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Showing 601 - 735 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
Science Talks     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Sciences & Technologie A : sciences exactes     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Frontier Chemical Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Scientific Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 85)
Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Sensors and Actuators Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Separation & Purification Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Separation Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Separations     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Silicon Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Small Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Small Science     Open Access  
Small Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Smart Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
SmartMat     Open Access  
Soft     Open Access  
Soft Nanoscience Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Solar RRL     Hybrid Journal  
Solid State Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Solid State Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
SPE Polymers     Open Access  
Spectral Analysis Review     Open Access  
Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Starch / Staerke     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Steel Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Structural Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Substantia     Open Access  
Supramolecular Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Supramolecular Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Surface and Coatings Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Surface Science Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Surfaces     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Surfaces and Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Chemical Processes     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Synfacts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Synlett     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Synthesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Talanta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Talanta Open     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
TecnologĂ­a QuĂ­mica     Open Access  
Telematics and Informatics Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Tenside Surfactants Detergents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tetrahedron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78)
Tetrahedron Chem     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Tetrahedron Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
The All Results Journals : Chem     Open Access  
The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The Enzymes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The Protein Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Theoretical and Experimental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Theoretical Chemistry Accounts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Thermochimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Tip Revista Especializada en Ciencias Quimico-Biologicas     Open Access  
Topics in Current Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Toxicology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Toxicology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Transition Metal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Trends in Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Turkish Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Open Access  
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Universal Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Vietnam Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Western Undergraduate Research Journal : Health and Natural Sciences     Open Access  
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Computational Molecular Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
World Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
X-Ray Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)

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Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2571-9637
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Surfaces, Vol. 5, Pages 334-349: Recent Research of NiCo2O4/Carbon
           Composites for Supercapacitors

    • Authors: Junming Xu, Yang Shi, Jipeng Cheng, Xinchang Wang
      First page: 334
      Abstract: Supercapacitors have played an important role in electrochemical energy storage. Recently, researchers have found many effective methods to improve electrode materials with more robust performances through the increasing volume of scientific publications in this field. Though nickel cobaltite (NiCo2O4), as a promising electrode material, has substantially demonstrated potential properties for supercapacitors, its composites usually show much better performances than the pristine NiCo2O4. The combination of carbon-based materials and NiCo2O4 has been implemented recently due to the dual mechanisms for energy storage and the unique advantages of carbon materials. In this paper, we review the recent research on the hybrids of NiCo2O4 and carbon nanomaterials for supercapacitors. Typically, we focused on the reports related to the composites containing graphene (or reduced graphene oxide), carbon nanotubes, and amorphous carbon, as well as the major synthesis routes and electrochemical performances. Finally, the prospect for the future work is also discussed.
      Citation: Surfaces
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/surfaces5030025
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
  • Surfaces, Vol. 5, Pages 350-364: Microstructure, Phase Composition,
           Mechanical Properties and Tribological Properties of Plasma Sprayed
           Al-25Si Wear-Resistant Coatings

    • Authors: Qiqing Peng, Ming Liu, Yanfei Huang, Xinyuan Zhou, Guozheng Ma, Haidou Wang, Zhiguo Xing
      First page: 350
      Abstract: Owing to the light weight and high energy, the “All-aluminum engine” can reduce fuel consumption and pollutant emissions, showing a great significance in saving resources and protecting the environment, and becoming a research hotspot. However, the aluminum alloy cylinder liners have difficulty withstanding extremely harsh working conditions, such as strong friction and wear, making the engine extremely easy to damage. In this work, Al-25Si wear-resistant coating was deposited by inner hole supersonic plasma spraying technique to improve the wear resistance of the aluminum alloy cylinder liner. The microstructure, phase composition, mechanical properties and tribological properties were tested by SEM, XRD, tribological machine, etc. The results indicated that the coating exhibited an excellent bonding strength of 44.1 MPa, and the average hardness and average friction coefficient of the coating are 267.09 ± 14.85 HV0.2, and 0.20, respectively. The total wear amount, the wear scar width and the wear scar depth of the coating are 2.77 × 10−3 mm3, 654.3 μm and 8.95 μm, respectively, which showed that the coating can significantly improve the tribological properties of the “All-aluminum engine”. The wear mechanism of the coating was mainly interpreted by furrow cutting, extrusion and spalling in two-body abrasive wear, three-body abrasive wear and a small amount of oxidative wear.
      Citation: Surfaces
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/surfaces5030026
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
  • Surfaces, Vol. 5, Pages 365-383: Cell Adhesion Strength Indicates the
           Antithrombogenicity of Poly(2-Methoxyethyl Acrylate) (PMEA): Potential
           Candidate for Artificial Small-Diameter Blood Vessel

