Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 928 journals)
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    - CHEMISTRY (661 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (661 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 401 - 600 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of Molecular Liquids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Molecular Recognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Molecular Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology     Open Access  
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C: Photochemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Polymer & Composites     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92)
Journal of Polymers     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Progressive Research in Chemistry     Open Access  
Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Research and Education Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research Updates in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Rubber Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Saudi Chemical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Solid State Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Solution Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sulfur Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Supercritical Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Superhard Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Surface Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Surfactants and Detergents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Taibah University for Science     Open Access  
Journal of the American Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 326)
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of the Indian Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of The Indonesian Society of Integrated Chemistry     Open Access  
Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of the Mexican Chemical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society     Open Access  
Journal of the Turkish Chemical Society, Section A : Chemistry     Open Access  
Journal of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Jurnal Inovasi Pendidikan Kimia     Open Access  
Jurnal Kimia (Journal of Chemistry)     Open Access  
Jurnal Kimia Riset     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Kimia     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sains (JPS)     Open Access  
Karbala International Journal of Modern Science     Open Access  
Kinetics and Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Konfigurasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Kimia dan Terapan     Open Access  
Korea-Australia Rheology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Langmuir     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Lebensmittelchemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Lipid Insights     Open Access  
Luminescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Macromolecular Materials & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Macromolecular Rapid Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Macromolecular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Macromolecular Symposia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Macromolecular Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Macromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Magnetochemistry     Open Access  
Marine Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Marine Drugs     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
MATEC Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Materials Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Materials and Devices     Open Access  
Materials Characterization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Materials Chemistry Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Materials Horizons     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Materials Research Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Materials Science-Poland     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Materials Sciences and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Medicinal Chemistry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Mediterranean Journal of Chemistry     Open Access  
Metallography, Microstructure, and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Micro and Nano Systems Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Microchimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Microporous and Mesoporous Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Modern Chemistry & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modern Research in Catalysis     Open Access  
Molbank     Open Access  
Molecular Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Molecules     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Molecules and Cells     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Monatshefte für Chemie - Chemical Monthly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mongolian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access  
Moscow University Chemistry Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
MRS Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Nachrichten aus der Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nano Convergence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nano Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nano Reviews & Experiments     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Nano Select     Open Access  
Nanochemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nanoscale     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Nanoscale Advances     Open Access  
Nanoscale Horizons     Hybrid Journal  
Nanoscale Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Natural Product Communications     Open Access  
Natural Product Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Natural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils     Open Access  
Nature Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 96)
Nature Protocols     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 73)
Nature Reviews Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
New Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Nitric Oxide     Hybrid Journal  
Nitrogen     Open Access  
Nukleonika     Open Access  
Open Chemistry Journal     Open Access  
Open Conference Proceedings Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Chemistry     Open Access  
Open Journal of Composite Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Open Journal of Inorganic Non-metallic Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Polymer Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Open Journal of Synthesis Theory and Applications     Open Access  
Open Medicinal Chemistry Journal     Open Access  
Orbital - The Electronic Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Organometallics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Oxidation of Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Passer Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Peptide Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmaceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Phosphorus, Sulfur, and Silicon and the Related Elements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Photochemistry and Photobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Physical Science International Journal     Open Access  
Physics and Materials Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Phytochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Phytochemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Plasma     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Polyhedron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Polymer Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Polymer crystallization     Hybrid Journal  
Polymer Degradation and Stability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Polymer Engineering & Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Polymer Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Polymer Science Series D     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Polymer Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 198)
Polymer-Plastics Technology and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Polymers     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Polymers from Renewable Resources     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the Combustion Institute     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Processes     Open Access  
Progress in Lipid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Progress in Organic Coatings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Progress in Polymer Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Progress in Reaction Kinetics and Mechanism     Open Access  
Progress in Solid State Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Progress in Surface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Protein Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Radiochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Reaction Chemistry & Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Reactions     Open Access  
Reportes Científicos de la FaCEN     Open Access  
Research Journal of Phytochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Resources Chemicals and Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Results in Chemistry     Open Access  
Results in Geochemistry     Open Access  
Results in Surfaces and Interfaces     Open Access  
Review Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Revista Boliviana de Química     Open Access  
Revista CENIC. Ciencias Quimicas     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Química     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Química     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencias     Open Access  
Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales     Open Access  
Revista de la Sociedad Química del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de la Societat Catalana de Química     Open Access  
Revista de Química     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Revista Debates em Ensino de Química     Open Access  
Revista ION     Open Access  
RSC Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
RSC Chemical Biology     Open Access  
RSC Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Russian Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Russian Journal of Coordination Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Russian Journal of General Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Russian Journal of Inorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Sainstek : Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi     Open Access  
Science China Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Science Talks     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Sciences & Technologie A : sciences exactes     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Frontier Chemical Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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ISSN (Online) 2312-7481
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 59: Pressure–Temperature Phase
           Diagram of Multiferroic TbFe2.46Ga0.54(BO3)4

    • Authors: Alexander Krylov, Svetlana Krylova, Irina Gudim, Yuri Kitaev, Elena Golovkina, Haibo Zhang, Alexander Vtyurin
      First page: 59
      Abstract: The pressure–temperature phase diagram of the multiferroic TbFe2.46Ga0.54(BO3)4 was studied for hydrostatic pressures up to 7 GPa and simultaneously with temperatures up to 400 K by the Raman spectroscopy technique. The structural phase transition from the R32 phase to the P3121 phase was determined by observing the condensation of soft modes and the appearance of new lines. An increase in pressure leads to an increase in the temperature of the structural phase transition. These phases are stable over the entire investigated temperature and pressure range. No other phases have been found.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8060059
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 60: Magnetic Losses in Soft Ferrites

    • Authors: Samuel Dobák, Cinzia Beatrice, Vasiliki Tsakaloudi, Fausto Fiorillo
      First page: 60
      Abstract: We review the basic phenomenology of magnetic losses from DC to 1 GHz in commercial and laboratory-prepared soft ferrites considering recent concepts regarding their physical interpretation. This is based, on the one hand, on the identification of the contributions to the magnetization process provided by spin rotations and domain walls and, on the other hand, the concept of loss separation. It additionally contemplates a distinction between the involved microscopic dissipation mechanisms: spin damping and eddy currents. Selected experimental results on the broadband behavior of complex permeability and losses in Mn-Zn ferrites provide significant examples of their dependence on sintering methods, solute elements, and working temperature. We also highlight the peculiar frequency and temperature response of Ni-Zn ferrites, which can be heavily affected by magnetic aftereffects. The physical modeling of the losses brings to light the role of the magnetic anisotropy and the way its magnitude distribution, affected by the internal demagnetizing fields, acts upon the magnetization process and its dependence on temperature and frequency. It is shown that the effective anisotropy governs the interplay of domain wall and rotational processes and their distinctive dissipation mechanisms, whose contributions are recognized in terms of different loss components.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8060060
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 61: Magnetohydrodynamic Effects on
           Third-Grade Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer with Darcy–Forchheimer Law
           over an Inclined Exponentially Stretching Sheet Embedded in a Porous

    • Authors: Amir Abbas, Mdi Begum Jeelani, Nadiyah Hussain Alharthi
      First page: 61
      Abstract: The major aim of the current investigations is to study the magnetohydrodynamic effects on heat and mass transfer phenomena in third-grade fluid past an inclined exponentially stretching sheet fixed in a porous medium with Darcy–Forchheimer law influence. The constitutive equations compatible for heat and mass transportation in third-grade fluid in terms of partial differential equations are modeled. These partial differential equations are then converted to ordinary differential equations by using suitable similarity variables formulation. The transformed flow model is solved by using MATLAB built-in numerical solver bvp4c. Effects of pertinent parameters on physical properties that are velocity field, temperature field and mass concentration along with skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are demonstrated in graphs and tables. The impact of dimensionless numbers on the physical properties is analyzed and discussed with a physical view point at angle  α=π/6 (inclined sheet). It is seen that as the third-grade fluid parameter (0.1≤β≤11) is increased, the velocity profile increases, but the temperature field and mass concentration are decreased. It is observed that as the permeability parameter (1≤K*≤11) is raised, the velocity distribution decreases and mass concentration increases. It is concluded from the results that owing to an increase in the local inertial coefficient (0.1≤Fr≤5), the velocity profile reduces but an increment in mass concentration is noted. It is concluded that by increasing values of magnetic field parameter (0.1≤M≤10) the velocity field is delineated and temperature field is elevated exactly according to the physics of magnetic field parameters. The present results are compared with already published results and it is observed that there is good agreement between them. This good agreement ensures the validation of accuracy of the results.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8060061
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 62: Influence of a Constant Perpendicular

    • Authors: Anne-Lise Daltin, Jean-Paul Chopart
      First page: 62
      Abstract: Calcium phosphate coatings were formed on a Ti6Al4V substrate by electrodeposition under a high magnetic field up to 16 T. The magnetic field was parallelly applied to the vertical surface electrode. Changes in crystal morphology of calcium phosphates were investigated as a function of the magnetic field amplitude, and the results are discussed in terms of magnetic field effects. Magnetohydrodynamic convection due to the Lorentz force could considerably reduce the formation of volcano-like structures and generate more uniform deposits without changing Ca/P ratios.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8060062
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 63: Simulating Evaluation Method on
           Heating Performances of Magnetic Nanoparticles with Temperature-Dependent
           Heating Efficiencies in Tumor Hyperthermia

