Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 1001 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (59 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (726 journals)
    - CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (23 journals)
    - ELECTROCHEMISTRY (28 journals)
    - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (45 journals)
    - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (49 journals)
    - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (71 journals)

CHEMISTRY (726 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
Accounts of Materials Research     Hybrid Journal  
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
ACS Applied Polymer Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
ACS Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ACS Macro Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
ACS Materials Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 448)
ACS Photonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Acta Chemica Malaysia     Open Access  
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
Advanced Journal of Chemistry, Section A     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advanced Journal of Chemistry, Section B     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 108)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 50)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aggregate     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alchemy : Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alchemy : Jurnal Penelitian Kimia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alotrop     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Analytical Science Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 235)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 353)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio AA – Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access  
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 483)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 214)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Carbohydrate Polymer Technologies and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Carbohydrate Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Cell Reports Physical Science     Open Access  
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 25)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 88)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Chemical Physics Letters : X     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Chemical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 265)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Chemical Science International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry     Open Access  
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Chemistry & Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 224)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry Africa : A Journal of the Tunisian Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry Education Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 335)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistrySelect     Hybrid Journal  
Chemistry–Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
ChemNanoMat     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Chemosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemPhotoChem     Hybrid Journal  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chempublish Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemSystemsChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Aerosol Science and Engineering
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2510-375X - ISSN (Online) 2510-3768
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2658 journals]
  • A Theoretical Model of RGB Attenuation of Solar Radiation Components Under
           Strong Aerosol Pollution of the Atmosphere

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      Abstract: The urgency and significance of the formulation of the problem of creating a generalized model of attenuation of solar radiation in the visible range in the polluted atmosphere of large industrial cities has been substantiated. To build our own new model of attenuation of RGB components of solar radiation, we used the well-known theoretical position that with an increase in the average attenuation coefficient in the range from purely Rayleigh scattering to light scattering in strong fog, the ratio of partial attenuation coefficients of red/green and blue/green colors tends to unity. A mathematical model of attenuation of RGB components of solar radiation in a polluted atmosphere is proposed. It is shown that the proposed mathematical model allows changing all light components in attenuated solar radiation by selecting just one indicator of this model.
      PubDate: 2021-10-11
       
  • Air Quality at Public Transportation Stations/Stops: Contribution of Light
           Rail Transit to Reduce Air Pollution

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      Abstract: Air pollution from cars, vans and other different motor cars had observed in higher concentrations at public transportation stations. Now a day’s air pollutants from public transportation, industry, cooking from firewood and dust production alongside main roads in Addis Ababa is increasing and affecting human health. Individuals who live and work close to streets seem to have an expanded occurrence and openness to medical issues related to transportation air contamination. Appropriately, the Addis Ababa Light Rail Transit was the main current mass transit framework in Ethiopia just as in Sub Saharan Africa launched in 2015. Thus, this study aimed to know the air quality at LRT, bus, taxi and mixed stations through an air tracking device, and health effect at sampled public transportation stations. Air quality data include particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10), air quality index (AQI), carbon dioxide (CO2), humidity and temperature with a half-hour observation through Air-Visual pro for every 24 purposively sampled stations from North to South LRT line. The average measured air quality indicated that higher than 35 μg/m3 PM2.5 and 100 AQI, which is unhealthy. Regards to this, 30 persons were questioned at all stations. Seven hundred twenty (720) persons in total to know the health effect of those living/working in and around the stations. The findings indicated that out of 720 respondents, 324 (45%) have experienced to air quality-related diseases residing and working proximity to the stations. These suggested that the aged vehicles, land-use, dust and design of bus-stop shelter for waiting passengers have increased exposure to vehicles air pollution. Consequently, peoples are exposing to air quality-related respiratory diseases particularly unhealthy for sensitive groups.
      PubDate: 2021-09-14
       
  • Atmospheric Aerosol Scattering Coefficients in a Broad Visible Spectral
           Region

