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CHEMISTRY (661 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 601 - 735 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
Scientific Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 85)
Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Sensors and Actuators Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Separation & Purification Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Separation Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Separations     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Silicon Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Small Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Small Science     Open Access  
Small Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Smart Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
SmartMat     Open Access  
Soft     Open Access  
Soft Nanoscience Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Solar RRL     Hybrid Journal  
Solid State Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Solid State Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
SPE Polymers     Open Access  
Spectral Analysis Review     Open Access  
Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Starch / Staerke     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Steel Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Structural Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Substantia     Open Access  
Supramolecular Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Supramolecular Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Surface and Coatings Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Surface Science Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Surfaces     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Surfaces and Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Chemical Processes     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Synfacts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Synlett     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Synthesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Talanta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Talanta Open     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tecnología Química     Open Access  
Telematics and Informatics Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tenside Surfactants Detergents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tetrahedron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80)
Tetrahedron Chem     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tetrahedron Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
The All Results Journals : Chem     Open Access  
The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The Enzymes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The Protein Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Theoretical and Experimental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Theoretical Chemistry Accounts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Thermochimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Tip Revista Especializada en Ciencias Quimico-Biologicas     Open Access  
Topics in Current Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Toxicology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Toxicology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Transition Metal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Trends in Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Turkish Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Open Access  
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Universal Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Vietnam Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Western Undergraduate Research Journal : Health and Natural Sciences     Open Access  
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Computational Molecular Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
World Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
X-Ray Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)

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Substantia
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2532-3997
Published by Firenze University Press Homepage  [36 journals]
  • To Print or Not to Print'

    • Authors: Pierandrea Lo Nostro
      Pages: 5 - 6
      Abstract: An interesting paper recently published in Peer J. by Enrique Teran and coworkers casts light on a peculiar side effect of the Covid-19 pandemic that concerns the quality of articles that appeared as preprints in archives or as regular papers in peer-reviewed scholarly journals. The authors report a detailed perusal of the scientific publications related to research on Covid-19 in a portion of the year 2020. What emerges from the study is that over the total number of preprints uploaded in the archives' servers, that are not subjected to a formal peer-review process, only about 5.7% were later converted into regular articles and published in scholarly journals after a regular peer-review process. The statistics is based on a global sample of 5,061 preprints uploaded in three different archives.
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      DOI: 10.36253/Substantia-1570
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Faraday's Dogma

    • Authors: Stephen Hyde
      Pages: 7 - 12
      Abstract: Contemporary scientific research is competitive, costly and coupled to the parallel universe of commerce. A Faustian bargain between scientists and politicians allows the funding to flow. There is another path: to slow down, think and experiment without the pressure of competition and frequent publication. That path will come at a cost: reduced funding for people and equipment. The article compares and contrasts the most creative musical and visual artists with the current scientific model. I suggest that science requires acceptance that true creativity can only come by decoupling from current commercial and political imperatives.
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      DOI: 10.36253/Substantia-1528
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Creativity in Art, Literature, Music, Science, and Inventions

    • Authors: Luigi Dei
      Pages: 13 - 23
      Abstract: This essay aims to stimulate reflection on the creativity characterising homo sapiens in the different realms in which it occurs. Over recent decades scholarly research into creativity has extended the original concept, restricted to geniuses, to a broader field that encompasses the qualities and abilities of every individual, in line with a democratisation of the creative act. However, the aim of this contribution is to illustrate the creativity of geniuses, referring to examples in various fields, according to Poincaré’s definition of connecting pre-existing elements into new combinations that are novel and useful. The objective of this study is to show that pre-existing elements can be found in works of art, literature, poetry, and music, as well as in scientific discoveries or inventions. Having demonstrated the existence of concrete and real analogies in the various – and apparently profoundly different – fields of human creativity, a second objective was to construct a convincing proof of a notion of a culture characterised by an essential unity, without any separation between humanities and sciences. I trust that the analysis of the creative acts that generated Picasso’s Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, Michelangelo’s Vaticano Pietà, Primo Levi’s The Periodic Table, Giacomo Leopardi’s L’infinito (The infinite) and Wisława Szymborska’s Liczba Pi (Pi), the beginning of Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony and Brahms’ Fourth Symphony the finale of Stravinsky’s Sacre du Printemps, the discovery of X-rays by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen and of the therapeutic properties of lithium salts for psychiatric disorders by John Frederick Joseph Cade, the invention of incandescent light bulbs by Thomas Alva Edison and many other inventors and of the electronic television by Philo Taylor Farnsworth, may succeed in achieving the first objective and, by extension, the second also.
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      DOI: 10.36253/Substantia-1524
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Singlet Dioxygen ¹O₂, its Generation, Physico-Chemical Properties and
           its Possible Hormetic Behavior in Cancer Therapy