    • Authors: Md Azizul Haque, Daiki Murakami, Masaru Tanaka
      First page: 365
      Abstract: Poly (2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) is a US FDA-approved biocompatible polymer, although there is insufficient work on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and platelet interaction analysis on PMEA-analogous polymers. In this study, we extensively investigated HUVEC–polymer and platelet–polymer interaction behavior by measuring the adhesion strength using single-cell force spectroscopy. Furthermore, the hydration layer of the polymer interface was observed using frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy. We found that endothelial cells can attach and spread on the PMEA surface with strong adhesion strength compared to other analogous polymers. We found that the hydration layers on the PMEA-analogous polymers were closely related to their weak platelet adhesion behavior. Based on our results, it can be concluded that PMEA is a promising candidate for the construction of artificial small-diameter blood vessels owing to the presence of IW and a hydration layer on the interface.
      Citation: Surfaces
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/surfaces5030027
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
  • Surfaces, Vol. 5, Pages 228-237: Chalcogen Atom-Doped Graphene and Its
           Performance in N2 Activation

    • Authors: Navaratnarajah Kuganathan
      First page: 228
      Abstract: In this work, we studied dispersion correction, adsorption and substitution of chalcogen dopants (O, S, Se and Te) on the surface of graphene using density functional theory. The results reveal that a single oxygen atom is more preferred for adsorption onto the graphene surface than the other dopants, with an adsorption energy of −0.84 eV. The preference of this dopant is evidenced by a greater charge transfer of 0.34 electrons from the graphene surface to the oxygen. The substitutional doping of oxygen is energetically more favourable than the doping of other atoms. While nitrogen activation is enhanced by the adsorption, the activation is not significant with the doping of chalcogen atoms.
      Citation: Surfaces
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/surfaces5020016
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
  • Surfaces, Vol. 5, Pages 238-250: 4-Mercaptobenzoic Acid Adsorption on TiO2
           Anatase (101) and TiO2 Rutile (110) Surfaces

    • Authors: Claudia Lorena Compeán-González, Andrew Guy Thomas, Karen Louise Syres, Jordan Cole, Zheshen Li
      First page: 238
      Abstract: The adsorption of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) on anatase (101) and rutile (110) TiO2 surfaces has been studied using synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy techniques. Photoelectron spectroscopy results suggest that the 4-MBA molecule bonds to both TiO2 surfaces through the carboxyl group, following deprotonation in a bidentate geometry. Carbon K-edge NEXAFS spectra show that the phenyl ring of the 4-MBA molecule is oriented at 70° ± 5° from the surface on both the rutile (110) and anatase (101) surfaces, although there are subtle differences in the electronic structure of the molecule following adsorption between the two surfaces.
      Citation: Surfaces
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
      DOI: 10.3390/surfaces5020017
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
  • Surfaces, Vol. 5, Pages 251-264: Temperature Effects in the Initial Stages
           of Heteroepitaxial Film Growth

    • Authors: Tung B. T. To, Fábio D. A. Aarão Reis
      First page: 251
      Abstract: Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of a model of thin film heteroepitaxy are performed to investigate the effects of the deposition temperature in the initial growth stages. Broad ranges of the rates of surface processes are used to model materials with several activation energies and several temperature changes, in conditions of larger diffusivity on the substrate in comparison with other film layers. When films with the same coverage are compared, the roughness increases with the deposition temperature in the regimes of island growth, coalescence, and initial formation of the continuous films. Concomitantly, the position of the minimum of the autocorrelation function is displaced to larger sizes. These apparently universal trends are consequences of the formation of wider and taller islands, and are observed with or without Ehrlich-Schwöebel barriers for adatom diffusion at step edges. The roughness increase with temperature qualitatively matches the observations of recent works on the deposition of inorganic and organic materials. In thicker films, simulations with some parameter sets show the decrease of roughness with temperature. In these cases, a re-entrance of roughness may be observed in the initial formation of the continuous films.
      Citation: Surfaces
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
      DOI: 10.3390/surfaces5020018
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
  • Surfaces, Vol. 5, Pages 265-279: Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties
           of Lignin-Derived High Surface Area Carbons