    • Authors: Shuai-Wen Ding, Cheng-Wei Wu, Xiao-Gang Yu, Chao Dai, Wei Zhang, Jian-Po Gong
      First page: 63
      Abstract: The magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with decreasing heating efficiency (characterized by specific loss power, SLP) with temperature increase, especially around the Curie temperature (TC), are expected to realize the self-regulated temperature hyperthermia of the tumor. However, the actual decrease of the SLP is gradual, resulting in the deviation of self-regulated temperatures from the measured TC. So far, no method is available for evaluating the heating performances of those MNPs. Here, by simulating the temperature-dependent SLP, the heating performances of MNPs are evaluated from three clinically concerning aspects: the capacity for effective heating, the temperature uniformity in the tumor, and the temperature stability under environmental changes such as MNP loss or tumor progression. The developed methods were applied to ZnCoCrFeO, Fe3O4, and γ-Fe2O3 MNPs. It was found that the uniform temperature distribution relies on lowering the heating power in the inner regions of the tumor, and the stable control of temperature depends on the dynamic adaptation of the heating power to the tumor temperature change. The proposed method may be used to predict the heating ability of MNPs and help the selection of MNPs for hyperthermia.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8060063
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 64: Control of Molecular Orientation and
           Carrier Transport of Thiophene-Based Semiconducting Polymer via
           Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles Fe3O4@C-Assisted Magnetic Alignment Method

    • Authors: Di Hui, Tian Li, Chun Ye, Guoxing Pan
      First page: 64
      Abstract: Realizing the high molecular orientation and structurally ordered microstructure of organic semiconductor polymer thin films is beneficial for enhancing the charge transport of conjugated polymers and achieving high-performance organic electronic devices. In this work, we successfully developed large-area highly aligned films of a thiophene-based polymer, namely poly(2,5-bis(3-alkylthiophen-2-yl) thieno [3,2-b] thiophene) (PBTTT), using the magnetic alignment method at a low magnetic field (0.12 T), which was assisted by superparamagnetic nanoparticles Fe3O4@C. The aligned microstructure of the composite films is confirmed by systematic analysis that includes polarized optical microscopy, polarized UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, and an atomic force microscope. Organic field effect transistors based on magnetic aligned composite film exhibit a 2.8-fold improvement in carrier mobility compared with the unaligned films. We hold a formation mechanism that the rapid magnetically induced self-assembly property of Fe3O4@C and its intermolecular interaction with polymer chains are key to the new method of preparing oriented thin films.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8060064
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 65: Interlayer Coupling and High-Frequency
           Performance in Magnetic Anisotropic FeCoB/Hf/FeCoB Trilayers with Various
           Hf Thicknesses

    • Authors: Duo Liu, Shouheng Zhang, Shandong Li
      First page: 65
      Abstract: FeCoB (25 nm)/Hf(tHf)/FeCoB (25 nm) sandwich films with different hafnium thicknesses tHf were fabricated using a modified compositional gradient sputtering method to obtain self-biased high-frequency performances. The effects of tHf on the interlayer coupling and FMR frequency were investigated. It is revealed that interlayer coupling enhanced the resonance frequency by 48%, and a ferromagnetic coupling between the FeCoB films occurred for the trilayers with tHf < 3.0 nm, likely due to the interface roughness and pinhole effect. In this case, only acoustic mode resonance was observed with the same high-frequency performance as the corresponding FeCoB single layer. In contrast, a tHf-dependent antiferromagnetic interlayer coupling appeared at tHf > 3.0 nm. The coupling coefficient J1 was antiferromagnetic, and a biquadratic coupling J2 appeared at tHf > 3.5 nm. The coupling mechanism was simulated and verified by Layadi’s rigid model, and the simulation was consistent with the experimental results.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8060065
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 47: Extending NMR Quantum Computation
           Systems by Employing Compounds with Several Heavy Metals as Qubits

    • Authors: Jéssica Boreli dos Reis Lino, Mateus Aquino Gonçalves, Stephan P. A. Sauer, Teodorico Castro Ramalho
      First page: 47
      Abstract: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a spectroscopic method that can be applied to several areas. Currently, this technique is also being used as an experimental quantum simulator, where nuclear spins are employed as quantum bits or qubits. The present work is devoted to studying heavy metal complexes as possible candidates to act as qubit molecules. Nuclei such 113Cd, 199Hg, 125Te, and 77Se assembled with the most common employed nuclei in NMR-QIP implementations (1H, 13C, 19F, 29Si, and 31P) could potentially be used in heteronuclear systems for NMR-QIP implementations. Hence, aiming to contribute to the development of future scalable heteronuclear spin systems, we specially designed four complexes, based on the auspicious qubit systems proposed in our previous work, which will be explored by quantum chemical calculations of their NMR parameters and proposed as suitable qubit molecules. Chemical shifts and spin–spin coupling constants in four complexes were examined using the spin–orbit zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA) at the density functional theory (DFT) level, as well as the relaxation parameters (T1 and T2). Examining the required spectral properties of NMR-QIP, all the designed complexes were found to be promising candidates for qubit molecules.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8050047
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 48: Heterometallic Chain Compounds of
           Tetrakis(µ-carboxylato)diruthenium and Tetracyanidoaurate

    • Authors: Masahiro Mikuriya, Yusuke Tanaka, Daisuke Yoshioka, Motohiro Tsuboi, Hidekazu Tanaka, Makoto Handa
      First page: 48
      Abstract: Heterometallic complexes of tetrakis(µ-carboxylato)diruthenium(II,III) with tetracyanidoaurate(III) [Ru2(RCOO)4Au(CN)4]n (R = CH3 (1), C2H5 (2), i-C3H7 (3), and t-C4H9 (4)) were synthesized and characterized by C,H,N-elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The molecular structures were determined by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction method. A polymeric arrangement with the Ru2(RCOO)4+ units alternately linked by Au(CN)4− units is formed in these complexes. The trans-bridging mode of the Au(CN)4− unit for connecting the two Ru2(RCOO)4+ units was observed for 1 and 4, while the cis-bridging mode of the Au(CN)4− unit was observed for 2 and 3. Magnetic susceptibility data with variable temperature were modeled with a zero-field splitting model (D = 75 cm−1) and the presence of weak antiferromagnetic coupling between the RuIIRuIII units (zJ = −0.15~−0.10 cm−1) was estimated. N2-adsorption isotherms showed Type II curves with SBET of 0.728–2.91 m2 g−1.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8050048
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 49: A Generalized Ising-like Model for
           Spin Crossover Nanoparticles

    • Authors: Catherine Cazelles, Jorge Linares, Pierre-Richard Dahoo, Kamel Boukheddaden
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Cooperative spin crossover (SCO) materials exhibit first-order phase transitions in the solid state, between the high-spin (HS) and low-spin (LS) states. Elastic long-range interactions are the basic mechanism for this particular behavior and are described well by the Ising-like model, which allows the reproduction of most of the experimental results in the literature. Until now, this model has been applied with an interaction parameter between the molecules, which is considered to be independent of the states. In this contribution, we extend the Ising-like model to include interaction energy that depends on the spin states and apply it to study SCO nanoparticles. Our research shows that following this new hypothesis, the equilibrium temperature shifts toward higher values.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8050049
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 50: Quantum Chemical Approaches to the
           Calculation of NMR Parameters: From Fundamentals to Recent Advances

    • Authors: Irina L. Rusakova
      First page: 50
      Abstract: Quantum chemical methods for the calculation of indirect NMR spin–spin coupling constants and chemical shifts are always in progress. They never stay the same due to permanently developing computational facilities, which open new perspectives and create new challenges every now and then. This review starts from the fundamentals of the nonrelativistic and relativistic theory of nuclear magnetic resonance parameters, and gradually moves towards the discussion of the most popular common and newly developed methodologies for quantum chemical modeling of NMR spectra.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8050050
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 51: Structure, Spectra, Morphology, and
           Magnetic Properties of Nb5+ Ion-Substituted Sr Hexaferrites

    • Authors: Wenhao Zhang, Pengwei Li, Yonglun Wang, Jing Guo, Jie Li, Shuo Shan, Saisai Ma, Xing Suo
      First page: 51
      Abstract: SrFe12−xNbxO19 (x = 0.00–0.15) was here synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction method. Thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry curves revealed the sample reactions at four temperature ranges, and the optimal reaction stability was obtained at 1240 °C. A single-phase polycrystalline form of SrFe12O19 was obtained until the substitution reached 0.09, and the average crystallite size was found to be in the range of 44.21–60.02 nm. According to Fourier-transform infrared spectra, the formation of Fe–O bonds occurred at 69 and 450 cm−1 in the M-type ferrite, while Raman spectra revealed that all the peaks in the sample corresponded to Raman vibration modes and M-type structures. Through the shift of the peaks, it is speculated that Nb5+ enters into the lattice. The hysteresis loops of the samples were measured by vibrating-sample magnetometry, and the calculated results demonstrated that the coercivity increased with increases in the doping amount (686.3 Oe). At the same time, the saturation magnetization remained at a large value (>72.49 emu/g), which has rarely been reported.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8050051
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 52: The Structure of Biologically Active
           Functionalized Azoles: NMR Spectroscopy and Quantum Chemistry

    • Authors: Lyudmila I. Larina
      First page: 52
      Abstract: This review summarizes the data on the stereochemical structure of functionalized azoles (pyrazoles, imidazoles, triazoles, thiazoles, and benzazoles) and related compounds obtained by multipulse and multinuclear 1H, 13C, 15N NMR spectroscopy and quantum chemistry. The stereochemistry of functionalized azoles is a challenging topic of theoretical research, as the correct interpretation of their chemical behavior and biological activity depends on understanding the factors that determine the stereochemical features and relative stability of their tautomers. NMR spectroscopy, in combination with quantum chemical calculations, is the most convenient and reliable approach to the evaluation of the stereochemical behavior of, in particular, nitrogen-containing heteroaromatic and heterocyclic compounds. Over the last decade, 15N NMR spectroscopy has become almost an express method for the determination of the structure of nitrogen-containing heterocycles.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8050052
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 53: Studying the Effect of Electrode
           Material and Magnetic Field on Hydrogen Production Efficiency

