Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 928 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (661 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 401 - 600 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of Molecular Liquids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Molecular Recognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Molecular Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology     Open Access  
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C: Photochemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Polymer & Composites     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92)
Journal of Polymers     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Progressive Research in Chemistry     Open Access  
Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Research and Education Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research Updates in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Rubber Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Saudi Chemical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Solid State Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Solution Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sulfur Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Supercritical Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Superhard Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Surface Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Surfactants and Detergents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Taibah University for Science     Open Access  
Journal of the American Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 326)
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of the Indian Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of The Indonesian Society of Integrated Chemistry     Open Access  
Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of the Mexican Chemical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society     Open Access  
Journal of the Turkish Chemical Society, Section A : Chemistry     Open Access  
Journal of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Jurnal Inovasi Pendidikan Kimia     Open Access  
Jurnal Kimia (Journal of Chemistry)     Open Access  
Jurnal Kimia Riset     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Kimia     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sains (JPS)     Open Access  
Karbala International Journal of Modern Science     Open Access  
Kinetics and Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Konfigurasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Kimia dan Terapan     Open Access  
Korea-Australia Rheology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Langmuir     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Lebensmittelchemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Lipid Insights     Open Access  
Luminescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Macromolecular Materials & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Macromolecular Rapid Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Macromolecular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Macromolecular Symposia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Macromolecular Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Macromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Magnetochemistry     Open Access  
Marine Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Marine Drugs     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
MATEC Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Materials Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Materials and Devices     Open Access  
Materials Characterization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Materials Chemistry Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Materials Horizons     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Materials Research Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Materials Science-Poland     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Materials Sciences and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Medicinal Chemistry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Mediterranean Journal of Chemistry     Open Access  
Metallography, Microstructure, and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Micro and Nano Systems Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Microchimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Microporous and Mesoporous Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Modern Chemistry & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modern Research in Catalysis     Open Access  
Molbank     Open Access  
Molecular Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Molecules     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Molecules and Cells     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Monatshefte für Chemie - Chemical Monthly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mongolian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access  
Moscow University Chemistry Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
MRS Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Nachrichten aus der Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nano Convergence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nano Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nano Reviews & Experiments     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Nano Select     Open Access  
Nanochemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nanoscale     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Nanoscale Advances     Open Access  
Nanoscale Horizons     Hybrid Journal  
Nanoscale Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Natural Product Communications     Open Access  
Natural Product Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Natural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils     Open Access  
Nature Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 96)
Nature Protocols     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 73)
Nature Reviews Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
New Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Nitric Oxide     Hybrid Journal  
Nitrogen     Open Access  
Nukleonika     Open Access  
Open Chemistry Journal     Open Access  
Open Conference Proceedings Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Chemistry     Open Access  
Open Journal of Composite Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Open Journal of Inorganic Non-metallic Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Polymer Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Open Journal of Synthesis Theory and Applications     Open Access  
Open Medicinal Chemistry Journal     Open Access  
Orbital - The Electronic Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Organometallics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Oxidation of Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Passer Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Peptide Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmaceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Phosphorus, Sulfur, and Silicon and the Related Elements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Photochemistry and Photobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Physical Science International Journal     Open Access  
Physics and Materials Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Phytochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Phytochemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Plasma     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Polyhedron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Polymer Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Polymer crystallization     Hybrid Journal  
Polymer Degradation and Stability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Polymer Engineering & Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Polymer Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Polymer Science Series D     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Polymer Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 198)
Polymer-Plastics Technology and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Polymers     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Polymers from Renewable Resources     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the Combustion Institute     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Processes     Open Access  
Progress in Lipid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Progress in Organic Coatings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Progress in Polymer Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Progress in Reaction Kinetics and Mechanism     Open Access  
Progress in Solid State Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Progress in Surface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Protein Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Radiochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Reaction Chemistry & Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Reactions     Open Access  
Reportes Científicos de la FaCEN     Open Access  
Research Journal of Phytochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Resources Chemicals and Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Results in Chemistry     Open Access  
Results in Geochemistry     Open Access  
Results in Surfaces and Interfaces     Open Access  
Review Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Revista Boliviana de Química     Open Access  
Revista CENIC. Ciencias Quimicas     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Química     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Química     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencias     Open Access  
Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales     Open Access  
Revista de la Sociedad Química del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de la Societat Catalana de Química     Open Access  
Revista de Química     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Revista Debates em Ensino de Química     Open Access  
Revista ION     Open Access  
RSC Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
RSC Chemical Biology     Open Access  
RSC Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Russian Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Russian Journal of Coordination Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Russian Journal of General Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Russian Journal of Inorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Sainstek : Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi     Open Access  
Science China Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Science Talks     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Sciences & Technologie A : sciences exactes     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Frontier Chemical Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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ISSN (Online) 2227-9717
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1230: A CFD Investigation on the Aerosol Drug
           Delivery in the Mouth–Throat Airway Using a Pressurized Metered-Dose
           Inhaler Device

    • Authors: Farnia Dastoorian, Leila Pakzad, Janusz Kozinski, Ehsan Behzadfar
      First page: 1230
      Abstract: Inhalation therapy involving a pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) is one of the most commonly used and effective treatment methods for patients with asthma. The purpose of this study was to develop a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to characterize aerosol flow issued from a pMDI into a simulated mouth–throat geometry. The effects of air flow rate and cone angle were analyzed in detail. The behaviour of the multiphase flow initiated at the inhaler actuation nozzle and extended through the mouth–throat airway was simulated based on the Eulerian-Lagrangian discrete phase model, with the k-ω model applied for turbulency. We validated our model against published experimental measurements and cover the hydrodynamic aspect of the study. The recirculation we observed at the 90° bend inside the mouth–throat airway resulted in the selective retention of larger diameter particles, and the fluid flow patterns were correlated with drug deposition behaviour. Enhancing air flow rates up to three times reduced the aerodynamic particle diameters to 20%. We also observed that, as cone angle increased, mouth deposition increased; an 8° cone angle was the best angle for the lowest mouth–throat deposition.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071230
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1231: Influence of Brown’s Gas on Cracking
           Behavior of Gas-Phase Tar during Pine Wood Pyrolysis

    • Authors: Shuo Yang, Yudong Fu, Jie Cui, Zhanzhi Liu, Daocheng Qin, Lin Xu, Youning Xu
      First page: 1231
      Abstract: The effect of Brown’s gas on the gas-phase tar cracking behavior, carbonic oxide (CO) production rate, and gaseous product temperature during the pine wood pyrolysis was preliminarily explored. By the application of cold trapping and gravimetric methods, it was found that Brown’s gas reduces the energy barrier of thermochemical conversion for gas-phase tar, widens the temperature range of gas-phase tar accelerated cracking, and increases the cracking rate. When the pyrolysis temperature increases by 1 °C, the average cracking rate of gas-phase tar increases from C = 4.58 g⋅Nm−3 (flow volume ratio of Brown’s gas to nitrogen, X(Brown’s gas):N2 = 0%) to C = 4.8 g⋅Nm−3 (X:N2 = 1%) and C = 5.02 g⋅Nm−3 (X:N2 = 5%). While participating in the deep cracking of gas-phase tar, Brown’s gas reduces the conversion energy barrier of the gas-phase tar to CO. The CO production rate rises from the initial 1.87% (X:N2 = 0%) to 4.22% (X:N2 = 1%) and 5.52% (X:N2 = 5%) per 1 °C of increased pyrolysis temperature. The consumption of Brown’s gas is 0.32 m3 per 1 g⋅Nm−3 of gas-phase tar cracking within the pyrolysis residence time of 30 min.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071231
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1232: A Digital Process for Manufacturing
           Customized Trays for Dental-Whitening Treatments

    • Authors: Francesco Tamburrino, Beatrice Aruanno, Armando V. Razionale, Sandro Barone, Marco Martini, Monica Bordegoni
      First page: 1232
      Abstract: This study presents an alternative process for designing and manufacturing customized trays for dental-whitening treatments. The process is based on a digitized approach consisting of three main stages: design of a reference model, its manufacturing by AM, and thermoforming of the tray. The aim of the study was to develop a high-performance tray, able to guarantee comfort, safety, and efficacy for whitening treatments. To evaluate the patient’s experience, some tests under real operating conditions were performed. Twenty people carried out a nighttime treatment of 14 days. Each patient was asked to assess the overall level of satisfaction and the comfort of the tray and its ability to retain the gel. Tooth whitening was also determined according to the VITAPAN scale. All patients involved in the study were satisfied and provided positive feedback about comfort and tightness of the tray. At the end of the treatment, 15 out of 20 patients achieved shade A1 on the VITAPAN scale. The mean improvement in color shades was about 7. These results confirmed the great potential of the proposed dental tray. Its use was proven to guarantee a high level of quality, flexibility, and customization of dental-whitening treatments, improving comfort, safety, and efficacy.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071232
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1233: Evolutionary Game Analysis of Shared
           Manufacturing Quality Innovation Synergetic Behavior Considering a
           Subject’s Heterogeneous Emotions

    • Authors: Ziming Zhang, Xinping Wang, Chang Su, Linhui Sun
      First page: 1233
      Abstract: Shared manufacturing provides a new path for the transformation and development of the manufacturing industry, but challenges such as low quality and poor positivity for quality improvement limit the positive role of shared manufacturing. Considering the influences of heterogeneous emotions of subjects on quality decision making, the theory of rank-dependent expected utility (RDEU) and evolutionary game theory were integrated to establish an evolutionary game model of shared manufacturing quality innovation synergy with multi-agent participation and analyze how sentiment affects motivation for quality improvement. The study showed that: (1) emotions, an irrational factor, can significantly change the stable state of the evolution of the shared manufacturing quality innovation synergetic system by influencing the decision-making behavior of decision makers; (2) in terms of the specific microscopic influence mechanism, rationality is the key to ensuring that the behavioral decisions of decision makers do not enshrine large systemic deviations. (3) In terms of the mechanism of heterogeneous emotions, when one party is optimistic, the deepening of the other party’s pessimism tends to bring positive effects; when one party is pessimistic, the deepening of the other party’s optimism tends to bring negative effects. The main management insights are as follows: (1) correctly recognizing and treating heterogeneous emotions of decision makers and regulating the formation and role of heterogeneous emotions of decision makers; (2) appropriately creating an atmosphere of pessimistic emotions, and guiding shared manufacturing to pay attention to manufacturing quality innovation synergy; (3) appropriately releasing favorable information about quality innovation synergy, and continuously promoting high-quality development of shared manufacturing. This study broadens the path of quality improvement in shared manufacturing and the scope of application of emotion theory in a certain sense.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071233
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1234: Extraction of Mathematical Correlations
           Applied in the Aerodynamic Separation of Solid Particles

    • Authors: Emilian Mosnegutu, Mirela Panainte-Lehadus, Valentin Nedeff, Claudia Tomozei, Narcis Barsan, Dana Chitimus, Marcin Jasinski
      First page: 1234
      Abstract: This article describes the methodology used to identify the mathematical equation that describes the correlations between the input and output parameters of an experiment. As a technological process, aerodynamic separation was chosen to represent the behavior of a solid particle within an ascending vertical airflow. The experimental data were used to identify two parameters, namely the average linear velocity and the angular velocity. The Table Curve 3D program was used to develop a mathematical equation describing the dependence between the input parameters (the shape and size of the solid particle, as well as the velocity of the airflow) and the monitored parameters. A pyramid-type analysis (following a filtering system, a general equation was determined from a large number of equations that characterize an experimental set mathematically) was designed in order to determine a single mathematical equation that describes the correlation between the input variables and those obtained as accurately as possible. The determination of the mathematical equation started with the number of equations generated by the Table Curve 3D program; then, the equations with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.85 were chosen; and finally, the common equations were identified. Respecting the working methodology, one equation was identified, which has for the average linear velocity, a correlation coefficient r2 of between 0.88–0.99 and 0.86–0.99 for the angular velocity.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071234
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1235: Adsorbents Used for Microcystin Removal
           from Water Sources: Current Knowledge and Future Prospects

    • Authors: Widad El Bouaidi, Ghizlane Enaime, Mohammed Loudiki, Abdelrani Yaacoubi, Mountasser Douma, Abdelaziz Ounas, Manfred Lübken
      First page: 1235
      Abstract: The increasing occurrence of toxic cyanobacteria in water sources, driven by climate change and eutrophication, is of great concern worldwide today. Cyanobacterial blooms can negatively affect water bodies and generate harmful secondary metabolites, namely microcystins (MCs), which significantly impair water quality. Various adsorbents used for MC removal from water sources were assessed in this investigation. Activated carbon constitutes the most widely used adsorbent for treating contaminated waters due to its high affinity for adsorbing MCs. Alternative adsorbents have also been proposed and reported to provide higher efficiency, but the studies carried out so far in this regard are still insufficient. The mechanisms implicated in MC adsorption upon different adsorbents should be further detailed for a better optimization of the adsorption process. Certainly, adsorbent characteristics, water pH and temperature are the main factors influencing the adsorption of MCs. In this context, optimization studies must be performed considering the effectiveness, economic aspects associated with each adsorbent. This review provides guidelines for more practical field applications of the adsorption in the treatment of waters actually contaminated with MCs.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071235
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1236: Data Driven Model Estimation for Aerial
           Vehicles: A Perspective Analysis

    • Authors: Syeda Kounpal Fatima, Manzar Abbas, Imran Mir, Faiza Gul, Suleman Mir, Nasir Saeed, Abdullah Alhumaidi Alotaibi, Turke Althobaiti, Laith Abualigah
      First page: 1236
      Abstract: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are important tool for various applications, including enhancing target detection accuracy in various surface-to-air and air-to-air missions. To ensure mission success of these UAVs, a robust control system is needed, which further requires well-characterized dynamic system model. This paper aims to present a consolidated framework for the estimation of an experimental UAV utilizing flight data. An elaborate estimation mechanism is proposed utilizing various model structures, such as Autoregressive Exogenous (ARX), Autoregressive Moving Average exogenous (ARMAX), Box Jenkin’s (BJ), Output Error (OE), and state-space and non-linear Autoregressive Exogenous. A perspective analysis and comparison are made to identify the salient aspects of each model structure. Model configuration with best characteristics is then identified based upon model quality parameters such as residual analysis, final prediction error, and fit percentages. Extensive validation to evaluate the performance of the developed model is then performed utilizing the flight dynamics data collected. Results indicate the model’s viability as the model can accurately predict the system performance at a wide range of operating conditions. Through this, to the best of our knowledge, we present for the first time a model prediction analysis, which utilizes comprehensive flight dynamics data instead of simulation work.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071236
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1237: Real-Time Diagnosis and Fault-Tolerant
           Control of a Sensor Single Fault Based on a Data-Driven
           Feedforward-Feedback Control System

    • Authors: Wenbo Na, Qi Zan, Yanfeng Gao, Siyu Guo, Zheng Wang
      First page: 1237
      Abstract: Fault diagnosis is studied based on the system type, which facilitates the realization of the engineering configuration and improves the diagnosis efficiency. The fault-tolerant control method is unified based on the concept of fault compensation. According to the dynamic characteristics of the system, the method takes the boundary value of no-fault signal fluctuation as the basis for fault detection, then takes the changing intensity of the solenoid valve control signal after the fault occurs as the fault location basis. Finally, it takes the difference or ratio of the signals before and after the fault occurs as the fault estimation. For the basis of fault separation, the integral value of the fitting equation between the fault signal and time is used as the Eigenvalue of fault type separation to comprehend fault separation. A program is written in C++ and combined with MATLAB/S-Fun function to realize fault tolerance. At the same time, the dynamic model calibration and real-time fault diagnosis, and fault-tolerant control process of sensor fault diagnosis are provided, which makes it suitable for general engineering feedforward-feedback systems and has a certain suppression effect on noise. The simulation results verify that the method is not only viable and it is exact.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071237
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1238: Combined Grey Wolf Optimizer Algorithm and
           Corrected Gaussian Diffusion Model in Source Term Estimation

    • Authors: Yizhe Liu, Yu Jiang, Xin Zhang, Yong Pan, Yingquan Qi
      First page: 1238
      Abstract: It is extremely critical for an emergency response to quickly and accurately use source term estimation (STE) in the event of hazardous gas leakage. To determine the appropriate algorithm, four swarm intelligence optimization (SIO) algorithms including Gray Wolf optimizer (GWO), particle swarm optimization (PSO), genetic algorithm (GA) and ant colony optimization (ACO) are selected to be applied in STE. After calculation, all four algorithms can obtain leak source parameters. Among them, GWO and GA have similar computational efficiency, while ACO is computationally inefficient. Compared with GWO, GA and PSO, ACO requires larger population and more iterations to ensure accuracy of source parameters. Most notably, the convergence factor of GWO is self-adaptive, which is in favor of obtaining accurate results with lower population and iterations. On this basis, combination of GWO and a modified Gaussian diffusion model with surface correction factor is used to estimate the emission source term in this work. The calculation results demonstrate that the corrected Gaussian plume model can improve the accuracy of STE, which is promising for application in emergency warning and safety monitoring.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071238
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1239: Neutronic Study on Ac-225 Production for
           Cancer Therapy by (n,2n) Reaction of Ra-226 or Th-230 Using Fast Reactor

