation followed first order kinetics by both catalysts with TiO2 being the catalyst with the better photocatalytic efficiency. The transformation products (TPs) and their evolution profiles are identified and monitored, respectively, by means of LC-HRMS. Based on TPs identification, the degradation mechanisms are discussed. The major degradation pathways for g-C3N4 include decarboxylation and subsequent oxidation, hydroxylation, and cleavage of C–N bond, while for TiO2 cyclization, TPs are abundant and the hydroxylation occurs in the first stage products. The study highlights the complex nature of TPs formed during such processes, the different mechanisms involved and the necessity for the identification of TPs for the assessment of the treatment and the tracking of such TPs in different environmental compartments.
      Citation: Reactions
      PubDate: 2022-02-03
      DOI: 10.3390/reactions3010012
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Reactions, Vol. 3, Pages 172-191: Synthesis and Reactivity of Cyclic
           Oxonium Derivatives of nido-Carborane: A Review

    • Authors: Marina Yu. Stogniy, Igor B. Sivaev
      First page: 172
      Abstract: Nucleophilic ring-opening reactions of cyclic oxonium derivatives of anionic boron hydrides are a convenient method of their modification which opens practically unlimited prospects for their incorporation into various macro- and biomolecules. This contribution provides an overview of the synthesis and reactivity of cyclic oxonium derivatives of nido-carborane as well as half-sandwich complexes based on it.
      Citation: Reactions
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/reactions3010013
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Reactions, Vol. 3, Pages 192-202: N-4 Alkyl Cytosine Derivatives
           Synthesis: A New Approach

    • Authors: Mauro De Nisco, Antonio Di Maio, Michele Manfra, Carmine Ostacolo, Alessia Bertamino, Pietro Campiglia, Isabel M. Gomez-Monterrey, Silvana Pedatella
      First page: 192
      Abstract: The selective N-4 alkylation of cytosine plays a critical role in the synthesis of biologically active molecules. This work focuses on the development of practical reaction conditions toward a regioselective synthesis of N-4-alkyl cytosine derivatives. The sequence includes a direct and selective sulfonylation at the N-1 site of the cytosine, followed by the alkylation of the amino site using KHMDS in CH2Cl2/THF mixture, providing a fast and efficient approach consistent with pyrimidine-based drug design.
      Citation: Reactions
      PubDate: 2022-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/reactions3010014
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Reactions, Vol. 3, Pages 203-212: Linear-Rate Reactions for the Thermal
           Devolatilization of Wheat Straw Based on Pseudo-Components

    • Authors: Carmen Branca
      First page: 203
      Abstract: Thermogravimetric curves are measured in the nitrogen of wheat straw heated up to 773 K with rates between 5–20 K/min. A five-step (or component) parallel reaction scheme was developed for the interpretation of the weight loss characteristics, which makes use of the lumped volatile products based on the volatiles released by the pseudo-macrocomponents. The volumetric rates show the usual Arrhenius dependence on temperature and a linear dependence on the mass fraction of the lumped volatile products. The wheat straw devolatilization mechanism consists of a single step for pseud-ocellulose (activation energies of about 180 kJ/mol) and two steps for the pseudohemicellulose, also including extractives, (activation energies of about 101 and 136 kJ/mol) and pseudo-lignin (activation energies of 189 and 126 kJ/mol). For the first two pseudo-macrocomponents, the activation energies were lower than those obtained through a similar approach for beech wood, owing to the much higher content of alkalis acting as catalysts for the decomposition reactions. These occur at lower temperatures and show an enhanced overlap between the pseudo-components.
      Citation: Reactions
      PubDate: 2022-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/reactions3010015
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Reactions, Vol. 3, Pages 213-223: Grafting of Cellulose and
           Microcrystalline Cellulose with Oligo(L-lactic acid) by Polycondensation
           Reaction

    • Authors: Md. Hafezur Rahaman, Md. Anamul Haque, Md. Aminur Rahman, Md. Masud Rana, Md. Masud Parvez, S. M. Nur Alam
      First page: 213
      Abstract: Oligo(L-lactic acid) (OLLA) was synthesized by ring opening polymerization of L-lactides using stannous octoate (0.03 wt% of lactide). While this served as the initiator, L-lactic acids were the co-initiators at 140 °C for 10 h, wherein L-lactic acids were prepared by hydrolytic degradation of L-lactides at 100 °C for 1 h. The molecular weight or degree of polymerization was controlled with monomer/co-initiator ratio (mol/mol). α-cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were extracted from jute fiber by subsequent treatment with sodium chlorite (Na2ClO2), NaOH and H2SO4. Grafting of OLLA onto α-cellulose and MCC in toluene was carried out using para-toluene sulphonic acid as a catalyst and potassium persulphate (KPS) as an initiator at 130 °C under 380 mm (Hg) pressure for 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 h. New properties of α-cellulose and MCC were observed due to the successful grafting onto α-cellulose and MCC. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were conducted in order to confirm grafting of OLLA onto cellulose and MCC. The FTIR analysis results showed there are some new characteristic absorption peaks appeared (1728 to 1732 cm−1) in the spectrum, which confirmed the grafting of OLLA onto α-cellulose and MCC was successful. SEM images of α-cellulose and MCC before and after grafting revealed significant changes in surface morphology. Grafting of MCC could be more effective for further application in comparison to α-cellulose.
      Citation: Reactions
      PubDate: 2022-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/reactions3010016
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Reactions, Vol. 3, Pages 224-232: Calcination Temperature Induced
           Structural, Optical and Magnetic Transformations in Titanium Ferrite
           Nanoparticles

    • Authors: Abhishek Shukla, Subhash C. Singh, Abhishek Bhardwaj, Ravindra Kumar Kotnala, Kailash Narayan Uttam, Chunlei Guo, Ram Gopal
      First page: 224
      Abstract: Titanium ferrite represents one of the most promising magnetic materials that exhibits optical absorption in both ultraviolet and visible spectral regions with a range of applications in photocatalysis, giant magnetoresistance, sensors, high-frequency modern power supplies, etc. Here in the present work, we report synthesizing titanium ferrite NPs via the co-precipitation method. As obtained ferrite nanopowders were characterized using XRD, UV-Visible absorption, Raman scattering, and variable sample magnetometer techniques. The crystalline size of NPs lies between 35 to 50 nm. The as-obtained nanopowder samples were calcined at 200, 500, 800 °C temperatures, and the resulting change in the optical, structural, and magnetic properties are investigated. The saturation magnetization of 500 °C calcined sample is higher than that calcined at 200 °C, but the magnetization value drastically becomes reduced for powder calcined at 800 °C temperature. The results of the present work can be used to understand the effects of annealing temperature on the structural and magnetic properties of other ferrite nanomaterials.
      Citation: Reactions
      PubDate: 2022-03-19
      DOI: 10.3390/reactions3010017
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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