    • Authors: Artur M. Suzanowicz, Youngjin Lee, Abigail Schultz, Otavio J. J. Marques, Hao Lin, Carlo U. Segre, Braja K. Mandal
      First page: 265
      Abstract: Activated carbons play an essential role in developing new electrodes for renewable energy devices due to their electrochemical and physical properties. They have been the subject of much research due to their prominent surface areas, porosity, light weight, and excellent conductivity. The performance of electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) is highly related to the morphology of porous carbon electrodes, where high surface area and pore size distribution are proportional to capacitance to a significant extent. In this work, we designed and synthesized several activated carbons based on lignin for both supercapacitors and Li-S batteries. Our most favorable synthesized carbon material had a very high specific surface area (1832 m2·g−1) and excellent pore diameter (3.6 nm), delivering a specific capacitance of 131 F·g−1 in our EDLC for the initial cycle. This translates to an energy density of the supercapacitor cell at 55.6 Wh·kg−1. Using this material for Li-S cells, composited with a nickel-rich phosphide and sulfur, showed good retention of soluble lithium polysulfide intermediates by maintaining a specific capacity of 545 mA·h·g−1 for more than 180 cycles at 0.2 C.
      Citation: Surfaces
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/surfaces5020019
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
  • Surfaces, Vol. 5, Pages 280-289: Density Functional Theory Calculations of
           the Effect of Oxygenated Functionals on Activated Carbon towards Cresol

    • Authors: Aola Supong, Upasana Bora Sinha, Dipak Sinha
      First page: 280
      Abstract: The mechanism of adsorption of p-cresol over activated carbon adsorbent and the specific role of oxygen functional groups on cresol adsorption were studied using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. All the energy calculations and geometry optimization pertaining to DFT calculations were done using the B3LYP hybrid functional at basis set 6-31g level of theory in a dielectric medium of ε = 80 (corresponding to water). The interaction of cresol with different activated carbon models, namely pristine activated carbon, hydroxyl functionalized activated carbon, carbonyl functionalized activated carbon, and carboxyl functionalized activated carbon, were considered, and their adsorption energies corresponded to −416.47 kJ/mol, −54.73 kJ/mol, −49.99 kJ/mol, and −63.62 kJ/mol, respectively. The high adsorption energies suggested the chemisorptive nature of the cresol-activated carbon adsorption process. Among the oxygen functional groups, the carboxyl group tended to influence the adsorption process more than the hydroxyl and carbonyl groups, attributing to the formation of two types of hydrogen bonds between the carboxyl activated carbon and the cresol simultaneously. The outcomes of this study may provide valuable insights for future directions to design activated carbon with improved performance towards cresol adsorption.
      Citation: Surfaces
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
      DOI: 10.3390/surfaces5020020
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
  • Surfaces, Vol. 5, Pages 290-307: SWOT Analysis of Electrical Discharge
           Coatings: A Case Study of Copper Coating on Titanium Alloy

    • Authors: JagadeeswaraRao Maddu, Buschaiah Karrolla, Riyaaz Uddien Shaik, Diana-Petronela Burdhuhos-Nergis
      First page: 290
      Abstract: The electrical discharge machine (EDM) has been one of the most widely used non-traditional machines in recent decades, primarily used for machining hard materials into various complex shapes and different sizes and, nowadays, used for surface modifications/hard coatings. In this study, the SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) of electrical discharge coating was analyzed by conducting a case study. For the purpose of the case study, copper was deposited on the titanium alloy surface (Ti6Al4V). Three electrodes of different copper alloy materials, viz., brass, bronze and copper, were selected for coating the Ti6Al4V surface. Input parameters such as current, pulse-on, pulse-off, flushing pressure and the electrode material were optimized to develop a uniform coating. Experiments were designed according to the L18 orthogonal array, and among them, the samples that showed proper coating, as seen with the naked eye, were selected for morphological and elemental analyses by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. Further, the output responses, viz., the material deposition rate (MDR), electrode wear rate (EWR), surface roughness (SR), elemental data (copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn)) and coating thickness (CT), were considered for the optimization of coatings. Implementing the Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution, copper coating with a thickness of 20.43 µm, developed with an MDR with input parameters of 20 A current, 600 µs pulse-on, 120 µs pulse-off, 0.5 bar flushing pressure and the brass electrode, was selected as the optimum coating. The most influential parameters in this coating process were the current and pulse-on time. In this study, a SWOT table was developed to depict the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of electrical discharge coating.
      Citation: Surfaces
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/surfaces5020021
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
  • Surfaces, Vol. 5, Pages 308-317: Surfactants for Electrophoretic
           Deposition of Polyvinylidene Fluoride–Silica Composites