    • Authors: Daiki Iwahashi, Kota Kawamoto, Yuto Sasaki, Naoyuki Takaki
      First page: 1239
      Abstract: Ac-225 has lately drawn considerable attention as a radioisotope for targeted alpha therapy treatment for certain types of prostate, blood-derived, and disseminated cancers, but its supply is limited. Therefore, we investigated the production method of Ac-225 by nuclear transmutation in a fast neutron reactor. The authors investigated irradiation of Ra-226 or Th-230 as a target nuclide in the experimental fast reactor Joyo, owned and operated by Japan Atomic Energy Agency, which has abundant fast neutrons and a large loading region with high heat removal capacity. Ra-226 is in increasing demand as a target nuclide to produce Ac-225. Therefore, as another option, we selected Th-230, which is 50 times more abundant than Ra-226 in natural uranium, as an alternative nuclide. Irradiation of Ra-226 and Th-230 with high energy neutrons above the threshold causes an (n,2n) reaction, producing Ra-225 and Th-229, respectively, which are the parent nuclides of Ac-225. The analyses showed that 47 GBq of Ac-225 can be generated annually by irradiating 1 g of Ra-226, and 6.5 GBq of Ac-225 can be semi-permanently generated every year by one-time irradiation of 50 g of Th-230 for 10 years (5 EFPY). It can be concluded that 100 MWt Joyo has potential to produce more than 70% of the current global supply of Ac-225 and/or to generate the parent nuclide Th-229, which keeps producing Ac-225 for thousands of years.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071239
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1240: Parallel Reaction Monitoring Mode for
           Atenolol Quantification in Dried Plasma Spots by Liquid Chromatography
           Coupled with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    • Authors: Liliya V. Aksenova, Vladimir V. Koval, Alexander A. Chernonosov
      First page: 1240
      Abstract: In this study, we reported a rapid, sensitive, robust, and validated method for atenolol quantification in dried plasma spots (DPS) by liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) using parallel reaction monitoring mode (PRM). Aliquots of 25 µL human plasma were placed onto Whatman 903 Cards and air-dried. Disks (3.2 mm internal diameter) were punched, and a 100 µL working internal standard solution was added to each sample and then incubated on a shaker for 15 min at 40 °C, followed by rapid centrifugation (10,000× g, 10 s). The supernatant was transferred into 300 µL vials for subsequent LC–HRMS analysis. After chromatographic separation, atenolol and the internal standard were quantified in positive-ion parallel reaction monitoring mode by detection of all target product ions at 10 ppm tolerances. The total time of the analysis was 5 min. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 5–1000 ng/mL with interday and intraday precision levels and biases of <14.4%, and recovery was 62.9–81.0%. The atenolol in DPS was stable for ≥30 days at 25 and 4 °C. This fully validated method is selective and suitable for atenolol quantitation in DPS using LC–HRMS.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071240
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1241: Skin-Beautifying Effects of Magnolol and
           Honokiol Glycosides

    • Authors: Akiyoshi Sawabe, Ayato Tanaka, Masato Nomura, Ryuji Takeda
      First page: 1241
      Abstract: Glycosides have been synthesized using the starting materials magnolol (1) and honokiol (4), isolated from the Japanese white-bark magnolia, and their anti-aging effects on the skin (skin-beautifying effects) have been examined. The advanced glycation end-product (AGE) inhibitory activity test (anti-glycation test) and glycation induction model test, using human-derived dermal fibroblasts, TIG-110 cells, have been conducted to evaluate the anti-aging effects. The synthesized glycoside compounds, 5,5′-di(prop-2-en-1-yl)[1,1′-biphenyl]-2-hydroxy-2′-glucopyranoside (3a), 5,5′-di(prop-2-en-1-yl)[1,1′-biphenyl]-2,2′-diglucopyranoside (3b), 3′,5-di(prop-2-en-1-yl)[1,1′-biphenyl]-4′-hydroxy-2-glucopyranoside (6a) and 3′,5-di(prop-2-en-1-yl)[1,1′-biphenyl]-2,4′-diglucopyranoside (6b), have shown significant anti-glycation activities of less than 0.10 mM in IC50. The glycation induction model test with the fibroblasts, TIG-110 cells, demonstrates that the aforementioned glycosides significantly inhibit the decrease in cell viability. These newly synthesized glycoside compounds are expected to be used as cosmetic ingredients, health foods, and pharmaceutical ingredients, which have inhibitory effects against AGE formation.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071241
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1242: Intensification Insights from Chemical
           Looping Combustion Using Coal–Biomass Mixtures with Fe-Based Oxygen

    • Authors: Mayur D. Kevat, Tamal Banerjee
      First page: 1242
      Abstract: Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a modern technology that enables the mitigation of the CO2 concentration without any expense of energy. Experimental evidence shows that combustion of coal/biomass in CLC technology leads to negative carbon emission by replacing the portion of coal with biomass. In the present work, CLC was simulated using a mixture of coal/biomass in CLC; using their different proportions resulted in enhanced CO and CO2 fractions in the fuel reactor. The carbon capture and oxide oxygen fraction were also found to increase with the enhancement of the fuel reactor’s temperature with different proportions of coal/biomass. Increases in the carbon capture efficiency and oxide oxygen fraction of up to 98.86% and ~98%, respectively, were observed within the experimental temperature range. The simulated results of various parameters were predicted and validated with the published experimental results. The stated parameters were also predicted as a function of the different rates of solid circulation and gasification agents. Higher coal char conversion was confirmed in the fuel reactor with the presence of higher biomass concentrations.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071242
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1243: Performance Improvement of H8
           Transformerless Grid-Tied Inverter Using Model Predictive Control
           Considering a Weak Grid

    • Authors: Sherif A. Zaid, Hani Albalawi, Hossam AbdelMeguid, Tareq A. Alhmiedat, Abualkasim Bakeer
      First page: 1243
      Abstract: There is increasing utilization of photovoltaic (PV) grid-connected systems in modern power networks. Currently, PV grid-connected systems utilize transformerless inverters that have the advantages of being low cost, low weight, a small size, and highly efficient. Unfortunately, these inverters have an earth leakage current problem due to the absence of galvanic isolation. This phenomenon represents safety and electrical problems for those systems. Recently, the H8 transformerless inverter was introduced to eliminate the earth leakage current. The present study proposes improving the performance of an H8 transformerless inverter using model predictive control (MPC). The inverter was supplied by PV energy and attached to the grid through an LCL filter. During system modeling, the grid weakness was identified. The discrete model of the overall system, including the PV panel, the boost converter, the H8 transformerless inverter, and the controllers, was derived. Then, the introduced H8 transformerless inverter system was simulated and analyzed by the Matlab/Simulink program. The proposed system response using MPC was tested under step disturbances in the PV insolation level. Moreover, the effect of the weak and strong grid operations was considered. The simulation results indicate that the MPC controller has better performance and high-quality injected power. Despite the excellent performance of the strong grid, the nearly weak grid performance is acceptable. Moreover, the Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) of the proposed system was implemented using the DSP target LaunchPadXLTMS320F28379D kit to validate the simulation results. Finally, the system performance under the parameter variations showed good robustness.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071243
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1244: Tracking Control of a Hyperchaotic Complex
           System and Its Fractional-Order Generalization

    • Authors: Feng Liang, Lu Lu, Zhengfeng Li, Fangfang Zhang, Shuaihu Zhang
      First page: 1244
      Abstract: Hyperchaotic complex behaviors often occur in nature. Some chaotic behaviors are harmful, while others are beneficial. As for harmful behaviors, we hope to transform them into expected behaviors. For beneficial behaviors, we want to enhance their chaotic characteristics. Aiming at the harmful hyperchaotic complex system, a tracking controller was designed to produce the hyperchaotic complex system track common expectation system. We selected sine function, constant, and complex Lorenz chaotic system as target systems and verified the effectiveness by mathematical proof and simulation experiments. Aiming at the beneficial hyperchaotic complex phenomenon, this paper extended the hyperchaotic complex system to the fractional order because the fractional order has more complex dynamic characteristics. The influences order change and parameter change on the evolution process of the system were analyzed and observed by MATLAB simulation.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071244
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1245: Oxidative and Microbial Stability of a
           Traditional Appetizer: Aubergine Salad

    • Authors: Eleni Bozinou, Theodoros Chatzimitakos, Maria Alexandraki, Chrysanthi Salakidou, Vassilis G. Dourtoglou, Stavros I. Lalas, Abeer Elhakem, Rokayya Sami, Amal Adnan Ashour, Alaa Shafie, Vassilis Athanasiadis
      First page: 1245
      Abstract: An eggplant-based salad, called aubergine salad (AS), is a traditional appetizer and as such, is quite popular in the Mediterranean area. It is widely produced either on a home scale or on an industrial scale and widely consumed. However, there are cases where preservatives (such as sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate) are added in order to extend the shelf life of the product. In the present study, the stability of this delicatessen against oxidation and microbial spoilage was evaluated, with or without preservatives. The physicochemical properties of the salad were evaluated, along with the tocopherol content, resistance to oxidation, and microbial count. According to the results, it is evident that the induction period of AS is 16% (in the case that preservatives were used) and 26% (in the case without preservatives) increased, compared to a control sample (plain soybean oil). This can be attributed to the increased content in tocopherols, and more specifically to α-tocopherol. Furthermore, the addition of preservatives resulted in increased storage days and a reduction of microorganisms. However, in both cases, the AS-prepared salad exhibited a self-stabilization ability after 13 days, negating the need for preservatives.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071245
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1246: Study on Characteristics and Control
           Strategy of Diesel Particulate Filters Based on Engine Bench

    • Authors: Hao Sun, Yingshuai Liu, Ning Li, Jianwei Tan
      First page: 1246
      Abstract: The ignition temperature of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and the internal temperature-field distribution of the diesel particulate filter (DPF) during active regeneration are investigated during an engine bench test in this study. Based on the dropped to idle (DTI) test, a test method is developed to determine the safe regeneration temperature of the DPF. The results show that when the inlet temperature of the DOC is more than 240 °C, the DOC begins ignition and reaches the target temperature of 600 °C set for active regeneration of DPF; when the inlet exhaust temperature of the DOC is between 240 and 280 °C, a higher injection rate is required to reduce the secondary pollution of HC and thus make the DPF reach the set target temperature as soon as possible. The active regeneration process of the DPF is divided into three stages. During ignition, the temperature of the DPF inlet and outlet increases rapidly and successively. The internal and outlet temperatures of DPF during regeneration are approximately 50 °C higher than the inlet temperature. At the end of regeneration, the DPF inlet to outlet temperature drops rapidly. A feed-forward design and feedback algorithm are used to verify the change in the target regeneration temperature. The overshoot of the DPF control strategy was less than 3%, and the steady-state temperature control error was less than 20 °C. The results of this study provide a basis for the safe control of DPFs’ active regeneration temperatures.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071246
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1247: Efficient Discrete Element Modeling of
           Particle Dampers

    • Authors: Fabio Biondani, Marco Morandini, Gian Luca Ghiringhelli, Mauro Terraneo, Potito Cordisco
      First page: 1247
      Abstract: Particle dampers’ dissipative characteristics can be difficult to predict because of their highly non-linear behavior. The application of such devices in deformable vibrating systems can require extensive experimental and numerical analyses; therefore, improving the efficiency when simulating particle dampers would help in this regard. Two techniques often proposed to speed up the simulation, namely the adoption of a simplified frictional moment and the reduction of the contact stiffness, are considered; their effect on the simulation run-time, on the ability of the particle bed to sustain shear deformation, and on the prediction of the dissipation performance is investigated for different numerical case studies. The reduction in contact stiffness is studied in relation to the maximum overlap between particles, as well as the contacts’ duration. These numerical simulations are carried out over a wide range of motion regimes, frequencies, and amplitude levels. Experimental results are considered as well. All the simulations are performed using a GPU-based discrete element simulation tool coupled with the multi-body code MBDyn; the results and execution time are compared with those of other solvers.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071247
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1248: Pasteurellosis Vaccine Commercialization:
           Physiochemical Factors for Optimum Production

    • Authors: Siti Nur Hazwani Oslan, Joo Shun Tan, Abdul Hafidz Yusoff, Ahmad Ziad Sulaiman, Mohd Azrie Awang, Azwan Mat Lazim, Si Jie Lim, Siti Nurbaya Oslan, Mohd Zamri Saad, Arbakariya B. Ariff
      First page: 1248
      Abstract: Pasteurella spp. are Gram-negative facultative bacteria that cause severe economic and animal losses. Pasteurella-based vaccines are the most promising solution for controlling Pasteurella spp. outbreaks. Remarkably, insufficient biomass cultivation (low cell viability and productivity) and lack of knowledge about the cultivation process have impacted the bulk production of animal vaccines. Bioprocess optimization in the shake flask and bioreactor is required to improve process efficiency while lowering production costs. However, its state of the art is limited in providing insights on its biomass upscaling, preventing a cost-effective vaccine with mass-produced bacteria from being developed. In general, in the optimum cultivation of Pasteurella spp., production factors such as pH (6.0–8.2), agitation speed (90–500 rpm), and temperature (35–40 °C) are used to improve production yield. Hence, this review discusses the production strategy of Pasteurella and Mannheimia species that can potentially be used in the vaccines for controlling pasteurellosis. The physicochemical factors related to operational parameter process conditions from a bioprocess engineering perspective that maximize yields with minimized production cost are also covered, with the expectation of facilitating the commercialization process.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071248
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1249: Codonopsis laceolata Water Extract
           Ameliorates Asthma Severity by Inducing Th2 Cells’ and Pulmonary
           Epithelial Cells’ Apoptosis via NF-κB/COX-2 Pathway

    • Authors: So-Hyeon Bok, Kang Min Han, Hee-Ock Boo, Seung-Sik Cho, Dae-Hun Park
      First page: 1249
      Abstract: Asthma is an incurable pulmonary disease with several symptoms, including abnormal breathing, coughing, and sleep apnea, which can lead to death, and the population of asthma patients has been increasing worldwide. There are many adverse effects in current drugs, and thus, we have tried to develop anti-asthmatic agents from natural products such as Codonopsis laceolata. To define the anti-asthmatic effect and the mechanism of Codonopsis laceolata, an animal study was conducted considering different cell counts of BALF, serum IgE levels, morphological changes in the pulmonary system, the Th2 cell transcription factor (GATA-3), and the apoptotic pathway (NF-κB/COX-2). Codonopsis laceolata significantly suppressed the representative asthmatic changes, such as airway remodeling, mucous hypersecretion, epithelial hyperplasia, and inflammatory cell infiltration, in the respiratory system. It suppressed the levels of GATA-3, IL-4, and IL-13. The down-regulation of Th2-related factors, such as GATA-3, IL-4, and IL-13, results from the stimulated apoptosis of Th2 cells and epithelial cells via a decrease in the levels of NF-κB and COX-2. We concluded that Codonopsis laceolata might be a promising anti-asthmatic drug.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071249
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1250: Airflow Distributions in a Z Type
           Centripetal Radial Flow Reactor: Effects of Opening Strategy and Opening

    • Authors: Yuchen Xing, Chuanzhao Zhang, Haoyu Wang, Ziyi Li, Yingshu Liu
      First page: 1250
      Abstract: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was adopted to investigate the influence of the three-section opening strategy in the Z type centripetal radial flow reactor on the uniformity of the gas flow, which aimed to optimize the opening rate of the reactor. The simulation results showed that as the pore-opening ratio of are 10%, 16% and 29% for three sections from top to bottom of the central channel, the opening rate of the circular channel perforated plate is 10–12%, 21–25% and 30–40% from top to bottom, respectively; the uniformity of the reactor was then achieved. Through the simulation results, it was also found that the change in the opening rate at the center pipe perforated plate had a greater contribution to the gas flow mal-distribution inside the reactor. The contribution of the change in the opening rate of the annular channel perforated plate to the uniformity of the gas flow inside the reactor was smaller than that of the center pipe. Annular channel width should not be smaller, such that gas flow malfunction inside the reactor could be avoided, although high-speed velocity cases were encountered.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071250
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1251: A Gold Nanoparticle-Based Molecular
           Self-Assembled Colorimetric Chemosensor Array for Monitoring Multiple
           Organic Oxyanions

