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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 871 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (54 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (610 journals)
    - CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (21 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (610 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 267)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access  
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 64)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 61)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 239)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access  
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access  
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 334)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 121)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 17)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 73)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 183)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 244)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Croatica Chemica Acta     Open Access  
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Chromatography     Hybrid Journal  
Current Green Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Microwave Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 70)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover C - Journal of Carbon Research
  [3 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2311-5629
   Published by MDPI Homepage  [198 journals]
  • C, Vol. 4, Pages 3: Adsorption of Bovine Serum Albumin on Carbon-Based
           Materials

    • Authors: Mykola Seredych, Lyuba Mikhalovska, Sergey Mikhalovsky, Yury Gogotsi
      First page: 3
      Abstract: The protein adsorption plays a very important role in biotechnology, biomolecular engineering and it is one of the main factors determining bio- and hemocompatibility of biomedical materials in medical applications, such as blood purification and wound healing. Here we report adsorption properties of two carbon-based materials, thermally expanded graphite (EGr) and graphene nanoplatelets (GnP), for bovine serum albumin (BSA), the most abundant blood plasma protein. The influence of the surface chemistry of expanded graphite on the mechanism of BSA adsorption was studied by using EGr modified with oxygen or nitrogen functionalities. Having low microporosity and the specific surface area in the range of 5 to 50 m2/g, the expanded graphite exhibits high protein adsorption capacity at high equilibrium concentrations, which makes this material a potential candidate for biomedical applications as a carrier for high molecular weight (HMW) drug delivery or adsorption of HMW metabolites. At low equilibrium concentrations, the effect of specific protein-surface functional groups interaction reveals the differences between the adsorption affinity of different surface modified EGr materials to BSA. The adsorption of BSA on GnP with a specific surface area of 286 m2/g and a developed micro-/mesoporous structure did not follow the same mechanism as seen with EGr materials. At low equilibrium concentration of BSA, GnP exhibits high adsorption efficiency. An important finding is that no release of nanoparticles from expanded graphite adsorbents was observed, which makes them potentially suitable for direct contact with blood and other tissues while very small nanoparticles were noticed in the case of graphene nanoplatelets.
      Citation: C
      PubDate: 2018-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/c4010003
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • C, Vol. 4, Pages 1: Synthesis of Hybrid Silica-Carbon Tubular Structures
           by Chemical Vapor Deposition with Methane or Ethene

    • Authors: Victor Sepulveda, Betty López
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Silica microtube and carbon nanotube hybrid structures have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition using either methane or ethene as the carbon source, and cobalt-grafted or impregnated silica tubes (200–800 nm) as catalyst. The cobalt-grafted catalyst shows a high resistance to reduction (>1000 °C) and selectivity to single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). While ethene deposition produces more carbonaceous material, methane experiments show higher selectivity for SWCNT. After removing the silica with an excess of HF, the carbon nanostructure endured, resulting in a coaxial carbon nanostructure. The novel hybrid nanostructures obtained consist of a submicron-sized tube, with walls that are formed by a succession of carbon/silica/carbon layers to which multiwall (20–25 nm) and/or single-wall (0.6–2.0 nm) carbon nanotubes are attached. This synthesis approach combines the mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes and the thermal properties of silica tubes into a synergetic nanostructured material, opening further possibilities for polymer reinforcement and potential applications in catalysis.
      Citation: C
      PubDate: 2017-12-25
      DOI: 10.3390/c4010001
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 4, Pages 2: One-Pot Synthesis of Graphene-Sulfur Composites for
           Li-S Batteries: Influence of Sulfur Precursors

    • Authors: James Moo, Ahmad Omar, Tony Jaumann, Steffen Oswald, Juan Balach, Sebastian Maletti, Lars Giebeler
      First page: 2
      Abstract: Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are postulated as next-generation electrochemical energy storage devices due to their increased storage capabilities. However, challenges persist from the polysulfide-shuttle effect at the cathode. Soluble sulfur-based species in the cathode cross over to the lithium anode through the separator leading to fading capacity with cycling. This has spurred continuous effort by the scientific community to develop novel cathodes where sulfur species can affix better. A conductive nanostructured graphene network is a suitable candidate that can serve as a scaffold for holding sulfur nanoparticles. Here, a one-pot synthesis of chemically reduced graphene oxide networks prepared from easily accessible graphene oxide is demonstrated. The solution-based method simply allows for impregnation of the graphene oxide network with sulfur nanoparticles through a careful manipulation of pH of the chemical environment. Two routes were chosen for the precipitation of such sulfur nanoparticles: firstly, the dissolution of sulfur in sodium hydroxide into polysulfides followed by acidification and secondly, the acidification of sodium thiosulfate from alkaline media into sulfur nanoparticles. Both graphene oxide materials from the two routes were treated with sodium borohydride to achieve conductive graphene. The second route, with the sulfur nanoparticles derived from the acidification of sodium thiosulfate with chemically reduced graphene oxide, demonstrated favorable electrochemical behavior, showing promise as electrode material for Li-S batteries.
      Citation: C
      PubDate: 2017-12-27
      DOI: 10.3390/c4010002
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 29: Graphene–Noble Metal Nano-Composites and
           Applications for Hydrogen Sensors

    • Authors: Sukumar Basu, Surajit Hazra
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Graphene based nano-composites are relatively new materials with excellent mechanical, electrical, electronic and chemical properties for applications in the fields of electrical and electronic devices, mechanical appliances and chemical gadgets. For all these applications, the structural features associated with chemical bonding that involve other components at the interface need in-depth investigation. Metals, polymers, inorganic fibers and other components improve the properties of graphene when they form a kind of composite structure in the nano-dimensions. Intensive investigations have been carried out globally in this area of research and development. In this article, some salient features of graphene–noble metal interactions and composite formation which improve hydrogen gas sensing properties—like higher and fast response, quick recovery, cross sensitivity, repeatability and long term stability of the sensor devices—are presented. Mostly noble metals are effective for enhancing the sensing performance of the graphene–metal hybrid sensors, due to their superior catalytic activities. The experimental evidence for atomic bonding between metal nano-structures and graphene has been reported in the literature and it is theoretically verified by density functional theory (DFT). Multilayer graphene influences gas sensing performance via intercalation of metal and non-metal atoms through atomic bonding.
      Citation: C
      PubDate: 2017-10-13
      DOI: 10.3390/c3040029
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 30: Physico-Mechanical, Dielectric, and Piezoelectric
           Properties of PVDF Electrospun Mats Containing Silver Nanoparticles