    • Authors: Zhengzheng Wang, Igor Zhitomirsky
      First page: 308
      Abstract: This investigation is motivated by the numerous advantages of electrophoretic deposition (EPD) for the fabrication of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and composite coatings and the various applications of such coatings. It is demonstrated that gallic acid (GA), caffeic acid (CFA), cholic acid (CA) and 2,3,4 trihydroxybenzoic acid (THB) can be used as charging and dispersing agents for the EPD of PVDF. The deposition yield of PVDF increases in the following order: THB < CFA < CA < GA. Test results indicate that the chemical structure of the dispersants exerts influence on the deposition efficiency. Potentiodynamic and impedance spectroscopy studies show the corrosion protection properties of PVDF coatings. GA is used for the co-EPD of PVDF with nanosilica and micron-size silica. The silica content in the composite coatings is varied by the variation of silica content in the suspensions. The ability to use GA as a charging and dispersing agent for the co-EPD of materials of different types paves the way for the fabrication of advanced organic–inorganic composites using EPD.
      Citation: Surfaces
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/surfaces5020022
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
  • Surfaces, Vol. 5, Pages 318-320: Emerging Chemical Sensing Technologies:
           Recent Advances and Future Trends

    • Authors: Anderson A. Felix, Marcelo O. Orlandi
      First page: 318
      Abstract: Contemporary chemical sensing research is rapidly growing, leading to the development of new technologies for applications in almost all areas, including environmental monitoring, disease diagnostics and food quality control, among others [...]
      Citation: Surfaces
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/surfaces5020023
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
  • Surfaces, Vol. 5, Pages 321-333: The Effects of Substrate Temperature on
           the Growth, Microstructural and Magnetic Properties of
           Gadolinium-Containing Films on Aluminum Nitride

    • Authors: Craig A. Ekstrum, Ragavendran Venkatesan, Chito Kendrick, Moshe Einav, Paramasivam Sivaprakash, Jeyanthinath Mayandi, Sonachalam Arumugam, Joshua M. Pearce
      First page: 321
      Abstract: To facilitate future novel devices incorporating rare earth metal films and III-V semiconductors on Si substrates, this study investigates the mechanisms of growth via molecular beam epitaxy of gadolinium (Gd) on aluminum nitride (AlN) by determining the impact of substrate temperature on microstructure. The Gd films underwent extensive surface analysis via in situ reflective high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and ex-situ SEM and AFM. Characterization of the surface features of rare earth metal films is important, as surface geometry has been shown to strongly impact magnetic properties. SEM and AFM imaging determined that Gd films grown on AlN (0001) from 80 °C to 400 °C transition from wetting, nodular films to island–trench growth mode to reduce in-plane lattice strain. XRD and Raman spectroscopy of the films revealed that they were primarily comprised of GdN, Gd and Gd2O3. The samples were also analyzed by a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) at room temperature. From the room temperature magnetic studies, the thick films showed superparamagnetic behavior, with samples grown between 240 °C and 270 °C showing high magnetic susceptibility. Increasing GdN (111) 2θ peak position and single-crystal growth modes correlated with increasing peak magnetization of the thin films, suggesting that lattice strain in single-crystal films was the primary driver of enhanced magnetic susceptibility.
      Citation: Surfaces
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/surfaces5020024
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
  • Surfaces, Vol. 5, Pages 91-112: Assessment of the Therapeutic Efficacy of
           Silver Nanoparticles against Secondary Cystic Echinococcosis in BALB/c