    • Authors: Yen-Ju Chen, Yan-Hom Li, Ching-Yao Chen
      First page: 53
      Abstract: Water electrolysis is one of the most common methods to produce hydrogen gas with high purity, but its application is limited due to its low energy efficiency. It has been proved that an external magnetic field can reduce energy consumption and increase hydrogen production efficiency in water electrolysis. In this study, electrodes with different magnetism were subjected to a perpendicular magnetic field for use in hydrogen production by water electrolysis. Gas bubbles that evolve from the surface of a horizontal electrode detach faster than the bubbles from a vertical electrode. The locomotion of the bubbles is facilitated if the horizontal electrode faces a magnet, which induces the revolution of bubbles between the electrodes. However, the magnetic field does not increase the current density effectively if the electrodes are more than 5 cm apart. A paramagnetic (platinum) electrode has a more significant effect on bubble locomotion than a diamagnetic (graphite) material and is able to increase the efficiency of electrolysis more effectively when a perpendicular magnetic field is applied. The conductivity of platinum electrodes that face a magnet increases if the distance between the electrodes is less than 4 cm, but the conductivity of graphite electrodes does not increase until the inter-electrode distance is reduced to 2 cm. On the other hand, horizontal graphite electrodes that are subjected to a perpendicular magnetic field will generate a higher gas production rate than a platinum electrode without a magnetic field if the inter-electrode distance is less than 1 cm.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8050053
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 54: High Drug Capacity Doxorubicin-Loaded
           Iron Oxide Nanocomposites for Cancer Therapy

    • Authors: Ekaterina Kovrigina, Alexey Chubarov, Elena Dmitrienko
      First page: 54
      Abstract: Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have great potential in the drug delivery area. Iron oxide (Fe3O4) MNPs have demonstrated a promising effect due to their ferrimagnetic properties, large surface area, stability, low cost, easy synthesis, and functionalization. Some coating procedures are required to improve stability, biocompatibility, and decrease toxicity for medical applications. Herein, the co-precipitation synthesis of iron oxide MNPs coated with four types of primary surfactants, polyethylene glycol 2000 (PEG 2000), oleic acid (OA), Tween 20 (Tw20), and Tween 80 (Tw80), were investigated. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), ζ-potential, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used for morphology, size, charge, and stability analysis. Methylene blue reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection assay and the toxicity experiment on the lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line were conducted. Two loading conditions for anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) on MNPs were proposed. The first one provides high loading efficiency (~90%) with up to 870 μg/mg (DOX/MNPs) drug capacity. The second is perspective for extremely high capacity 1757 μg/mg with drug wasting (DOX loading efficiency ~24%). For the most perspective MNP_OA and MNP_OA_DOX in cell media, pH 7.4, 5, and 3, the stability experiments are also presented. MNP_OA_DOX shows DOX pH-dependent release in the acidic pH and effective inhibition of A549 cancer cell growth. The IC50 values were calculated as 1.13 ± 0.02 mM in terms of doxorubicin and 0.4 ± 0.03 µg/mL in terms of the amount of the nanoparticles. Considering this, the MNP_OA_DOX nano theranostics agent is a highly potential candidate for cancer treatment.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8050054
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 55: Competition of Magnetic Anisotropies
           in Permalloy Antidot Lattices

    • Authors: Jose M. Porro, Aritz Villar, Carolina Redondo, Natalia A. Río-López, Andoni Lasheras, Daniel Salazar, Rafael Morales, Eduardo Fernández-Martín
      First page: 55
      Abstract: Antidot lattices made of magnetic thin films are good candidates to be employed in future magnetic recording media. In this manuscript we present a study on the effect of shape and field-induced magnetic anisotropies on the magnetization reversal of 10 nm and 50 nm thick permalloy antidot lattices. Rounded antidot square lattices were fabricated using a combination of electron beam evaporation and laser interference lithography, covering surfaces of a few cm2. We demonstrate that a magnetic anisotropy induced in the samples, as a consequence of an applied magnetic field during growth, competes with the shape anisotropy that dominates the response of the patterned thin films, and that the effect of the field-induced magnetic anisotropy scales with the thickness of the antidot thin films. Finally, we have quantified the anisotropy constant attributable to the uniaxial field-induced magnetic anisotropy in our antidot lattices. These findings are supported by micromagnetic simulations performed using MuMax3.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8050055
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 56: Anomalous Hall Effect and
           Magneto-Optic Kerr Effect in Pt/Co/Pt Heterostructure

    • Authors: Yiming Sun, Liangwei Wu, Mengmeng Yang, Mengjia Xia, Wei Gao, Dongxiang Luo, Nengjie Huo, Jingbo Li
      First page: 56
      Abstract: Magnetic multilayer with large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) has attracted sustained interest owing to its importance to fundamental physics and applications. In this work, the high quality of Pt/Co/Pt heterostructures with large PMA was successfully achieved to exhibit a large anomalous Hall effect (AHE) with squared Hall loops. By calculating the proportional relationship between the longitudinal resistivity (ρxx) and the abnormal Hall coefficient (Rs), it is confirmed that the basic mechanism of AHE comes from the external skew scattering (SS) and side jump (SJ), while SS contribution, related to asymmetric scattering from impurities, is dominant in the AHE. Furthermore, the obvious magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) was also observed using the polar MOKE microscopy. The obviously circular magnetic domain can form and propagate in response to the applied out-of-plane magnetic field, resulting in the magnetization reversal of the entire film. This work offers important information in terms of both AHE and MOKE in the ultrathin ferromagnetic films with perpendicular anisotropy, establishing the application foundation for the nonvolatile memories and spintronics.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8050056
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 57: Research on Electromagnetic Radiation
           Characteristics of Energetic Materials

    • Authors: Yuanbo Cui, Deren Kong, Jian Jiang, Shang Gao
      First page: 57
      Abstract: During the explosion of energetic materials, electromagnetic interference is generated, which can affect the normal operation of surrounding electronic equipment. Therefore, an electromagnetic radiation measurement device based on a short-wave omnidirectional antenna and ultra-wideband omnidirectional antenna was designed to measure the electromagnetic radiation generated by the explosion of energetic materials of different masses, and the electromagnetic radiation characteristics were obtained through data processing. The results showed that the electromagnetic signal can still be collected hundreds of milliseconds after the explosive is detonated, and the electromagnetic radiation generated by the explosion is continuous and intermittent, which is a phenomenon that has not been found in this field at present. The mass of the energetic material had a significant effect on the time-domain characteristics of the electromagnetic radiation generated by the explosion: the higher the mass of the energetic material was, the shorter the delay response of the electromagnetic signal was, the longer the duration was, and the earlier the peak appeared. The frequency of electromagnetic radiation signals generated by the explosion of energetic materials was mainly concentrated below 100 MHz, and the energy was most concentrated in the frequency band of 0~50 MHz. The composition of energetic materials had the greatest influence on the spectral distribution, and the spectral distribution of electromagnetic radiation produced by the explosion of explosives with different compositions had obvious specificity. The electromagnetic radiation intensity generated by the explosion of energetic materials had a strong correlation with the distance from the explosion center, and it significantly decreased as the distance increased. The structure and detonation method of energetic materials changed the geometrical motion pattern during the explosion, resulting in the non-uniformity of electromagnetic radiation propagation.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8050057
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 58: The Role of Magnetic
           Dipole—Dipole Coupling in Quantum Single-Molecule Toroics

    • Authors: Kieran Hymas, Alessandro Soncini
      First page: 58
      Abstract: For single-molecule toroics (SMTs) based on noncollinear Ising spins, intramolecular magnetic dipole–dipole coupling favours a head-to-tail vortex arrangement of the semi-classical magnetic moments associated with a toroidal ground state. However, to what extent does this effect survive beyond the semi-classical Ising limit' Here, we theoretically investigate the role of dipolar interactions in stabilising ground-state toroidal moments in quantum Heisenberg rings with and without on-site magnetic anisotropy. For the prototypical triangular SMT with strong on-site magnetic anisotropy, we illustrate that, together with noncollinear exchange, intramolecular magnetic dipole–dipole coupling serves to preserve ground-state toroidicity. In addition, we investigate the effect on quantum tunnelling of the toroidal moment in Kramers and non-Kramers systems. In the weak anisotropy limit, we find that, within some critical ion–ion distances, intramolecular magnetic dipole–dipole interactions, diagonalised over the entire Hilbert space of the quantum system, recover ground-state toroidicity in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic odd-membered rings with up to seven sites, and are further stabilised by Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya coupling.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8050058
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 36: EPR Spectroscopy of Cu(II) Complexes:
           Prediction of g-Tensors Using Double-Hybrid Density Functional Theory

    • Authors: Maria Drosou, Christiana A. Mitsopoulou, Maylis Orio, Dimitrios A. Pantazis
      First page: 36
      Abstract: Computational electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is an important field of applied quantum chemistry that contributes greatly to connecting spectroscopic observations with the fundamental description of electronic structure for open-shell molecules. However, not all EPR parameters can be predicted accurately and reliably for all chemical systems. Among transition metal ions, Cu(II) centers in inorganic chemistry and biology, and their associated EPR properties such as hyperfine coupling and g-tensors, pose exceptional difficulties for all levels of quantum chemistry. In the present work, we approach the problem of Cu(II) g-tensor calculations using double-hybrid density functional theory (DHDFT). Using a reference set of 18 structurally and spectroscopically characterized Cu(II) complexes, we evaluate a wide range of modern double-hybrid density functionals (DHDFs) that have not been applied previously to this problem. Our results suggest that the current generation of DHDFs consistently and systematically outperform other computational approaches. The B2GP-PLYP and PBE0-DH functionals are singled out as the best DHDFs on average for the prediction of Cu(II) g-tensors. The performance of the different functionals is discussed and suggestions are made for practical applications and future methodological developments.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8040036
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 37: Advances in Antiferromagnetic