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      Abstract: The measurement of light scattering and absorption coefficients in the broad visible spectrum by atmospheric aerosol is important to assess its influence on the solar energy budget and thereby global climate. The single scattering albedo (SSA), the ratio of scattering to extinction coefficients, is derived from these parameters that characterize the solar energy available to our world. An LED-based broad spectral integrating nephelometer was constructed to make measurements in the 400–650 nm spectral range. Calibration of the instrument was performed in the laboratory using standard nitrogen and carbon dioxide with high purity and was verified by measuring scattering coefficients of clean dry air. The instrument verified the validity of using SUVA multiplier for calibrations in its operating spectral region. The instrument was deployed for ambient light scattering measurement near Changzhou in Yangtze River delta, People’s Republic of China. Instrument measurements compared well with a cavity-attenuated phase shift (CAPS) spectrometer operating at 530 nm. Calibration, comparison and preliminary ambient measurements in the broad visible spectrum are presented. The combined effect of the non-idealities due to deviation from the Lambertian profile of the LEDs and the angular truncation loss of the BBIN have been quantified and presented.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
  • Seasonal Transport Pathway and Sources of Carbonaceous Aerosols at an
           Urban Site of Eastern Himalaya

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      Abstract: In this study, we examined the seasonal transport pathways of carbonaceous species [Organic Carbon (OC), Elemental Carbon (EC), Water-Soluble Organic Carbon (WSOC), Primary Organic Carbon (POC), Secondary Organic Carbon (SOC), and Total Carbonaceous Aerosols (TCAs)] of PM2.5 and PM10 over a semi-urban high-altitude site of Darjeeling (27.041ºN, 88.266ºE, 2200 m above mean sea level (amsl); an eastern Himalayan region), India during August 2018–July 2019. The annual average concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were  37 ± 12 µg m−3 and 55 ± 18 µg m−3, respectively that was within but quite close to the threshold limit of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) (annual 60 μg m−3 for PM10; and 40 μg m−3 for PM2.5). The seasonal average concentration of OC in PM2.5 was highest in pre-monsoon (4.2 ± 1.7 µg m−3) > post-monsoon (4.0 ± 1.6 µg m−3) > winter (3.3 ± 1.5 µg m−3) > monsoon (2.2 ± 0.9 µg m−3) whereas OC in PM10, in the order of highest in post-monsoon (5.9 ± 2.4 µg m−3) > winter (5.4 ± 2.0 µg m−3) > pre-monsoon (5.2 ± 2.1 µg m−3) > monsoon (3.6 ± 0.9 µg m−3). Similar seasonal variation in case of EC in both PM2.5 (winter 1.8 ± 0.8 µg m−3; pre-monsoon 2.2 ± 0.9 µg m−3; monsoon 1.2 ± 0.4 µg m−3; post-monsoon 2.2 ± 1.1 µg m−3) and PM10 (winter 2.7 ± 1.0 µg m−3; pre-monsoon 3.0 ± 1.1 µg m−3; monsoon 1.2 ± 0.4 µg m−3; post-monsoon 1.9 ± 1.2 µg m−3) were observed during the study period. Based on different altitudes (100, 500, 1000 m), the seasonal backward trajectory and its concentration-weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis reveal the local, Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), the Thar desert, semi-arid, central highlands, Nepal, and the Bay of Bengal (BoB) as the common pollutant transporting regions to the observational site of Darjeeling. Also, its cluster analysis at 500 m above ground level (AGL) indicates that air mass originates mainly from 3 sides [western region, Thar desert (17.6%); north-western region, Nepal (45.1%); southern region, Bangladesh (37.3%)] during the study. Due to high tourist influx in pre-monsoon (peak tourist season), the maximum contribution of carbonaceous aerosols was mainly from the vehicular sources, coal combustion, transboundary pollutants, biomass burning in the IGP region, and the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Besides, active Terra and Aqua MODIS fire and thermal anomalies (≥ 80 per cent) indicated the maximum prevalence of fire spots during pre-monsoon across India (except the Thar desert) followed by post-monsoon (due to crop-residue burning) in Punjab and Haryana.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
  • Monitoring Air Quality in Nigeria: The Case of Center for Atmospheric
           Research-National Space Research and Development Agency (CAR-NASRDA)