    • Authors: Ahmed Issa, Mariam Al-Maadeed, Adriaan Luyt, Deepalekshmi Ponnamma, Mohammad Hassan
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is a piezoelectric material with outstanding physical and mechanical properties. The piezoelectric properties depend on the β-phase content of this polymer, while the physical and mechanical properties depend on the morphology and degree of crystallinity of the material. Silver has antibacterial effects, and silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) have large surface areas rich in electrons. In this paper, we produced electrospun PVDF fibrous mats that contained different contents of Ag-NPs between 0% and 1.0%. The β-content in PVDF was found to increase by about 8% for Ag-NPs content of 0.4–0.6%. The electrospun fiber mats had a higher β-crystalline content, nano-pores were visible on the fiber surfaces, and the tensile strength and thermal stability were improved. Dielectric analysis indicated weak interfacial adhesion between the PVDF and Ag-NPs. Good piezoelectric response was observed in the electrospun fibers containing 0.4% AgNPs, which shows a good correlation between the β-crystalline phase content of the composites and its energy-harvesting application.
      Citation: C
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/c3040030
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 31: Nitrogen-Doped Activated Carbon as Metal-Free
           Catalysts Having Various Functions

    • Authors: Shin-Ichiro Fujita, Hiroshi Yoshida, Masahiko Arai
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Nitrogen-doped carbon materials have been gaining increasing interest as metal-free catalysts. In this article, the authors have briefly introduced their recent studies on the utilization of nitrogen-doped activated carbon (N-AC) for several organic synthesis reactions, which include base catalyzed reactions of Knoevenagel condensation and transesterification, aerobic oxidation of xanthene and alcohols, and transfer hydrogenation of nitrobenzene, 3-nitrostyrene, styrene, and phenylacetylene with hydrazine. Doped-nitrogen species existed on the AC surface in different structures. For example, pyridine-type nitrogen species appear to be involved in the active sites for Knoevenagel condensation and for the oxidation of xanthene, while graphite-type nitrogen species appear to be involved for the oxidation of alcohols. Being different from these reactions, both surface nitrogen and oxygen species are involved in the active sites for the hydrogenation of nitrobenzene. N-AC was practically inactive for the transfer hydrogenation of vinyl and ethynyl groups, but it can catalyze those hydrogenation reactions assisted by co-existing nitrobenzene. Comparison of N-AC with conventional catalysts shows that N-AC can alternate with conventional solid base catalysts and supported metal catalysts for the Knoevenagel condensation and oxidation reactions.
      Citation: C
      PubDate: 2017-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/c3040031
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 32: An Atomistic Carbide-Derived Carbon Model Generated
           Using ReaxFF-Based Quenched Molecular Dynamics

    • Authors: Matthew Thompson, Boris Dyatkin, Hsiu-Wen Wang, C. Turner, Xiahan Sang, Raymond Unocic, Christopher Iacovella, Yury Gogotsi, Adri van Duin, Peter Cummings
      First page: 32
      Abstract: We report a novel atomistic model of carbide-derived carbons (CDCs), which are nanoporous carbons with high specific surface areas, synthesis-dependent degrees of graphitization, and well-ordered, tunable porosities. These properties make CDCs viable substrates in several energy-relevant applications, such as gas storage media, electrochemical capacitors, and catalytic supports. These materials are heterogenous, non-ideal structures and include several important parameters that govern their performance. Therefore, a realistic model of the CDC structure is needed in order to study these systems and their nanoscale and macroscale properties with molecular simulation. We report the use of the ReaxFF reactive force field in a quenched molecular dynamics routine to generate atomistic CDC models. The pair distribution function, pore size distribution, and adsorptive properties of this model are reported and corroborated with experimental data. Simulations demonstrate that compressing the system after quenching changes the pore size distribution to better match the experimental target. Ring size distributions of this model demonstrate the prevalence of non-hexagonal carbon rings in CDCs. These effects may contrast the properties of CDCs against those of activated carbons with similar pore size distributions and explain higher energy densities of CDC-based supercapacitors.
      Citation: C
      PubDate: 2017-10-23
      DOI: 10.3390/c3040032
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 33: MoS2 Decorated Carbon Nanofibers as Efficient and
           Durable Electrocatalyst for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

    • Authors: C. Zhang, Z. Wang, S. Bhoyate, T. Morey, Brooks Neria, Venkata Vasiraju, Gautam Gupta, Soubantika Palchoudhury, P. Kahol, S. Mishra, Felio Perez, Ram Gupta
      First page: 33
      Abstract: Hydrogen is an efficient fuel which can be generated via water splitting, however hydrogen evolution occurs at high overpotential, and efficient hydrogen evolution catalysts are desired to replace state-of-the-art catalysts such as platinum. Here, we report an advanced electrocatalyst that has low overpotential, efficient charge transfers kinetics, low Tafel slope and durable. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs), obtained by carbonizing electrospun fibers, were decorated with MoS2 using a facile hydrothermal method. The imaging of catalyst reveals a flower like morphology that allows for exposure of edge sulfur sites to maximize the HER process. HER activity of MoS2 decorated over CNFs was compared with MoS2 without CNFs and with commercial MoS2. MoS2 grown over CNFs and MoS2-synthesized produced about 374 and 98 times higher current density at −0.30 V (vs. Reversible Hydrogen Electrode, RHE) compared with the MoS2-commercial sample, respectively. MoS2-commercial, MoS2-synthesized and MoS2 grown over CNFs showed a Tafel slope of 165, 79 and 60 mV/decade, capacitance of 0.99, 5.87 and 15.66 mF/cm2, and turnover frequency of 0.013, 0.025 and 0.54 s−1, respectively. The enhanced performance of MoS2-CNFs is due to large electroactive surface area, more exposure of edge sulfur to the electrolyte, and easy charge transfer from MoS2 to the electrode through conducting CNFs.
      Citation: C
      PubDate: 2017-10-30
      DOI: 10.3390/c3040033
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 34: Acyclic Arylamine-Based Ionophores as Potentiometric
           Sensors for Zn2+ and Ni2+ Ions