    • Authors: Atsufumi Hirohata
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Magnetoresistance (MR) controls signal-to-noise ratios and the corresponding size of conventional spintronic devices [...]
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8040037
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 38: Recent Advances of Magnetic Gold
           Hybrids and Nanocomposites, and Their Potential Biological Applications

    • Authors: Gul Rehman Elmi, Kalsoom Saleem, Mirza Muhammad Faran Ashraf Baig, Muhammad Naeem Aamir, Minglian Wang, Xiuli Gao, Muhammad Abbas, Masood Ur Rehman
      First page: 38
      Abstract: Magnetic gold nanoparticles (mGNP) have become a great interest of research for nanomaterial scientists because of their significant magnetic and plasmonic properties applicable in biomedical applications. Various synthetic approaches and surface modification techniques have been used for mGNP including the most common being the coprecipitation, thermal decomposition, and microemulsion methods in addition to the Brust Schiffrin technique, which involves the reduction of metal precursors in a two-phase system (water and toluene) in the presence of alkanethiol. The hybrid magnetic–plasmonic nanoparticles based on iron core and gold shell are being considered as potential theranostic agents. In this critical review, in addition to future works, we have summarized recent developments for synthesis and surface modification of mGNP with their applications in modern biomedical science such as drug and gene delivery, bioimaging, biosensing, and neuro-regeneration, neuro-degenerative and arthritic disorders. This review includes techniques and biological applications of mGNP majorly based on research from the previous six years.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8040038
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 39: Giant Rotational Magnetocaloric Effect
           in Ni(en)(H2O)4·2H2O: Experiment and Theory

    • Authors: Petro Danylchenko, Róbert Tarasenko, Erik Čižmár, Vladimír Tkáč, Alexander Feher, Alžbeta Orendáčová, Martin Orendáč
      First page: 39
      Abstract: An experimental study of the rotational magnetocaloric effect in Ni(en)(H2O)4SO4∙2H2O (en = ethylenediamine) single crystal is presented. The study was carried out at temperatures above 2 K and was associated with adiabatic crystal rotation between the easy plane and hard axis in magnetic fields up to 7 T. The magnetocaloric properties of the studied system were investigated by isothermal magnetization measurement. The experimental observations were completed with ab initio calculations of the anisotropy parameters. A large rotational magnetic entropy change ≈12 Jkg−1K−1 and ≈16.9 Jkg−1K−1 was achieved in 5 T and 7 T, respectively. The present study suggests a possible application of this material in low-temperature refrigeration since the adiabatic rotation of the single crystal in 7 T led to a cooldown of the sample from the initial temperature of 4.2 K down to 0.34 K. Finally, theoretical calculations show that S = 1 Ni(II)-based systems with easy-plane anisotropy can have better rotational magnetocaloric properties than costly materials containing rare-earth elements in their chemical structures.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8040039
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 40: Use of Time Domain Nuclear Magnetic
           Resonance Relaxometry to Monitor the Effect of Magnetic Field on the
           Copper Corrosion Rate in Real Time

    • Authors: Cirlei Igreja Nascimento Mitre, Bruna Ferreira Gomes, Elaine Paris, Carlos Manuel Silva Lobo, Christina Roth, Luiz Alberto Colnago
      First page: 40
      Abstract: The corrosion of metals is a major problem of modern societies, demanding new technologies and studies to understand and minimize it. Here we evaluated the effect of a magnetic field (B) on the corrosion of copper in aqueous HCl solution under open circuit potential. The corrosion product, Cu2+, is a paramagnetic ion and its concentration in the solution was determined in real time in the corrosion cell by time-domain NMR relaxometry. The results show that the magnetic field (B = 0.23 T) of the time-domain NMR instrument reduces the corrosion rate by almost 50%, in comparison to when the corrosion reaction is performed in the absence of B. Atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction results of the analysis of the corroded surfaces reveal a detectable CuCl phase and an altered morphology when B is present. The protective effect of B was explained by magnetic forces that maintain the Cu2+ in the solution/metal interface for a longer time, hindering the arrival of the new corrosive agents, and leading to the formation of a CuCl phase, which may contribute to the rougher surface. The time-domain NMR method proved to be useful to study the effect of B in the corrosion of other metals or other corrosive liquid media when the reactions produce or consume paramagnetic ions.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8040040
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 41: Graphene-Coated Iron Nitride
           Streptavidin Magnetic Beads: Preparation and Application in SARS-CoV-2

    • Authors: Jianxing Li, Minglian Wang, Runqing Jia, Zhuang Ma, Xiaoxu Zhang, Jintao Li, Xiangqian Xiao, Yunzhi Zhou, Qun Wang
      First page: 41
      Abstract: In this study, we prepared a streptavidin magnetic bead based on graphene-coated iron nitride magnetic beads (G@FeN-MB) and tried to use it for the enrichment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The outer shell of our magnetic bead was wrapped with multiple graphene sheets, and there is no report on the application of graphene to the magnetic-bead-coating material. First, the graphene shell of G@FeN-MB was oxidized by a modified Hummer method so as to generate the carboxyl groups required for the coupling of streptavidin (SA) on the surface of the magnetic beads. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the oxidized G@FeN-MB (GO@FeN-MB). Streptavidin was then linked to the surface of the GO@FeN-MB by coupling the amino of the streptavidin with the carboxyl on the magnetic beads by carbodiimide method; thus, the streptavidin magnetic beads (SAMBs) were successfully prepared. To prove the practicality of the SAMBs, biotinylated SARS-CoV-2 S1 antibody was linked with it to respectively capture SARS-CoV-2 Spike-protein-coupled polystyrene beads (S-PS) and pseudovirus with S-protein expressed. Microplate reader and fluorescence microscope results show that the SAMBs can effectively enrich viruses. In conclusion, the preparation of SAMBs with G@FeN-MB is feasible and has potential for application in the field of virus enrichment.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8040041
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 42: Magnetic Force Microscopy in Physics
           and Biomedical Applications

    • Authors: David Vokoun, Sneha Samal, Ivo Stachiv
      First page: 42
      Abstract: Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) enables to characterize magnetic properties with submicron (nanoscale) resolution and without much demand on sample surface preparation. MFM can operate in a wide range of temperatures and environmental conditions, that is, vacuum, liquid, or air, therefore this technique has already become the most common tool used to characterize variety of magnetic materials ranging from ferromagnetic thin films and 2D materials to biomedical and/or biological materials. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of MFM basic fundamentals in the frame of other related methods and, correspondingly, a brief overview of physics and chiefly biomedical as well as biological applications of MFM.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-04-09
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8040042
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 43: A Low-Spin CoII/Nitroxide Complex for
           Distance Measurements at Q-Band Frequencies

    • Authors: Angeliki Giannoulis, David B. Cordes, Alexandra M. Z. Slawin, Bela E. Bode
      First page: 43
      Abstract: Pulse dipolar electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (PDS) is continuously furthering the understanding of chemical and biological assemblies through distance measurements in the nanometer range. New paramagnets and pulse sequences can provide structural insights not accessible through other techniques. In the pursuit of alternative spin centers for PDS, we synthesized a low-spin CoII complex bearing a nitroxide (NO) moiety, where both the CoII and NO have an electron spin S of 1/2. We measured CoII-NO distances with the well-established double electron–electron resonance (DEER aka PELDOR) experiment, as well as with the five- and six-pulse relaxation-induced dipolar modulation enhancement (RIDME) spectroscopies at Q-band frequencies (34 GHz). We first identified challenges related to the stability of the complex in solution via DEER and X-ray crystallography and showed that even in cases where complex disproportionation is unavoidable, CoII-NO PDS measurements are feasible and give good signal-to-noise (SNR) ratios. Specifically, DEER and five-pulse RIDME exhibited an SNR of ~100, and while the six-pulse RIDME exhibited compromised SNR, it helped us minimize unwanted signals from the RIDME traces. Last, we demonstrated RIDME at a 10 μM sample concentration. Our results demonstrate paramagnetic CoII to be a feasible spin center in medium magnetic fields with opportunities for PDS studies involving CoII ions.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8040043
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 44: Magnetic Field Effect on the Oxidation
           of Unsaturated Compounds by Molecular Oxygen

    • Authors: Evgenii M. Pliss, Mikhail E. Soloviev
      First page: 44
      Abstract: A quantum-chemical analysis of the effect of a constant magnetic field on radical formation in the processes of chain oxidation of organic compounds by molecular oxygen is presented. The calculation of the total electronic energies and thermodynamic functions of the compounds involved in the reactions was performed by the density functional method with the hybrid exchange-correlation functional of Becke, Lee, Yang and Parr DFT B3LYP/6-311G** using the NWChem software package. The effect of the magnetic field on the individual stages of chain oxidation is associated with the evolution of radical pairs. It is assumed that the dipole–dipole interaction in a radical pair is not averaged by the diffusion of radicals and should be taken into account. To a large extent, the magnetic field effect (MFE) value is influenced by the ratio between the relaxation time of the oscillatory-excited state in the radical pair (tvib) and the relaxation time of the inter-combination transitions (tst). Although the developed technique refers to liquid-phase reactions, it can be used to study the MFE for oxidation of biologically significant compounds in multiphase systems, such as micelles, liposomes and membranes.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8040044
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 45: Simple Realistic Model of Spin
           Reorientation in 4f-3d Compounds

    • Authors: Alexander Moskvin, Evgenii Vasinovich, Anton Shadrin
      First page: 45
      Abstract: This is a simple but realistic microscopic theory of spontaneous spin reorientation in rare-earth perovskites, orthoferrites RFeO3 and orthochromites RCrO3, induced by the 4f-3d interaction, namely, the interaction of the well-isolated ground-state Kramers doublet or non-Kramers quasi-doublet of the 4f ion with an effective magnetic field induced by 3d sublattice. Both the temperature and the nature of the spin-reorientation transition are the result of competition between the second- and fourth-order spin anisotropy of the 3d sublattice, the crystal field for 4f ions, and 4f-3d interaction.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8040045
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 46: Enhanced Coercivity of Low-Density
           Barium Hexaferrite Magnets from Paste-Injection Molding