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      Abstract: Satellite is used to track air quality around the world to provide people with free air quality data. The data are released by global networks. A good example is the CAR-NASRDA network that provides real-time particulate matter data. The data (PM1, PM2.5, PM10, temperature, and humidity) from CAR were used in the study. The data were obtained on NASRDA website, and cover a period of 5–7 months. The range results are depicted as follows: Lagos—PM1 (15.98–604.09 µg/m3), PM2.5 (23.23–847.75 µg/m3), PM10 (25–753.8 µg/m3), temperature (80–109 °F), and relative humidity (12–77%); Osun—PM1 (6.53–164.1 µg/m3), PM2.5 (9.1–236.6 µg/m3), PM10 (9.95–260.68 µg/m3), temperature (73.1–108.24 oF), and relative humidity (4.9–72%); Delta—PM1 (8.23–273 µg/m3), PM2.5 (12.11–487.36 µg/m3), PM10 (12.96–552.51 µg/m3), temperature (74.62–109.59 °F), and relative humidity (10.7–60.85%); Kebbi—PM1 (0–5373.5 µg/m3), PM2.5 (µg/m3), PM10 (µg/m3), temperature (6–125 °F), and relative humidity (0–49%), and FCT—PM1 (0–847.84 µg/m3), PM2.5 (0–1146.73 µg/m3), PM10 (0–831 µg/m3), temperature (66–115 °F), and humidity (2–90%). When compared to international benchmarks, the findings are noticeably higher in this case. It has been discovered that PM values, temperature and relative humidity are correlated.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
  • Source Identification and Pollution Factors of Elements in PM2.5 Samples
           Obtained in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

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      Abstract: Air quality deterioration is a big concern all over the world. It affects both humans and animals in a variety of ways. Air pollution must be quantified to monitor its negative impacts and stakeholders to proffer mitigation options. On this note, our research team has taken measures in Nigeria to monitor and measure PM2.5, its associated elements, as well as local meteorological parameters during sampling period. In addition, enrichment, contamination index, and principal component analysis of associated elements were studied. For ten months (January–October 2018), PM2.5 samples were collected at three locations in Ondo State, Nigeria with coordinates (the Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA)—low-density residential (LDR), Oba Ile (high-density residential (HDR), and Museum (IND, High density traffic and commercial area) (January–October). The Contamination Factor (CF), Enrichment Factor (EF), and Pollution Load Index (PLI), as well as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the samples were determined. Average PM2.5 mass concentrations [101 µg/m3 (FUTA); 120 µg/m3 (Oba Ile); and 176 µg/m3 (Museum)] were found to be higher than the WHO (10 µg/m3) and USEPA (15 µg/m3) normal limits. The concentrations of the most prominent elements were in the order; K > Na > Ca > P > Al, while the trace elements displayed Cu > Fe > Zn > Ni > Cr > Mn > Pb. Oba-Ile had the highest metal enrichment in the order: Ti > Mn > Zn > Cu > Ni > Cr. The PCA resolved four factors vis-à-vis vehicular activities, biomass burning, and soil dust as the major PM2.5 emission sources. The findings could be useful in the current drive to develop national air quality guideline for PM2.5.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
  • Geospatial Distribution and Projection of Aerosol over Sub-Saharan Africa:
           Assessment from Remote Sensing and Other Platforms