    • Authors: Harpreet Kaur, Manmohan Chhibber, Susheel Mittal
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Two receptor molecules N-(2-nitrophenyl)benzene-1,2-diamine (DPA) and N,N-bis(2-nitrophenyl)benzene-1,2-diamine (TPA) are proposed as Zn2+ and Ni2+-selective electrodes, respectively. The two electrodes respond to Zn2+ and Ni2+ ions with the detection limits of 1.3 × 10−6 M and 2.8 × 10−6 M, respectively. Both the electrodes have a life time of four months and respond within 15 s and 20 s, respectively, for Zn2+ and Ni2+ over a wide pH range (3–9). The electrodes show very good selectivity towards the primary ions in presence of some alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metal ions.
      Citation: C
      PubDate: 2017-11-07
      DOI: 10.3390/c3040034
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 35: Thermal Treatment of Melt-Spun Fibers Based on High
           Density PolyEthylene and Lignin

    • Authors: Panagiotis Goulis, Giorgos Konstantopoulos, Ioannis Kartsonakis, Konstantinos Mpalias, Stavros Anagnou, Dimitrios Dragatogiannis, Costas Charitidis
      First page: 35
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was the synthesis of novel low-cost carbon fibers along with the investigation of the optimal parameters of temperature and time for the stabilization of hybrid high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and lignin melt-spun fibers. These fibers were manufactured by physical compounding of HDPE and chemically-modified softwood kraft lignin (SKL) in order to produce green fiber precursors for carbon fiber synthesis. Stabilization tests were performed with respect to thermal treatment (physical method) and sulfonation treatment (chemical method). The results revealed that only chemical methods induce the desired thermal process-ability to the composite fibers in order to manufacture carbon fibers by using a simple method. This investigation shed light on the stabilization techniques of polymeric fibers in the absence of any cyclic groups in terms of environmentally-friendly mass production of carbon fibers using low-cost and green raw materials. This study facilitates incorporation of softwood lignin in homegrown polymeric fibers by a low-cost production process via melt-spinning of composite fibers, which were successfully stabilized using a facile chemical method and carbonized. Additionally, a comprehensive investigation of the thermal behavior of the samples was accomplished, by examining several ways and aspects of fiber thermal treating. The properties of all studied fibers are presented, compared, and discussed.
      Citation: C
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      DOI: 10.3390/c3040035
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 36: The Role of Carbon on Copper–Carbon Composites for
           the Electrooxidation of Alcohols in an Alkaline Medium

    • Authors: Leticia García-Cruz, Conchi Ania, Ana Carvalho, Teresa Bandosz, Vicente Montiel, Jesús Iniesta
      First page: 36
      Abstract: Copper–carbon composites were prepared following various different synthetic routes and using various carbon precursors (i.e., lignocellulose and graphite oxide), and were used as electrocatalysts for the oxidation of propargyl alcohol (PGA) in an alkaline medium. The electrochemical response of the copper-based catalysts was analyzed in terms of the influence of the metallic species, the carbon matrix incorporated in the composites, and the chemical structure of the ionomers—Nafion and poly (4-vinylpyridine) cross-linked methyl chloride quaternary salt resin (4VP)—used in the fabrication of the electrodes. Data has shown that the incorporation of reduced graphene oxide sheets between the copper metallic particles increased the performance due to the increased conductivity provided by the carbonaceous phase. Catalytic inks with ca. 40 wt.% Nafion and 12 wt.% 4VP as ionomers provided the best electrochemical response and cohesion of the catalysts, minimizing the losses in the electroactivity of the copper species.
      Citation: C
      PubDate: 2017-11-20
      DOI: 10.3390/c3040036
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 37: Efficient Air Desulfurization Catalysts Derived from
           Pig Manure Liquefaction Char

    • Authors: Rajiv Wallace, Sundaramurthy Suresh, Elham Fini, Teresa Bandosz
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Biochar from the liquefaction of pig manure was used as a precursor of H2S desulfurization adsorbents. In its inorganic matter, it contains marked quantities of calcium, magnesium and iron, which are known as hydrogen sulfide oxidation catalysts. The char was used either as-received or mixed with 10% nanographite. The latter was added to increase both the content of the carbon phase and conductivity. ZnCl2 in two different ratios of char to an activation agent (1:1 and 1:2) was used to create the porosity in the carbon phase. The content of the later was between 18–45%. The activated samples adsorbed 144 mg/g H2S. Sulfur was the predominant product of reactive adsorption. Its deposition in the pore system and blockage of the most active pores ceased the materials’ activity. The presence of the catalytic phase was necessary but not sufficient to guarantee good performance. The developed porosity, which can store oxidation products in the resulting composite, is essential for the good performance of the desulfurization process. The surface of the composite with nanographite showed the highest catalytic activity, similar to that of the commercial Midas® carbon catalyst. The results obtained indicate that a high quality reactive adsorbent/catalyst for H2S removal can be obtained from pig manure liquefaction wastes.
      Citation: C
      PubDate: 2017-11-20
      DOI: 10.3390/c3040037
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 38: A Review of Smart Materials in Tactile Actuators for
           Information Delivery

    • Authors: Xin Xie, Sanwei Liu, Chenye Yang, Zhengyu Yang, Tian Liu, Juncai Xu, Cheng Zhang, Xianglin Zhai
      First page: 38
      Abstract: As the largest organ in the human body, the skin provides the important sensory channel for humans to receive external stimulations based on touch. By the information perceived through touch, people can feel and guess the properties of objects, like weight, temperature, textures, and motion, etc. In fact, those properties are nerve stimuli to our brain received by different kinds of receptors in the skin. Mechanical, electrical, and thermal stimuli can stimulate these receptors and cause different information to be conveyed through the nerves. Technologies for actuators to provide mechanical, electrical or thermal stimuli have been developed. These include static or vibrational actuation, electrostatic stimulation, focused ultrasound, and more. Smart materials, such as piezoelectric materials, carbon nanotubes, and shape memory alloys, play important roles in providing actuation for tactile sensation. This paper aims to review the background biological knowledge of human tactile sensing, to give an understanding of how we sense and interact with the world through the sense of touch, as well as the conventional and state-of-the-art technologies of tactile actuators for tactile feedback delivery.
      Citation: C
      PubDate: 2017-12-08
      DOI: 10.3390/c3040038
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 21: Fullerenes in Electrochemical Catalytic and Affinity
           Biosensing: A Review