    • Authors: Samir Mustafa Hamad, Bushra Hussain Shnawa, Parwin Jalal Jalil, Mukhtar H. Ahmed
      First page: 91
      Abstract: Background: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a highly prevalent parasitic disease resulting from the hydatid cyst of Echinococcus granulosus. It is also described as a zoonotic disease and considered a neglected tropical infection. Aim: This study assessed the antiparasitic activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), against E. granulosus infection in BALB/c mice. Methods: The green synthesis of AgNPs was accomplished using Zizyphus spina-christi leaves. AgNPs were orally administered to BALB/c mice for acute short-term toxicity evaluation, in doses of 50 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, and 300 mg/kg, and observations for toxic signs were carried out at 24, 48 h, and 14 days, continuously. Moreover, a total of 20 mice divided into two groups were intraperitoneally administered with 1500 viable protoscoleces for secondary hydatidosis infection. Results: The results showed that AgNPs did not induce any adverse effects or signs and no death, in either group of mice. The histopathological findings in the liver, kidneys, and intestine of the mice administered with AgNPs revealed mild histological effects compared with the control ones. The treated-infected mice showed a change in the appearance of the liver hydatid cysts from hyaline to milky cloudy compared with the untreated infected mice. Conclusion: Biosynthesized AgNPs showed anti-hydatic effects and are suggested as anti-echinococcal cyst treatment.
      Citation: Surfaces
      PubDate: 2022-01-03
      DOI: 10.3390/surfaces5010004
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Surfaces, Vol. 5, Pages 113-126: Effect of Corrosion Products and Deposits
           on the Damage Tolerance of TSA-Coated Steel in Artificial Seawater

    • Authors: Adriana Castro-Vargas, Simon Gill, Shiladitya Paul
      First page: 113
      Abstract: The corrosion module of COMSOL Multiphysics 5.6® software was employed to simulate the influence of the corrosion products and calcareous deposits on the damage tolerance of a Thermally Sprayed Aluminium coating (TSA) in a simulated marine immersion environment. The capacity of TSA to polarise the steel was evaluated by modelling 5%, 50%, and 90% of the sample uncoated’s area (i.e., substrate exposed). Additionally, the consumption of the sacrificial coating was simulated by Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) for the geometry of the experimental system. The parameters used in the model were obtained from polarisation curves and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) available in the literature. The results are in good agreement with measurements of Open Circuit Potential (OCP) and Corrosion Rate (CR) from experiments reported in previous studies. The model predicted the sacrificial protection offered by TSA as a function of the exposed steel surfaces, indicating the ability of TSA coating to polarise steel even with up to 90% damage. Furthermore, a 90–70% reduction in the corrosion rate of TSA was calculated with the simultaneous influence of corrosion products and deposits formed after 20 days of exposure to artificial seawater at room temperature.
      Citation: Surfaces
      PubDate: 2022-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/surfaces5010005
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Surfaces, Vol. 5, Pages 127-142: Tunning the Gas Sensing Properties of rGO
           with In2O3 Nanoparticles

    • Authors: Bruno S. de Lima, Amanda A. Komorizono, Amadou L. Ndiaye, Maria Inês B. Bernardi, Jérôme Brunet, Valmor R. Mastelaro
      First page: 127
      Abstract: Here, we discuss the effect of In2O3 nanoparticles on the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) gas-sensing potentialities. In2O3 nanoparticles were prepared with the polymer precursors method, while the nanocomposites were prepared by mixing an In2O3 nanoparticle suspension with an rGO suspension in different proportions. The gas-sensing performance of our materials was tested by exposing our materials to known concentrations of a target toxic gas in a dry airflow. Our results demonstrate that In2O3 nanoparticles enhance the rGO sensitivity for strong oxidizing species such as O3 and NO2, while a negative effect on its sensitivity for NH3 sensing is observed. Furthermore, our measurements towards H2S suggest that the concentration of In2O3 nanoparticles can induce an uncommon transition from p-type to n-type semiconductor nature when rGO–In2O3 nanocomposites operate at temperatures close to 160 °C.
      Citation: Surfaces
      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/surfaces5010006
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Surfaces, Vol. 5, Pages 143-154: Characterization of Mechanochemical
           Modification of Porous Silicon with Arginine