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      Abstract: Saharan Africa has experienced persistent exposure to aerosol from time immemorial, but the intensity has been much more severe in recent years. In this study, aerosol optical depths (AOD) retrievals from ground-based, satellite-based and modelled data set were compared, for the time scale of 1994–2019, 2000–2019, and 1985–2019, respectively, over Saharan Africa. Validation of satellite-based records and model aerosol records were complemented by ground-based records; also, seasonal variations in the atmospheric aerosol were predicted using multiple decadal projections. Results from the multi-model ensemble showed no significant differences between mean monthly aerosol retrieved from different platforms and model-based, where F = 55.114 for ground-based, F = 66.675 for satellite-based, F = 49.638 for the model data set, with Sig = 0.000 at P < 0.05. The study concludes that seasonal variation in Saharan Africa could be accounted for the variation in AOD and the Bodélé depression in Chad which mainly releases nearly 40% of the dust over parts of Saharan Africa especially during the harmattan.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
  • Working Mechanism and Behavior of Collison Nebulizer

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      Abstract: The Collison nebulizer (as well as its variations) has been widely used for generating fine aerosol droplets of a few microns from liquids of viscosity up to 1000 centipoise. It was originally developed for producing medical aerosols in inhalation therapy, and now has become an important component as pneumatic atomizer in the Aerosol Jet® direct-write system for additive manufacturing. Qualitative descriptions of its working mechanism can be found in the literature as an expanding high-speed gas jet creates a negative pressure to syphon liquid into the jet stream, where the liquid is subsequently blown into sheets, filaments, and eventually droplets. Yet quantitative analysis and in-depth understanding have been lacking until rather recently. In this work, we present a logical discussion of the working mechanism of Collison nebulizer based on OpenFOAM® CFD analysis of compressible jet flow in the jet expansion channel. The positive-feedback liquid aspiration mechanism becomes clear by examining the CFD results as the jet expansion channel geometry is varied. As a consequence, the output mist density can be rather insensitive to the liquid viscosity, which is illustrated by a set of experiments with the Collison-type pneumatic atomizer in an Aerosol Jet® direct-write system. Thus, an intrinsic self-regulation mechanism is elegantly incorporated in the Collison nebulizer design. As intuitively expected, experimental data also support the notion of the existence of an upper limit for liquid holdup in the limited space of jet expansion channel; therefore, the output mist density cannot increase indefinitely by increasing the atomization gas flow rate.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
  • A Systematic Approach to Comprehend the Role of Atmospheric Black Carbon
           in Different Environmental Segments

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      Abstract: In recent years, the anthropogenic activities has increased the radiative budget of the earth which has been gaining significance. Anthropocene (human-influenced) era has altered the characteristic nature of the earth in a relatively shorter period with the accumulation of undesirable components in different spheres of earth. BC is one such component with severe implications in determining the fate of the environment. Hence, a comprehensive review has been conducted using meta-analyses of 675 studies spanning from 2009 to 2019 on a global scale to address the role of BC in a different environment, emphasizing sources, properties, transport, limitation, and uncertainties. Key findings of this review on the role of BC suggest that research directions have focused on the following topics as (1) fate of toxicants stored in the BC after deposition in the different environment; (2) role of BC on soil temperature with the perspective of agricultural production; and (3) atmospheric studies on large-scale coverage of mixing state chemistry and models. This review is designed to provide essential information on the current state of BC in a different environment and provide platforms for new conceptual frameworks. It also will help policymakers in scheming climate mitigation efforts.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
  • Relationship Between COVID-19-Infected Number and PM2.5 Level in Ambient
           Air of Bangkok, Thailand