    • Authors: Jiayi Wang, Junjie Jiang, Grigory V. Zyryanov, Yuanli Liu
      First page: 1251
      Abstract: Determination of oxyanions is of paramount importance because of the essential role they play in metabolic processes involved in various aquatic environmental problems. In this investigation, a novel chemical sensor array has been developed by using gold nanoparticles modified with different chain lengths of aminothiols (AET-AuNPs) as sensing elements. The proposed sensor array provides a fingerprint-like response pattern originating from cross-reactive binding events and capable of targeting various anions, including the herbicide glyphosate. In addition, chemometric techniques, linear discrimination analysis (LDA) and the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm were employed for analyte classification and regression/prediction. The obtained sensor array demonstrates a remarkable ability to determine multiple oxyanions in both qualitative and quantitative analysis. The described methodology could be used as a simple, sensitive and fast routine analysis for oxyanions in both laboratory and field settings.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071251
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1252: Numerical Study of Factors Affecting
           Particle Suction Efficiency of Pick-Up Head of a Regenerative Air Vacuum

    • Authors: Jamshid Valiev Fayzullayevich, Gangfeng Tan, Frimpong J. Alex, Yongjia Wu, Philip K. Agyeman
      First page: 1252
      Abstract: The influence of variable operational conditions affects the performance of particle collection and separation of a regenerative air vacuum sweeper. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to numerically investigate the factors affecting the particle suction efficiency of the pick-up head. Using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), a model of an integrated pick-up head was developed based on the particle suction process to evaluate the particle removal performance. The realizable k-ε and discrete particle models were utilized to study the gas flow field and solid particle trajectories. The particle structure, sweeping speed, secondary airflow, pressure drop, and distance between the particle suction port and the road surface, as factors that affect the particle removal efficiency, were investigated. The results indicate that the particle suction efficiency increases with decreasing sweeper speed. Furthermore, the particle overall removal efficiency increased with a reduction in the distance between the suction port and the road surface as well as the control of the secondary airflow in the system. By increasing the airflow rate at the suction port, high efficiencies were achieved at a high sweeper speed and high particle densities. At a sweeper speed of 6–10 km/h, the results showed that the secondary airflow recirculation varied between 60 to 80 %, while the high-pressure drop ranged from 2200 to 2400 Pa, and the particle suction efficiency recorded was 95%. The numerical analysis results provide a better understanding of the particle suction process and hence could lead to an improvement in the design of the pick-up head.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071252
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1253: Cadmium in Rice Is Affected by
           Fertilizer-Borne Chloride and Sulfate Anions: Long-Term Field Versus Pot

    • Authors: Babar Hussain, Yibing Ma, Jumei Li, Jusheng Gao, Aman Ullah, Nazia Tahir
      First page: 1253
      Abstract: In order to investigate the effects of Cl− and SO42− based fertilizers on the accumulation of cadmium (Cd) in rice plants, a long-term experiment, which has been conducted since 1975, and a short-term pot experiment were designed. The results of the long-term experiment showed that the highest total grain Cd was found in the treatment of fertilizers with rich Cl−, which was 72.7% higher compared to conventional fertilization (CF). However, there was no significant difference between the CF and fertilization with rich SO42− treatments. This phenomenon can be explained by the concentrations of the EDTA extractable Cd being significantly increased by 60% under Cl− treatment, while SO42− treatment showed no significant effect. In the short-term trail, compared to CF, Cd concentrations in the roots increased by 1.07 and 0.93 times in the Cl− and SO42− treated soils, respectively, under Cd1.2 exposure. Meanwhile, Cd concentrations in the shoots enhanced by 96% in Cl− treated soil but decreased by 34.6% in SO42− treated soil. It was therefore concluded that fertilizer-borne Cl− significantly increased the Cd concentration in rice grains in the long-term experiment, but fertilizer-borne SO42− had no significant effect on the Cd concentration in rice grains. However, in the pot experiment, SO42−based fertilizers decreased Cd transport to the shoots of a rice plant grown in a Cd contaminated soil. These findings will improve the rational fertilization of Cd contaminated soils and the production of safer rice.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071253
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1254: Optimization Design for the Centrifugal
           Pump under Non-Uniform Elbow Inflow Based on Orthogonal Test and GA_PSO

    • Authors: Ye Yuan, Rong Jin, Lingdi Tang, Yanhua Lin
      First page: 1254
      Abstract: The non-uniform inflow caused by the elbow inlet is one of the main reasons for the low actual operation performance of a centrifugal pump. Orthogonal experiment and GA_PSO algorithm are used to improve the head and efficiency of a centrifugal pump with an elbow inlet based on the method combining numerical simulation and prototype experiment in this paper. The effects of the design parameters, including elbow inlet radius ratio, blade inlet angle, blade number, blade wrap angle, blade outlet angle, impeller outlet diameter, blade outlet width and flow area ratio, on the pump head and efficiency are studied in the orthogonal experiment. The blade inlet angle is the major factor to match the non-uniform inflow and reduce the flow loss in the impeller inlet to contribute to enhancing the pump performance and cavitation characteristics. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is optimized by integrating the genetic algorithm (GA), which ensures that the PSO-calculation result avoids falling into the local optimization and the global optimal solution is obtained as quickly as possible. The centrifugal pump with an elbow inlet is optimally designed by the GA_PSO algorithm. According to the performance test results, the efficiency of the optimized pump is 4.7% higher than that of the original pump.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071254
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1255: Hierarchical Design of Co(OH)2/Ni3S2
           Heterostructure on Nickel Foam for Energy Storage

    • Authors: Sa Lv, Wenshi Shang, Yaodan Chi, Huan Wang, Xuefeng Chu, Peiyu Geng, Chao Wang, Jia Yang, Zhifei Cheng, Xiaotian Yang
      First page: 1255
      Abstract: In this study, we rationally designed a facile stepwise route and successfully synthesized a Co(OH)2/Ni3S2 heterostructure supported on nickel foam (NF) as a binder-free electrode for energy storage. Galvanostatic deposition was first applied to produce uniform Co(OH)2 nanoflakes on NF. Then, Ni3S2 was applied to its surface by potentiostatic deposition to form a Co(OH)2/Ni3S2 heterostructure at room temperature. The added Co(OH)2 not only functions as a practical electrochemically active component but also provides support for the growth of Ni3S2, and the deposition amount of Ni3S2 is controlled by adjusting the electrodeposition duration of Ni3S2. Then, the electrochemical behaviors of the Co(OH)2/Ni3S2 composite can be optimized. A maximum areal specific capacitance (Cs) of 5.73 F cm−2 at 2 mA cm−2 was achieved, and the coulombic efficiency was as high as 94.14%. A capacitance retention of 84.38% was measured after 5000 charge–discharge cycles.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071255
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1256: Overviews of Internet of Things
           Applications in China’s Hospitality Industry

    • Authors: Mengyuan Chen, Zheng Jiang, Zezheng Xu, Aihua Shi, Mingyan Gu, Yuanzhe Li
      First page: 1256
      Abstract: During the current post-epidemic period, hygiene requirements and health needs in the hospitality industry keep increasing, and consumers become more concerned about the cleanliness of hotels and have stronger demands for contactless services in hotels. The growth and popularity of IoT technology in China make it more accessible to a wider range of service industries and provides the basis for the application of IoT in the hospitality industry. The application of IoT devices in hotels mainly includes intelligent robots, intelligent guest control, systems, etc., which helps to realize contactless services in hotels. This research reviews the entire development cycle of the application of IoT in the hospitality industry, from the founding, development, and expansion of companies to their IPO and post-IPO maturity. From a perspective combined with IoT technology, we can cope with the changing industry models, business models, and operation modes in the hospitality industry more efficiently. The development of IoT in hotels will move towards humanization and service-orientation. Through the role of human–machine linkage and the reasonable management of IoT equipment, IoT technology can reasonably promote the efficiency of manual work, while injecting “warmth” and “quality” into IoT equipment.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071256
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1257: Cow Dung Gasification Process for Hydrogen
           Production Using Water Vapor as Gasification Agent

    • Authors: Guomin Zhu, Jinyu Huang, Ziwei Wan, Haitao Ling, Qiyan Xu
      First page: 1257
      Abstract: In recent years, with the development of hydrogen energy economy, there is an increasing demand for hydrogen in the market, and hydrogen production through biomass will provide an important way to supply clean, environmentally friendly and highly efficient hydrogen. In this study, cow dung was selected as the biomass source, and the efficiency of the biomass to hydrogen reaction was explored by coupling high temperature pyrolysis and water vapor gasification. The experimental conditions of gasification temperature, water mass fraction, heating rate and feed temperature were systematically studied and optimized to determine the optimal conditions for in situ hydrogen production by gasification of cow dung. The relationship of each factor to the yield of hydrogen production by gasification of cow dung semi-coke was investigated in order to elucidate the mechanism of the hydrogen production. The experiment determined the optimal operating parameters of in situ gasification: gasification temperature 1173 K, water mass fraction 80%, heating rate 10 K/min and feed temperature 673 K. The semi-coke treatment separated high temperature pyrolysis and water vapor gasification, and reduced the influence on gasification of volatile substances such as tar extracted from pyrolysis. The increase of semi-coke preparation temperature increases the content of coke, reduces the volatile matter and improves the yield of hydrogen; the small size of semi-coke particles and large specific surface area are beneficial to the gasification reaction.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071257
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1258: Delay-Dependent Stability of Impulsive
           Stochastic Systems with Multiple Delays

    • Authors: Chunjie Xiao, Ting Hou
      First page: 1258
      Abstract: This paper associates with stability analysis of linear impulsive stochastic delay systems (ISDSs). Although many conclusions about the stability of ISDSs have been obtained based on Lyapunov’s method, relatively few research theories about delay-dependent stability with less conservativeness have been established. Therefore, we introduce an appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) to work out this problem, and a novel delay-dependent exponential stability theorem is first deduced. On the other hand, when mean-square stability is considered, we present delay-dependent stability conditions, it is of interest to note that the proposed conditions do not depend on the size of delays in the diffusion term, which solves the problems of determining the mean-square stability of ISDSs for which the diffusion term delays are not available. In the end, two numerical examples are carried out to verify the feasibility of our conclusions.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071258
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1259: Exponential Stabilization for a Class of
           Strict-Feedback Nonlinear Time Delay Systems via State Feedback Control

    • Authors: Mengru Kong, Liang Liu
      First page: 1259
      Abstract: This paper considers the exponential stabilization problem for a class of strict-feedback nonlinear systems with multiple time-varying delays, whose nonlinear terms satisfy the linear growth condition. The state feedback controller that relies on a positive parameter to be determined is constructed to deal with nonlinear terms. By tactfully introducing the Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional with an exponential function and selecting the applicable parameter to be determined, the implementable state feedback controller can be obtained to guarantee that the closed-loop system is exponentially stable. The proposed state feedback control scheme is finally applied to the control design of two-stage chemical reactor system, which illustrates the effectiveness of the control method.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071259
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1260: Design of Model Fluids for Flow
           Characterization Experiments Involving Mixing of Dissimilar
           Fluids—Refractive Index Matching and Physical Properties

    • Authors: Margarida S. C. A. Brito
      First page: 1260
      Abstract: Aqueous solutions of glycerol are widely used as model fluids in flow phenomena experiments. The design of these experiments involves the description of the physical properties of liquids and the refractive index matching using a salt, i.e., calcium chloride. The first part of this paper describes the physical properties of aqueous solutions of glycerol. Refractive index, viscosity, and density were measured for a mass fraction of glycerol in a range from 0 to 1 and compared to the data in the literature. In the second part, calcium chloride was added to aqueous solutions of glycerol, and the variations of density, viscosity, and refractive index with the mass fraction of calcium chloride were reported, which is a new contribution to literature. The main novelties of this work are (1) the development and validation of a set of equations to predict the rheological and physical properties of model fluids for flow studies involving dissimilar fluids; (2) the introduction of an algorithm to match the refractive index of fluids using calcium chloride. The model fluids are designed for large throughput experiments of industrial units, and low-cost solutions were considered. A Matlab script is provided that enables the easy implementation of this method in other works.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071260
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1261: A High-Efficiency Single-Mode Traveling
           Wave Reactor for Continuous Flow Processing

    • Authors: Mi Li, Xiao Wu, Dongxue Han, Renyu Peng, Yong Yang, Li Wu, Wencong Zhang
      First page: 1261
      Abstract: This paper proposes a high-efficiency single-mode traveling wave reactor based on a rectangular waveguide and its design method for continuous flow processing. The reactor has a large-capacity reaction chamber (1000 mm × 742.8 mm × 120 mm) that can provide high-energy-efficiency and approximately uniform microwave heating. The microwave heating uniformity is improved by maintaining single-mode microwave transmission and eliminating higher-order modes in such a multi-mode reaction chamber. The high energy efficiency of microwave heating is achieved by adopting impedance matching techniques. The incident microwave in the reactor can remain in a traveling wave state, and the power reflection can be minimized. Several numerical simulations based on multi-physics modeling are conducted to investigate the heating uniformity, the energy efficiency and the flexibility under different operation conditions. The results show the microwave energy efficiency can be higher than 99%, and meanwhile, the coefficient of temperature variation can be lower than 0.4. Furthermore, when the reactor is operated under different flow velocities and with different heating materials, both the energy efficiency and the heating uniformity can also meet the above requirements. The proposed reactor can be used in the applications such as oil processing, wastewater tackling, chemical synthesis, beverage sterilization and other microwave-assisted continuous flow processes that require high heating uniformity, high energy efficiency and good adaptability.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071261
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1262: Selection of Solvents for the Removal of
           Asphaltene–Resin–Paraffin Deposits

    • Authors: Sandugash Tanirbergenova, Yerdos Ongarbayev, Yerbol Tileuberdi, Ainur Zhambolova, Ernar Kanzharkan, Zulkhair Mansurov
      First page: 1262
      Abstract: In this study, we aimed to select the optimal solvents for the removal of asphaltene–resin–paraffin deposits. The effectiveness of various solvents was determined based on the asphaltene–resin–paraffin deposits (ARPDs) of the Zhanaozen (Ozen) crude oil field. These deposits affect the geological, physical, and technological conditions of the oil field, thus influencing its development. According to the results, we found that the most effective composite solvent is a composition comprising a 50% gasoline fraction and a 50% kerosene fraction. This composition showed mass loss of deposits of 97.7% and a dissolving power of 93.5 g/cm3 after 5 h. We confirmed the effectiveness of this composition by the paraffinic type of the deposits, which is explained by the high content of paraffin in the oil from the Zhanaozen field. Aromatic solvents showed a relatively low dissolving power compared with aliphatic solvents, which also confirms the low content of resins and asphaltenes in the ARPD.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10071262
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1163: Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of a
           Pharmaceutical Full-Scale Hydrogenation Reactor

    • Authors: David Fernandes del Pozo, Mairtin Mc Namara, Bernardo J. Vitória Pessanha, Peter Baldwin, Jeroen Lauwaert, Joris W. Thybaut, Ingmar Nopens
      First page: 1163
      Abstract: The pharmaceutical industry has been quite successful in developing new hydrogenation processes, and the chemistry of hydrogenation is currently well understood. However, it is a complex process to scale and optimize due to its high exothermicity, use of expensive catalysts and solvents, and its mass transfer requirements. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop a CFD model to be able to describe the mass transfer, hydrodynamics, and mixing with respect to changes in rotational speed for a full-scale pharmaceutical hydrogenation reactor. In the first stage, a simple CFD model is used to predict the development of the surface vortex, and it is validated against literature data. In the second stage, the CFD model is tested on a full-scale configuration equipped with a Rushton turbine and a bottom kicker to study the formation of the surface vortex. Simulation results show the ability to predict the development of the surface vortex. These results are used to estimate the liquid height and mixing time as a function of several rotational speeds, allowing us to propose novel process correlations for this particular configuration. Although modelling the complete hydrogenation process would be challenging, this work is seen as a first step towards developing models that demonstrate the use of CFD at such large reactor scales.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061163
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1164: Modelling Method and Application of
           Anti-Corrosion Pill Particles in Oil and Gas Field Wellbore Casing Annulus
           Based on the Discrete Element Method

    • Authors: Dongtao Liu, Chunshang Qiao, Jun Wan, Yuliang Lu, Jiming Song, Zhenhe Yao, Xinjie Wei, Yajun Yu
      First page: 1164
      Abstract: This study uses a self-developed anti-corrosion pill particle as the research object and develops the pill particle population modelling method in order to optimize the anti-corrosion process of oil and gas wellbore casing annuli. The shape of the pill particle is similar to a cylinder, according to the test and analysis of geometrical characteristics, and can be simplified into three types based on height, namely pill particles A (5.4 mm), B (5.8 mm), and C (6.2 mm). The multi-sphere approach is then used to create models of three different types of pill particles with varying degrees of precision. The feasibility and effectiveness of the modelling method for pill particle populations are proven by comparing the simulation results of the bulk density test and the angle of repose test. The results show that the 12-sphere models of pill particles A, B, and C are accurate representations of genuine pill particle morphologies and are adequate for simulating particle mechanics and flow processes. The applicability and practical use of the modelling method are then demonstrated using an example of a self-designed pill particle discharging mechanism. The results show that the modelling method can accurately simulate the pill discharging process and provide an accurate simulation model and theoretical basis for the optimization of the structural parameters, dimension parameters, and operating parameters of the discharging device.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061164
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1165: Low-Cost H-Grade Polyacrylamide Gel with
           High-Temperature Resistance