    • Authors: Paloma Yáñez-Sedeño, Susana Campuzano, José Pingarrón
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Nanotechnology is becoming increasingly important in the field of (bio)sensors. The performance and sensitivity of electrochemical biosensors can be greatly improved by the integration of nanomaterials into their construction. In this sense, carbon nanomaterials have been widely used for preparation of biosensors due to their ability to enhance electron-transfer kinetics, high surface-to-volume ratios, and biocompatibility. Fullerenes are a very promising family of carbon nanomaterials and have attracted great interest in recent years in the design of novel biosensing systems due to fullerenes’ exceptional properties. These include multiple redox states, stability in many redox forms, easy functionalization and signal mediation. This paper outlines the state-of-the-art and future directions in the use and functionalization of fullerene-C60 and its derivatives, both as electrode modifiers and advanced labels in electrochemical catalytic and affinity biosensors through selected applications.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/c3030021
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 22: Evaluation of Carbon-Coated Graphite as a Negative
           Electrode Material for Li-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Varvara Sharova, Arianna Moretti, Guinevere Giffin, Diogo Carvalho, Stefano Passerini
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Low-cost and environmentally-friendly materials are investigated as carbon-coating precursors to modify the surface of commercial graphite for Li-ion battery anodes. The coating procedure and final carbon content are tuned to study the influence of the precursors on the electrochemical performance of graphite. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area analysis are used to characterize the carbon coating content and the surface area, respectively, whereas X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy allow tracking of the graphite’s structural changes and surface amorphization. In general, the coating reduces the first cycle coulombic efficiency by 3%–10% compared to pristine graphite due to the increase of the surface area available for the continuous electrolyte decomposition. However, the use of citric acid as a carbon source (5 wt %) improves the rate capability of graphite, resulting in the specific delithiation capacity at 3C of 228 mAh g−1 vs. 211 mAh g−1 for the uncoated graphite. The attempt to reduce the coating amount from 5 wt % to 2 wt % results in a lower rate capability, but the first cycle coulombic efficiency is similar to that of pristine graphite.
      Citation: C
      PubDate: 2017-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/c3030022
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 23: Diamond-Like Carbon Nanofoam from Low-Temperature
           Hydrothermal Carbonization of a Sucrose/Naphthalene Precursor Solution

    • Authors: Natalie Frese, Shelby Taylor Mitchell, Amanda Bowers, Armin Gölzhäuser, Klaus Sattler
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Unusual structure of low-density carbon nanofoam, different from the commonly observed micropearl morphology, was obtained by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of a sucrose solution where a specific small amount of naphthalene had been added. Helium-ion microscopy (HIM) was used to obtain images of the foam yielding micron-sized, but non-spherical particles as structural units with a smooth foam surface. Raman spectroscopy shows a predominant sp2 peak, which results from the graphitic internal structure. A strong sp3 peak is seen in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Electrons in XPS are emitted from the near surface region which implies that the graphitic microparticles have a diamond-like foam surface layer. The occurrence of separated sp2 and sp3 regions is uncommon for carbon nanofoams and reveals an interesting bulk-surface structure of the compositional units.
      Citation: C
      PubDate: 2017-07-06
      DOI: 10.3390/c3030023
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 24: Functionalized Graphene–Polyoxometalate Nanodots
           Assembly as “Organic–Inorganic” Hybrid Supercapacitors and Insights
           into Electrode/Electrolyte Interfacial Processes

    • Authors: Sanju Gupta, Bryce Aberg, Sara Carrizosa
      First page: 24
      Abstract: The stable high-performance electrochemical electrodes consisting of supercapacitive reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets decorated with pseudocapacitive polyoxometalates (phosphomolybdate acid-H3PMo12O40 (POM) and phosphotungstic acid-H3PW12O40 (POW)) nanodots/nanoclusters are hydrothermally synthesized. The interactions between rGO and POM (and POW) components create emergent “organic–inorganic” hybrids with desirable physicochemical properties (specific surface area, mechanical strength, diffusion, facile electron and ion transport) enabled by molecularly bridged (covalently and electrostatically) tailored interfaces for electrical energy storage. The synergistic hybridization between two electrochemical energy storage mechanisms, electrochemical double-layer from rGO and redox activity (faradaic) of nanoscale POM (and POW) nanodots, and the superior operating voltage due to high overpotential yielded converge yielding a significantly improved electrochemical performance. They include increase in specific capacitance from 70 F·g−1 for rGO to 350 F·g−1 for hybrid material with aqueous electrolyte (0.4 M sodium sulfate), higher current carrying capacity (>10 A·g−1) and excellent retention (94%) resulting higher specific energy and specific power density. We performed scanning electrochemical microscopy to gain insights into physicochemical processes and quantitatively determine associated parameters (diffusion coefficient (D) and heterogeneous electron transfer rate (kET)) at electrode/electrolyte interface besides mapping electrochemical (re)activity and electro-active site distribution. The experimental findings are attributed to: (1) mesoporous network and topologically multiplexed conductive pathways; (2) higher density of graphene edge plane sites; and (3) localized pockets of re-hybridized orbital engineered modulated band structure provided by polyoxometalates anchored chemically on functionalized graphene nanosheets, contribute toward higher interfacial charge transfer, rapid ion conduction, enhanced storage capacity and improved electroactivity.
      Citation: C
      PubDate: 2017-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/c3030024
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 25: Orange-Peel-Derived Carbon: Designing Sustainable and
           High-Performance Supercapacitor Electrodes

