Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 1001 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (59 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (726 journals)
    - CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (23 journals)
    - ELECTROCHEMISTRY (28 journals)
    - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (45 journals)
    - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (49 journals)
    - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (71 journals)

CHEMISTRY (726 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
Accounts of Materials Research     Hybrid Journal  
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
ACS Applied Polymer Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ACS Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ACS Macro Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
ACS Materials Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 451)
ACS Photonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Acta Chemica Malaysia     Open Access  
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
Advanced Journal of Chemistry, Section A     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advanced Journal of Chemistry, Section B     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 108)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 50)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aggregate     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alchemy : Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alchemy : Jurnal Penelitian Kimia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alotrop     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Analytical Science Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 236)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 353)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio AA – Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access  
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 484)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Carbohydrate Polymer Technologies and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Carbohydrate Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Cell Reports Physical Science     Open Access  
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 88)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Chemical Physics Letters : X     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Chemical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 267)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Chemical Science International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry     Open Access  
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Chemistry & Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 225)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry Africa : A Journal of the Tunisian Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry Education Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 339)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistrySelect     Hybrid Journal  
Chemistry–Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
ChemNanoMat     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Chemosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemPhotoChem     Hybrid Journal  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chempublish Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemSystemsChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

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ChemTexts
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Online) 2199-3793
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2658 journals]
  • Making sense of gas measurements: quantification of multicomponent gas
           mixtures in biological and chemical laboratory experiments

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      Abstract: Textbooks in physical chemistry start from the treatise of the ideal gas. Gaseous compounds are important reactants and products of (bio)chemical reactions, and thus their absolute amounts are needed to establish mass balances. However, in contrast to solid, for dissolved and liquid compounds, their qualitative and especially quantitative analysis is less widely established in biological and chemical laboratories. This can be mainly ascribed to the seemingly simple chemical nature of gaseous compounds that is in contrast to the effort needed for their precise quantification. In this article, we will guide the reader through the considerations and steps needed to perform a meaningful analysis of multicomponent gas mixtures, which are reactants for or products of (bio)chemical reactions in aqueous solutions in the laboratory environment and scale. After a brief introduction, special focus is set on the methods for quantification and calculations needed to derive absolute amounts of gases in a mixture. The overall concept will be exemplified by biogas production as well as by an electroorganic reaction (Kolbe electrolysis of n-hexanoic acid), and general pitfalls will be highlighted.
      PubDate: 2021-09-28
       
  • The fascinating polyoxometalates

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      Abstract: After touching the history of polyoxometalate (POM) chemistry, the basics of isopolyoxometalates (IPOM) and heteropolyoxometalates (HPOM) are discussed. The main focus is placed on molybdenum- and tungsten-containing IPOM and HPOM. The HPOM are presented based on the coordination of the ‘hetero’atom: tetrahedral (Keggin and Wells–Dawson structures, including their lacunary and mixed anions, Preyssler-Pope-Jeannin polyanion), octahedral (Anderson-Evans structure), square-prismatic (Peacock-Weakley sandwiches) and icosahedral (Dexter-Silverton structure). Subsequently the specifics of polyoxocations (POC) are highlighted, examples of naturally occurring HPOM are given and the nomenclature of POM is discussed. In conclusion, selected applications are presented. Graphic abstract
      PubDate: 2021-09-22
       
  • A world beyond double-helical nucleic acids: the structural diversity of
           tetra-stranded G-quadruplexes

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      Abstract: Nucleic acids can adopt various secondary structures including double-, triple-, and tetra-stranded helices that differ by the specific hydrogen bond mediated pairing pattern between their nucleobase constituents. Whereas double-helical DNA relies on Watson–Crick base pairing to play a prominent role in storing genetic information, G-quadruplexes are tetra-stranded structures that are formed by the association of guanine bases from G-rich DNA and RNA sequences. During the last few decades, G-quadruplexes have attracted considerable interest after the realization that they form and exert regulatory functions in vivo. In addition, quadruplex architectures have also been recognized as versatile and powerful tools in a growing number of technological applications. To appreciate the astonishing structural diversity of these tetra-stranded structures and to give some insight into basic interactions that govern their folding, this article gives an overview of quadruplex structures and rules associated with the formation of different topologies. A brief discussion will also focus on nonconventional quadruplexes as well as on general principles when targeting quadruplexes with ligands. Graphic abstract
      PubDate: 2021-08-26
       