    • Authors: Erdong Yao, Bojun Li
      First page: 1165
      Abstract: This paper presents a low-cost, high-temperature-resistant and high-strength polyacrylamide gel system formed by secondary cross-linking. The gel system (named JM186) used phenolic resin and organic zirconium as cross-linking agents, and the performance of the gel system was systematically evaluated under high temperature. The gel properties studied include: gel formation time, gel strength, thermal stability, sand-filled pipe sealing efficiency, and its microstructure. The concentration of polyacrylamide in JM186 gel system was as low as 0.3%, which can control the gelling time in a range of 1–9 h by adjusting the ratio of two cross-linking agents. It can resist temperature up to 120 °C without dehydration, and its highest gel strength can reach H grade. The modulus of elasticity (G’) and viscosity (G”) can reach 32.33 Pa and 3.25 Pa, respectively. DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) test indicated that the temperature of structural failure for this composite gel is 310.5 °C. The average sealing efficiency of the gel is 96.03% in sand-filled pipes. Finally, the gel microstructure was observed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM). It was found that the gel system by secondary cross-linking has a dense and thickened network structure compared with the single cross-linker gel system. The gel is cross-linked by both the coordination bond and covalent bond, and the two cross-linking agents have a synergistic effect. This is the reason why the secondary cross-link gel system is better than the single-cross-linker gel system.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061165
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1166: Quality Grade Evaluation of Niuhuang
           Qingwei Pills Based on UPLC and TCM Reference Drug—A Novel Principle
           of Analysis of Multiple Components in Ready-Made Chinese Herbal Medicine

    • Authors: Li-Xing Nie, Yi-Fan Zha, Jian-Dong Yu, Shuai Kang, Zhong Dai, Shuang-Cheng Ma, Kelvin Chan
      First page: 1166
      Abstract: Ready-made Chinese herbal medicine (RMCHM) is one of the most common types of synergistic herbal medicine used worldwide. It is based on composite herbal formulae (CHF), which makes quality control of this kind of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) difficult, let alone distinguishing the good from the bad. Taking Niuhuang Qingwei Pills (NHQWP) as an example, this study reported the development of a novel principle of analysis of multiple components in RMCHM. Experimental procedures involved the selection of high-quality Chinese materia medica (CMM, individual medicinal plant parts used in the NHQWP) to prepare three batches of TCM reference drugs (TCMRD). Pure compounds of the active ingredients identified in the herbal formula including berberine hydrochloride, geniposide, forsythiaside A, 3,5-O-dicaffeoyl quinic acid, hesperidin, baicalin, glycyrrhizic acid, and chrysophanol in the three TCMRDs were analyzed as well as those in 49 batches of commercial products from 18 manufacturers by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method combined with wavelength switching. Using the TCMRD as the scientific ruler, quality grade specifications of NHQWP were proposed by comprehensive analysis of multiple components. Accordingly, 13, 28, and 8 batches of samples were primarily rated as first-grade, second-grade, and unqualified, respectively.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061166
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1167: Experimental Test and Feasibility Analysis
           of Hydraulic Cylinder Position Control Based on Pressure Detection

    • Authors: Rulin Zhou, Lingyu Meng, Xiaoming Yuan
      First page: 1167
      Abstract: This paper studies hydraulic cylinder position adjustment controlled by an on–off valve. The aim of this paper is to develop a method of position control for a hydraulic cylinder based on input and output pressure under the mutual coupling feedback of the load and flow, especially in multi-actuator coupling control scenarios. This method can solve the problem of position evaluation and hydraulic cylinder tracking in relation to position detection without a displacement sensor and provide the possibility of automatic adjustment of hydraulic support in the process of intelligent mining. First of all, according to the flow continuity equation and Navier–Stokes equation, a flow model with inlet and outlet pressure is derived. Secondly, the effectiveness of the flow resistance characteristic curve of differential valve is verified by experimental and theoretical analysis. Finally, through experimental verification, when the system pressure is larger than 10 MPa, the error between the actual experimental data and the data calculated by the fitting algorithm is within 5%, which is consistent with the derived formula and proves the validity of the simulation model.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061167
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1168: Special Issue on “Energy
           Conservation and Emission Reduction in Process Industry”

    • Authors: Yi Man, Zhiqiang Sun, Sheng Yang
      First page: 1168
      Abstract: The process industry is an important pillar industry for national economic and social development and an important support force for sustained economic growth [...]
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061168
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1169: Investigation on Vibration Signal
           Characteristics in a Centrifugal Pump Using EMD-LS-MFDFA

    • Authors: Xing Liang, Yuanxing Luo, Fei Deng, Yan Li
      First page: 1169
      Abstract: Vibration signals from centrifugal pumps are nonlinear, non-smooth, and possess implied trend terms, which makes it difficult for traditional signal processing methods to accurately extract their fault characteristics and details. With a view to rectifying this, we introduced empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to extract the trend term signals. These were then refit using the least squares (LS) method. The result (EMD-LS) was then combined with multi-fractal theory to form a new signal identification method (EMD-LS-MFDFA), whose accuracy was verified with a binomial multi-fractal sequence (BMS). Then, based on the centrifugal pump test platform, the vibration signals of shell failures under different degrees of cavitation and separate states of loosened foot bolts were collected. The signals’ multi-fractal spectra parameters were analyzed using the EMD-LS-MFDFA method, from which five spectral parameters (Δα, Δf, α0, αmax, and αmin) were extracted for comparison and analysis. The results showed EMD-LS-MFDFA’s performance was closer to the BMS theoretical value than that of MFDFA, displayed high accuracy, and was fully capable of revealing the multiple fractal characteristics of the centrifugal pump fault vibration signal. Additionally, the mean values of the five types of multi-fractal spectral characteristic parameters it extracted were much greater than the normal state values. This indicates that the parameters could effectively distinguish the normal state and fault state of the centrifugal pump. Moreover, α0 and αmax had a smaller mean square than Δα, Δf and αmin, and their stability was higher. Thus, compared to the feature parameters extracted by MFDFA, our method could better realize the separation between the normal state, cavitation (whether slight, moderate, or severe), and when the anchor bolt was loose. This can be used to characterize centrifugal pump failure, quantify and characterize a pump’s different working states, and provide a meaningful reference for the diagnosis and study of pump faults.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061169
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1170: Physicochemical Study of Albumin
           Nanoparticles with Chlorambucil

    • Authors: Karolina Kulig, Magdalena Ziąbka, Kacper Pilarczyk, Aleksandra Owczarzy, Wojciech Rogóż, Małgorzata Maciążek-Jurczyk
      First page: 1170
      Abstract: Currently, nanotechnology is considered a promising strategy to enhance drug solubility and other physicochemical properties. Albumin is a biopolymer that can be used in drug delivery systems due to its biodegradability and biocompatibility. The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize albumin nanoparticles with chlorambucil as a controlled drug delivery system. Different concentrations of chlorambucil were incubated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) in order to prepare nanoparticles using the desolvation method. As a result, nanoparticles in sizes ranging from 199.6 to 382.6 nm exhibiting high encapsulation efficiency of chlorambucil were obtained. A spectroscopic study revealed concentration-dependent changes in secondary structure of the albumin chain and in the hydrophobicity of chlorambucil. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that the investigated structures may be used in the development of a drug delivery system.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061170
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1171: Research on Multi-Equipment Collaborative
           Scheduling Algorithm under Composite Constraints

    • Authors: Peibo Kang, Haisheng Deng, Xiuqin Wang
      First page: 1171
      Abstract: Multi-equipment multi-process frequent scheduling under complex constraints is at the root of a large number of idle time fragments and transport waiting time in multi-equipment processes. To improve equipment utilization and reduce idle transportation time, a production process optimization scheduling algorithm with “minimum processing time and minimum transportation time” is proposed. Taking into account factors such as product priority, equipment priority, process priority, and overall task adjustment, the scheduling optimization is carried out through a hybrid algorithm combining a one-dimensional search algorithm and a dual NSGA-II algorithm. Compared with other algorithms, the scheduling algorithm proposed in this article not only shortens the minimum processing time but also strives to maximize the utilization rate of each piece of equipment, reducing the processing time of the enterprise by 8% or more, while also reducing the overall transportation time and indirectly reducing costs. The superiority of this algorithm is verified through practice, showing that that the complexity of the scheduling process is lower, and it is feasible in actual operation
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061171
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1172: Application of MEREC in Multi-Criteria
           Selection of Optimal Spray-Painting Robot

    • Authors: G. Shanmugasundar, Gaurav Sapkota, Robert Čep, Kanak Kalita
      First page: 1172
      Abstract: Robots are being increasingly utilized for various operations in industrial and household applications. One such application is for spray painting, wherein atomized paint particles are sprayed on a surface to coat the surface with paint. As there are different models of robots available for the job, it becomes crucial to select the best among them. Multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) techniques are widely used in various fields to tackle selection problems where there are many conflicting criteria and several alternatives. This work focuses on selecting the best robot among twelve alternatives based on seven criteria, among which payload, speed, and reach are beneficial criteria while mechanical weight, repeatability, cost, and power consumption are cost criteria. Five MCDM techniques, namely combination distance-based assessment (CODAS), complex proportional assessment (COPRAS), combined compromise solution (CoCoSo), multi-attributive border approximation area comparison (MABAC), and višekriterijumsko kompromisno rangiranje (VIKOR) were used for the selection while a weight calculation was performed using an objective weight calculation technique called MEREC. HY1010A-143 was found to be the most suitable robot for spray-painting applications by four of the five techniques used. Correlation studies showed a significant level of correlation among all the MCDM techniques.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061172
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1173: Untargeted Metabolomics of Streptomyces
           Species Isolated from Soils of Nepal

    • Authors: Bibek Raj Bhattarai, Karan Khadayat, Niraj Aryal, Babita Aryal, Uttam Lamichhane, Keshab Bhattarai, Nabin Rana, Bishnu P. Regmi, Achyut Adhikari, Sandeep Thapa, Niranjan Parajuli
      First page: 1173
      Abstract: Actinomycetes are natural architects of numerous secondary metabolites including antibiotics. With increased multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens, antibiotics that can combat such pathogens are urgently required to improve the health care system globally. The characterization of actinomycetes available in Nepal is still very much untouched which is the reason why this paper showcases the characterization of actinomycetes from Nepal based on their morphology, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and metabolic profiling. Additionally, antimicrobial assays and liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) of ethyl acetate extracts were performed. In this study, we employed a computational-based dereplication strategy for annotating molecules which is also time-efficient. Molecular annotation was performed through the GNPS server, the SIRIUS platform, and the available databases to predict the secondary metabolites. The sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the isolates BN6 and BN14 are closely related to Streptomyces species. BN14 showed broad-spectrum antibacterial activity with the zone of inhibition up to 30 mm against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC: 0.3051 µg/mL and MBC: 9.7656 µg/mL) and Shigella sonnei (MIC: 0.3051 µg/mL and MBC: 4.882 µg/mL). Likewise, BN14 also displayed significant inhibition to Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi. GNPS approach suggested that the extracts of BN6 and BN14 consisted of diketopiperazines ((cyclo(D-Trp-L-Pro), cyclo(L-Leu-L-4-hydroxy-Pro), cyclo(L-Phe-D-Pro), cyclo(L-Trp-L-Pro), cyclo(L-Val-L-Pro)), and polypeptide antibiotics (actinomycin D and X2). Additional chemical scaffolds such as bacterial alkaloids (bohemamine, venezueline B, and G), anthramycin-type antibiotics (abbeymycin), lipase inhibitor (ebelactone B), cytocidal (oxopropaline D), antifungal and antitumor antibiotics (reductiomycin, streptimidone, deoxynybomycin), alaremycin, fumaramidmycin, anisomycin, and others were also annotated, which were further confirmed by using the SIRIUS platform, and literature survey. Thus, the bioprospecting of natural products from Streptomyces species from Nepal could be a potential source for the discovery of clinically significant and new antimicrobial agents in the future.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061173
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1174: Process Analytical Technology for the
           Production of Parenteral Lipid Emulsions according to Good Manufacturing

    • Authors: Grumbach, Czermak
      First page: 1174
      Abstract: The good manufacturing practices (GMP) and process analytical technology (PAT) initiatives of the US Food and Drug Administration, in conjunction with International Council for Harmonisation (ICH) quality guidelines Q8, Q9, and Q10, ensure that manufacturing processes for parenteral formulations meet the requirements of increasingly strict regulations. This involves the selection of suitable process analytics for process integration and aseptic processing. In this article, we discuss the PAT requirements for the GMP-compliant manufacturing of parenteral lipid emulsions, which can be used for clinical nutrition or for the delivery of lipophilic active ingredients. There are risks associated with the manufacturing processes, including the potential for unstable emulsions and the formation of large droplets that can induce embolisms in the patient. Parenteral emulsions are currently monitored offline using a statistical approach. Inline analytics, supplemented by measurements of zeta potential, could minimize the above risks. Laser scanning technology, ultrasound attenuation spectroscopy, and photo-optical sensors combined with image analysis may prove to be useful PAT methods. In the future, these technologies could lead to better process understanding and control, thus improving production efficiency.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061174
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1175: Simulation Study on Mechanical Wear
           Detection of High-Power Diesel Engine Based on Thermodynamic Coupling

    • Authors: Jingli Li, Baoqiu Ma, Jianwei Liang, Yu Zhang
      First page: 1175
      Abstract: The existing mechanical wear detection methods cannot accurately obtain the state characteristic data of mechanical equipment, resulting in high detection accuracy but low detection efficiency. In order to obtain more ideal results of mechanical wear detection, the mechanical wear detection technology of a high-power diesel engine based on thermodynamic coupling is designed. Through the coupling of thermodynamics, the thermal stress in the body is solved under the temperature field and corresponding boundary conditions. The state data of mechanical equipment are collected, the wavelet entropy in the state data of mechanical equipment is extracted as the feature of mechanical wear detection, and the least squares support vector machine is used to establish the mechanical wear detection model. The multi-domain unified language modelica is used to model the thermodynamic module and dynamic module of the diesel engine, respectively, to realize the joint simulation of thermodynamics and dynamics, and improve the simulation technology of mechanical wear detection of the high-power diesel engine. Through the simulation and verification test, it is found that the mechanical wear detection time is shorter, the mechanical wear detection efficiency is higher, and it has better practical application value.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061175
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1176: Microwave Pre-Treatment of Model Food
           Waste to Produce Short Chain Organic Acids and Ethanol via Anaerobic

    • Authors: Serena Simonetti, Claudia Fernández Martín, Davide Dionisi
      First page: 1176
      Abstract: As an alternative to conventional anaerobic digestion for methane production, anaerobic fermentation (AF) of organic matter can produce short chain organic acids (SCOAs) in a sustainable way. This study investigated the effect of microwave (MW) pre-treatment on the AF of model food waste to SCOAs and ethanol. The MW pre-treatment was investigated at three temperatures (120, 150 and 180 °C) and residence times (2, 5 and 8 min). The MW treatment gave a significant reduction in the pH and volatile suspended solids (VSS). The largest reduction in the VSS was 20%, indicating solubilisation of the organic matter. The latter was also confirmed by the increase, although it was not statistically significant, in the soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) and soluble carbohydrates. In the fermentation batch tests, the total product yield was higher (17.5% COD COD−1) than for the untreated substrate (11.1% COD COD−1). An electricity price of GBP 0.06 kWh−1 would correspond to the market value of the additional SCOAs produced with the pre-treated substrate. Although this price is lower than the current business price of electricity in the UK, the MW pre-treatment could become economically feasible with scale-up effects and by using free excess electricity coming from renewable resources.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061176
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1177: Thermal Stability Determination of
           Propylene Glycol Sodium Alginate and Ammonium Sulfate with Calorimetry