    • Authors: C. K. Ranaweera, P. K. Kahol, M. Ghimire, S. R. Mishra, Ram K. Gupta
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Interconnected hollow-structured carbon was successfully prepared from a readily available bio-waste precursor (orange peel) by pyrolysis and chemical activation (using KOH), and demonstrated its potential as a high-performing electrode material for energy storage. The surface area and pore size of carbon were controlled by varying the precursor carbon to KOH mass ratio. The specific surface area significantly increased with the increasing amount of KOH, reaching a specific surface area of 2521 m2/g for a 1:3 mass ratio of precursor carbon/KOH. However, a 1:1 mass ratio of precursor carbon/KOH displayed the optimum charge storage capacitance of 407 F/g, owing to the ideal combination of micro- and mesopores and a higher degree of graphitization. The capacitive performance varied with the electrolyte employed. The orange-peel-derived electrode in KOH electrolyte displayed the maximum capacitance and optimum rate capability. The orange-peel-derived electrode maintained above 100% capacitance retention during 5000 cyclic tests and identical charge storage over different bending status. The fabricated supercapacitor device delivered high energy density (100.4 µWh/cm2) and power density (6.87 mW/cm2), along with improved performance at elevated temperatures. Our study demonstrates that bio-waste can be easily converted into a high-performance and efficient energy storage device by employing a carefully architected electrode–electrolyte system.
      Citation: C
      PubDate: 2017-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/c3030025
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 26: Meltblown Solvated Mesophase Pitch-Based Carbon
           Fibers: Fiber Evolution and Characteristics

    • Authors: Zhongren Yue, Chang Liu, Ahmad Vakili
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Potentially low-cost continuous carbon fibers are produced from solvated mesophase pitch through a patented meltblowing process. The structural evolution and properties of the fibers are characterized by various analytical methods. The meltblown fibers are continuous fibers which are collected into a fibrous web form, and the diameter of the filaments is attenuated by the flow rate of air streams. The spun fibers can be rapidly stabilized in air due to the high melting mesogens and the removable solvent. The carbonized fibers show a high carbon yield of 75 wt % (or 86 wt % if the solvents are neglected) and a mean diameter of 8–22 μm with typical fiber diameter distribution and variation. The evolution of the fiber structure depends not only on the processing temperature but also on the fiber diameter. The processed carbon fibers retain the same form as the spun fibers and have a low packing density and reasonable mechanical properties.
      Citation: C
      PubDate: 2017-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/c3030026
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 27: Investigation of Mechanical, Chemical and Adsorptive
           Properties of Novel Silicon-Based Adsorbents with Activated Carbon
           Structure

    • Authors: Christian Bläker, Stefanie Heib, Christoph Pasel, Burak Atakan, Dieter Bathen
      First page: 27
      Abstract: In this article, for the first time the chemical and mechanical properties of novel adsorbents based on the coating of activated carbons with silicon carbide are reported. The adsorbents are prepared by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of activated carbons with tetramethylsilane (TMS) as a precursor. A comparison of two different modified types of activated carbon, C40/4 Extra and A35/4 Extra, each infiltrated with 25%-mass at infiltration temperatures of 973.15 and 1098.15 K, respectively, is presented. Adsorption properties were characterized by measuring nitrogen isotherms and volatile organic compounds (VOC) isotherms in gas phase and excess isotherms in liquid phase. In addition, the physico-chemical properties including the bulk density, ash content, particle hardness, abrasion, conductivity, water-soluble components, and pH value were determined. Furthermore, the first experiments in a fluidized bed adsorber are presented. The results show that the adsorption properties of the modified adsorbents are mainly maintained. The particle hardness and the abrasion resistance increases with increasing infiltration temperature, which leads to an overall increasing of mechanical stability. A modification of the chemical stability as a result of the infiltration experiments is not observed.
      Citation: C
      PubDate: 2017-08-27
      DOI: 10.3390/c3030027
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 28: The Ultraviolet-Induced Functionalization of
           Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Polymer Radicals Generated from
           Polyvinyl Benzoate Derivatives

    • Authors: Tomoya Takada, Yuya Nishioka, Takuma Baba
      First page: 28
      Abstract: In order to develop a novel technique for the fabrication of hybrid materials containing polymers and nanocarbons, we examined the surface modification of pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with benzyl-type polymer side chain radicals generated through photolysis of 4-(chloromethyl)benzoate moieties. The polymer with a 4-(chloromethyl)benzoate side chain was prepared by the esterification of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with corresponding acid chloride. The synthesized polymer and MWCNTs were mixed in N-methylpyrrolidone and irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) light. Structural changes of the polymer and MWCNTs were observed by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. The XPS results revealed that scission of the C–Cl bonds of the chloromethyl groups and benzyl-type radical formation occurred. The incremental surface defects of the MWCNTs caused by UV irradiation were confirmed by means of Raman spectroscopy. These results support the covalent bond formation between the polymer side chain and MWCNT sidewalls by radical addition reaction. The photothermal conversion characteristics of the prepared materials were also evaluated.
      Citation: C
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.3390/c3030028
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 10: Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Elastomer
           Nanocomposites Based on Different Carbon Nanomaterials

    • Authors: Liliane Bokobza
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Carbon nanostructures including carbon black, carbon nanotubes, graphite or graphene have attracted a tremendous interest as fillers for elastomeric compounds. The preparation methods of nanocomposites that have a strong impact on the state of filler dispersion and thus on the properties of the resulting composites, are briefly described. At a same filler loading, considerable improvement in stiffness is imparted to the host polymeric matrix by the carbon nanomaterials with regard to that provided by the conventional carbon black particles. It is mainly attributed to the high aspect ratio of the nanostructures rather than to strong polymer-filler interactions. The orienting capability of the anisotropic fillers under strain as well the formation of a filler network, have to be taken into account to explain the high level of reinforcements. A comparison of the efficiency of the different carbon nanostructures is carried out through their mechanical and electrical properties but no clear picture can be obtained since the composite properties are strongly affected by the state of filler dispersion.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/c3020010
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 11: The Role of Synthetic Fuels for a Carbon Neutral
           Economy