    • Authors: Wannisa Thongsamrit, Pongsakorn Jantaratana, Thanida Charoensuk, Chitnarong Sirisathitkul
      First page: 46
      Abstract: Ceramic–polymer paste-injection molding is demonstrated as a facile fabrication route for barium hexaferrite magnets. Interestingly, these low-density (1.90–2.35 g/cm3) magnets exhibit substantial coercivity of 3868–4002 Oe. When ceramic paste without polymeric additives is used, reduced coercivity and slightly increased magnetizations are obtained from a magnet with the density of 2.55 g/cm3. Their magnetizations are also higher than those obtained from compactions of sol–gel-derived powders. For compact magnets (3.46–3.77 g/cm3), the DI water addition results in a slightly higher magnetization but lower coercivity than dry-pressed magnets. Compactions into disk and bar magnets give rise to comparable magnetic properties. The morphological characterizations reveal smaller barium hexaferrite particles leading to larger coercivity, and the density and shape of magnets have a less pronounced effect.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8040046
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 27: Biomagnetic Flow with CoFe2O4 Magnetic
           Particles through an Unsteady Stretching/Shrinking Cylinder

    • Authors: Mohammad Ferdows, Jahangir Alam, Ghulam Murtaza, Efstratios E. Tzirtzilakis, Shuyu Sun
      First page: 27
      Abstract: The study of biomagnetic fluid flow and heat transfer containing magnetic particles through an unsteady stretching/shrinking cylinder was numerically investigated in this manuscript. Biomagnetic fluid namely blood taken as base fluid and CoFe2O4 as magnetic particles. Where blood acts as an electrically conducting fluid along with magnetization/polarization. The main concentration is to study a time-dependent biomagnetic fluid flow with magnetic particles that passed through a two dimensional stretching/shrinking cylinder under the influence of thermal radiation, heat source and partial slip condition which has not been studied yet as far as best knowledge of authors. This model is consistent with the principles of magnetohydrodynamic and ferrohydrodynamic. The flow equations, such as momentum, energy which is described physically by a system of coupled, nonlinear partial differential equation with appropriate boundary conditions and converted into a nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations by using suitable similarity transformations. The resultant ODEs numerically solved by applying by applying an efficient numerical technique based on a common finite differencing method along with central differencing, tridiagonal matrix manipulation and an iterative procedure. The values assigned to the parameters are compatible with human body conditions. The numerous results concerning velocity, temperature and pressure field, as well as the skin friction and the rate of heat transfer, are presented for the parameters exhibiting physical significance, such as ferromagnetic interaction parameter, magnetic field parameter, volume fraction, unsteady parameter, curvature parameter, etc. The main numerical findings are that the fluid velocity is decreased as the ferromagnetic number is enhanced gradually in both stretching or shrinking cases whereas, the opposite behavior is found for the skin friction coefficient. The rate of heat transfer with ferromagnetic interaction parameter was also monitored and found that opposite behavior occurs for stretching and shrinking cases. Comparisons were made to check the accuracy of the present numerical results with published literature and found to be in excellent agreement. Hopefully, this proposed model will control the blood flow rate, as well as the rate of heat transfer, such as magnetic hyperthermia.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8030027
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 28: Deposition of Crystalline GdIG Samples
           Using Metal Organic Decomposition Method

    • Authors: Hyeongyu Kim, Phuoc-Cao Van, Hyeonjung Jung, Jiseok Yang, Younghun Jo, Jung-Woo Yoo, Albert M. Park, Jong-Ryul Jeong, Kab-Jin Kim
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Fabrication of high quality ferrimagnetic insulators is an essential step for ultrafast magnonics, which utilizes antiferromagnetic exchange of the ferrimagnetic materials. In this work, we deposit high-quality GdIG thin films on a (111)-oriented GGG substrate using the Metal Organic Decomposition (MOD) method, a simple and high throughput method for depositing thin film materials. We postannealed samples at various temperatures and examined the effect on structural properties such as crystallinity and surface morphology. We found a transition in the growth mode that radically changes the morphology of the film as a function of annealing temperature and obtained an optimal annealing temperature for a uniform thin film with high crystallinity. Optimized GdIG has a high potential for spin wave applications with a low damping parameter in the order of 10−3, which persists down to cryogenic temperatures.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8030028
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 29: Magnetic Nanomaterials and
           Nanostructures in Sample Preparation Prior to Liquid Chromatography

    • Authors: Georgios Antoniou, Victoria Samanidou
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Magnetic nanomaterials and nanostructures compose an innovative subject in sample preparation. Most of them are designed according to the properties of the target analytes on each occasion. The unique characteristics of nanomaterials enhance the proficiency at extracting and enriching due to their selective adsorption ability as well as easy separation and surface modification. Their remarkable properties, such as superparamagnetism, biocompatibility and selectivity have established magnetic materials as very reliable options in sample preparation approaches. In order to comprehend the range of utilization at magnetic materials and nanostructures, this review aims to present the most notable examples in sample preparation prior to liquid chromatography (LC) to the community of analytical chemists. Primarily, the review describes the principles of the techniques in which the magnetic materials are utilized and leaned on. Additionally, there is a diligent report about the novel magnetic techniques and finally a comparison to demonstrate the total point of view.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8030029
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 30: Optimization of Transfer Quality
           Factor of Limited-Size Coils for Series-Series Compensated Inductive Power
           Transfer System

    • Authors: Peizhou Liu, Tiande Gao, Zhaoyong Mao
      First page: 30
      Abstract: For an inductive power transfer system, high transfer quality factor means that the system can obtain large theoretical transmission efficiency. In this paper, a method of coil optimization in a limited space to improve the transfer quality factor for a series-series compensated inductive power transfer system is presented. High transfer quality factor in a limited space can be achieved by determining the optimal number of turns with equal turn spacing coil, and then optimizing the distance between adjacent turn. The results of finite element simulation and experimental measurement show that the method proposed in this paper can obtain a higher transfer quality factor than the conventional method of winding coil with equal turn spacing. The method proposed in this paper can be used to guide the optimal design of coils in a limited space.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8030030
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 31: Tunable and Sensitive Detection of
           Cortisol Using Anisotropic Phosphorene with a Surface Plasmon Resonance
           Technique: Numerical Investigation

    • Authors: Vipin Kumar Verma, Sarika Pal, Conrad Rizal, Yogendra Kumar Prajapati
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Tunable and ultrasensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors are highly desirable for monitoring stress hormones such as cortisol, a steroid hormone formed in the human body’s adrenal glands. This paper describes the detection of cortisol using a bimetallic SPR sensor based on a highly anisotropic two-dimensional material, i.e., phosphorene. Thicknesses of bi-metal layers, such as copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni), are optimized to achieve strong SPR excitation. The proposed sensor is rotated in-plane with a rotation angle (φ) around the z-axis to obtain the phosphorene anisotropic behavior. The performance parameters of the sensor are demonstrated in terms of higher sensitivity (347.78 °/RIU), maximum angular figure of merit (FOM* = 1780.3), and finer limit of detection (0.026 ng/mL). Furthermore, a significant penetration depth (203 nm) is achieved for the proposed sensor. The obtained results of the above parameters indicate that the proposed sensor outperforms the previously reported papers in the literature on cortisol detection using the SPR technique.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8030031
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 32: Hyperfine Decoupling of ESR Spectra
           Using Wavelet Transform

    • Authors: Aritro Sinha Roy, Madhur Srivastava
      First page: 32
      Abstract: The objective of spectral analysis is to resolve and extract relevant features from experimental data in an optimal fashion. In continuous-wave (cw) electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, both g values of a paramagnetic center and hyperfine splitting (A) caused by its interaction with neighboring magnetic nuclei in a molecule provide important structural and electronic information. However, in the presence of g- and/or A-anisotropy and/or large number of resonance lines, spectral analysis becomes highly challenging. Either high-resolution experimental techniques are employed to resolve the spectra in those cases or a range of suitable ESR frequencies are used in combination with simulations to identify the corresponding g and A values. In this work, we present a wavelet transform technique in resolving both simulated and experimental cw-ESR spectra by separating the hyperfine and super-hyperfine components. We exploit the multiresolution property of wavelet transforms that allow the separation of distinct features of a spectrum based on simultaneous analysis of spectrum and its varying frequency. We retain the wavelet components that stored the hyperfine and/or super-hyperfine features, while eliminating the wavelet components representing the remaining spectrum. We tested the method on simulated cases of metal–ligand adducts at L-, S-, and X-band frequencies, and showed that extracted g values, hyperfine and super-hyperfine coupling constants from simulated spectra, were in excellent agreement with the values of those parameters used in the simulations. For the experimental case of a copper(II) complex with distorted octahedral geometry, the method was able to extract g and hyperfine coupling constant values, and revealed features that were buried in the overlapped spectra.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8030032
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 33: Analysis of Low-Temperature
           Magnetotransport Properties of NbN Thin Films Grown by Atomic Layer