    • Authors: Marc Henry, Miro Radman, Luc Benichou, Khalid O. Alfarouk, Laurent Schwartz
      Pages: 25 - 36
      Abstract: Singlet dioxygen 1O2 is one excited state among the three other possible spectroscopic states of molecular oxygen. Here, we first describe the use of published spectroscopic data and thermodynamic modeling based on irreversible entropy production. Such concepts are further applied to the synthesis of singlet dioxygen and its reactions with crucial biological molecules. In a last section, we suggest that singlet dioxygen and ozone may be responsible for the success of radiation therapy, that has been used to treat cancer successfully for over 120 years. Its precise mechanism of action remains controversial. We thus aim to clarify the role of singlet oxygen in radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A partial conversion of ionizing radiation in the body into thermal photons could be assumed. The antitumor effect may involve these thermal photons, such as the one delivered by red/infrared sources. Thermal photons (wavelengths of 635 nm and 1270 nm) convert triplet dioxygen into singlet dioxygen by changing the spin of its outer electrons. Despite its short half-life, Singlet dioxygen is responsible for the activation of multiple free radicals (such as hydrogen peroxide), which may target proteins and DNA, induce either apoptosis or oxidative phosphorylation. At moderate concentrations, thermodynamic data suggests that singlet dioxygen may readily react with water to form a potent pro-apoptotic molecule (ozone), thus decreasing cancer growth. However, at high concentration cytotoxic effects against all kind of cells occurs. This strongly suggests a non-linear hormetic behavior of singlet dioxygen. It is also proposed that cytotoxic chemotherapy induces the same free radicals that singlet dioxygen does. There are also other ways to enhance the production of singlet dioxygen, such as phototherapy using Methylene Blue for instance. As a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), singlet oxygen could thus be a common agent active both in radiotherapy and chemotherapy. It is probable that the activity of radiation therapy and chemotherapy may be mediated by the conversion of triplet to singlet oxygen. This may explain the oxygen effect such as described in radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      DOI: 10.36253/Substantia-1451
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Is the Second Law of Thermodynamics Able to Classify Drugs'

    • Authors: Laurent Schwartz, Luc Benichou, Jules Schwartz, Maxime Pontié, Marc Henry
      Pages: 37 - 47
      Abstract: Specialization characterizes pharmacology, with the consequence of classifying the various treatments into unrelated categories. Treating a specific disease usually requires the design of a specific drug. The second law of thermodynamics is the driving force both for chemical reactions and for life. It applies to diseases and treatment. In most common diseases, there is a metabolic shift toward anabolism and anaerobic glycolysis, resulting in the release of entropy in the form of biomass. In accordance with the second principle of thermodynamics, treatment should aim at decreasing the entropy flux, which stays inside the body in the form of biomass. Most treatments aim at increasing the amount of entropy that is released by the cell in the form of thermal photons. As clinically different diseases often requires similar drugs, this calls for reinforcement in a quest for a single unified framework. For example, treatment of aggressive autoimmune diseases requires the same cytotoxic chemotherapy than for cancer. This strongly suggests that despite their apparent disparity, there is an underlying unity in the diseases and the treatments. The shift toward increased entropy release in the form of heat offers sound guidelines for the repurposing of drugs.
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      DOI: 10.36253/Substantia-1364
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • History of Research on Phospholipid Metabolism and Applications to the
           Detection, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Cancer

    • Authors: Jack S. Cohen, Peter F. Daly
      Pages: 49 - 76
      Abstract: In the past 30 years there has been a significant increase in the number of publications on phospholipid (PL) metabolism, both for the medical purposes of detection and diagnosis of cancer and for the monitoring of the treatment of human cancers. Most of the work has focused on the pathway that produces phosphatidylcholine, the major component of human cell membranes. The trigger for this research was the advent of applications of NMR spectroscopy in vitro and in vivo in the 1980’s and observations that most cancer cells and tumors had significant increases in the water-soluble PL precursors and breakdown products. Increased phosphocholine (PC) has been focused on as a marker for cancer using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET). MRS is now used clinically to aid in the diagnosis and severity of some brain tumors; and choline PET is used for the diagnosis and staging of recurrent prostate cancer, paid for by medical insurance companies. Another major area of research starting in the 1990’s was the development of specific choline kinase (CK) inhibitors aimed at the isoenzyme CK-a. This isoenzyme is markedly upregulated in cancer cells and unexpectedly was found to have a role in oncogenic transformation independent of its enzyme function.
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      DOI: 10.36253/Substantia-1376
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) and its Basic Principles in Historical
           Retrospect. Part 3. 1840s –1900ca. The First CE of Ions in 1861.
           Transference Numbers, Migration Velocity, Conductivity, Mobility.