    • Authors: Rui Rosa
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Fossil fuels depletion and increasing environmental impacts arising from their use call for seeking growing supplies from renewable and nuclear primary energy sources. However, it is necessary to simultaneously attend to both the electrical power needs and the specificities of the transport and industrial sector requirements. A major question posed by the shift away from traditional fossil fuels towards renewable energy sources lies in matching the power demand with the daily and seasonal oscillation and the intermittency of these natural energy fluxes. Huge energy storage requirements become necessary or otherwise the decline of the power factor of both the renewable and conventional generation would mean loss of resources. On the other hand, liquid and gaseous fuels, for which there is vast storage and distribution capacity available, appear essential to supply the transport sector for a very long time ahead, besides their domestic and industrial roles. Within this context, the present assessment suggests that proven technologies and sound tested principles are available to develop an integrated energy system, relying on synthetic fuels. These would incorporate carbon capture and utilization in a closed carbon cycle, progressively relying mostly on solar and/or nuclear primary sources, providing both electric power and gaseous/liquid hydrocarbon fuels, having ample storage capacity, and able to timely satisfy all forms of energy demand. The principles and means are already available to develop a carbon-neutral synthetic fuel economy.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/c3020011
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 12: Wool Carpet Dye Adsorption on Nanoporous Carbon
           Materials Derived from Agro-Product

    • Authors: Raja Pradhananga, Laxmi Adhikari, Rekha Shrestha, Mandira Adhikari, Rinita Rajbhandari, Katsuhiko Ariga, Lok Shrestha
      First page: 12
      Abstract: In this paper, wool carpet dye adsorption properties of nanoporous activated carbon materials (NCMs) prepared from bamboo agro-product is reported. Bamboo cane powder was chemically activated with phosphoric acid at different temperatures (400, 500, and 600 °C) at an impregnation ratio of 1:1. We found that the specific surface area and the total pore volume of NCM increases with temperature giving the highest surface area and pore volume ca. 2130 m2·g−1 and 2.69 cc·g−1 at 600 °C. Owing to superior surface textural properties, bamboo-derived NCM showed excellent adsorption capacity for wool carpet dyes Lanasyn orange (LO) and Lanasyn gray (LG). The adsorption phenomena could be described by Langmuir/Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacity was ca. 2.60 × 103 and 3.04 × 103 mg·g−1 for LO and LG, respectively. The adsorption followed pseudo second order kinetics with the second order rate constant of 1.24 × 10−3 g·mg−1·min−1 (LO) and 7.69 × 10−4 g·mg−1·min−1 (LG), respectively. This study demonstrated that the high surface area NCMs prepared from agro-product can be used as efficient and cost-effective adsorbent materials for the removal of dyes from industrial effluent.
      PubDate: 2017-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/c3020012
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 13: 14N NMR Spectroscopy Study of Binding Interaction
           between Sodium Azide and Hydrated Fullerene

    • Authors: Tamar Chachibaia, Manuel Martin Pastor
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Our study is the first attempt to study the interaction between NaN3 and hydrated fullerenes C60 by means of a non-chemical reaction-based approach. The aim is to study deviations of signals obtained by 14N NMR spectroscopy to detect the binding interaction between sodium azide and hydrated fullerene. We considered 14N NMR spectroscopy as one of the most suitable methods for the characterization of azides to show resonance signals corresponding to the three non-equivalent nitrogen atoms. The results demonstrate that there are changes in the chemical shift positions and line-broadening, which are related to the different molar ratios of NaN3:C60 in the samples.
      PubDate: 2017-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/c3020013
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 14: Piezoresistive Response of Integrated CNT Yarns under
           Compression and Tension: The Effect of Lateral Constraint

    • Authors: Jude Anike, Huy Le, Grace Brodeur, Mathew Kadavan, Jandro Abot
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns are fiber-like materials that exhibit excellent mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. More importantly, they exhibit a piezoresistive response that can be tapped for sensing purposes. The objective of this study is to determine experimentally the piezoresistive response of CNT yarns that are embedded in a polymeric medium while subjected to either tension or compression, and compare it with that of the free or unconstrained CNT yarns. The rationale is the need to know the piezoresistive response of the CNT yarn while in a medium, which provides a lateral constraint to the CNT yarn, thus mimicking the response of integrated CNT yarn sensors. The experimental program includes the fabrication of samples and their electromechanical characterization. The CNT yarns are integrated in polymeric beams and subjected to four-point bending, allowing the determination of their response under tension and compression. The electromechanical data from a combined Inductance–Capacitance–Resistance (LCR) device and a mechanical testing system were used to determine the piezoresistive response of the CNT yarns. At a strain rate of 0.006 min−1, the gauge factor obtained under tension for a maximum strain of 0.1% is ~29.3 which is higher than ~21.2 obtained under compression. The CNT yarn sensor exhibited strain rate dependence with a gauge factor of approximately 23.0 at 0.006 min−1, in comparison to 19.0 and 1.3, which were obtained at 0.0005 min−1 and 0.003 min−1, respectively. There is a difference of up to two orders of magnitude in the sensitivity of the constrained CNT yarn under bending with respect to that of the free CNT yarn under uniaxial tension. However, the difference becomes smaller when the constrained CNT yarn was tested under uniaxial tension. This data and information will be used for future modeling efforts and to study the phenomena that occur when CNT yarns are integrated in polymeric and composite materials and structures.
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/c3020014
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 15: DFT Study on the Interaction of the Smallest
           Fullerene C20 with Lithium Ions and Atoms

    • Authors: Hiroshi Kawabata, Hiroto Tachikawa
      First page: 15
      Abstract: The smallest fullerene C20 with positive electron affinity is considered to be a new organic nano-electronic material. The binding structures and electronic states of lithium ions and atoms (Li+ and Li) trapped on the surface of C20 have been investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculation to elucidate the nature of their interaction. It was found that a Li+ can bind to only one site of C20. This is, specifically, on top of the site where Li+ binds to the carbon atom of C20. On the other hand, in the case of a Li atom, two structures were obtained besides the on-top structure. One was pentagonal structure which included a Li atom on a five-membered ring of C20. The other was a triangular structure in which the Li atom bind to the the carbon–carbon bond of C20. Finally, the nature of the interactions between Li ions or atoms and the C20 cluster was discussed on the basis of theoretical results.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/c3020015
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 16: Materials and Processes for Carbon Dioxide Capture
           and Utilisation

    • Authors: Enrico Andreoli
      First page: 16
      Abstract: n/a
      PubDate: 2017-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/c3020016
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 17: Catalyst Residue and Oxygen Species Inhibition of the
           Formation of Hexahapto-Metal Complexes of Group 6 Metals on Single-Walled
           Carbon Nanotubes