    • Authors: Jacklyn A. DiPietro, Kurt W. Kolasinski
      First page: 143
      Abstract: Mechanochemistry initiated the reaction of hydrogen-terminated porous silicon (H/por-Si) powder with arginine. Samples were analyzed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Arginine, which was physisorbed onto the surface of por-Si, blue-shifted the peak PL intensity from ~630 nm for the H/por-Si to ~565 nm for arginine-coated por-Si. Grinding for 4 h reduced >80% of the initially 2–45 µm particles to <500 nm, but was observed to quench the PL. With appropriate rinsing and centrifugation, particles in the 100 nm range were isolated. Rinsing ground powder with water was required to remove the unreacted arginine. Without rinsing, excess arginine induced the aggregation of passivated particles. However, water reacted with the freshly ground por-Si powder producing H2. A zeta potential of +42 mV was measured for arginine-terminated por-Si particles dispersed in deionized water. This positive value was consistent with termination such that NH2 groups extended away from the surface. Furthermore, this result was confirmed by FTIR spectra, which suggested that arginine was bound to silicon through the formation of a covalent Si–O bond.
      Citation: Surfaces
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/surfaces5010007
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Surfaces, Vol. 5, Pages 155-164: Wafer-Scale Polishing of Polycrystalline

    • Authors: Xuerun Huang, Changjie Zhou, Bo Wu, Zhiming Geng, Xing Zhang
      First page: 155
      Abstract: Diamond offers great potential for use as a thermal spreader in various applications, including power electronics and radio-frequency (RF) applications. However, to be used as an efficient thermal spreader, the atomically smooth surface of the diamond is critical to be bonded with chips. Herein, a polishing technique for a 2-inch diameter wafer-scale bulk polycrystalline diamond substrate is proposed. In this work, 350 μm thick polycrystalline diamond is grown by the microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPACVD) technique on a Si substrate at a growth rate of 8 µm/h. Thereafter, a three-step polishing process was applied to achieve an atomically smooth surface, consisting of grinding using a diamond slurry with an iron plate, ICP etching using the SF6 gas, and final mechanical polishing using a resin-bonded diamond wheel. Surface roughness of diamond characterized by atomic force microscopy showed the significantly reduced from 900 nm to 0.3 nm. Hence, this study provide the practical methods for obtaining atomically smooth diamond films suitable for thermal management in various areas including power electronics and RF devices.
      Citation: Surfaces
      PubDate: 2022-02-03
      DOI: 10.3390/surfaces5010008
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Surfaces, Vol. 5, Pages 165-175: Ultra-Sensitive Immuno-Sensing Platform
           Based on Gold-Coated Interdigitated Electrodes for the Detection of

    • Authors: Shalini Nagabooshanam, Souradeep Roy, Shikha Wadhwa, Ashish Mathur, Satheesh Krishnamurthy, Lalit Mohan Bharadwaj
      First page: 165
      Abstract: Pesticides are unavoidable in agriculture to protect crops from pests and insects. Organophosphates (OPs) are a class of pesticides that are more harmful because of the irreversible inhibition reaction with acetylcholinesterase enzyme, thereby posing serious health hazards in human beings. In the present work, a sensitive and selective immuno-sensing platform is developed using gold inter-digitized electrodes (Au-IDEs) as substrates, integrated with a microfluidic platform having the microfluidic well capacity of 10 µL. Au-IDE having digit width of 10 µm and gap length of 5 µm was used in this study. The surface morphological analysis by field-effect scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed the direct information regarding the modification of Au-IDEs with anti-parathion (Anti-PT) antibodies. In SEM analysis, it was seen that the Au-IDE surface was smooth in contrast to the Anti-PT modified surface, which is supported by the AFM studies showing the surface roughness of ~2.02 nm for Au-IDE surface and ~15.86 nm for Anti-PT modified surface. Further, Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis confirms the immobilization of Anti-PT by the bond vibrations upon the successive modification of Au-IDE with -OH groups, amine groups after modifying with APTES, and the amide bond formation after incubation in Anti-PT antibody. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was carried out for the electrochemical characterization and for testing the sensing performances of the fabricated electrode. The developed immuno-sensor provided a linear range of detection from 0.5 pg/L–1 µg/L, with a limit of detection (LoD) of 0.66 ng/L and sensitivity of 4.1 MΩ/ngL−1/cm2. The sensor response was also examined with real samples (pomegranate juice) with good accuracy, exhibiting a shelf life of 25 days. The miniaturized sensing platform, along with its better sensing performance, has huge potential to be integrated into portable electronics, leading to suitable field applications of pesticide screening devices.
      Citation: Surfaces
      PubDate: 2022-02-12
      DOI: 10.3390/surfaces5010009
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Surfaces, Vol. 5, Pages 176-185: An Atomistic Investigation of Adsorption
           of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 on Gold with Nanoscale Topographies