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      Abstract: Several empirical studies of reductions in air pollutants as social distancing and working from home (WFH) policies have sparked recommendations that the COVID-19 pandemic might have been responsible for better air quality particularly in urban area. These findings offer a compelling provocation for the scientific community to detect and investigate variations to air quality as a consequence of government enforced quarantine. In spite of countless research studies focusing on the connection between WFH policy and air pollutant levels, the majority of discussion has unfortunately ignored the central role of other potential sources (e.g. agricultural waste burnings, cooking emissions, and industrial releases) in governing air quality, or has neglected the psychological and social impacts of COVID-19. In this study, a t test was used to compare the average concentrations of PM2.5 and COVID-19-infected numbers (n) in three different periods which were n < 300 vs. n ≧ 300, n < 500 vs. n ≧ 500, and n < 700 vs. n ≧ 700. Some significant differences were observed in the groups of n < 500 vs. n ≧ 500, and n < 700 vs. n ≧ 700 indicating that the psychological and social impacts play a crucial role in restricting daily activities and thus reducing the atmospheric contents of PM2.5 in some areas. Further assessments were conducted by separating PM2.5 contents into three different periods (i.e. Period-I: day-1 ~ day-10; Period-II: day-11 ~ day-20; Period-III: day-21 ~ day-31). Some significant reductions of PM2.5 during the Period-I were detected in the eastern area of Bangkok. In addition, Pearson correlation analysis showed that hot-spot numbers appear to be a minor of importance in controlling PM2.5 levels in the ambient air of Bangkok, Thailand.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
  • Detailed Physicochemical Characterization of the Ambient Fine and
           Ultrafine Particulate Mixture at a Construction Site

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      Abstract: This paper presents a detailed characterization of the size and shape distributions, and chemical compositions of ambient fine and ultrafine particles collected at the site of a building demolition and construction project at the Pennsylvania State University. Particle samples were collected with a nine-stage cascade impactor, characterized via transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy for elemental compositions, and images analyzed for morphological features. 89.3% of the particles collected by count were ultrafine particles or aggregates of ultrafine particles that disaggregated during the collection process. The mean particulate matter mass and count concentrations were 167.2 µg/m3 and 16,232 particles/cm3, respectively. 72.2% of the particles by count were morphologically circular on two-dimensional images and 74.0% of the particles by count had an aspect ratio of between 1:1 and 2:1. The five most prevalent elements found in the samples were carbon, oxygen, silicon, sulfur, and calcium, with corresponding mass fractions of 40.8%, 26.4%, 7.6%, 5.1%, and 4.7%. Based on the current regulatory occupational exposure limits, the particulate matter at the construction site was within permissible concentrations. These results enable a comparison of a real-world particulate exposure environment to hazard levels determined through single-particle-type exposure studies.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
  • Preliminary Assessment of Air Pollution Quality Levels of Lagos, Nigeria

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      Abstract: The low-cost sensors and IoT have come to the rescue due to the high cost and operational complexity of equipment and methodologies in environmental monitoring. They are relatively inexpensive and reliable. It is on this assumption that we have decided to use the World Air Quality satellite data supplied by air matters.com. This study is a 40-day preliminary work in which air quality [Air Quality Index (AQI), PM2.5, PM10, NO2, CO, SO2, and O3] and meteorological (temperature, humidity, and wind speed) parameters were monitored. The data collected were for five locations in Lagos State, Nigeria (Ojodu, Opebi, Ikeja, Maryland, and Eti-Osa). The data obtained were subjected to basic statistical analyses. The findings showed that the Opebi had the highest mean value of PM2.5 (69.28 μg/m3), PM10 (107.38 μg/m3), and CO (1392 μg/m3). The mean values of O3 are as follows: 32.52, 38.7, 36.2, 37.85, and 36.13 μg/m3 for Ikeja, Maryland, Opebi, Ojodu, and Eti-Osa, respectively. Opebi had the highest value (3179 μg/m3), followed by Eti-Osa (2978 μg/m3), and the lowest value in Maryland (1943 μg/m3) among the CO reference locations. AQI of all locations presented the levels of contamination as 'Unhealthy for Vulnerable Groups'. The pollutants were much higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. There were relationships between the parameters monitored and meteorological influences, and the effects of natural and man-made activities may be the sources of the elevated pollutants throughout the locations.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
  • Investigation of Chemical Composition and Fiber-Occurrence in Inhalable
           Particulate Matter Obtained from Dry Cutting Processes of Carbon Fiber
           Reinforced Concrete Composite, Concrete and the Carbon Fiber Reinforcement
           Materials