    • Authors: Kourtney Wright, Andrew Barron
      First page: 17
      Abstract: The reaction of Group 6 metals with SWCNT has the potential to bridge the resistive SWCNT…SWCNT junctions by the formation of “Cr(SWCNT)2” complexes analogous to Cr(C6H6)2. This study reports that the formation of such species is very sensitive to oxidation by a residual iron oxide catalyst used for the growth of the SWCNTs and adsorbed/bound oxygen functionality. The reaction of raw HiPco SWCNTs with M(CO)6 and (C7H8)M(CO)3 (M = Cr, W) or (C6H6)Cr(CO)3 results in the formation of the Group 6 metal oxides. Annealing and acid treating the HiPco SWCNTs to reduce the catalyst content allows for the observation of zero valent metals by XPS, while the use of very high purity SWCNTs and graphene allows for the addition of primarily zero valent Group 6 metals, including the bis-hexahapto metal complex.
      PubDate: 2017-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/c3020017
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 18: Activated Carbon, Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene:
           Materials and Composites for Advanced Water Purification

    • Authors: Martin Sweetman, Steve May, Nick Mebberson, Phillip Pendleton, Krasimir Vasilev, Sally Plush, John Hayball
      First page: 18
      Abstract: To ensure the availability of clean water for humans into the future, efficient and cost-effective water purification technology will be required. The rapidly decreasing quality of water and the growing global demand for this scarce resource has driven the pursuit of high-performance purification materials, particularly for application as point-of-use devices. This review will introduce the main types of natural and artificial contaminants that are present in water and the challenges associated with their effective removal. The efficiency and performance of recently developed materials for water purification, with a focus on activated carbon, carbon nanotubes and graphene will be discussed. The recent advances in water purification using these materials is reviewed and their applicability as point-of-use water purification systems discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/c3020018
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 19: Apparatus for Scalable Functionalization of
           Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes via the Billups-Birch Reduction

    • Authors: David Pham, Kevin Zhang, Olawale Lawal, Saunab Ghosh, Varun Gangoli, Thomas Ainscough, Bernie Kellogg, Robert Hauge, W. Adams, Andrew Barron
      First page: 19
      Abstract: A prototype design of a reactor for scalable functionalization of SWCNTs by the reaction of alkyl halides with Billups-Birch reduced SWCNTs is described. The Hauge apparatus is designed to allow for the safe handling of all the reagents and products under an inert atmosphere at controlled temperatures. The extent of reaction of Li/NH3 solution with the SWCNTs is measured in-situ by solution conduction, while homogenous mixing is ensured by the use of a homogenizer, and thermocouple are placed at different heights within the reactor flask. Addition of an alkyl halide yield alkyl-functionalized SWCNTs, which may be isolated by solvent extraction leaving a solid sample that is readily purified by hydrocarbon extraction. As an example, reaction of SWCNT/Li/NH3 with 1-iododecane yields dodecane-functionalized SWCNTs (C12-SWCNTs), which have been characterized by TG/DTA, XPS, and Raman spectroscopy. Sample extraction during the reaction allows for probing of the rate of the reaction in order to determine the end point of the reaction, which for C12-SWCNTs (at −78 °C) is 30 min.
      PubDate: 2017-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/c3020019
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 20: Graphene Encapsulated Silicon Carbide Nanocomposites
           for High and Low Power Energy Storage Applications

    • Authors: Emiliano Martínez-Periñán, Christopher Foster, Michael Down, Yan Zhang, Xiaobo Ji, Encarnación Lorenzo, Dmitrijs Kononovs, Anatoly Saprykin, Vladimir Yakovlev, Georgy Pozdnyakov, Craig Banks
      First page: 20
      Abstract: In this paper, a graphene decorated SiC nanomaterial (graphene@SiC) fabricated via a facile adiabatic process was physicochemically characterised, then applied as a supercapacitor material and as an anode within a Li-ion battery (LIB). The reported graphene@SiC nanomaterial demonstrated excellent supercapacitative behaviour with a relatively high power density and specific capacitance of 4800 W·kg−1 and 394 F·g−1, respectively. In terms of its capabilities as an anode within an LIB, the layered-graphene overwhelms the Li-intercalation, which is reflected in the obtained specific capacity of 150 mAh·g−1, with a columbic efficiency of ~99% (after 450 cycles) at a current of 100 mA·g−1.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/c3020020
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 1: Batteries: Recent Advances in Carbon Materials

    • Authors: I. Cheng
      First page: 1
      Abstract: We welcome readers to this Special Issue of C. From the standpoint of economics of energy storage, carbon electrodes offer the practicality of large-scale applications with the promise of improved performance.[...]
      PubDate: 2017-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/c3010001
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 2: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of C in 2016

    • Authors: C Editorial Office
      First page: 2
      Abstract: The editors of C would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...]
      PubDate: 2017-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/c3010002
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 3: Carbon Nanostructures for Tagging in Electrochemical
           Biosensing: A Review

    • Authors: Paloma Yáñez-Sedeño, Susana Campuzano, José Pingarrón
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Growing demand for developing ultrasensitive electrochemical bioassays has led to the design of numerous signal amplification strategies. In this context, carbon-based nanomaterials have been demonstrated to be excellent tags for greatly amplifying the transduction of recognition events and simplifying the protocols used in electrochemical biosensing. This relevant role is due to the carbon-nanomaterials’ large surface area, excellent biological compatibility and ease functionalization and, in some cases, intrinsic electrochemistry. These carbon-based nanomaterials involve well-known carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene as well as the more recent use of other carbon nanoforms. This paper briefly discusses the advantages of using carbon nanostructures and their hybrid nanocomposites for amplification through tagging in electrochemical biosensing platforms and provides an updated overview of some selected examples making use of labels involving carbon nanomaterials, acting both as carriers for signal elements and as electrochemical tracers, applied to the electrochemical biosensing of relevant (bio)markers.
      PubDate: 2017-01-16
      DOI: 10.3390/c3010003
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 4: Influence of Temperature on Vibrational Frequency of
           Graphene Sheet Used as Nano-Scale Sensing