  • Flow-based methods and their applications in chemical analysis

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      Abstract: Flow-based methods have been recognized as excellent tools for the automation and miniaturization of the main stages of chemical analysis. Since its inception, flow-based analysis has dramatically transformed the way that sample analysis is handled. This article highlights some of the most important developments in flow analysis and describes different flow systems and their fundamental principles. Recent applications of flow analysis with various detection methods are also presented. Special attention is paid to the automation of sample pretreatment, including separation and preconcentration procedures based on various flow systems. Relative advantages and disadvantages of the various flow methods are discussed.
      PubDate: 2021-08-14
       
  • Dame Kathleen Lonsdale FRS (1903–1971): her contribution to
           crystallography

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      Abstract: Dame Kathleen Lonsdale (née Yardley) FRS (1903–1971) was not only one of the most prominent female scientists of the twentieth century but also a leading campaigner for peace, penal reform and the position of women in science. She started her career using X-ray crystallography, a technique which had been developed 10 years after her birth, following the discovery of X-rays in the late nineteenth century. Lonsdale married and had three children but managed to continue with her career, a feat rare at that time. Although born a Baptist, Lonsdale joined the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) and endured a prison sentence for her pacifist beliefs. During her later career, her scientific interests became more closely entwined with her religion and social concerns. This article provides a brief introduction to Lonsdale’s early years, followed by a more detailed overview of her career in X-ray crystallography. It then examines Lonsdale’s contribution to both crystal structure analysis and to the early development of crystallography.
      PubDate: 2021-08-05
       
  • Julius Robert Mayer and the principle of energy conservation

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      Abstract: Julius Robert von Mayer was among the first to state the principle of energy conservation. As a medical doctor, he was interested in the relationship between heat and work, being stimulated by observations and considerations regarding the physiology of the human body. In 1842, he published a first manuscript in which he reported the value of the mechanical equivalent of heat; then, in a paper in 1845, he elucidated the procedure followed for the calculation of the equivalent. The result achieved by Mayer, based only on theoretical calculations, was presented before the experimentally determined value obtained by Joule in 1847 and remains of capital interest in the history of thermodynamics.
      PubDate: 2021-07-05
       
  • The history of chemical laboratories: a thematic approach

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      Abstract: Chemical laboratories have existed since the late sixteenth century. Two basic designs have dominated this history: a furnace-centred laboratory based on earlier alchemical workshops up to around 1820 and then a design based on the use of the Bunsen burner with benches and bottle racks since the 1850s (the “classical” laboratory). New designs with a focus on health and safety began to appear at the end of the twentieth century. There has been an important interaction between the design of the laboratory and chemical practice, including how chemistry was taught. In particular, the introduction of running water and piped gas was crucial to the creation of the “classical” laboratory in the 1860s. One aspect of the classical laboratory which has disappeared is the chemical museum. This article considers university, industrial and school laboratories, and also the social organisation of the laboratory. Finally, the article considers the future of chemical laboratories and chemical practice.
      PubDate: 2021-06-22
       
  • Thermodynamic aspects of energy conversion systems with focus on osmotic
           membrane and selectively permeable membrane (Donnan) systems including two
           applications of the Donnan potential