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      Abstract: The most commonly used construction material nowadays is steel-reinforced concrete which underlies corrosion and thus buildings are susceptible for structural collapses. Recently, a new construction material resistant to oxidation and with a higher tensile strength called carbon concrete composite (C3) was developed. The new material allows resource-saving constructions using carbon fiber instead of steel reinforcement materials embedded in a concrete matrix. C3 reinforcements consist of carbon fibers coated with an organic polymer matrix. In this study, abrasive dust from a dry cutting process of two C3 reinforcement materials, as well as a C3 material were investigated with respect to the occurrence of toxic fibers or harmful organic compounds in the inhalable particulate matter (PM) fractions PM2.5 and PM10. It could be shown that the ratio between elemental and organic carbon in PM10 is dependent on the shape of the C3 reinforcement material due to different mechanisms of PM formation. This could have an impact on the toxicity of different C3 reinforcement materials. Harmful fibers according to the World Health Organization (WHO) definition like they are found in asbestos concrete were not found. However, bisphenol A (BPA) as well as the PAHs phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene were found due to pyrolysis of the organic matrix material at the edge of the sawblade differentiating the Carcinogenic Equivalency (TEQ) of investigated materials and their PM fractions. Furthermore, derivatives of BPA occurred in abrasive dust from C3 reinforcement materials potentially leading to genotoxicity and reproductive toxicity.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
  • Ozone Gas Inhibits SARS-CoV-2 Transmission and Provides Possible Control
           Measures

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      Abstract: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused millions of deaths currently. Mounting effective responses to the pandemic have become top priorities for governments around the world. Laboratory experiments have confirmed for the first time that fumigation with ozone (O3) at low O3 doses (7500–15,000 μg m−3·min) can inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 and inactivate the virus at high O3 doses (129,000 μg m−3·min). The RNA copy number of SARS-CoV-2 significantly decreased (95.9–97.7% reduction) when exposed to O3 at a low concentration of 250 μg m−3 for 30 and 60 min. A significant negative relationship between the numbers of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases and ambient O3 in Chinese cities indicated that the spread of SARS-CoV-2 may have been inhibited by high O3. An analysis of data from Chongqing showed that the transmission of COVID-19 increased when the O3 mixing ratios in the air were relatively low, and transmission decreased when O3 increased. Based on these findings, we also propose a new Safety O3 Emission (SOE) method to increase indoor O3 to levels (< 160 μg m−3) that inhibit the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 but are not harmful for humans. This could serve as timely and low-cost solution for suppressing COVID-19 outbreaks throughout the world.
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
       
  • Overview and Seasonality of PM10 and PM2.5 in Guayaquil, Ecuador

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      Abstract: The focus of this study is the assessment of total suspended particles (TSP) and particulate matter (PM) with various aerodynamic diameters in ambient air in Guayaquil, a city in Ecuador that features a tropical climate. The urban annual mean concentrations of TSP (Total Suspended Particles), and particle matter (PM) with various aerodynamic diameters such as: PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 are 31 ± 14 µg m−3, 21 ± 9 µg m−3, 7 ± 2 µg m−3 and 1 ± 1 µg m−3, respectively. Air mass studies reveal that the city receives a clean Southern Ocean breeze. Backward trajectory analysis show differences between wet and dry seasons. During the dry season, most winds come from the south and southwest, while air masses from the peri urban may contribute as pollutant sources during the wet season. Although mean values of PM10 and PM2.5 were below dangerous levels, our year-round continuous monitoring study reveals that maximum values often surpassed those permissible limits allowed by the Ecuadorian norms. A cluster analysis shows four main paths in which west and southwest clusters account for more than 93% of the pollution. Total vertical column of NO2 shows the pollution footprint is strongest during the dry season, as opposed to the wet season. A microscopic morphological characterization of ambient particles within the city during the wet and the dry season reveals coarse mode particles with irregular and rounded shapes. Particle analysis reveals that samples are composed of urban dust, anthropogenic and organic debris during the dry season while mainly urban dust during the wet season.
      PubDate: 2021-08-17
       