    • Authors: Chen Yao, Ye-Cheng Liu, Jie Wu, Yan Tang, Juan Zhai, Chi-Min Shu, Jun-Cheng Jiang, Zhi-Xiang Xing, Chung-Fu Huang, An-Chi Huang
      First page: 1177
      Abstract: Propylene Glycol Alginate Sodium Sulfate (PSS) is widely produced and used in medicine as a marine drug for treating hyperlipidemia. During the sulfonation synthesis of PSS, the sulfonation of chlorosulfonic acid is exothermic. At high temperatures, the process can easily produce a large amount of ammonium sulfate. Ammonium sulfate adheres to PSS in crystal and participates in the sulfonation reaction. In this study, the sulfonation process of commercial PSS was reproduced in the laboratory using chlorosulfonic acid and formamide. We used differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analyzer to examine the thermal stability of PSS, and we used both differential and integral conversional methods to determine the appropriate thermokinetic models for this substance. We also established an autocatalytic model to study the conversion limit time and the maximum rate time of this substance. After calculation, the activation energy of this substance is no more than 60 kJ/mol, and it has other exothermic performances at different heating rates. The results help to optimize the sulfonation process of PSS and analyze the thermal risk of PSS with ammonium sulfate.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061177
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1178: A Comprehensive Review of the Properties,
           Performance, Combustion, and Emissions of the Diesel Engine Fueled with
           Different Generations of Biodiesel

    • Authors: Yanhui Zhang, Yunhao Zhong, Shengsen Lu, Zhiqing Zhang, Dongli Tan
      First page: 1178
      Abstract: Due to the increasing air pollution from diesel engines and the shortage of conventional fossil fuels, many experimental and numerical types of research have been carried out and published in the literature over the past few decades to find a new, sustainable, and alternative fuels. Biodiesel is an appropriate alternate solution for diesel engines because it is renewable, non-toxic, and eco-friendly. According to the European Academies Science Advisory Council, biodiesel evolution is broadly classified into four generations. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the production, properties, combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of diesel engines using different generations of biodiesel as an alternative fuel to replace fossil-based diesel and summarizes the primary feedstocks and properties of different generations of biodiesel compared with diesel. The general impression is that the use of different generations of biodiesel decreased 30% CO, 50% HC, and 70% smoke emissions compared with diesel. Engine performance is slightly decreased by an average of 3.13%, 89.56%, and 11.98% for higher density, viscosity, and cetane, respectively, while having a 7.96% lower heating value compared with diesel. A certain ratio of biodiesel as fuel instead of fossil diesel combined with advanced after-treatment technology is the main trend of future diesel engine development.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061178
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1179: Integrated Reservoir Model and
           Differential Stimulation Modes of Low Permeability Porous Carbonate
           Reservoir: A Case Study of S Reservoir in X Oilfield in Iraq

    • Authors: Jing Yang, Guangya Zhu, Yichen An, Nan Li, Wei Xu, Li Wan, Rongrong Jin
      First page: 1179
      Abstract: The S reservoir in the X Oilfield in Iraq has great development potential due to its rich geological reserves. However, the low permeability and strong heterogeneity of the reservoir lead to great differences in reservoir stimulation performance. In this study, an integrated reservoir model and differential stimulation mode are put forward to solve the above problems. First, the feasibility of fracturing is evaluated by laboratory experiments. Second, an integrated reservoir model is established, which mainly includes a rock mechanics model, fracturing simulation model, and numerical simulation model, and correct the integrated model by fracturing operation curves and production dynamic curves. Third, three types of stimulation areas are classified according to the combination of sweet spot types, and three different stimulation modes are proposed. In conclusion, a small-scale stimulation mode should be applied in the Type I area to maximize economic benefits. In the Type II area, the medium-scale stimulation mode should be performed to ensure certain productivity while achieving certain economic benefits. In the Type III area, the large-scale stimulation mode should be employed to obtain certain productivity while economic benefits must be above a limit. The differential stimulation model proposed in this paper has made a great reference for the efficient development of low-permeability carbonate rocks.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061179
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1180: A Capability Maturity Model for
           Intelligent Manufacturing in Chair Industry Enterprises

    • Authors: Wanqiang Wang, Jiadong Wang, Chang Chen, Shaohui Su, Changyong Chu, Guojin Chen
      First page: 1180
      Abstract: Intelligent manufacturing has a strong role in promoting the transformation and upgrading of traditional industries such as the chair industry. This study aimed to accurately evaluate the production status and technical level of chair industry enterprises, and then better guide chair industry enterprises to gradually implement intelligent manufacturing. Based on the analytic network process (ANP), we propose four capability domains, nine capability sub-domains, and 21 evaluation elements, thereby constructing an evaluation model for the capability maturity of chair industry enterprises’ intelligent manufacturing. First, the weight relationship of each index of the model was determined by means of an expert questionnaire. Then, super decision software was used to complete the modeling of the evaluation index of the network analytic hierarchy process. Finally, the evaluation model of the intelligent manufacturing maturity of chair industry enterprises was applied to 50 chair industry enterprises for evaluation and verification, and the evaluation results of the model proposed in this paper were compared with the evaluation results of the intelligent manufacturing maturity model released by China’s national standards. The results show that the evaluation model constructed in this study can better reflect the development status and overall technical level of intelligent manufacturing in the chair industry. Furthermore, the evaluation results can provide decision-making suggestions for chair industry enterprises to identify important areas for improvement and implementation of intelligent manufacturing upgrade plans.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061180
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1181: Experimental Study of Dynamic Mechanical
           Properties of Water-Saturated Coal Samples under Three-Dimensional Coupled
           Static–Dynamic Loadings

    • Authors: Cong Huang, Shanyang Wei, Zhen Lei, Cai Li, Lin Zhang, Xiaomin Huang, Shiqing Xu
      First page: 1181
      Abstract: It is very important to study the influence of water content on the mechanical properties of coal rock to prevent rock burst and roadway instability under dynamic disturbance. In this study, the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) test system was applied to conduct three-dimensional dynamic and static impact tests on natural and water-saturated coal samples at different strain rates to determine the dynamic mechanical properties of a series of water-bearing coal samples. Based on the new data, we discuss the strength, deformation, crushing energy dissipation, and fractal characteristics of natural and saturated coal rocks. We specifically focus on the different effects of hydraulic pressure on crack propagation under static and dynamic loads. Our results document a well-defined linear relationship between the peak stress and the strain rate of coal in the natural state and the water-saturated state. Once the impact rate reaches a certain value, a double peak phenomenon is observed, and the curve shows a certain leap. The critical impact velocity of the curve leap is ca. 9.485~10.025 m/s. At the same strain rate, the average peak stress in the water-saturated state is ca. 2.684% higher than that in the natural state. The secant modulus of the two states generally increases with the rise in strain rate, but the scatter of the results is large. The average secant modulus of the water-saturated coal sample increases by 2.309% compared with the natural state. The energy consumption density and absorbed energy of saturated and natural coal samples rise with the increase in strain rate, and both show a well-defined power–function relationship. However, under the same condition, the absorbed energy and absorbed energy density of water-saturated coal samples are higher than that of natural coal samples. The fractal dimension of water-saturated coal rises with the increase in strain rate and energy consumption density, showing a strong linear and quadratic relationship, respectively. Under dynamic loading, the cohesive force, jointly generated by free water and the Stefan effect, hinder the expansion of coal and rock fractures, thus improving the compressive strength of coal and rock. The study provides a reliable theoretical basis for preventing rock burst and providing roadway support.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061181
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1182: Research on an Improved Sliding Mode
           Observer for Speed Estimation in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

    • Authors: Liu, Chen
      First page: 1182
      Abstract: Aimed at the problems of system chattering and large observation errors in the sensorless control of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) based on a traditional sliding mode observer (SMO), a combined reaching law algorithm based on the exponential reaching law and arcsine saturation function reaching law is proposed to improve the sliding mode observer. An appropriate positive real number is taken and compared with the product of controller gain and stator current observation error to judge the system position in sliding mode motion. In the early stage of sliding mode motion, the exponential reaching law is utilized, and then, in the latter and stable stages of sliding mode motion, the arcsine saturation function reaching law is used. The stability of the observer is proved by Lyapunov theory. The simulation and experimental data show that the speed error of the sliding mode observer based on the combined reaching law is reduced by 80% compared with the traditional sliding mode observer, and the chattering problem is also improved.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061182
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1183: Study on Combined Vacuum–Mechanical
           Defoaming Technology for Flotation Froth and Its Mechanism

    • Authors: Haibing Jiang, Jiufen Liu, Huaifa Wang, Runquan Yang, Wenzhi Zhao, Duo Yang, Song Yin, Liang Shen
      First page: 1183
      Abstract: Foam is essential in the flotation process. However, the gas–liquid–solid three-phase froth produced in the flotation process has very strong stability and is difficult to burst spontaneously. The existence of these froths will reduce the transport capacity of the pulp and affect the working efficiency of subsequent processes, such as filtration of the flotation concentrate. In this study, a new defoaming device is designed by combining mechanical impact with depressurized defoaming and its defoaming mechanism is analyzed theoretically. In addition, the liquid level height and pulp overflow method are applied to characterize the defoaming efficiency of the new defoaming device. The effects of impeller structure, pressure drop, impeller rotation frequency, and aeration rate on defoaming efficiency were studied. The results show that when increasing the pressure drop, the defoaming increases, but it will also enhance the generation of bubbles. The efficiency of combined mechanical–vacuum defoaming technology is superior under low-pressure drop using an SC impeller. Under −1 kpa vacuum condition, it only takes 168 s to eliminate 20 cm flotation froth height with combined mechanical impact, while it takes 453 s under ambient pressure, indicating that under vacuum conditions, the mechanical-defoaming method can significantly improve the defoaming efficiency, and the two have a certain synergistic effect.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061183
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1184: A Mini Review on Thin Film Superconductors

    • Authors: David Sibanda, Sunday Temitope Oyinbo, Tien-Chien Jen, Ayotunde Idris Ibitoye
      First page: 1184
      Abstract: Thin superconducting films have been a significant part of superconductivity research for more than six decades. They have had a significant impact on the existing consensus on the microscopic and macroscopic nature of the superconducting state. Thin-film superconductors have properties that are very different and superior to bulk material. Amongst the various classification criteria, thin-film superconductors can be classified into Fe based thin-film superconductors, layered titanium compound thin-film superconductors, intercalation compounds of layered and cage-like structures, and other thin-film superconductors that do not fall into these groups. There are various techniques of manufacturing thin films, which include atomic layer deposition (ALD), chemical vapour deposition (CVD), physical vapour deposition (PVD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), sputtering, electron beam evaporation, laser ablation, cathodic arc, and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Thin film technology offers a lucrative scheme of creating engineered surfaces and opens a wide exploration of prospects to modify material properties for specific applications, such as those that depend on surfaces. This review paper reports on the different types and groups of superconductors, fabrication of thin-film superconductors by MBE, PLD, and ALD, their applications, and various challenges faced by superconductor technologies. Amongst all the thin film manufacturing techniques, more focus is put on the fabrication of thin film superconductors by atomic layer deposition because of the growing popularity the process has gained in the past decade.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061184
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1185: Improvement of Low-Fertility Soils from a
           Coal Mining Subsidence Area by Immobilized Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria

    • Authors: Lu Bai, Yingming Yang, Ziyue Shi, Yiping Zou, Huixin Zhou, Jianli Jia
      First page: 1185
      Abstract: Coal mining subsidence leads to reductions in soil fertility. In order to improve soil physical and chemical properties and to promote vegetation restoration, a nitrogen-fixing bacterium named S1 was isolated from the coal mining subsidence area in the Shendong mining area, and a zeolite-immobilized nitrogen-fixing bacterium was studied to improve the soil in the subsidence area. The results show that the immobilized nitrogen-fixing bacteria can significantly improve the ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen of soil by 50 times and 0.6 times, respectively, at 20 days, and it can also improve organic matter. In pot experiments, it was found that immobilized microorganisms can improve germination rate, plant height and the dry and fresh weight of maize. The results of the above soil culture tests and pot experiments were then compared and analyzed. It was found that plants made obvious use of soil ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen, and planting the plants was conducive to increases in soil organic matter.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061185
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1186: Photodegradation and Mineralization of
           Phenol Using TiO2Coated γ-Al2O3: Effect of Thermic Treatment

    • Authors: Claudia Martinez-Gómez, Israel Rangel-Vazquez, Ramon Zarraga, Gloria del Ángel, Beatriz Ruíz-Camacho, Francisco Tzompantzi, Esmeralda Vidal-Robles, Alejandro Perez-Larios
      First page: 1186
      Abstract: It is well-known that γ-Al2O3 possesses large, specific areas and high thermal, chemical, and mechanical resistance. Due to this, it is the most-used support for catalysts, in this case TiO2, as it enables it to achieve better dispersion and improves the activity in catalytic photodegradation reactions. In a previous work, it was observed that the optimal content of TiO2 in γ-Al2O3 was around 15% since the degradation of phenol results were maximized and a synergistic effect was generated by the interaction of both oxides. In addition, an increase in acidity crystal size and the generation of localized, oxygen-vacant, electronic states in the forbidden band of γ-Al2O3, were observed. This study focuses on the effect of the calcination temperature on a γ-Al2O3-TiO2 catalyst (15% w/w of TiO2) and its impact on photocatalytic activity. The catalysts prepared here were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption–desorption, FTIR-pyridine adsorption, MAS-NMR, HRTEM-FFT, UV-vis, and fluorescence spectroscopy.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061186
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1187: Assessment of the Quality Losses of
           Cantaloupe Fruit during Transportation

    • Authors: Mostafa M. Azam, AbdelGawad Saad, Baher M. A. Amer
      First page: 1187
      Abstract: Fruit quality is a crucial factor in affecting shelf-life and purchase choice for customers. Protecting the quality of cantaloupe fruits in the chain from harvest to marketing is a very important process. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamic characteristics of cantaloupe fruit during excitation, to investigate the effect of vibration strength on the mechanical characteristics of cantaloupe fruit, and to show the effects of this strength on the mechanical damage of cantaloupe. Experiments were performed to measure the dynamic behavior of cantaloupe fruit during transportation and to evaluate the dynamic behavior of the packaging and the damage to the cantaloupes due to transient vibration during transportation. The results show that using the paper pulp tray packing method reduces cantaloupe damage and improves their quality during harvest and post-harvest processes. The range of resonance frequencies is important for the transporting of cantaloupes; a higher starting resonance is an indication of a stiffer cantaloupe bottom, and the paper pulp tray shifts the resonance frequency when compared to volume packing methods. Another interesting observation in this study is that a fruit with a high internal damping capacity is not as injured by exciting vibrations as a fruit with a low damping capacity, even if its natural frequency falls within the range of excitation.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061187
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1188: Surrogate-Assisted Multi-Objective
           Optimization of a Liquid Oxygen Vacuum Subcooling System Based on Ejector
           and Liquid Ring Pump

    • Authors: Hongbo Tan, Hao Wu, Qing Zhang, Gang Lei, Qiang Chen
      First page: 1188
      Abstract: As an important combustion aid for aerospace vehicles, subcooled liquid oxygen of high density can be used to increase loading capacity of a spacecraft. Providing a large amount of cryogenic propellant in a short time with a strict energy consumption limitation is a challenge in the design of the fuel filling system. The authors proposed a vacuumed subcooling system combined with an ejector and liquid ring pump to vacuum a liquid oxygen tank and obtain subcooled liquid oxygen. After the liquid oxygen tank is vacuumed to an intermediate pressure by the ejector, it is further vacuumed to 10 kPa using the liquid ring pump. The infinitesimal method was used to simulate the thermodynamic processes involved. Taking the ejector working fluid mass flow rate, jet pressure, intermediate pressure, initial tank liquid level, and liquid ring pump speed as optimizing variables, optimization was conducted to determine the optimal vacuuming time, remaining liquid level in the tank, pumping speed difference, and nitrogen consumption. The sample set was generated by the optimal Latin sampling algorithm. The surrogate assisted Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-III) multi-objective algorithm was used to construct a system optimization framework. The non-dominated solutions were added to the sample set to improve the generalization ability of the Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) in the Pareto front. A convergent Pareto solution set was obtained after multiple iterations. The influence of different optimization variables on each optimization objective was analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient method. The optimization results show that the trade-off scheme can obtain the subcooled liquid oxygen at 10 kPa and 73 K with a remaining liquid level of 74.84% in a total vacuum time of 19.93 h. The efficiency of the liquid oxygen vacuum subcooling system can be improved significantly.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061188
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1189: Selection of Supply Chain Sustainability
           Management System by Fuzzy Additive Preference Programming Method