    • Authors: Ernst Kenndler
      Pages: 77 - 105
      Abstract: Since electrophoresis is a physical phenomenon – it is the movement of dispersed charged particles relative to a liquid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field - its history is not limited to its use as a separation method. The history of capillary electrophoresis in particular, i.e. electrophoresis in capillary-sized open tubes, therefore does not begin in the 1960s, as is commonly assumed, but already a century earlier, if one refers to its principles Capillary electrophoresis of ions was first performed by the French physicist Edmond Becquerel in 1861, about the same year as that of colloidal particles. Becquerel owns therefore the priority. It was subsequently performed on three other occasions in the Long Nineteenth Century, by Wilhelm Beetz in 1865, by Wilhelm Ostwald and Walther Nernst in 1889, and by Friedrich Kohlrausch and Adolf Heydweiller in 1895. All of these experiments were carried out in the context of research on conductivity and ion migration. Based on the theories of Grotthuß, Davy, and Faraday, it was believed until the 1840s that both the anions and the cations of a dissolved strong electrolyte - to which this review refers - travel at the same speed in an electric field.), migrate at the same velocity or speed in an electric field, but experimental observations in the mid-1840s cast doubt on this view. Wilhelm Hittorf was the first to show that these ions could migrate at different speeds, still consistent with Faraday´s laws. He was able to prove his hypothesis with experimental data and determined the migration velocities of the two types of ions in an electrolyte relative to the sum of their velocities, which he termed "Überführungszahlen" (transference or transport numbers). However, they did not initially yield the absolute velocities of the ions. This was achieved later by F. Kohlrausch, who devoted four decades of his research life, namely from the end of 1860 to about 1910, to the study of the conductivity of electrolyte solutions and the migration of ions. He discovered in 1879, that ions move independently from each other in solution (1st Kohlrausch law). It is remarkable that until the late 1880s it was generally believed that free ions do not exist in solutions in the absence of an external electrical force, but that ions were always tightly bound to their counterions. This belief dated back to Grotthuß in 1805. Although Rudolf Clausius hypothesized in 1857 that free ions are actually present in solutions as result of their thermal motion, this did not find further resonance. It is also remarkable that during this whole period under consideration no attempt was ever made to separate ions with the same charge, although their different migration properties were already known. Continuing his research, Kohlrausch found empirically in 1900 that at extremely low concentrations the molar conductivity of ions, i.e. the conductivity related to their concentration, is a function of the square root of their concentration and approaches a certain limit at infinite dilution (2nd Kohlrausch law). As a precursor to this law, he derived in 1885 for larger concentration ranges the little-known relationship of molar conductivity as a function of the cubic root of concentration. He calculated the migration velocities of ions from their conductivities and characterized the migration behavior by their mobility, which is a central property in electrophoresis. Kohlrausch was certainly a formative investigator of the electrophoretic properties of ions, but his work focused mainly on strong electrolytes. This review covers the research results in this field in the period from 1840 to about 1910, but also reports on the historical background at this time and the personal background of some researchers who, despite important contributions, have been unjustly forgotten, as well as on researchers who were active outside the scientific community. Mention is made, for example, of Gustav Theodor Fechner, who was the first to prove the fact, indispensable for electrophoresis, that Ohm´s law also applies to electrolyte solutions. However, in contrast to the generally applied results of his investigations, he himself was rather ignored by later researchers. The conductivities and electrophoretic properties of weak electrolytes, which were known to Kohlrausch and his contemporaries but hardly explicable to them, at least until 1884, are not discussed in detail in this review. In that year, Svante Arrhenius published his groundbreaking dissociation theory. This theory and the resulting consequences for the whole subject of electrolyte solutions require, however, a separate historical retrospect.
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      DOI: 10.36253/Substantia-1423
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The Early History of Polyaniline II: Elucidation of Structure and Redox
           States