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      Abstract: This article deals with the thermodynamics of energy conversion systems with a focus on osmotic membrane and selectively permeable membrane systems for beginners of research in membrane chemistry. Two applications of the concept of the reversible Donnan potential are presented: the irreversible steady-state membrane potential across a biological membrane and irreversible dialytic potential in the dialytic (mixing entropy) batteries. The osmotic pressure and Donnan (membrane) potential are developed as the diffusible species, water and ions of interest, pass through a selectively permeable membrane, followed by mixing with the non-permeating macromolecular ions present in another compartment to finally attain the osmotic equilibrium and the membrane equilibrium, respectively. The former osmotic equilibrium is characterized by the equality of the hydrostatic chemical potential of diffusible water, and the latter membrane equilibrium is characterized by the equality of the combined hydrostatic chemical potential and electrochemical potential of diffusible ions, respectively. The equilibrium Donnan potential is clearly distinguished from irreversible diffusion potential such as the steady-state membrane potential and dialytic potential. The Goldman–Hodgkin–Katz potential and Wagner–Schmalzried potential are briefly introduced and derived on the basis of an electrodiffusion model under the assumption of “the independence principle” for each ion and/or electron participating. Additionally it is justified from the Goldman–Hodgkin–Katz potential and Wagner–Schmalzried potential along with the Daniell potential that the Donnan (Nernst) potential is just the reversible potential across the ideal one single ion permeable membrane and the pure ion-conducting membrane in both directions. Future key issues about the role of the transference number of the ions of interest on a molecular basis in electrochemical kinetics of a variety of membranes should be clarified.
      PubDate: 2021-05-04
       
  • Intriguing minerals: corundum in the world of rubies and sapphires with
           special attention to Macedonian rubies

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      Abstract: This lecture text presents features of the fascinating mineral corundum and its gem varieties, ruby and sapphire. The geologic occurrences of its varieties and the best-known world localities are presented in detail. The mineralogy and crystallography of corundum, as well as its occurrence forms, are discussed. The origin of their colour varieties and their usage are described, in addition to their important physical characteristics. Applications in the watch and laser industries and as an abrasive material, among others, are included. The ruby variety from dolomite marble in North Macedonia exhibits the unique optical phenomenon known as diasporescence–the inclusion of diaspore crystals in the corundum matrix. This phenomenon affects the parting of corundum crystals and influences their colour, density and hardness. Therefore, special attention is paid here to morphological and physical characteristics of the Macedonian gem corundum.
      PubDate: 2021-04-28
       
  • Tetracycline antibiotics

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      Abstract: Tetracyclines belong to the first broad-spectrum, well-tolerated, and easy-to-administer antibiotics, which are effective against plague, cholera, typhoid, syphilis, Legionnaire’s disease, and anthrax. Some can also be used to treat malaria, Lyme disease, tuberculosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and leprosy. Humans first encountered these chemical species involuntarily in ancient times, as evidenced from the analysis of bone samples dating back more than 1500 years. Shortly after World War II, they were “rediscovered” at Lederle Laboratories and Pfizer as a result of an intense search for new antibiotics. Their bacteriostatic action is based on the inhibition of protein biosynthesis. Since the structure elucidation by Robert Woodward, Lloyd Hillyard Conover, and others in the 1950s, tetracyclines have become preferred targets for natural product synthesis. However, on industrial scale, they became readily available by fermentation and partial synthesis. Their casual and thoughtless use in the initial decades after launch not only in humans but for veterinary purposes and as growth-enhancement agents in meat production rapidly led to the emergence of resistance. In an arms race for new antibiotics, more and more new drugs have been developed to deal with the threat. In this ongoing endeavor, a remarkable milestone was set by Andrew Myers in 2005 with the convergent total synthesis of (−)-doxycycline, as well as numerous azatetracyclines and pentacyclines, which has inspired chemists in the pharmaceutical industry to discover novel and highly active tetracyclines in recent years. Graphic abstract
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
       
  • History of the beginnings of the plastics industry in Portugal

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      Abstract: This paper aims to present a history of plastics in Portugal. In the context of this paper, the ‘history of plastics’ means a historical approach to the evolution over time of a broad field of relationships involving plastics after their arrival in Portugal at the beginning of the twentieth century. This will include the technological and scientific developments involved in the production and adaptation of plastics in Portugal, the objects produced from plastic and the influence they had on social and cultural habits, the history of companies that started working with plastics from an early date, and the production and use of plastics. How and when did plastics, materials with such innovative features, appear in Portugal and what was their impact on society at the time, in the 1930s' How did the Portuguese plastics industry evolve from its origins and what was the path of the appropriation and adoption of techniques, and processes for plastics manufacture' These research questions will be analysed in this paper. In addition, the global historical narrative about the origins, evolution and impact of the plastics industry and their products will be briefly described.
      PubDate: 2021-04-23
       