    • Authors: Saruntorn Panjavongroj, Busaba Phruksaphanrat
      First page: 1189
      Abstract: A selection of suitable sustainability management systems (SMS) is a major part of supply chain strategies to create a competitive advantage, reduce total costs, and manage long-term sustainability. A framework and method for prioritizing supply chain SMSs are presented in this research. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is the most common method for alternative selection in multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM). However, complex information is mixed with ambiguity and uncertainty, which makes decision makers unable to use precise or crisp numbers, so fuzzy numbers are presented to remedy this difficulty. Therefore, this research proposes a fuzzy additive preference programming (FAPP) to select the optimum SMS for a supply chain. FAPP method can produce the unique normalized optimal priority vector of fuzzy pairwise comparison matrices for SMS selection effectively with linear constraints. The additive linear constraints can eliminate the weaknesses of existing methods and equalize the upper and lower triangular fuzzy judgments. In addition, the proposed method can identify abnormal pairs of fuzzy judgments that cause inconsistency. The proposed methodology can prioritize the key criteria which lead to the selection of the most appropriate SMS. An example of SMS selection in a rubber factory demonstrates the feasibility and validity of the proposed method.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061189
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1190: Application of Computer Microtomography
           and Hyperspectral Imaging to Assess the Homogeneity of the Distribution of
           Active Ingredients in Functional Food

    • Authors: Bartosz Błoński, Sławomir Wilczyński, Anna Stolecka-Warzecha
      First page: 1190
      Abstract: Functional foods represent one of the most intensively investigated and widely promoted areas in the food and nutrition sciences’ market today. The purpose of this work is to determine the possibility of using computed microtomography to assess the homogeneity of distribution of active pharmaceutical ingredients (vitamins K and D and calcium) throughout chocolate. Algorithms for analyzing of microtomographic images were proposed to quantify the distribution of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in chocolate: the Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix, quadtree decomposition and hyperspectral imaging. The use of the methods of analysis and processing of microtomographic images allows for a quantitative assessment of the homogeneity of the distribution of components throughout the sample, without a 3D reconstruction process. In computer microtomography analysis, it is possible to assess the distribution of those components whose density differs by at least a unit in the accepted scale of gray levels of images and for grain sizes not smaller than the voxel size. The proposed image analysis algorithms, Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix, quadtree decomposition and hyperspectral imaging, allow for the assessment of distribution of active ingredients in chocolate.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061190
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1191: Assessment of Harmonic Mitigation in V/f
           Drive of Induction Motor Using an ANN-Based Hybrid Power Filter for a
           Wheat Flour Mill

    • Authors: Bhuvaneswari Krishnasamy, Kavithamani Ashok
      First page: 1191
      Abstract: Voltage/frequency (V/f) drive of a three-phase induction motor plays a crucial role in a flour mill for energy saving. Wheat consumption in India is increasing day by day, which reached 105,000 metric ton (MT) in 2021. India’s high wheat consumption and production increase flour mills. Thus, energy efficiency in a flour mill is a must in the present situation. Hence, V/f drives are widely used in flour mills. Apart from the advantages of V/f drive, electronic circuits in a drive induce harmonics in a power system. Power quality plays a vital role in a modern power system. Harmonics by V/f drive increase the current consumption, causing increased losses, cable overheating, and motor overheating, which necessitates a filter for harmonic mitigation. In this paper, an artificial neural network controller-based hybrid power filter is proposed for harmonic mitigation. A hybrid power filter (HPF) is presented to overcome the problems and achieve the active and passive power filter’s benefits. Harmonic mitigation of the proposed hybrid power filter is compared with the passive and active filter-based drives. This paper analyzes harmonic mitigation for three-phase induction motors with V/f drive installed in a 300-ton/day wheat flour mill’s purifier fan. The performance of the suggested system is analyzed under various speeds in the aspects of harmonic mitigation, reduction in current consumption, and energy saving using various filters. The entire system is developed and analyzed using MATLAB/Simulink. Energy saving is increased by around 10.97 kWh per year by HPF by means of reducing harmonics and current consumption compared to an active power filter, while it is increased by around 28.16 kWh/year compared to a passive power filter. Along with the harmonic mitigation, energy saving is also validated for various filters under various speeds.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061191
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1192: A Review of Lithium-Ion Battery Thermal
           Runaway Modeling and Diagnosis Approaches

    • Authors: Manh-Kien Tran, Anosh Mevawalla, Attar Aziz, Satyam Panchal, Yi Xie, Michael Fowler
      First page: 1192
      Abstract: Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have been utilized increasingly in recent years in various applications, such as electric vehicles (EVs), electronics, and large energy storage systems due to their long lifespan, high energy density, and high-power density, among other qualities. However, there can be faults that occur internally or externally that affect battery performance which can potentially lead to serious safety concerns, such as thermal runaway. Thermal runaway is a major challenge in the Li-ion battery field due to its uncontrollable and irreversible nature, which can lead to fires and explosions, threatening the safety of the public. Therefore, thermal runaway prognosis and diagnosis are significant topics of research. To efficiently study and develop thermal runaway prognosis and diagnosis algorithms, thermal runaway modeling is also important. Li-ion battery thermal runaway modeling, prediction, and detection can help in the development of prevention and mitigation approaches to ensure the safety of the battery system. This paper provides a comprehensive review of Li-ion battery thermal runaway modeling. Various prognostic and diagnostic approaches for thermal runaway are also discussed.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061192
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1193: Proteomics Analysis of Zygosaccharomyces
           mellis in Response to Sugar Stress

    • Authors: Xiaolan Xu, Yuxuan Zhu, Yujie Li, Wenchao Yang, Hao Zhou, Xinchao Chen
      First page: 1193
      Abstract: The high-osmotic-pressure environment of honey is not suitable for the survival of microorganisms, except for osmotic-tolerant fungal and bacterial spores. In this study, shotgun metagenomic sequencing technology was used to identify yeast species present in honey samples. As a result, Zygosaccharomyces spp. yeast, including Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Z. mellis and Z. siamensis, were isolated. The intracellular trehalose and glycerin concentrations of yeast, as well as the antioxidant-related CAT, SOD and POD enzyme activities, increased under a high-glucose environment (60%, w/v). To learn more about the osmotic resistance of Z. mellis, iTRAQ-based proteomic technology was used to investigate the related molecular mechanism at the protein level, yielding 522 differentially expressed proteins, of which 303 (58.05%) were upregulated and 219 (41.95%) were downregulated. The iTRAQ data showed that the proteins involved in the pathway of the cell membrane and cell-wall synthesis, as well as those related to trehalose and glycerin degradation, were all downregulated, while the proteins in the respiratory chain and TCA cycle were upregulated. In addition, formate dehydrogenase 1 (FDH1), which is involved in NADH generation, displayed a great difference in response to a high-sugar environment. Furthermore, the engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains BY4741△scFDH1 with a knocked-out FDH1 gene were constructed using the CRISPR/Cas9 method. In addition, the FDH1 from Z. mellis was expressed in BY4741△scFDH1 to construct the mutant strain BY4717zmFDH1. The CAT, SOD and POD enzyme activities, as well as the content of trehalose, glycerin, ATP and NADH, were decreased in BY4741△scFDH1. However, those were all increased in BY4717zmFDH1. This study revealed that Z. mellis could increase the contents of trehalose and glycerin and promote energy metabolism to improve hypertonic tolerance. In addition, FDH1 had a significant effect on yeast hypertonic tolerance.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061193
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1194: The Role of Diffusivity in Oil and Gas
           Industries: Fundamentals, Measurement, and Correlative Techniques

    • Authors: Ram R. Ratnakar, Birol Dindoruk
      First page: 1194
      Abstract: The existence of various native or nonnative species/fluids, along with having more than one phase in the subsurface and within the integrated production and injection systems, generates unique challenges as the pressure, temperature, composition and time (P-T-z and t) domains exhibit multi-scale characteristics. In such systems, fluid/component mixing, whether for natural reasons or man-made reasons, is one of the most complex aspects of the behavior of the system, as inherent compositions are partially or all due to these phenomena. Any time a gradient is introduced, these systems try to converge thermodynamically to an equilibrium state while being in the disequilibrium state at scale during the transitional process. These disequilibrium states create diffusive gradients, which, in the absence of flow, control the mixing processes leading to equilibrium at a certain time scale, which could also be a function of various time and length scales associated with the system. Therefore, it is crucial to understand these aspects, especially when technologies that need or utilize these concepts are under development. For example, as the technology of gas-injection-based enhanced oil recovery, CO2 sequestration and flooding have been developed, deployed and applied to several reservoirs/aquifers worldwide, performing research on mass-transfer mechanisms between gas, oil and aqueous phases became more important, especially in terms of optimal design considerations. It is well-known that in absence of direct frontal contact and convective mixing, diffusive mixing is one of most dominant mass-transfer mechanisms, which has an impact on the effectiveness of the oil recovery and gas injection processes. Therefore, in this work, we review the fundamentals of diffusive mixing processes in general terms and summarize the theoretical, experimental and empirical studies to estimate the diffusion coefficients at high pressure—temperature conditions at various time and length scales relevant to reservoir-fluid systems.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061194
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1195: A Hydrodynamic–Elastic Numerical
           Case Study of a Solar Collector with a Double Enclosure Filled with Air
           and Fe3O4/Water Nanofluid

    • Authors: Rached Nciri, Faris Alqurashi, Chaouki Ali, Faouzi Nasri
      First page: 1195
      Abstract: This work deals with a numerical investigation of a hydrodynamic–elastic problem within the framework of a double enclosure solar collector technological configuration. The solar collector presents two enclosures separated by an elastic absorber wall. The upper enclosure is filled with air, whereas the lower one is filled with Fe3O4/water nanofluid. The mathematical model governing the thermal and flow behaviors of the considered nanofluid is elaborated. The effects of imposed hot temperatures, the Rayleigh number and air pressure on the nanofluid’s temperature contours, velocity magnitude distribution, temperature evolution, velocity magnitude evolution and Nusselt number evolutions are numerically investigated. The numerical results show and assess how the increase in the Rayleigh number affects convective heat transfer at the expense of the conductive one, as well as how much the Nusselt number and the nanofluid velocity magnitude and temperature are affected in a function of the imposed hot temperature type (uniformly or right-triangular distributed on the elastic absorber wall). Moreover, the results evaluate how increases in the air pressure applied on the elastic absorber wall affects the nanofluid’s temperature distribution.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061195
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1196: Treatment of Sewage Sludge Compost
           Leachates on a Green Waste Biopile: A Case Study for an On-Site

    • Authors: Chaher Ibrahim Irka, Pascale Prudent, Frédéric Théraulaz, Anne-Marie Farnet Da Silva, Laurence Asia, Didier Gori, Laurent Vassalo, Amandine Durand, Carine Demelas, Patrick Höhener, Pascal Wong-Wah-Chung
      First page: 1196
      Abstract: This work proposes a suitable treatment for the leachates from a sewage sludge composting process using a specific windrow (biopile). The biopile’s evolution and organic content degradation were followed for 2 months with regular leachate spraying to assess the physico-chemical and biological impacts, and determine the risk of enrichment with certain monitored pollutants. The final objective was the valorization of the biopile substrates in the composting process, while respecting the quality standards of use in a circular economy way. Classical physico-chemical parameters (pH, conductivity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), etc.) were measured in the leachates and in the water-extractable and dry-solid fractions of the biopile, and the catabolic evolution of the micro-organisms (diversity and activities), as well as the enrichment with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) (prioritized PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls)), were determined. The results showed that the microbial populations that were already present in the biopile, and that are responsible for biodegradation, were not affected by leachate spraying. Even when the studied compost leachate was highly concentrated with ammonium nitrogen (10.4 gN L−1 on average), it significantly decreased in the biopile after 2 weeks. A study on the evolution of the isotopic signature (δ15 N) confirmed the loss of leachate nitrogen in its ammoniacal form. The bio-physico-chemical characteristics of the biopile at the end of the experiment were similar to those before the first spraying with leachate. Moreover, no significant enrichment with contaminants (metal trace elements, volatile fatty acids, or persistent organic pollutants) was observed. The results show that it would be possible for composting platforms to implement this inexpensive and sustainable process for the treatment of leachates.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061196
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1197: An Efficiency Improvement Driver for
           Master Oscillator Power Amplifier Pulsed Laser Systems

    • Authors: Fu-Zen Chen, Yu-Cheng Song, Fu-Shun Ho
      First page: 1197
      Abstract: The master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) pulsed laser, one of the popular topologies for high-power fiber laser systems, is widely applied in industrial machining laser systems. In MOPA, the low-power pulsed laser, stimulated from a seed laser diode, is amplified by the high- power optical energy from pump laser diodes via the gain fiber. Generally, the high-power pump laser diodes are driven by lossy linear current drivers. The switched mode current drivers boost the driver efficiency but suffer from pulse energy consistency due to the current switching ripple. In this paper, a laser driver system that varies the switching frequency of current source to synchronize with pulsed laser repetition rate is analyzed and implemented. Experimental results are demonstrated using a 20 W pulsed fiber laser system.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061197
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1198: Sub-THz Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit
           Model and Parameter Extraction for 3 nm Gate-All-Around Nanosheet

    • Authors: Yabin Sun, Hengbin Gao, Shaojian Hu, Ziyu Liu, Xiaojin Li, Yun Liu, Yanling Shi
      First page: 1198
      Abstract: This paper presents a novel RF small-signal equivalent circuit model and parameter extraction for 3 nm nanosheet gate-all-around field effect transistor (GAAFET). The extrinsic parasitic effect induced by ground-signal-ground (GSG) layout is evaluated by 3D full-wave electromagnetic simulation, and an improved five-step analytical parameter extraction method is proposed for such extrinsic GSG layout. The model parameters for the intrinsic device are analytically determined with the help of nonlinear rational function fitting. The accuracy of the proposed extraction method was confirmed via comparisons between device simulator and electromagnetic simulator with frequency responses up to 300 GHz. Excellent agreement is obtained between the simulated and modeled S-parameters, and the calculated error is lower than 2.689% for the extrinsic layout, and 0.897% for the intrinsic device in the whole frequency range among multi-bias points.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061198
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1199: A Healthcare Quality Assessment Model
           Based on Outlier Detection Algorithm

    • Authors: Nawaf Alharbe, Mohamed Ali Rakrouki, Abeer Aljohani
      First page: 1199
      Abstract: With the extremely rapid growth of data in various industries, big data is gradually recognized and valued by people. Medical big data, which can best reflect the significance of big data value, has also received attention from various parties. In Saudi Arabia, healthcare quality assessment is mostly based on human experience and basic statistical methods. In this paper, we proposed a healthcare quality assessment model based on medical big data in a region of Saudi Arabia, which integrated traditional evaluation methods and machine learning based techniques. Healthcare data has been accurate and effective after noise processing, and the outliers could reflect certain medical quality information. An improved k-nearest neighbors (KNN) algorithm has been proposed and its time complexity have been reduced to be more suitable for big data processing. An outlier indicator has been established based on statistical methods and the improved KNN algorithm. Experimental results showed that the proposed approach has good potential for detecting hospitals with financial fraud and poor-quality medical care.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061199
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1200: Personalized Medicine for the Critically
           Ill Patient: A Narrative Review

    • Authors: Alexandra Elena Lazar, Leonard Azamfirei
      First page: 1200
      Abstract: Personalized Medicine (PM) is rapidly advancing in everyday medical practice. Technological advances allow researchers to reach patients more than ever with their discoveries. The critically ill patient is probably the most complex of all, and personalized medicine must make serious efforts to fulfill the desire to “treat the individual, not the disease”. The complexity of critically ill pathologies arises from the severe state these patients and from the deranged pathways of their diseases. PM constitutes the integration of basic research into clinical practice; however, to make this possible complex and voluminous data require processing through even more complex mathematical models. The result of processing biodata is a digitized individual, from which fragments of information can be extracted for specific purposes. With this review, we aim to describe the current state of PM technologies and methods and explore its application in critically ill patients, as well as some of the challenges associated with PM in intensive care from the perspective of economic, approval, and ethical issues. This review can help in understanding the complexity of, P.M.; the complex processes needed for its application in critically ill patients, the benefits that make the effort of implementation worthwhile, and the current challenges of PM.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061200
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1201: Design and Optimization of γ-Shaped
           Settlement Training Wall Based on Numerical Simulation and CCD-Response
           Surface Method

    • Authors: Bo Xu, Jianfeng Liu, Weigang Lu, Lei Xu, Renyi Xu
      First page: 1201
      Abstract: To ameliorate the inflow state of the joint hub of a pump station and sluice, a γ-shaped settlement training wall was designed with its state adjusted automatically in line with the actual working condition of the project. The central composite design (CCD) of the response surface method was adopted to optimize the geometrical size of the training wall in the operational states of pumping and free-draining separately. The results showed that the alteration of different size factors of the γ-shaped settlement training wall had different degrees of influence on its rectification effect; the intake flow state of the joint hub of the sluice and pumping station with the γ-shaped settlement training wall can be significantly improved with the flow velocity uniformity in the inlet channel next to the junction of the sluice chamber, reaching 80.42%, and the flow velocity uniformity ahead of the sluice, reaching 84.78%, in the operational state of free-draining. By combining the results of numerical simulation, the feasibility of the response surface method was further verified and the optimal combination of geometric parameters of the γ-shaped settlement training wall were also obtained, which can be adopted in the design of the actual joint hub of the pump station and sluice.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061201
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1202: Potential for Biomethanisation of CO2 from
           Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Wastes in the United Kingdom