    • Authors: Seth C. Rasmussen
      Pages: 107 - 119
      Abstract: Polyaniline, one of the primary parent conducting polymers, is a quite old material with a history dating back to 1834. With the distinction of being the oldest known fully synthetic polymer and successfully commercialized as several popular cotton dyes in the 1860s, this material was originally known by the name of its black dye, aniline black. Of course, throughout this early history, the chemical identity and structure of these early polyaniline products were completely unknown, and it was not until the 1870s that initial attempts began to reveal various structural aspects. The current report will present a detailed historical account of the efforts to determine the structures of these early aniline oxidation products over the time period of ca. 1870-1915. In addition to the identity and structure of specific products, studies revealing the interconversion of one species to another via both redox and acid-based processes will also be discussed, with these collective efforts resulting in a comprehensive model of these materials that has remained essentially unchanged to this day.
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      DOI: 10.36253/Substantia-1425
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Path to the Synthesis of Polyacetylene Films with Metallic Luster: In
           Response to Rasmussen’s Article

    • Authors: Hideki Shirakawa
      Pages: 121 - 127
      Abstract: The 2000 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded jointly to Alan J. Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid, and Hideki Shirakawa “for the discovery and development of conductive polymers.” Unlike metals, organic polymers or plastics do not conduct electricity. The three laureates found that polyacetylene can be doped on a film, which was initially synthesized by Shirakawa following a failed experimental trial by a Korean scientist, Hyung Chick Pyun. Later, Pyun insisted that he was the discoverer of polyacetylene films with silvery sheen. This note sheds light on the true history of the synthesis of polyacetylene films.
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      DOI: 10.36253/Substantia-1426
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Comments on Shirakawa’s Response

    • Authors: Seth C. Rasmussen
      Pages: 129 - 131
      Abstract: As both an active researcher in the synthesis of conjugated materials and a chemist-historian that has spent the last decade attempting to detail and clarify the history of conjugated and conducting polymers, I am overjoyed that Prof. Shirakawa has elected to provide additional personal details relating to the discovery and development of polyacetylene films. Shirakawa has provided this material in response to my most recent Substantia paper that details newly revealed accounts by Hyung Chick Pyun (1926-2018), who was a visiting Korean scientist that carried out the initial experiment that led to these films. This material is critical to advance our understanding of this important historical event.
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      DOI: 10.36253/Substantia-1529
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Lipids, Chloroform, and Their Intertwined Histories

    • Authors: Carlos Ramírez
      Pages: 133 - 143
      Abstract: Lipids and their fatty acid constituents, in particular, have been the subject of academic and industrial research initiatives since their isolation by Michel-Eugène Chevreul in 1813. Fatty acids can be saturated or unsaturated, their physical properties depending on the aliphatic chain length and degree of saturation. They constitute the building blocks of many lipid groups, such as triglycerides and phospholipids; are key additives in commercial foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics; and can cross cell membranes. Chloroform was synthesized in 1831 by Samuel Guthrie and has had a tortuous history of interactions with mankind: from an anesthetic in obstetrics, dentistry, and surgery, to being labeled as a potential carcinogen in the 1970s. It has also had important nonmedical applications, such as in chemical engineering mass transfer systems designed to estimate binary gas diffusion coefficients. Although chemically dissimilar, lipids and chloroform intertwined their scientific paths through the work of Jordi Folch and associates in the 1940s-1950s, in which many lipid-based brain molecules were isolated and characterized. This article outlines the separate histories of lipids and chloroform, and those research initiatives in which they have acted synergistically. The narrative covers the interplay of chemical compounds with different historical backgrounds, but with physical properties which continue to foster their modern-day interaction.
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      DOI: 10.36253/Substantia-1498
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Obituary: Professor Alexander Kessenikh (1932-2021)

    • Authors: Andrey V. Andreev, Vadim A. Atsarkin, Konstantin V. Ivanov, Gennady E. Kurtik, Pierandrea Lo Nostro, Vasily V. V. Ptushenko, Konstantin A. Tomilin, Natalia V. Vdovichenko, Vladimir P. Vizgin
      Pages: 145 - 147
      Abstract: On September 15, 2021, professor Alexander V. Kessenikh died. He was known for his works on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and history of science.
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      DOI: 10.36253/Substantia-1561
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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