  • Heterogeneous Reaction of OH Radicals with Terbuthylazine on
           Self-synthesized Silica Particles in an Aerosol Smog Chamber at Different
           Temperatures

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      Abstract: Terbuthylazine (TBA) is regarded as a reference compound for the heterogeneous photooxidation of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) initiated by OH radicals, and the reaction rate constant has been used to evaluate the atmospheric lifetime of other pesticides/SVOCs. However, experiments on different carrier aerosols using different apparatus derived distinct results, therefore discussions were raised upon whether TBA should be regarded as persistent organic compounds (POPs) or not. In this study, we applied the self-synthesized silica particles (Stöber particles) as carrier aerosols, which could simulate the reactions on mineral particles in the atmosphere. We investigated the heterogeneous reaction of OH radicals with TBA, by exposing a sub-monolayer coating of TBA on the Stöber particles, to simulate the degradation of TBA on spherical particles in ambient air. The rate constants for the reaction of OH with TBA adsorbed on Stöber particles were determined to be 2.4 ± 0.3 (in units of 10–12 cm3 molecule−1 s−1) at 25 °C. Heterogeneous reaction were also performed at 6.5 °C and − 10 °C, the rate constants were 2.3 ± 0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.1 (in units of 10–12 cm3 molecule−1 s−1), respectively. The atmospheric half-lives of TBA on Stöber particles were estimated to be 53, 56, and 92 h at 25 °C, 6.5 °C, and -10 °C, respectively (based on the simulation parameter obtained from the Eley–Rideal (ER) mechanism). We also fit the experimental data to the Langmuir–Hinshelwood (LH) mechanism and the half-lives become shorter (33, 45, and 61 h at 25 °C, 6.5 °C, and -10 °C, respectively). There is no evidence from observation data that show that TBA could be transported to the remote region. TBA cannot be defined as a persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Reactions in the atmosphere might be a combined mechanism of both ER and LH theories.
      PubDate: 2021-08-09
       
  • Analysis of Positive and Negative Atmospheric Air Ions During New Particle
           Formation (NPF) Events over Urban City of India

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      Abstract: Simultaneous measurements of ion-mobility spectra of both polarities with a Neutral Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS) operating in the mobility range 3.16–0.00133 cm2 V−1 s−1 (mass diameter range 0.36–47.1 nm) and concentration of Radon (222Rn) were carried out at Pune (18° 31′ N, 73° 55′ E, 560 m above mean sea level). 222Rn progenies measured by a Radon detector, RTM 2200, and surface meteorological parameters during the period January 2012 to December 2012 were analysed. During this period, NPF events were observed on 28 days and 222 days were without any event (non-event). NPF events mostly occurred by photochemistry in the morning hours of the pre-monsoon season (~ 62%) during the hottest months (April and May) of the year.
      Authors studied different features of new particle formation (NPF) events, and their dependence on meteorological parameters. The annual mean diurnal variations of different categories of ions show a primary maximum in the morning hour along with the secondary maxima in the evening hour and a minimum in the afternoon. The results are explained in terms of the atmospheric boundary layer changes and katabatic wind blowing along the hill slope surrounded by the measurement site. The computed ion production rate correlates (correlation coefficient R = 0.67) well with the observed small cluster ions. Also, the role of temperature and humidity on the ion concentration on both for the event and non-event days are discussed. Using the principal component analysis (PCA), the first five principal components were found to represent more than 98% of the total variance on event and non-event days. Even the first principal component explained about ~ 86% (65%) of the total variance on non-event (event) days. The statistical analysis also confirms that the small and large—ions on non-event days originated from a similar physical/chemical background.
      PubDate: 2021-08-09
       