    • Authors: Izabele Marquetti, Salil Desai
      First page: 176
      Abstract: Nanoscale surface topographies mediated with biochemical cues influence the differentiation of stem cells into different lineages. This research focuses on the adsorption behavior of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) on nanopatterned gold substrates, which can aid in the differentiation of bone and cartilage tissue constructs. The gold substrates were patterned as flat, pillar, linear grating, and linear-grating deep based, and the BMP-2 conformation in end-on configuration was studied over 20 ns. The linear grating deep substrate pattern had the highest adsorption energy of around 125 kJ/mol and maintained its radius of gyration of 18.5 Å, indicating a stable adsorption behavior. Secondary structures including α-helix and β-sheet displayed no denaturation, and thus, the bioavailability of the BMP-2, for the deep linear-grating pattern. Ramachandran plots for the wrist and knuckle epitopes indicated no steric hindrances and provided binding sites to type I and type II receptors. The deep linear-grating substrate had the highest number of contacts (88 atoms) within 5 Å of the gold substrate, indicating its preferred nanoscale pattern choice among the substrates considered. This research provides new insights into the atomistic adsorption of BMP-2 on nanoscale topographies of a gold substrate, with applications in biomedical implants and regenerative medicine.
      Citation: Surfaces
      PubDate: 2022-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/surfaces5010010
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Surfaces, Vol. 5, Pages 186: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Surfaces in

    • Authors: Surfaces Editorial Office Surfaces Editorial Office
      First page: 186
      Abstract: Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Surfaces maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...]
      Citation: Surfaces
      PubDate: 2022-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/surfaces5010011
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Surfaces, Vol. 5, Pages 187-201: Electrochemical Biosensor Based on
           Laser-Induced Graphene for COVID-19 Diagnosing: Rapid and Low-Cost
           Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Biomarker Antibodies

    • Authors: Marcely Echeverria Oliveira, Bruno Vasconcellos Lopes, Jéssica Helisa Hautrive Rossato, Guilherme Kurz Maron, Betty Braga Gallo, Andrei Borges La Rosa, Raphael Dorneles Caldeira Balboni, Mariliana Luiza Ferreira Alves, Marcos Roberto Alves Ferreira, Luciano da Silva Pinto, Fabricio Rochedo Conceição, Evandro Piva, Claudio Martin Pereira de Pereira, Marcia Tsuyama Escote, Neftali Lenin Villarreal Carreño
      First page: 187
      Abstract: The severe acute respiratory syndrome originated by the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that emerged in late 2019, known to be a highly transmissible and pathogenic disease, has caused the COVID-19 global pandemic outbreak. Thus, diagnostic devices that help epidemiological public safety measures to reduce undetected cases and isolation of infected patients, in addition to significantly help to control the population’s immune response to vaccine, are required. To address the negative issues of clinical research, we developed a Diagnostic on a Chip platform based on a disposable electrochemical biosensor containing laser-induced graphene and a protein (SARS-CoV-2 specific antigen) for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The biosensors were produced via direct laser writing using a CO2 infrared laser cutting machine on commercial polyimide sheets. The presence of specific antibodies reacting with the protein and the K3[Fe(CN)6] redox indicator produced characteristic and concentration-dependent electrochemical signals, with mean current values of 9.6757 and 8.1812 µA for reactive and non-reactive samples, respectively, proving the effectiveness of testing in clinical samples of serum from patients. Thus, the platform is being expanded to be measured in a portable microcontrolled potentiostat to be applied as a fast and reliable monitoring and mapping tool, aiming to assess the vaccinal immune response of the population.
      Citation: Surfaces
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/surfaces5010012
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Surfaces, Vol. 5, Pages 202-208: Eco-Friendly Synthesis of Silver
           Nanoparticles Using Pulsed Plasma in Liquid: Effect of Surfactants