    • Authors: Sahitya V. Vegesna, Sai V. Lanka, Danilo Bürger, Zichao Li, Sven Linzen, Heidemarie Schmidt
      First page: 33
      Abstract: Superconducting niobium nitride (NbN) films with nominal thicknesses of 4 nm, 5 nm, 7 nm, and 9 nm were grown on sapphire substrates using atomic layer deposition (ALD). We observed probed Hall resistance (HR) (Rxy) in external out-of-plane magnetic fields up to 6 T and magnetoresistance (MR) (Rxx) in external in-plane and out-of-plane magnetic fields up to 6 T on NbN thin films in Van der Pauw geometry. We also observed that positive MR dominated. Our study focused on the analysis of interaction and localisation effects on electronic disorder in NbN in the normal state in temperatures that ranged from 50 K down to the superconducting transition temperature. By modelling the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the MR data, we extracted the temperature-dependent Coulomb interaction constants, spin–orbit scattering lengths, localisation lengths, and valley degeneracy factors. The MR model allowed us to distinguish between interaction effects (positive MR) and localisation effects (negative MR) for in-plane and out-of-plane magnetic fields. We showed that anisotropic dephasing scattering due to lattice non-idealities in NbN could be neglected in the ALD-grown NbN thin films.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8030033
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 34: Proof-of-Concept of a Novel Cell
           Separation Technology Using Magnetic Agarose-Based Beads

    • Authors: Nils A. Brechmann, Märta Jansson, Alice Hägg, Ryan Hicks, Johan Hyllner, Kristofer Eriksson, Véronique Chotteau
      First page: 34
      Abstract: The safety of the cells used for Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products is crucial for patients. Reliable methods for the cell purification are very important for the commercialization of those new therapies. With the large production scale envisioned for commercialization, the cell isolation methods need to be efficient, robust, operationally simple and generic while ensuring cell biological functionality and safety. In this study, we used high magnetized magnetic agarose-based beads conjugated with protein A to develop a new method for cell separation. A high separation efficiency of 91% yield and consistent isolation performances were demonstrated using population mixtures of human mesenchymal stem cells and HER2+ SKBR3 cells (80:20, 70:30 and 30:70). Additionally, high robustness against mechanical stress and minimal unspecific binding obtained with the protein A base conjugated magnetic beads were significant advantages in comparison with the same magnetic microparticles where the antibodies were covalently conjugated. This study provided insights on features of large high magnetized microparticles, which is promising for the large-scale application of cell purification.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8030034
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 35: Experimental and Numerical Analysis of
           the Assisted Abrasive Flow of Magnetic Particles on the Polishing of Fuel
           Injection Nozzles

    • Authors: Guosong Liu, Junye Li, Shangfu Zhu, Xu Zhu, Jiyong Qu, Xinming Zhang
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Fuel injection nozzles are a key component of electronic injection engines, and their inner surface roughness affects the performance of the nozzles and restricts the working efficiency of the engine. Therefore, the polishing technology for a nozzle’s inner surface is particularly important. At present, abrasive flow polishing technology is commonly used to treat the inner surfaces of the nozzles. This study investigated the magnetic particles in the abrasive flow working medium. Due to the external magnetic field, magnetic particles are affected by the magnetic field force and change the polishing performance of the abrasive flow working medium. Through a numerical analysis and contrast experimental research, we can see that the choice of different grinding grain sizes, kinematic viscosity, magnetic field intensity, and process parameters, such as inlet pressure, with magnetic particles in a solid–liquid two-phase abrasive flow for polishing, can effectively improve the quality of the injection nozzle’s inner surface. The study also reveals that the influence of the nozzle’s inner surface polishing quality is significant and creates a mechanism for process parameters.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8030035
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 12: Soft Chemistry Synthesis and
           Characterization of CoFe1.8RE0.2O4 (RE3+ = Tb3+, Er3+) Ferrite

    • Authors: Dana Gingasu, Ioana Mindru, Adelina-Carmen Ianculescu, Lucian Diamandescu, Vasile-Adrian Surdu, Gabriela Marinescu, Cristina Bartha, Silviu Preda, Marcela Popa, Mariana Carmen Chifiriuc
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Nanosized CoFe1.8RE0.2O4 (RE3+ = Tb3+, Er3+) ferrites were obtained through wet ferritization method. These ferrites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM/HR-TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. The XRD results revealed that the average crystallite size is 5.77 nm for CoFe1.8Tb0.2O4 and 6.42 nm for CoFe1.8Er0.2O4. Distribution of metal cations in the spinel structure estimated from X-ray diffraction data showed that the Tb3+ and Er3+ ions occupy the octahedral sites. TEM images indicated the presence of polyhedral particles with average size 5.91 nm for CoFe1.8Tb0.2O4 and 6.80 nm for CoFe1.8Er0.2O4. Room temperature Mössbauer spectra exhibit typical nanoscaled cobalt ferrite spectra in good agreement with XRD and TEM data. The saturation magnetization value (Ms) is 60 emu/g for CoFe1.8Tb0.2O4 and 80 emu/g for CoFe1.8Er0.2O4. CoFe1.8RE0.2O4 nanoparticles showed similar antimicrobial efficacy against the five tested microbial strains, both in planktonic and biofilm state. The results highlight the promising potential of these types of nanoparticles for the development of novel anti-biofilm agents and materials.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8020012
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 13: Serum Albumin for Magnetic
           Nanoparticles Coating

    • Authors: Alexey S. Chubarov
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have great potential in biochemistry and medical science. In particular, iron oxide nanoparticles have demonstrated a promising effect in various biomedical applications due to their high magnetic properties, large surface area, stability, and easy functionalization. However, colloidal stability, biocompatibility, and potential toxicity of MNPs in physiological environments are crucial for their in vivo application. In this context, many research articles focused on the possible procedures for MNPs coating to improve their physic-chemical and biological properties. This review highlights one viable fabrication strategy of biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles using human serum albumin (HSA). HSA is mainly a transport protein with many functions in various fundamental processes. As it is one of the most abundant plasma proteins, not a single drug in the blood passes without its strength test. It influences the stability, pharmacokinetics, and biodistribution of different drug-delivery systems by binding or forming its protein corona on the surface. The development of albumin-based drug carriers is gaining increasing importance in the targeted delivery of cancer therapy. Considering this, HSA is a highly potential candidate for nanoparticles coating and theranostics area and can provide biocompatibility, prolonged blood circulation, and possibly resolve the drug-resistance cancer problem.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8020013
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 14: Investigation of a
           Tetrathiafulvalene-Based Fe2+ Thermal Spin Crossover Assembled on Gold

    • Authors: Niccolò Giaconi, Andrea Luigi Sorrentino, Lorenzo Poggini, Giulia Serrano, Giuseppe Cucinotta, Edwige Otero, Danilo Longo, Haiet Douib, Fabrice Pointillart, Andrea Caneschi, Roberta Sessoli, Matteo Mannini
      First page: 14
      Abstract: A thick film and a monolayer of tetrathiafulvalene-based Fe2+ spin-crossover complex have been deposited by solution on a Au (111) substrate, attempting both self-assembling monolayer protocol and a simpler drop-casting procedure. The thermally induced spin transition has been investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Temperature-dependent investigations demonstrated the retention of the switching behavior between the two spin states in thick molecular films obtained by drop-casting, while in the monolayer sample, the loss of the spin-crossover properties appears as a possible consequence of the strong interaction between the sulfur atoms of the ligand and the gold substrate.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8020014
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 15: Modeling of the Particle Build-Up
           Evolution on a Single-Wire Magnetic Capture from Axial Stream Flow

    • Authors: Hatice Bilgili, Cemal Keleş, Teymuraz Abbasov
      First page: 15
      Abstract: The kinetic equation of the accumulation of magnetic particles from axial flow on a magnetized ferromagnetic wire in an external homogeneous magnetic field has been developed in this study. A new differential equation of the evolution of the accumulation radius over time, which considers both the capture and the detachment of the particles in the accumulation profile on the wire, has been formulated. The evolution of the radius of the accumulation profile over time was obtained from both the differential kinetic equation based on population theory and from the stochastic Fokker–Planck equation. In the limit approach (t→∞), it was observed that the expressions of the saturation radius of the accumulation radius on the magnetized wire of the particles obtained from both models were the same. It is emphasized that the obtained results are valid for both the initial and steady-state build-up of the particle capture process. These results were compared with the experimental results from the literature, and it was observed that the theoretical and experimental results were in good agreement. The effects of both capture and detachment events on the accumulation of particles on the magnetized wire were evaluated.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8020015
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 16: Tuning the Spin-Crossover Behaviour in
           Fe(II) Polymeric Composites for Food Packaging Applications

    • Authors: Zoi G. Lada, Konstantinos S. Andrikopoulos, Georgios N. Mathioudakis, Zoi Piperigkou, Nikos Karamanos, Spyros P. Perlepes, George A. Voyiatzis
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Although the spin-crossover (SCO) phenomenon is well documented, tuning the SCO behaviour remains a challenging task. This could be mainly attributed to the ‘delicate’ nature of the phenomenon; cooperativity expressed through differences in particle size and morphologies, and electrostatic interactions could significantly affect the process. The goal of the present effort is dual bearing both scientific and technological interest. Firstly, to examine the technological potential of SCO complexes by incorporating them into polymers, and secondly—and most importantly—to investigate if polymer-SCO complex interactions could occur and could affect the SCO behaviour, depending on the structural properties of both the polymer matrix and the SCO complex. In this context, two different polymers, polylactic acid (PLA) and polysulphone (PSF), which are capable of developing different interactions with the inclusions, and the SCO complexes [Fe(abpt)2{N(CN)2}2] and [Fe(abpt)2(SCN)2] were examined; abpt is the N,N’-bidentate chelating ligand 4-amino-3,5-bis(pyridin-2-yl)-1,2,4-triazole. The composites were characterised through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR/FTIR), and Raman spectroscopy. In addition, the potential migration release of the SCO compounds from the polymeric matrices and their toxicity evaluation were also studied. In addition, the potential migration release of the SCO compounds from the polymeric matrices was evaluated, and their insignificant toxicity was also verified. Temperature-dependent Raman spectra were collected in situ for the monitoring of the SCO behaviour after the incorporation of the Fe(II) complexes into the polymers; an upshift of the T1/2 transition and a hysteretic behaviour was detected for PSF-SCO composites, compared with the non-hysteretic behaviour of the pristine SCO complexes.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8020016
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 17: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of
           Magnetochemistry in 2021