    • Authors: Toshiaki Natsuki, Atsushi Yiwada, Jun Natsuki
      First page: 4
      Abstract: In this study, the vibrational properties of single- and double-layer graphene sheets (GSs) with attached nanoparticles are analyzed based on the nonlocal elasticity theory. The potential applications of atomic-scale mass sensing are presented using GSs with simply supported boundary condition. The frequency equation for GSs with an attached nanoparticle is derived to investigate the vibration frequency of the GSs under thermal environment. Using the proposed model, the relationship between the frequency shifts of graphene-based mass sensor and the attached nanoparticles is obtained. The nonlocal effect and the temperature dependence on the variation of frequency shifts with the attached nanomass and the positions on the GS are investigated and discussed in detail. The obtained results show that the nanomass can be easily detected by using GS resonator which provides a highly sensitive nanomechanical element in sensor systems. The vibrational frequency shift of GS increases with increasing the temperature dependence. The double-layer GSs (DLGSs) have higher sensitivity than the single-layer GSs (SLGSs) due to high frequency shifts.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/c3010004
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 5: Electrode Surface Composition of Dual-Intercalation,
           All-Graphite Batteries

    • Authors: Boris Dyatkin, Joseph Halim, Jeffrey Read
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Dual-intercalation batteries implement graphite electrodes as both cathodes and anodes and offer high specific energy, inexpensive and environmentally sustainable materials, and high operating voltages. Our research investigated the influence of surface composition on capacities and cycling efficiencies of chemically functionalized all-graphite battery electrodes. We subjected coreshell spherical particles and synthetic graphite flakes to high-temperature air oxidation, and hydrogenation to introduce, respectively, –OH, and –H surface functional groups. We identified noticeable influences of electrode surface chemistry on first-cycle efficiencies and charge storage densities of anion and cation intercalation into graphite electrodes. We matched oxidized cathodes and hydrogenated anodes in dual-ion batteries and improved their overall performance. Our approach provides novel fundamental insight into the anion intercalation process and suggests inexpensive and environmentally sustainable methods to improve performance of these grid-scale energy storage systems
      PubDate: 2017-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/c3010005
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 6: High-Bandwidth and Sensitive Air Flow Sensing Based on
           Resonance Properties of CNT-on-Fiber Hairs

    • Authors: Keith Slinker, Corey Kondash, Benjamin Dickinson, Jeffery Baur
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Artificial hair flow sensors were fabricated using piezoresistive, radially grown carbon nanotube arrays on glass fibers and investigated for their dynamic aerodynamic response as measured within an instrumented plane-wave tube. The sensors were experimentally observed to provide both a large bandwidth of operation below first resonance and a strong resonance response at selected frequencies above first resonance. The frequency of first resonance was easily tunable by adjusting the length of the exposed hair and could be made to vary from a few hundred hertz to over 13 kHz. Higher frequency bands were accessible for a given hair length using higher-order resonance modes, up to five of which were observed. All of the responses were understood and modeled using a vibrating Euler-Bernoulli beam analysis.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/c3010006
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 7: More Energy-Efficient CO2 Capture from IGCC GE Flue
           Gases

    • Authors: Rakpong Peampermpool, Chii Teh, Moses Tade, Abdul Qader, Ahmed Barifcani
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are one of the main reasons for the increase in greenhouse gasses in the earth’s atmosphere and carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is known as an effective method to reduce CO2 emissions on a larger scale, such as for fossil energy utilization systems. In this paper, the feasibility of capturing CO2 using cryogenic liquefaction and improving the capture rate by expansion will be discussed. The main aim was to design an energy-saving scheme for an IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle) power plant with CO2 cryogenic liquefaction capture. The experimental results provided by the authors, using the feed gas specification of a 740 MW IGCC General Electric (GE) combustion power plant, demonstrated that using an orifice for further expanding the vent gas after cryogenic capture from 57 bar to 24 bar gave an experimentally observed capture rate up to 65%. The energy-saving scheme can improve the overall CO2 capture rate, and hence save energy. The capture process has also been simulated using Aspen HYSYS simulation software to evaluate its energy penalty. The results show that a 92% overall capture rate can be achieved by using an orifice.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/c3010007
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 8: An Overview of Pesticide Monitoring at Environmental
           Samples Using Carbon Nanotubes-Based Electrochemical Sensors

    • Authors: Ademar Wong, Tiago Silva, Fábio Caetano, Márcio Bergamini, Luiz Marcolino-Junior, Orlando Fatibello-Filho, Bruno Janegtiz
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Carbon nanotubes have received enormous attention in the development of electrochemical sensors by promoting electron transfer reactions, decreasing the work overpotential within great surface areas. The growing concerns about environmental health emphasized the necessity of continuous monitoring of pollutants. Pesticides have been successfully used to control agricultural and public health pests; however, intense use can cause a number of damages for biodiversity and human health. In this sense, carbon nanotubes-based electrochemical sensors have been proposed for pesticide monitoring combining different electrode modification strategies and electroanalytical techniques. In this paper, we provide a review of the recent advances in the use of carbon nanotubes for the construction of electrochemical sensors dedicated to the environmental monitoring of pesticides. Future directions, perspectives, and challenges are also commented.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/c3010008
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • C, Vol. 3, Pages 9: Biosensors Based on Lipid Modified Graphene
           Microelectrodes

    • Authors: Georgia-Paraskevi Nikoleli, Christina Siontorou, Dimitrios Nikolelis, Spyridoula Bratakou, Stephanos Karapetis, Nikolaos Tzamtzis
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Graphene is one of the new materials which has shown a large impact on the electronic industry due to its versatile properties, such as high specific surface area, high electrical conductivity, chemical stability, and large spectrum of electrochemical properties. The graphene material-based electronic industry has provided flexible devices which are inexpensive, simple and low power-consuming sensor tools, therefore opening an outstanding new door in the field of portable electronic devices. All these attractive advantages of graphene give a platform for the development of a new generation of devices in both food and environmental applications. Lipid-based sensors have proven to be a good route to the construction of novel devices with improved characteristics, such as fast response times, increased sensitivity and selectivity, and the possibility of miniaturization for the construction of portable biosensors. Therefore, the incorporation of a lipid substrate on graphene electrodes has provided a route to the construction of a highly sensitive and selective class of biosensors with fast response times and portability of field applications for the rapid detection of toxicants in the environment and food products.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/c3010009
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
       
 
 
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