    • Authors: Yubiao Niu, Emil Omurzak, Rongsheng Cai, Dinara Syrgakbek kyzy, Zhanarbek Zhasnakunov, Abduraim Satyvaldiev, Richard E. Palmer
      First page: 202
      Abstract: Silver (Ag) nanoparticles were successfully prepared by using the in-liquid pulsed plasma technique. This method is based on a low voltage, pulsed spark discharge in a dielectric liquid. We explore the effect of the protecting ligands, specifically Cetyl Trimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB), Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and Sodium n-Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS), used as surfactant materials to prevent nanoparticle aggregation. The X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns of the samples confirm the face-centered cubic crystalline structure of Ag nanoparticles with the presence of Ag2O skin. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) reveals that spherically shaped Ag nanoparticles with a diameter of 2.2 ± 0.8 nm were synthesised in aqueous solution with PVP surfactant. Similarly, silver nanoparticles with a peak diameter of 1.9 ± 0.4 nm were obtained with SDS surfactant. A broad size distribution was found in the case of CTAB surfactant.
      Citation: Surfaces
      PubDate: 2022-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/surfaces5010013
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Surfaces, Vol. 5, Pages 209-217: The Negative Photoconductivity of Ag/AgO
           Grown by Spray-Pyrolysis

    • Authors: Aline Bastos de Paiva, Luis Miguel Bolaños Vargas, Matheus José da Silva, Ariano De Giovanni Rodrigues, Demétrio A. W. Soares, Marcelos Lima Peres, Marcio Peron Franco de Godoy
      First page: 209
      Abstract: The main goal of this work is to provide a general description of the negative photoconductivity effect observed in Ag/AgO films grown by the spray-pyrolysis technique. X-ray diffractograms display hybrid films with high texturized AgO and metallic Ag phases. Scanning electron microscopy images show small Ag particles on the surface. Due to its surface nature, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the predominance of the metallic character of Ag 3d spectra as compared to Ag2+. Negative photoconductivity with photoresponse in the order of seconds is observed under several wavelengths of excitation. We found that the amplitude of the negative photoresponse is strongly dependent on the optical absorbance and enhanced by surface plasmon resonance. The low-cost technique employed and the special features regarding negative photoconductivity provide an exciting platform for developing optical-electronic devices with low power consumption.
      Citation: Surfaces
      PubDate: 2022-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/surfaces5010014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Surfaces, Vol. 5, Pages 218-227: Electrochemical Detection of
           Dinitrobenzene on Silicon Electrodes: Toward Explosives Sensors

    • Authors: Essam M. Dief, Natasha Hoffmann, Nadim Darwish
      First page: 218
      Abstract: Detection of explosives is vital for protection and criminal investigations, and developing novel explosives’ sensors stands at the forefront of the analytical and forensic chemistry endeavors. Due to the presence of terminal nitro groups that can be electrochemically reduced, nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) have been an analytical target for explosives’ electrochemical sensors. Various electrode materials have been used to detect NACs in solution, including glassy carbon electrodes (GCE), platinum (Pt), and gold (Au) electrodes, by tracking the reversible oxidation/reduction properties of the NACs on these electrodes. Here, we show that the reduction of dinitrobenzene (DNB) on oxide-free silicon (Si–H) electrodes is irreversible with two reduction peaks that disappear within the successive voltammetric scanning. AFM imaging showed the formation of a polymeric film whose thickness scales up with the DNB concentration. This suggest that Si–H surfaces can serve as DNB sensors and possibly other explosive substances. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements showed that the limit of detection (LoD) on Si–H is one order of magnitude lower than that obtained on GCE. In addition, EIS measurements showed that the LoD of DNB on Si–H is two orders of magnitude lower than the CV method. The fact that a Si–H surface can be used to track the presence of DNB makes it a suitable surface to be implemented as a sensing platform. To translate this concept into a sensor, however, it would require engineering and fabrication prospect to be compatible with the current semiconductor technologies.
      Citation: Surfaces
      PubDate: 2022-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/surfaces5010015
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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