    • Authors: Magnetochemistry Editorial Office Magnetochemistry Editorial Office
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8020017
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 18: Neural Network Modeling of Arbitrary
           Hysteresis Processes: Application to GO Ferromagnetic Steel

    • Authors: Simone Quondam Antonio, Vincenzo Bonaiuto, Fausto Sargeni, Alessandro Salvini
      First page: 18
      Abstract: A computationally efficient hysteresis model, based on a standalone deep neural network, with the capability of reproducing the evolution of the magnetization under arbitrary excitations, is here presented and applied in the simulation of a commercial grain-oriented electrical steel sheet. The main novelty of the proposed approach is to embed the past history dependence, typical of hysteretic materials, in the neural net, and to illustrate an optimized training procedure. Firstly, an experimental investigation was carried out on a sample of commercial GO steel by means of an Epstein equipment, in agreement with the international standard. Then, the traditional Preisach model, identified only using three measured symmetric hysteresis loops, was exploited to generate the training set. Once the network was trained, it was validated with the reproduction of the other measured hysteresis loops and further hysteresis processes obtained by the Preisach simulations. The model implementation at a low level of abstraction shows a very high computational speed and minimal memory allocation, allowing a possible coupling with finite-element analysis (FEA).
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8020018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 19: Probing Small-Angle Molecular Motions
           with EPR Spectroscopy: Dynamical Transition and Molecular Packing in
           Disordered Solids

    • Authors: Sergei A. Dzuba
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Disordered molecular solids present a rather broad class of substances of different origin—amorphous polymers, materials for photonics and optoelectronics, amorphous pharmaceutics, simple molecular glass formers, and others. Frozen biological media in many respects also may be referred to this class. Theoretical description of dynamics and structure of disordered solids still does not exist, and only some phenomenological models can be developed to explain results of particular experiments. Among different experimental approaches, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) applied to spin probes and labels also can deliver useful information. EPR allows probing small-angle orientational molecular motions (molecular librations), which intrinsically are inherent to all molecular solids. EPR is employed in its conventional continuous wave (CW) and pulsed—electron spin echo (ESE)—versions. CW EPR spectra are sensitive to dynamical librations of molecules while ESE probes stochastic molecular librations. In this review, different manifestations of small-angle motions in EPR of spin probes and labels are discussed. It is shown that CW-EPR-detected dynamical librations provide information on dynamical transition in these media, similar to that explored with neutron scattering, and ESE-detected stochastic librations allow elucidating some features of nanoscale molecular packing. The possible EPR applications are analyzed for gel-phase lipid bilayers, for biological membranes interacting with proteins, peptides and cryoprotectants, for supercooled ionic liquids (ILs) and supercooled deep eutectic solvents (DESs), for globular proteins and intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), and for some other molecular solids.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8020019
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 20: Influence of Chemical Substitution and
           Light Element Insertion on the Magnetic Properties of Nanocrystalline
           Pr2Co7 Compound

    • Authors: Riadh Fersi, Najeh Mliki, Lotfi Bessais
      First page: 20
      Abstract: It is well recognized that intermetallics based on rare-earth (R) and transition metals (T) display numerous interesting magnetic properties, leading to potential applications in different fields. The latest progress regarding magnetic properties and the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in the nanostructured Pr2Co7 compound, as well as its carbides and hydrides, is reviewed in this paper. Some of this progress reveals remarkable MCE performance, which makes it attractive in the field of magnetic refrigeration at high temperatures. With the purpose of understanding the magnetic and magnetocaloric characteristics of these compounds, the crystal structure, microstructure, and magnetism are also brought into focus. The Pr2Co7 compound has interesting magnetic properties, such as a high Curie temperature TC and uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy. It crystallizes in a hexagonal structure (2:7 H) of the Ce2Ni7 type and is stable at relatively low temperatures (Ta ≤ 1023 K), or it has a rhombohedral structure (2:7 R) of the Gd2Co7 type and is stable at high temperatures (Ta ≥ 1223 K). Studies of the magnetocaloric properties of the nanocrystalline Pr2Co7 compound have shown the existence of a large reversible magnetic entropy change (ΔSM) with a second-order magnetic transition. After its substitution, we showed that nanocrystalline Pr2Co7−xFex compounds that were annealed at Ta = 973 K crystallized in the 2:7 H structure similarly to the parent compound. The extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectra adjustments showed that Fe atoms preferably occupy the 12k site for x ≤ 1. The study of the magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Pr2Co7−xFex compounds revealed an increase in TC of about 26% for x = 0.5, as well as an improvement in the coercivity, Hc (12 kOe), and the (BH)max (9 MGOe) product. On the other hand, the insertion of C atoms into the Pr2Co7 cell led to a marked improvement in the TC value of 21.6%. The best magnetic properties were found for the Pr2Co7C0.25 compound annealed at 973 K, Hc = 10.3 kOe, and (BH)max = 11.5 MGOe. We studied the microstructure, hydrogenation, and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Pr2Co7Hx hydrides. The crystal structure of the Pr2Co7 compound transformed from a hexagonal (P63/mmc) into an orthorhombic (Pbcn) and monoclinic (C2/c) structure during hydrogenation. The absorption of H by the Pr2Co7 compound led to an increase in the TC value from 600 K at x = 0 to 691 K at x = 3.75. The Pr2Co7H0.25 hydride had optimal magnetic properties: Hc = 6.1 KOe, (BH)max = 5.8 MGOe, and TC = 607 K. We tailored the mean field theory (MFT) and random magnetic anisotropy (RMA) methods to investigate the magnetic moments, exchange interactions, and magnetic anisotropy properties. The relationship between the microstructure and magnetic properties is discussed. The obtained results provide a fundamental reference for adapting the magnetic properties of the Pr2Co7, Pr2Co6.5Fe0.5, Pr2Co7C0.25, and Pr2Co7H0.25 compounds for potential permanent nanomagnets, high-density magnetic recording, and magnetic refrigeration applications.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8020020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 21: Cell Behavioral Changes after the
           Application of Magneto-Mechanical Activation to Normal and Cancer Cells

    • Authors: Aikaterini-Rafailia Tsiapla, Veselina Uzunova, Tsvetelina Oreshkova, Makis Angelakeris, Theodoros Samaras, Orestis Kalogirou, Rumiana Tzoneva
      First page: 21
      Abstract: In vitro cell exposure to nanoparticles, depending on the applied concentration, can help in the development of theranostic tools to better detect and treat human diseases. Recent studies have attempted to understand and exploit the impact of magnetic field-actuated internalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) on the behavior of cancer cells. In this work, the viability rate of MNP’s-manipulated cancerous (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) and non-cancerous (MCF-10A) cells was investigated in three different types of low-frequency magnetic fields: static, pulsed, and rotating field mode. In the non-cancerous cell line, the cell viability decreased mostly in cells with internalized MNPs and those treated with the pulsed field mode. In both cancer cell lines, the pulsed field mode was again the optimum magnetic field, which together with internalized MNPs caused a large decrease in cells’ viability (50–55% and 70% in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, respectively) while the static and rotating field modes maintained the viability at high levels. Finally, F-actin staining was used to observe the changes in the cytoskeleton and DAPI staining was performed to reveal the apoptotic alterations in cells’ nuclei before and after magneto-mechanical activation. Subsequently, reduced cell viability led to a loss of actin stress fibers and apoptotic nuclear changes in cancer cells subjected to MNPs triggered by a pulsed magnetic field.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8020021
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 22: Structural and Optical
           Characterization of Silica Nanospheres Embedded with Monodisperse
           CeO2-Eu3+ Nanocrystals

    • Authors: Corina Secu, Cristina Bartha, Elena Matei, Cristian Radu, Mihail Secu
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Luminescent nanocrystals embedded into silica microspheres were shown to be useful for silica labeling for biological applications, ensuring mechanical and chemical stability, nontoxicity, biocompatibility and optical properties. We used sol–gel technology to prepare silica nanospheres embedded with fluorescent and magnetic Eu3+(1 mol%)-doped CeO2 nanocrystals. The X-ray diffraction pattern analysis and transmission electron microscopy investigations showed CeO2:Eu3+(1 mol%) nanocrystals of about 9 nm size and Ce3+ ions substitution by the Eu3+ ions; the nanocrystals dispersed inside the nanosized silica spheres of about 400 nm diameters. The photoluminescence spectra recorded under UV-light excitation showed Eu3+ ions luminescence peaks (5D0-7FJ, J = 0–4) accompanied by a weaker 425 nm luminescence due to the silica matrix; the quantum yield was 0.14. The weak hysteresis loop and magnetization curves recorded up to 20,000 Oe showed dominantly paramagnetic behavior associated with the silica matrix; a slight opening of the hysteresis loop to a very small magnetic field (about 0.005 Oe) was due to the presence of the two rare earth ions. The photonic crystal properties of SiO2-CeO2:Eu3+(1 mol%) silica nanospheres deposited as films on quartz plates were revealed by the two weak attenuation peaks at 420 and 500 nm and were associated with the reflection from different planes. The SiO2-CeO2:Eu3+(1 mol%) nanospheres are attractive potential candidates for photonics-related applications or for multifunctional bio-labels by combining the luminescence and magnetic properties of the nanocrystals.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8020022
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 23: Magnetic Enrichment of SARS-CoV-2
           Antigen-Binding B Cells for Analysis of Transcriptome and Antibody