  • Mechanochemistry of fluoride solids: from mechanical activation to
           mechanically stimulated synthesis

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      Abstract: This lecture text is focused on the comparatively young field of mechanochemistry of fluoride solids, considering both their mechanical activation and their mechanochemical synthesis. Beside a literature survey, the mechanochemical synthesis of binary fluorides MF2, MF3, of complex fluorides MMgF4, of solid solutions MaxMb1−xF2 or M1−xLnxF2+x (Ln: Y, Eu) and of fluorine-containing coordination polymers is presented. Owing to their interesting potential applications in the field of fluoride ion conductivity or luminescence properties when doped, most of the given examples are alkaline earth metal compounds. A short historical survey, remarks on peculiarities and consequences of mechanical activation as well as the necessary technical equipment for mechanochemical reactions precede the section. Graphic abstract
      PubDate: 2021-04-08
       
  • Eric Scerri: The Periodic Table: Its Story and Its Significance, New York:
           Oxford University Press, 2nd edn., 2020, (1st edn., 2007). [472 pp.,
           illus., index.]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      PubDate: 2021-04-07
       
  • The pancreatic beta cell: an intricate relation between anatomical
           structure, the signalling mechanism of glucose-induced insulin secretion,
           the low antioxidative defence, the high vulnerability and sensitivity to
           diabetic stress

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      Abstract: The biosynthesis of insulin takes place in the insulin-producing beta cells that are organized in the form of islets of Langerhans together with a few other islet cell types in the pancreas organ. The signal for glucose-induced insulin secretion is generated in two pathways in the mitochondrial metabolism of the pancreatic beta cells. These pathways are also known as the triggering pathway and the amplifying pathway. Glucokinase, the low-affinity glucose-phosphorylating enzyme in beta cell glycolysis acts as the signal-generating enzyme in this process. ATP ultimately generated is the crucial second messenger in this process. Insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells are badly protected against oxidative stress resulting in a particular vulnerability of this islet cell type due to low expression of H2O2-inactivating enzymes in various subcellular locations, specifically in the cytosol, mitochondria, peroxisomes and endoplasmic reticulum. This is in contrast to the glucagon-producing alpha cells and other islet cell types in the islets that are well equipped with these H2O2-inactivating enzymes. On the other hand the membranes of the pancreatic beta cells are well protected against lipid peroxidation and ferroptosis through high level expression of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) and this again is at variance from the situation in the non-beta cells of the islets with a low expression level of GPx4. The weak antioxidative defence equipment of the pancreatic beta cells, in particular in states of disease, is very dangerous because the resulting particular vulnerability endangers the functionality of the beta cells, making people prone to the development of a diabetic metabolic state.
      PubDate: 2021-03-31
       
  • Functional paper-based materials for diagnostics

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      Abstract: Functional papers are the subject of extensive research efforts and have already become an irreplaceable part of our modern society. Among other issues, they enable fast and inexpensive detection of a plethora of analytes and simplify laboratory work, for example in medical tests. This article focuses on the molecular and structural fundamentals of paper and the possibilities of functionalization, commercially available assays and their production, as well as on current and future challenges in research in this field. Graphic abstract
      PubDate: 2021-03-31
       
  • Selenium: widespread yet scarce, essential yet toxic

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      Abstract: Selenium (Se) is an essential element for humans and animals, with one of the narrowest ranges between deficiency (< 40 µg day−1) and toxicity (> 400 µg day−1). Se is very widespread in all environments (rocks, soils, waters, air, plant and animal tissue) but in very low concentrations. Thus, there are no ores from which Se can be effectively mined. This can create a potential problem in supplying Se for commercial uses or for battling Se deficiency which already affects more than one billion people and is predicted to rise in the future. Besides Se deficiency, there are many incidents where excess Se in water and soil caused deformities in animals and humans. Often high-Se areas are found near past coal mining and burning sites, which have never been remediated and still pose a potential threat to human health. This article aims to inform readers about the general chemical characteristics of Se, environmental cycling of Se, and past incidents of Se deficiency and toxicity. The article also touches on the removal of excess Se from waters and soils, as well as biofortification methods for preventing Se deficiency in humans and animals.
      PubDate: 2021-03-16
       