  • A Linkage Between Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Meteorological Drought
           over the Eastern Gangetic Plain of India

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      Abstract: The meteorological drought is a recurring phenomenon for Bihar, a densely populated Indian state situated on the Eastern Gangetic Plain (EGP). Drought largely affects a wide population of the state since most people residing here predominantly depend on agriculture for livelihood. The linkage between Aerosol and Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) or southwest monsoon rainfall is a complex process affecting the hydrological cycle, which in turn may cause meteorological drought over the study area. Therefore, the relation between the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI); a metric for categorising drought intensity, and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) are examined from 2000 to 2019. The high resolution (0.25° × 0.25°) gridded rainfall data (2000–2019) of India Meteorological Department (IMD) and AOD data (2000–2019) at a resolution of 1° × 1° at 550 nm from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) products are analysed. To understand the role of the aerosol on rainfall and to further investigate the influence on underlying cloud properties as a probable cause of meteorological drought, MODIS-derived cloud parameters namely, Cloud Top Temperature (CTT), Cloud Top Pressure (CTP), and Cloud Fraction (CF) at the resolution of 1° × 1° for the period of 2000–2019 have been examined. A strong inverse relationship between CTT/CTP and SPI whereas as a directly positive relationship between CTT/CTP and AOD is found thus a strong correlation between SPI and AOD is also well verified by cloud parameters. A possible linkage between aerosols and drought conditions through indirect and semi direct effects of aerosol cloud interactions was also found to be quite important for Bihar & EGP.
      PubDate: 2021-07-15
       
  • Impact of Aerosols on Precipitation over Western Ghats

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      Abstract: One of the significant mountain region running parallel to India's west coast is the Western Ghats. Normally, this area receives three times rainfall because it is nearly vertical to the low-level jet stream. But this rainfall is affected in recent years due to the aerosol particles. Aerosols, tiny particles present in the atmosphere, play crucial roles in weather and climate. It is generated primarily as solid particles, for example, Asian dust, Saharan dust, sea salt, or soot. Aerosols can have a variety of impacts (e.g., direct and indirect effects) on the atmosphere, which can lead to the earth's radiation budget. It has a strong impact on the formation of clouds and precipitation processes also. The aerosol change-based influences are considered as the main factor related to air pollution controlling and environmental regulations. Hence, this article mainly concentrates on climate influences related to global aerosol variation. In this paper, recent aerosol behaviors and their impacts on the Western coastal (WG) region of India from 2014 to 2017 are analyzed. From the analysis, we observed that the precipitation is increased in the West Coast region.
      PubDate: 2021-07-13
       
  • PM2.5 Elements in the Rural Area of Jing-Jin-Ji Region in China: Source
           Identification and Health Risk Assessment

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      Abstract: This study identified the potential sources of the elements in PM2.5 and estimated the health risks of heavy metallic elements at a background site of Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region (Jing-Jin-Ji region) in heating and non-heating periods. The results showed that Cu, Zn, Se, Pb, and As were enriched and six sources were identified. The health threats of solid fuel combustion and incinerator were more serious than other sources, especially in heating period. The intensified residential heating activities resulted in higher health risk from burning solid fuel in heating period. Among all the measured heavy metallic elements, the exposure levels of As and Pb were most alarming. Compared with adults, children were prone to higher risks. Ingestion was the primary way for both children and adults to expose under the health risk. To prevent a further deterioration of the environment safety of Xianghe, regulating solid fuel combustion and incinerator should be emphasized in Xianghe.
      PubDate: 2021-07-09
       
 
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