    • Authors: Maureen Banach, Isaac T. W. Harley, Mary K. McCarthy, Cody Rester, Adonis Stassinopoulos, Ross M. Kedl, Thomas E. Morrison, John C. Cambier
      First page: 23
      Abstract: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has had devastating health impacts across the globe. The development of effective diagnostics and therapeutics will depend on the understanding of immune responses to natural infection and vaccination to the causative agent of COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). While both B-cell immunity and T-cell immunity are generated in SARS-CoV-2-infected and vaccinated individuals, B-cell-secreted antibodies are known to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 virus and protect from the disease. Although interest in characterizing SARS-CoV-2-reactive B cells is great, the low frequency of antigen-binding B cells in human blood limits in-depth cellular profiling. To overcome this obstacle, we developed a magnetic bead-based approach to enrich SARS-CoV-2-reactive B cells prior to transcriptional and antibody repertoire analysis by single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). Here, we describe isolation of SARS-CoV-2 antigen-binding B cells from two seropositive donors and comparison to nonspecific B cells from a seronegative donor. We demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 antigen-binding B cells can be distinguished on the basis of transcriptional profile and antibody repertoire. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 antigen-binding B cells exhibit a gene expression pattern indicative of antigen experience and memory status. Combining scRNA-seq methods with magnetic enrichment enables the rapid characterization of SARS-CoV-2 antigen-binding B cells.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8020023
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 24: Cooperative Spin Transitions Triggered
           by Phonons in Metal Complexes Coupled to Molecular Vibrations

    • Authors: Sophia Klokishner, Serghei Ostrovsky, Andrew Palii, Boris Tsukerblat
      First page: 24
      Abstract: The present article is a short overview of the theoretical modeling of spin transitions in polymetallic compounds. As distinguished from many insightful reviews on this topic, the present work is focused on the nature of cooperative interaction of the metal clusters in molecular crystals with emphasis at the physical role of molecular vibrations and phonons. The underlying model assumes that the cooperativity is triggered by phonons while the metal centers are coupled to molecular vibrations. It is demonstrated that the suggested model gives a satisfactory description of the observed spin transitions in mono-, bi- and tetranuclear compounds. In the framework of the described approach, we discuss the experimental data on spin crossover in the mononuclear [Fe(ptz)6](BF4)2, binuclear [{Fe(bt)(NCS)2}2bpym] and tetranuclear [Fe(tpa){N(CN)2}]4·(BF4)4·(H2O)2 compounds containing iron ions. The approach is also applied to the description of the charge-transfer-induced spin transition in the [{(Tp)Fe(CN)3}{Co-(PY5Me2)}](CF3SO3) complex.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8020024
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 25: Investigation of the Morphological
           Structure of Needle-Free Electrospun Magnetic Nanofiber Mats

    • Authors: Al Mamun, Michaela Klöcker, Tomasz Blachowicz, Lilia Sabantina
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Electrospun magnetic nanofibers are promising for a variety of applications in biomedicine, energy storage, filtration or spintronics. The surface morphology of nanofiber mats plays an important role for defined application areas. In addition, the distribution of magnetic particles in nanofibers exerts an influence on the final properties of nanofiber mats. A simple method for the production of magnetic nanofiber mats by the addition of magnetic nanoparticles in an electrospinning polymer solution was used in this study. In this work, magnetic nanofibers (MNFs) were prepared by needle-free electrospinning technique from poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) in the low-toxic solvent dimethy lsulfoxide (DMSO) and 20 wt% Fe3O4 at different parameter conditions such as PAN concentration, voltage and ultrasonic bath. The distribution of nanoparticles in the fiber matrix was investigated as well as the chemical and morphological properties of the resulting magnetic nanofibers. In addition, the surface morphology of magnetic nanofiber mats was studied by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared microscope (FTIR) and ImageJ software, and distribution of Fe3O4 particles in the matrix was investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX).
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8020025
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 26: Theory of Antiferromagnet-Based
           Detector of Terahertz Frequency Signals

    • Authors: Ansar Safin, Sergey Nikitov, Andrei Kirilyuk, Vasyl Tyberkevych, Andrei Slavin
      First page: 26
      Abstract: We present a theory of a detector of terahertz-frequency signals based on an antiferromagnetic (AFM) crystal. The conversion of a THz-frequency electromagnetic signal into the DC voltage is realized using the inverse spin Hall effect in an antiferromagnet/heavy metal bilayer. An additional bias DC magnetic field can be used to tune the antiferromagnetic resonance frequency. We show that if a uniaxial AFM is used, the detection of linearly polarized signals is possible only for a non-zero DC magnetic field, while circularly polarized signals can be detected in a zero DC magnetic field. In contrast, a detector based on a biaxial AFM can be used without a bias DC magnetic field for the rectification of both linearly and circularly polarized signals. The sensitivity of a proposed AFM detector can be increased by increasing the magnitude of the bias magnetic field, or by by decreasing the thickness of the AFM layer. We believe that the presented results will be useful for the practical development of tunable, sensitive and portable spintronic detectors of THz-frequency signals based of the antiferromagnetic resonance (AFMR).
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-02-12
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8020026
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 8: Steric Quenching of Mn(III) Thermal
           Spin Crossover: Dilution of Spin Centers in Immobilized Solutions

    • Authors: Komala Pandurangan, Anthony B. Carter, Paulo N. Martinho, Brendan Gildea, Tibebe Lemma, Shang Shi, Aizuddin Sultan, Tia E. Keyes, Helge Müller-Bunz, Grace G. Morgan
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Structural and magnetic properties of a new spin crossover complex [Mn(4,6-diOMe-sal2323)]+ in lattices with ClO4−, (1), NO3−, (2), BF4−, (3), CF3SO3−, (4), and Cl− (5) counterions are reported. Comparison with the magnetostructural properties of the C6, C12, C18 and C22 alkylated analogues of the ClO4− salt of [Mn(4,6-diOMe-sal2323)]+ demonstrates that alkylation effectively switches off the thermal spin crossover pathway and the amphiphilic complexes are all high spin. The spin crossover quenching in the amphiphiles is further probed by magnetic, structural and Raman spectroscopic studies of the PF6− salts of the C6, C12 and C18 complexes of a related complex [Mn(3-OMe-sal2323)]+ which confirm a preference for the high spin state in all cases. Structural analysis is used to rationalize the choice of the spin quintet form in the seven amphiphilic complexes and to highlight the non-accessibility of the smaller spin triplet form of the ion more generally in dilute environments. We suggest that lattice pressure is a requirement to stabilize the spin triplet form of Mn3+ as the low spin form is not known to exist in solution.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-01-10
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8010008
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 9: Origin of Perovskite Multiferroicity
           and Magnetoelectric-Multiferroic Effects—The Role of Electronic Spin
           in Spontaneous Polarization of Crystals

    • Authors: Isaac B. Bersuker
      First page: 9
      Abstract: In this semi-review paper, we show that the multiferroic properties of perovskite ABO3 crystals with B(dn), n > 0, centers are fully controlled by the influence of the electronic spin on the local dipolar instability that triggers the spontaneous polarization of the crystal. Contrary to the widespread statements, the multiferroicity of these crystals does not emerge due to the addition of unpaired electrons (carrying magnetic moments) to the spontaneously polarizing crystal; the spin states themselves are an important part of the local electronic structure that determines the very possibility of the spontaneous polarization. This conclusion emerges from vibronic theory, in which the ferroelectricity is due to the cooperative interaction of the local dipolar distortions induced by the pseudo-Jahn-Teller effect (PJTE). The latter requires sufficiently strong vibronic coupling between ground and excited electronic states with opposite parity but the same spin multiplicity. The detailed electronic structure of the octahedral [B(dn)O6] center in the molecular orbital presentation shows how this requirement plays into the dependence of the possible perovskite magnetic, ferroelectric, and multiferroic properties on the number of d electrons, provided the criterion of the PJTE is obeyed. Revealed in detail, the role of the electronic spin in all these properties and their combination opens novel possibilities for their manipulation by means of external perturbations and exploration. In particular, it is shown that by employing the well-known spin-crossover phenomenon, a series of novel effects become possible, including magnetic-ferroelectric (multiferroic) crossover with electric-multiferroic, magnetic-ferroelectric, and magneto-electric effects, some of which have already been observed experimentally.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8010009
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 10: The Origins and the Current

    • Authors: Ozgun Civelekoglu, A. Bruno Frazier, A. Fatih Sarioglu
      First page: 10
      Abstract: The magnetic separation of cells based on certain traits has a wide range of applications in microbiology, immunology, oncology, and hematology. Compared to bulk separation, performing magnetophoresis at micro scale presents advantages such as precise control of the environment, larger magnetic gradients in miniaturized dimensions, operational simplicity, system portability, high-throughput analysis, and lower costs. Since the first integration of magnetophoresis and microfluidics, many different approaches have been proposed to magnetically separate cells from suspensions at the micro scale. This review paper aims to provide an overview of the origins of microfluidic devices for magnetic cell separation and the recent technologies and applications grouped by the targeted cell types. For each application, exemplary experimental methods and results are discussed.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8010010
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
  • Magnetochemistry, Vol. 8, Pages 11: Basic Principles and Recent Advances
           in Magnetic Cell Separation

    • Authors: Marie Frenea-Robin, Julien Marchalot
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Magnetic cell separation has become a key methodology for the isolation of target cell populations from biological suspensions, covering a wide spectrum of applications from diagnosis and therapy in biomedicine to environmental applications or fundamental research in biology. There now exists a great variety of commercially available separation instruments and reagents, which has permitted rapid dissemination of the technology. However, there is still an increasing demand for new tools and protocols which provide improved selectivity, yield and sensitivity of the separation process while reducing cost and providing a faster response. This review aims to introduce basic principles of magnetic cell separation for the neophyte, while giving an overview of recent research in the field, from the development of new cell labeling strategies to the design of integrated microfluidic cell sorters and of point-of-care platforms combining cell selection, capture, and downstream detection. Finally, we focus on clinical, industrial and environmental applications where magnetic cell separation strategies are amongst the most promising techniques to address the challenges of isolating rare cells.
      Citation: Magnetochemistry
      PubDate: 2022-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/magnetochemistry8010011
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
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