  • Numerical reduction of solution data

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      Abstract: The numerical techniques necessary to reduce volumetric and calorimetric solution data to models are dispersed in textbooks, but this work explains how to apply interpolation and curve fitting to solution data with volume and enthalpy examples. All the calculation codes and spreadsheets are available for download, making this work useful for physical chemistry students, researchers, and practitioners.
      PubDate: 2021-03-16
       
  • Low-pressure diamond: from the unbelievable to technical products

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      Abstract: The idea to grow diamond from the gas phase was born in the 1950s but it took about 30 years until first diamond layers directly grown from the gas phase on substrates were shown in Japan by Matsumoto and co-workers. During the first years of research the function of atomic hydrogen, various growth methods and process parameters were investigated. Research was primarily focused on applications for wear-resistant tools. For this topic the interactions of substrates like hardmetals and ceramics, with diamond deposition gas atmosphere, were investigated. Beside its superior hardness, diamond exhibits the highest heat conductivity, high transparency, high chemical inertness and suitable semiconducting properties. The various requirements for the areas of application of diamond required a division of diamond research into corresponding sub-areas. The hot-filament method is used mainly for wear applications, because it is highly suited to coat complex geometries, but the diamond contains some impurities. Another method is the microwave plasma system which allows the growth of pure diamond used for optical windows and applications requiring high thermal conductivity. Other research areas investigated include doped diamond for microelectronic or electrochemical applications (e.g. waste water treatment); ballas (polycrystalline, spherical diamond), NCD (nanocrystalline diamond) and UNCD (ultra-nanocrystalline diamond) for wear applications. It should be noted that CVD (chemical vapour deposition) diamond synthesis has reached the stage of industrial production and several companies are selling different diamond products. This work is intended to convey to the reader that CVD diamond is an industrially manufactured product that can be used in many ways. With correspondingly low costs for this diamond, new innovative applications appear possible.
      PubDate: 2021-03-16
       
  • Ion activity models: the Debye-Hückel equation and its extensions

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      Abstract: Thermodynamic properties of electrolyte solutions are relevant for the study of ion channel transport, control of scale formation in oil pipelines, design and optimization of industrial processes, and quality assessment of natural waters and soils, to name only a few examples. However, despite their clear relevance, the thermodynamic properties of electrolyte solutions are only briefly discussed in most of the physical chemistry textbooks. Moreover, a more detailed discussion about the ionic cloud theory and its implications for the development of ion activity models is frequently left for advanced books of chemical thermodynamics and electrochemistry. Given this scenario, in this article, the Debye-Hückel equation and its most common extensions are comprehensively discussed, as well as their limitations and ranges of applicability. To this end, the foundations of the ionic cloud theory are thoroughly discussed by emphasizing the close linkage between the ions distribution and the ion–ion interactions in solution. Hence, the aim of this work is twofold: discuss in a didactic way how the development of the ionic cloud theory culminated in the Debye-Hückel equation and introduce other relevant ion activity models to undergraduate and graduate students of chemistry and chemical engineering.
      PubDate: 2021-02-15
       
  • Correction to: The development of genome editing tools as powerful
           techniques with versatile applications in biotechnology and medicine:
           CRISPR/Cas9, ZnF- and TALE-nucleases, RNA interference and Cre/loxP

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      Abstract: We regret the incorrect designation of the site attacking the 3′-phosphotyrosine as 3′-hydroxyl group in the process following the formation of the Holliday junction intermediate to complete Cre/loxP mediated recombination of homologous DNA fragments.
      PubDate: 2021-02-12
       
 
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