    • Authors: Angela Bywater, Sonia Heaven, Yue Zhang, Charles J. Banks
      First page: 1202
      Abstract: The United Kingdom (UK) has a decarbonisation strategy that includes energy from both hydrogen and biomethane. The latter comes from the growing anaerobic digestion (AD) market, which in 2020 produced 23.3 TWh of energy in the form of biogas. According to the strategy, this must be upgraded to biomethane by removal of carbon dioxide (CO2): a goal that could also be fulfilled through CO2 biomethanisation, alleviating the need for carbon capture and storage. Results are presented from a survey of publicly available datasets coupled with modelling to identify potential scale and knowledge gaps. Literature data were used to estimate maximum biomethane concentrations by feedstock type: these ranged from 79% for food wastes to 93% for livestock manures. Data from various government sources were used to estimate the overall potential for CO2 biomethanisation with current AD infrastructure. Values for the uplift in biomethane production ranged from 57% to 61%, but the need for more consistent data collection methodologies was highlighted. On average, however, if CO2 biomethanisation was applied in all currently operating UK AD plants an energy production uplift of 12,954 GWh could be achieved based on 2020 figures. This is sufficient to justify the inclusion of CO2 biomethanisation in decarbonisation strategies, in the UK and worldwide.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061202
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1203: A Review of the Preparation, Machining
           Performance, and Application of Fe-Based Amorphous Alloys

    • Authors: Zexuan Huo, Guoqing Zhang, Junhong Han, Jianpeng Wang, Shuai Ma, Haitao Wang
      First page: 1203
      Abstract: Amorphous alloy is an emerging metal material, and its unique atomic arrangement brings it the excellent properties of high strength and high hardness, and, therefore, have attracted extensive attention in the fields of electronic information and cutting-edge products. Their applications involve machining and forming, make the machining performance of amorphous alloys being a research hotspot. However, the present research on amorphous alloys and their machining performance is widely focused, especially for Fe-based amorphous alloys, and there lacks a systematic review. Therefore, in the present research, based on the properties of amorphous alloys and Fe-based amorphous alloys, the fundamental reason and improvement method of the difficult-to-machine properties of Fe-based amorphous alloys are reviewed and analyzed. Firstly, the properties of amorphous alloys are summarized, and it is found that crystallization and high temperature in machining are the main reasons for difficult-to-machine properties. Then, the unique properties, preparation and application of Fe-based amorphous alloys are reviewed. The review found that the machining of Fe-based amorphous alloys is also deteriorated by extremely high hardness and chemical tool wear. Tool-assisted machining, low-temperature lubrication assisted machining, and magnetic field-assisted machining can effectively improve the machining performance of Fe-based amorphous alloys. The combination of assisted machining methods is the development trend in machining Fe-based amorphous alloys, and even amorphous alloys in the future. The present research provides a systematic summary for the machining of Fe-based amorphous alloys, which would serve as a reference for relevant research.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061203
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1204: Experimental Studies of the Processes of
           Stepped Torque Loads Parrying by Asynchronous Electric Drives and
           Interpretation of Experimental Results by Nonlinear Transfer Functions of

    • Authors: Vladimir L. Kodkin, Alexander A. Baldenkov
      First page: 1204
      Abstract: This article presents the results of experimental studies of asynchronous motors with a short-circuited rotor (induction motors—IM) with the most common frequency control methods: scalar; vector control; vector with speed control circuit; scalar control with dynamic compensation. The purpose of the experiments was to identify and show the features of the reaction of these control methods to the stepped sketches of the load on the asynchronous electric drive, as in a nonlinear electromechanical system. When selecting the parameters and settings of the “Schneider electric” frequency converter settings, standard instructions and techniques have been used, so the settings of the regulators were not optimal. The aim was not to determine the most effective structures and show fundamentally new solutions. Asynchronous electric motors are substantially nonlinear structures. In the formation of vector control theory, a number of simplifications and assumptions were used, the cost of which was not very clear and theoretically difficult to assess. This work is a step towards estimating the cost of these simplifications. This paper provides the results of experiments in which step-loading modes are presented by the maximum possible registered signals and the amplitude of the stator voltage, formed by various algorithms, the frequency and amplitude of the rotor current and the actual sliding and rotation speed of the engine rotor. This made it possible to maximally objectively assess the effectiveness of the interpretation of asynchronous electric drives and the methods of their regulation. The authors have conducted research in this area for about 15 years. In numerous articles on this subject over the past 25–30 years, the authors did not find such results. The vast majority of work devoted to the study of asynchronous electric drives with frequency control uses the notion of not too significant errors in the linearization of Park’s vector equations. In particular, the concepts of the sinusoidality of currents and voltages in AC motors and the accuracy of vector equations are almost always used, which are valid only at a constant frequency of the stator voltage.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061204
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1205: An Integrated Multiple-Criteria
           Decision-Making Model for New Product Development: The Case of Taiwan
           Organic Light-Emitting Diode Industry

    • Authors: Wen-Chin Chen, Pao-Wen Lin, Wei-Jaw Deng
      First page: 1205
      Abstract: Due to the strong demand for organic light-emitting diode (OLED) display products and the highly competitive global market, OLED enterprises need to proactively make product innovations for presuming business competitive advantage, high sales, high profits, high customer consuming value, and the sustainability of the enterprise. A suitable multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) model for OLED new product development (NPD) can help OLED enterprises’ R&D team to minimize risks and maximize the success rate of NPD. However, the literature reviews of the MCDM model for OLED NPD are very rare. This study aims to propose the approaches for establishing an integrated MCDM model for OLED NPD that apply three methodologies which include the literature review and expert panel, Interpretive structural modeling (ISM), and Fuzzy analytic network process (FANP). Meanwhile, after the implication of the proposed approaches in the case study of Taiwan OLED NPD, this study proposes an integrated MCDM model for OLED NPD in Taiwan. The research results reveal fifteen evaluation criteria of OLED NPD and their relative weight. Furthermore, the research results reveal the top three important criteria are return on investment, expert research and industry evaluation, and R&D funding preparation. The proposed approaches can be applied in other industries for establishing an integrated MCDM model for their own NPD. The proposed integrated MCDM model for OLED NPD in Taiwan can help enterprises in the Taiwan OLED industry to develop new OLED products in an efficient way and to boost sales, profits, and competitive advantages. Besides, this study enriches the research references of MCDM model for NPD and OLED field.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061205
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1206: Modification of the Microstructure and
           Transport Properties of La2CuO4−δ Electrodes via Halogenation

    • Authors: Lucía dos Santos-Gómez, Javier Zamudio-García, José M. Porras-Vázquez, Enrique R. Losilla, David Marrero-López
      First page: 1206
      Abstract: Ruddlesden–Popper type electrodes with composition La2CuO4−δ are alternative cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs); however, the undoped compound exhibits low electrical conductivity for potential applications, which is usually increased by alkaline-earth doping. A promising alternative to alkaline-earth doping is the modification of the anionic framework by halogen doping. In this study, La2CuO4−0.5xAx (A = F, Cl, Br; x = 0–0.3) compounds are prepared by a freeze-drying precursor method, using an anion doping strategy. The composition, structure, morphology and electrical properties are studied to evaluate their potential use in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The halogen-doped materials show higher electrical conductivity and improved electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reactions when compared to the pristine material, with polarization resistance values 2.5 times lower, i.e., 0.20, 0.11 and 0.08 Ω cm2 for undoped, F- and Cl-doped samples, respectively, at 800 °C. Moreover, halogen doping prevents superficial copper segregation in La2CuO4−δ, making it an attractive strategy for the development of highly efficient electrodes for SOFCs.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061206
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1207: Physical and Mechanical Characterization
           of a Functionalized Cotton Fabric with Nanocomposite Based on Silver
           Nanoparticles and Carboxymethyl Chitosan Using Green Chemistry

    • Authors: Linda Gabriela Quispe-Quispe, Patricia Limpe-Ramos, Carlos Alberto Arenas-Chávez, Monica Marcela Gomez, Christian R. Mejia, Aldo Alvarez-Risco, Shyla Del-Aguila-Arcentales, Jaime A. Yáñez, Corina Vera-Gonzales
      First page: 1207
      Abstract: Cotton is the most widely used natural fiber for textiles but its innate capacity to absorb moisture, retain oxygen, and high specific surface area make it more prone to microbial contamination, becoming an appropriate medium for the growth of bacteria and fungi. In recent years, the incorporation of silver nanoparticles in textile products has been widely used due to their broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and low toxicity towards mammalian cells. The aim of the current study is to synthesize and characterize a nanocomposite based on silver nanoparticles and carboxymethyl chitosan (AgNPs-CMC), which was utilized to provide a functional finish to cotton fabric. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) to produce a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) image showed that the nanocomposite presents AgNPs with a 5–20 nm size. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the presence of silver nanoparticles. The concentration of silver in the functionalized fabric was evaluated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), which reported an average concentration of 13.5 mg of silver per kg of functionalized fabric. SEM showed that silver nanoparticles present a uniform distribution on the surface of the functionalized cotton fabric fibers. On the other hand, by infrared spectroscopy, it was observed that the functionalized fabric variation (compared to control) had a displaced peak of intensity at 1594.32 cm−1, corresponding to carboxylate anions. Similarly, Raman spectroscopy showed an intense peak at 1592.84 cm−1, which corresponds to the primary amino group of carboxymethyl chitosan, and a peak at 1371.5 cm−1 corresponding to the carboxylic anions. Finally, the physical and mechanical tests of tensile strength and color index of the functional fabric reported that it was no different (p ˃ 0.05) than the control fabric. Our results demonstrate that we have obtained an improved functionalized cotton fabric using green chemistry that does not alter intrinsic properties of the fabric and has the potential to be utilized in the manufacturing of hospital garments.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061207
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1208: A Biorefinery Approach to Biodiesel
           Production from Castor Plants

    • Authors: Fabiola Sandoval-Salas, Carlos Méndez-Carreto, Graciela Ortega-Avila, Christell Barrales-Fernández, León Raúl Hernández-Ochoa, Nestor Sanchez
      First page: 1208
      Abstract: The high consumption of fossil fuels has significant environmental implications. An alternative to reduce the use of fossil fuels and develop ecological and economic processes is the bio-refinery approach. In the present study, the authors present the production of biodiesel from castor plants through a biorefinery approach. The process includes sub-processes associated with the integral use of castor plants, such as biodiesel production, oil extraction, fertilizer, and solid biomass production. Economic analyses show that producing only biodiesel is not feasible, but economic indicators (NPV, IRR, and profitability index) show it is much more feasible to establish businesses for the valorization of products and subproducts of castor plants, such as biomass densification. The internal rate return for the second scenario (E2) was 568%, whereas, for the first scenario (E1), it was not possible to obtain a return on investment.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061208
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1209: Blockchain Development Services Provider
           Assessment Model for a Logistics Organizations

    • Authors: Nguyen Van Thanh
      First page: 1209
      Abstract: As the global market develops along with technological advances, especially the opening of markets in developing and underdeveloped countries, the logistics industry is considered by managers to be a useful tool to link different functions of corporate strategy. Logistics is the process of planning, implementing and controlling the movement of goods or information that are related to raw materials (inputs) and final products (outputs) from the point of origin to the point of consumption in order to meet customer requirements. The logistics industry brings about many positive effects, not only for the national economy but also for creating equal business opportunities for businesses of all economic sectors. However, large companies in the logistics industry still depend on EDI or APIS to exchange secure authentication data, which increase the security of operations within the industry, but this is the cause of a lot of confusion with serious consequences on the supply chain when it is too dependent on these systems. To minimize the risks and optimize the problems mentioned above, blockchain technology could help the logistics industry to operate optimally. In an era when everything is digitized, from personal information to financial transactions, choosing a system with high reliability and security becomes extremely important. Currently, there are many blockchain development services providers and it is essential to choose the investment in this technology that suits the characteristics and purposes of the logistics organization in question. This study aimed to propose a two-stage fuzzy multicriteria decision-making model for the assessment of blockchain development services providers for logistics organizations. The hybrid MCDM model was evaluated through a real-world case study at a logistics organization. The contribution of this work is the provision of useful guidelines for the evaluation and selection of blockchain technology services providers for logistics companies.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061209
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1210: A Value-Added Utilization Method of Sugar
           Production By-Products from Rice Straw: Extraction of Lignin and
           Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Activity

    • Authors: Shengming Zhang, Liangfei Ma, Shushan Gao, Chonghao Zhu, Yehong Yan, Xiaohan Liu, Longhai Li, Haitao Chen
      First page: 1210
      Abstract: To value-added utilization of the rice straw, two types of lignin were extracted from the by-products of sugar production. The ether-extracted lignin with a purity of 98.7% was extracted from the pretreatment filtrate with two times the concentrated filtrate volume of ether, where the lignin yield was 6.62 mg/g of the rice straw. The ball-milled lignin with a purity of 99.6% was extracted from the milled enzymatic hydrolysis residue with a 1,4-dioxane solution, where the revolution speed and grinding time were 300 rpm and 12 h, respectively. The yield of ball-milled lignin was 34.52 mg/g of the rice straw, which was 421.5% higher than that extracted from extract-free rice straw. In the process of rice straw pretreatment and lignin extraction, 76.43% by mass of phosphotungstic acid catalyst and approximately 98% by volume of 1,4-dioxane solution could be recycled and reused. Compared with the soda lignin extracted from papermaking black liquor, the scavenging rates of DPPH radical and ABTS+ radical of ether-extracted lignin increased by 36.26% and 41.18%, respectively, while the above scavenging rates of ball-milled lignin increased by 30.22% and 37.75%, respectively. Moreover, the reducing power of the two extracted lignins was also stronger than that of soda lignin. The ether-extracted lignin and ball-milled lignin have the potential to be developed as natural macromolecular antioxidants.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061210
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1211: Experimental Verification of Reservoirs
           with Different Wettability Using an Oil–Water Relative Permeability

    • Authors: Jianya Pei, Yunfeng Zhang, Jin Hu, Jian Zhang, Xiaomeng Zhu, Qiang Wang, Hua Gong
      First page: 1211
      Abstract: Oil–water relative permeability is an important parameter that affects fluid flow in porous media. It is usually obtained in a laboratory. Since rock resistivity and relative permeability are both effects of water saturation, they should theoretically have a relationship. Based on the parallel conduction principle of fluid and skeleton in porous media, the pore structure and fluid distribution can be simplified using the Kozeny–Carman permeability correction equation and the Archie formula, and the relative permeability model of the water phase can be deduced under different wetting conditions. In this study, the resistivity and relative permeability experimental data of 20 rock samples from four inspection wells were compared and verified. The results show that the proposed oil–water relative permeability model agrees well with a reservoir having a porosity range of 17.6–30.7% and an air permeability of 0.16–973 × 10−3 μm, and it may explain why the relative permeability of the water phase decreases as water saturation increases. This model could provide a new technique to construct the relative permeability curves of sandstone reservoirs.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061211
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1212: Comprehensive Penetration Evaluation
           Method in Collisions between a Supply Ship and a Semi-Submersible Platform

    • Authors: Yuan Xiao, Zhi Yao, Xu Zhang
      First page: 1212
      Abstract: Collisions between ships and offshore platforms frequently occur, with severe consequences. Predicting the collision depth under different conditions is very important to evaluate the severity of the consequences. Considering the time-consuming numerical simulation problem and the accuracy problems of existing approximation algorithms, this paper proposes a comprehensive approach to estimating penetration depths by obtaining two collision coefficients for specific collision structures based on the partial results of numerical simulations and simplified theoretical analysis. In this study, the collision process between a supply ship with a transverse framing stern and an offshore semi-platform was first numerically simulated based on the explicit dynamic method. The changes in ship velocity, impact force, and energy conversion before and after the collision processes were obtained through numerical simulations of the collisions with different speeds and angles. Then, by combining the external dynamics and numerical results, the analytical results of dissipated energy under other collision conditions were obtained using a simulated restitution coefficient. For the following internal dynamics analysis, according to the failure modes of specific structural components in different regions, an appropriate structural energy absorption formula was combined to obtain the relationship between the penetrations and energy absorption in a particular collision area. According to the friction energy ratio derived by the simulation, the penetration depths in the offshore platform were calculated. The results showed that the deviations between the proposed method and direct simulation results were less than 15% in the cases of a medium- to high-energy collision. It can be concluded that the restitution coefficient and friction energy ratio in different collision conditions can be approximately determined for a specific collision system by typical numerical simulations, thus quickly calculating the penetration depths of other conditions.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061212
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1213: Picking Path Planning Method of Dual
           Rollers Type Safflower Picking Robot Based on Improved ant Colony

    • Authors: He Zhang, Yun Ge, Chao Sun, Haifeng Zeng, Na Liu
      First page: 1213
      Abstract: Aiming at the problem of automatic path planning for the whole safflower bulbs during the operation of safflower picking robots, an improved ant colony algorithm (ACA) was proposed to plan the three-dimensional path of the safflower picking points. The shortest time and distance were taken as the overall goal of path planning to comprehensively improve the working efficiency of safflower picking robots. First, in order to shorten time, the angle induction factor was introduced to reduce the angle rotation of the end-effector. Second, in order to shorten the length of the picking path, the picking track was optimized. Finally, the design of the secondary path optimization reduced the number of picking points, which not only shortened the length of the picking path, but also shortened the picking time. The simulation results show that the path planned by the improved ACA was reduced by three picking points, shortening the total length by 74.32%, and reducing the picking time by 0.957 s. The simulation results verify the feasibility of the improved ACA for safflower picking path planning, which provides theoretical reference and technical support for the picking path planning of dual roller safflower picking robots.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061213
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1214: Optimal Demand-Side Management Using Flat
           Pricing Scheme in Smart Grid

    • Authors: Fahad R. Albogamy, Yasir Ashfaq, Ghulam Hafeez, Sadia Murawwat, Sheraz Khan, Faheem Ali, Farrukh Aslam Khan, Khalid Rehman
      First page: 1214
      Abstract: This work proposes a framework to solve demand-side management (DSM) problem by systematically scheduling energy consumption using flat pricing scheme (FPS) in smart grid (SG). The framework includes microgrid with renewable energy sources (solar and wind), energy storage systems, electric vehicles (EVs), and building appliances like time flexible, power flexible, and base/critical appliances. For the proposed framework, we develop an ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm, which efficiently schedules smart appliances, and EVs batteries charging/discharging with microgrid and without (W/O) microgrid under FPS to minimize energy cost, carbon emission, and peak to average ratio (PAR). An integrated technique of enhanced differential evolution (EDE) algorithm and artificial neural network (ANN) is devised to predict solar irradiance and wind speed for accurate microgrid energy estimation. To endorse the applicability of the proposed framework, simulations are conducted. Moreover, the proposed framework based on the ACO algorithm is compared to mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) and W/O scheduling energy management frameworks in terms of energy cost, carbon emission, and PAR. The developed ACO algorithm reduces energy cost, PAR, and carbon emission by 23.69%, 26.20%, and 15.35% in scenario I, and 25.09%, 31.45%, and 18.50% in scenario II, respectively, as compared to W/O scheduling case. The results affirm the applicability of the proposed framework in aspects of the desired objectives.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061214
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1215: Research and Development for Cyclotron
           Production of 225Ac from 226Ra—The Challenges in a Country Lacking
           Natural Resources for Medical Applications

    • Authors: Tatsuya Higashi, Kotaro Nagatsu, Atsushi B Tsuji, Ming-Rong Zhang
      First page: 1215
      Abstract: The high therapeutic effect of targeted radioisotope/radionuclide therapy (TRT) using α-emitters, especially 225Ac, is attracting attention worldwide. However, the only 225Ac production method that has been put into practical use is extraction from a 229Th generator derived from the nuclear fuel 233U, and it is unlikely that this method alone is able to meet future global medical demand. Development towards new 225Ac production methods is in progress. These new 225Ac production methods require the irradiation of 232Th or 226Ra using an accelerator or a nuclear reactor. Global competition has already begun in the race to secure a reliable supply of 232Th and 226Ra, as well as 229Th for the conventional production method. Japan is a “resource-poor country” that depends on foreign countries for most of its needs. As such, it is difficult for Japan to secure raw materials such as 232Th and 226Ra for medical application. In this paper, we look back on our research at the National Institutes for Quantum Science and Technology (QST) in the fields of 225Ac production and 225Ac-labeled pharmaceutical development. We present the history and details of our research from 2011, as well as the development of a collaboration between QST and Nihon Medi-Physics that focuses on research into 225Ac production via 226Ra(p,2n)225Ac reaction using an accelerator. Furthermore, we review the valuable discussion at the 2018 Joint IAEA-JRC Workshop—“Supply of Actinium-225”, an international conference that we participated in. Overall, the statuses of external 225Ac supply, domestic production, and distribution are discussed, as are the latest developments in 225Ac production methods, 225Ac pharmaceuticals, and future prospects for the domestic production of 225Ac in Japan, a country lacking natural resources for medical applications.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061215
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1216: Solving the Formation and Containment
           Control Problem of Nonlinear Multi-Boiler Systems Based on Interval Type-2
           Takagi–Sugeno Fuzzy Models

    • Authors: Yann-Horng Lin, Wen-Jer Chang, Cheung-Chieh Ku
      First page: 1216
      Abstract: An interval type-2 (IT-2) fuzzy control design method is developed to solve the formation and containment problem of nonlinear multi-boiler systems. In most practical industrial systems such as airplanes, vessels, and power plants, the boiler system often exists as more than one piece of equipment. An efficient control theory based on the leader-following multi-agent system is applied to achieve the control purpose of multiple boiler systems simultaneously. Moreover, a faithful mathematical model of the nonlinear boiler system is extended to construct the multi-boiler system so that the dynamic behaviors can be accurately presented. For the control of practical multi-agent systems, the uncertainties problem, which will deteriorate the performance of the whole system greatly, must be considered. Because of this, the IT-2 Takagi–Sugeno (T–S) fuzzy model is developed to represent the nonlinear multi-boiler system with uncertainties more completely. Based on the fuzzy model, the IT-2 fuzzy formation and containment controllers are designed with the imperfect premise matching scheme. Thus, the IT-2 fuzzy control method design can be more flexible for the nonlinear multi-boiler system. Solving the formation problem, a control method without the communication between leaders differs from the previous research. Since leaders achieve the formation objective, the followers can be forced into the specific range formed by leaders. Via the IT-2 fuzzy control method in this paper, not only can the more flexible process of the controller design method be developed to solve the uncertainties problem magnificently, but a more cost-effective control purpose can also be achieved via applying the lower rules of fuzzy controllers. Finally, the simulation results of controlling a nonlinear multi-boiler system with four agents are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed IT-2 fuzzy formation and containment control method.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061216
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1217: Speciation Distribution and Influencing
           Factors of Heavy Metals in Rhizosphere Soil of Miscanthus Floridulus in
           the Tailing Reservoir Area of Dabaoshan Iron Polymetallic Mine in Northern

    • Authors: Jianqiao Qin, Huarong Zhao, Ming Dai, Peng Zhao, Xi Chen, Hao Liu, Baizhou Lu
      First page: 1217
      Abstract: Through field investigation and experimental analysis, the forms, contents and distribution of heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni, Cr) in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of Miscanthus floridulus growing everywhere in Tielongwei mine pond (sample plot 1), Caoduikeng tailings pond (sample plot 2), Donghua tailings pond (sample plot 3) and Small tailings pond (sample plot 4) in Dabaoshan, Guangdong Province were studied. The results showed that the main forms and distributions of heavy metals in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils are basically the same, which shows that the mineral content accounts for most of the total amount of heavy metals, while the exchange content is low. Compared with non-rhizosphere soil, the proportion of exchangeable and organic heavy metals in rhizosphere soil increased significantly, in which the proportion of organic-bound Cu increased by 53.25%, the proportion of organic-bound Cd and Pb increased by more than 17%, and the proportion of Zn increased by 5.67%. At the same time, the contents of carbonate-bound and iron manganese oxide-bound decreased. Statistical analyses showed that the morphological distribution of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni and Cr in rhizosphere soil was closely related to soil pH value, organic matter content, plant growth and other factors. The results of this study provided a basis for the restoration of heavy metal-contaminated sites by Miscanthus.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061217
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1218: Study on Piezomagnetic Effect of Iron
           Cobalt Alloy and Force Sensor

    • Authors: Ruichuan Li, Jilu Liu, Jikang Xu, Xinkai Ding, Yi Cheng, Qi Liu
      First page: 1218
      Abstract: Based on the nonlinear piezomagnetic equation, the piezomagnetic effect of prismatic iron-cobalt alloy is analyzed by using the ANSYS finite element simulation platform. The variation of the dynamic piezomagnetic coefficient of the iron-cobalt alloy under different bias magnetic fields and different stress was studied through simulation. Referring to the working condition of the tractor force sensor and according to the principle of magnetic circuit superposition, a piezomagnetic force sensor was designed and manufactured using iron-cobalt alloy. According to the electromagnetic theory and piezomagnetic effect, the three-dimensional model and magnetic circuit mathematical model of the sensor are established, and the system simulation model of the piezomagnetic sensor was established based on the MATLAB/Simulink module. The experimental platform of the magnetostrictive force sensor was built to verify the correctness of the simulation model, and the effects of bias magnetic field and force on the output characteristics are studied. The simulation and experimental results show that the maximum piezomagnetic coefficient was 9.2 T/GPA when the bias magnetic field intensity was 14.74 kA/m. The force measuring range of the sensor is 0–120 kN, and the sensor has high sensitivity within 0–80 kN. The sensor has a simple structure, is suitable for the force measurement and control of an electro-hydraulic lifter under heavy load, and can better adapt to the harsh working environment.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061218
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1219: Exergy Analysis of Reactive Distillation

    • Authors: Mathkar A. Alharthi
      First page: 1219
      Abstract: In this article, the Dimethyl Carbonate (DMC) synthesis process was investigated thermodynamically based on a well-optimized DMC system for a developed configuration, according to a real industrial plant, presented by Huang et al. Exergy analysis was performed using ProSimPlus software as an efficient process modeling and simulation environment that is uniquely capable of exergy balance computations. The key operational variables such as the reflux ratio (Rr), feed temperatures, and feed tray location were varied to explore their impact on the total irreversibilities, global intrinsic efficiency, and DMC purity. The influence of the high pressure (HP) column reflux ratio was the most effective parameter on the exergy destruction and DMC purity, which also significantly increased the duties of the HP column reboiler and condenser. The steady state results are reported in comparison with those found in the literature, and an excellent match is shown between them.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061219
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1220: EOQ Models for Imperfect Items under Time
           Varying Demand Rate

    • Authors: Yi Wen Lok, Siti Suzlin Supadi, Kok Bin Wong
      First page: 1220
      Abstract: In the classical Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) model, the common unrealistic assumptions are that all the purchased items are of perfect quality and the demand is constant. However, in a real-world environment, a portion of the purchased items might be damaged due to mishandling or an accident during the shipment process, and the demand rate may increase or decrease over time. Many companies are torn between repairing or replacing the imperfect items with new ones. The right decision on that options is crucial in order to guarantee that there is no shortage of stocks while at the same time not jeopardising the items’ quality and maximising the company’s profit. This paper investigates two EOQ models for imperfect quality items by assuming the demand rate varies with time. Under Policy 1, imperfect items are sent for repairs at an additional cost to the makeup margin; under Policy 2, imperfect items are replaced with equivalent quality items from a local supplier at a higher price. Two mathematical models are developed, and numerical examples along with sensitivity analyses are provided to illustrate these models. Our results reveal that Policy 1 is preferable to Policy 2 most of the time. However, Policy 2 outperforms Policy 1 if there is no minimum threshold on the purchased stock quantity. This research allows a company to discover solutions to previously identified inventory problems and make the inventory-patching process more controlled.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061220
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1221: MHD Williamson Nanofluid Fluid Flow and
           Heat Transfer Past a Non-Linear Stretching Sheet Implanted in a Porous
           Medium: Effects of Heat Generation and Viscous Dissipation

    • Authors: Amir Abbas, Mdi Begum Jeelani, Abeer S. Alnahdi, Asifa Ilyas
      First page: 1221
      Abstract: The present study is carried out to examine the behavior of magnetohydrodynamic Williamson nanofluid flow and heat transfer over a non-linear stretching sheet embedded in a porous medium. In the current work, the influence of heat generation and viscous dissipation has been taken into account. The considered phenomenon in the form of partial differential equations is transformed into ordinary differential equations by utilizing an appropriate similarity transformation. The reduced form is solved by using rigorous MATLAB built-in solver bvp4c. The numerical solutions for the velocity field, temperature field, and mass concentration along with the skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number are computed. The obtained solutions are shown in graphs and are discussed with physical reasoning. It is noted that by increasing Williamson fluid parameter W, the velocity decreases and concentration profile increases. It is deduced that increasing Eckert number Ec leads to a rise in temperature and mass concentration. It has been viewed that with the increment in heat generation parameter Q, the temperature field increases and concentration decreases. The results show that an increasing magnetic field parameter M leaves a decreasing trend in the velocity field and an increasing trend in the temperature field and concentration profile. The present results are compared with the existing solution which shows good agreement and endorses the validation of current solutions.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061221
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1222: From Foods to Chemotherapeutics: The
           Antioxidant Potential of Dietary Phytochemicals

    • Authors: Michelle A. Briggs
      First page: 1222
      Abstract: Food plants have been recognized for their medicinal properties for millennia, a concept supported by epidemiological studies indicating long-term health benefits for people consuming greater amounts of fruits and vegetables. As our technology and instrumentation advance, researchers have the ability to identify promising phytochemicals, and examine their potential benefits, or detriments, to human health. While results from trials investigating single chemical supplementation have sometimes produced negative health results, studies investigating the synergistic action of phytochemicals—either within our diet or as an adjuvant to radiation or chemotherapy—appear promising. Utilizing phytochemicals as synergistic agents may lower the chemotherapeutic doses needed to incur physiological results, while also using chemicals with fewer toxic effects. This review investigates a variety of plant-produced chemicals humans typically ingest, their impacts on overall health patterns, molecular mechanisms associated with their health impacts, and the potential of their synergistic use for therapeutic purposes.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061222
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1223: Performance Identification of a Steam
           Boiler Burner via Acoustic Analysis

    • Authors: Kayra Kurşun, Levent Özdemir, Hakan Ersoy
      First page: 1223
      Abstract: Almost all systems generate acoustic signals when operating or when a process is being performed. These signals contain certain data related to the operating performance of systems. In this study, acoustic data were used to study the performance and to identify the optimum operating points of natural gas burners that are used in steam boilers. The sound recordings of burners obtained under different operating conditions were examined with acoustic analysis methods. The impact of various operating parameters on acoustic values was determined using time series analysis, frequency spectrum data and then power spectral density values. When the excess air coefficient and emission and efficiency values of boilers were compared with the acoustic data, it was determined that the Yule–Walker algorithm contained distinct and explanatory values. The steam boiler and the natural gas burner within were considered a system for the analysis. Measurement results showed that operating parameters and acoustic analysis results were correlated. Moreover, the results were confirmed with the emission measurement results. Finally, it was deduced that the acoustic values can be used for obtaining the optimum operating points in similar systems where inlet and outlet parameters cannot be measured, and the related principles were revealed.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061223
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1224: Bioremediation of Soil from Petroleum

    • Authors: Anna Yurievna Stepanova, Evgeny Aleksandrovich Gladkov, Ekaterina Sergeevna Osipova, Olga Victorovna Gladkova, Dmitry Viktorovich Tereshonok
      First page: 1224
      Abstract: Petroleum is the most common global fossil fuel. It is a complex multi-component system mainly composed of various hydrocarbons such as alkanes, cycloalkanes, mono-, bi- and polyaromatic compounds, resins and asphaltenes. In spite of humanity’s need for petroleum, it negatively affects the environment due to its toxicity. The ecological problem is especially serious at petroleum mining sites or during petroleum transportation. Since it is not possible to replace petroleum with less toxic fuel, ways to reduce the toxic impact of petroleum hydrocarbons on the environment need to be developed. This review addresses bioremediation, a biological approach to petroleum degradation, which is mainly performed by microbes. The pathways of degradation of alkanes, alkenes and aromatic hydrocarbons are presented in detail. The effects of temperature, aeration and the presence of biogenic elements on microbial degradation of petroleum are discussed. Plant–microbe interactions involved with the bioremediation of petroleum-polluted soils are specifically addressed. The data presented in this review point to the great potential of bioremediation practices for cleaning soils of petroleum.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061224
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1225: Immobilization of an Industrial
           β-Glucosidase from Aspergillus fumigatus and Its Use for
           Cellobiose Hydrolysis

    • Authors: Clara Yepes, Juliana Estévez, Miguel Arroyo, Miguel Ladero
      First page: 1225
      Abstract: In this study, several covalent methods of immobilization based on acrylic supports, Schiff bases and epoxides have been applied to a commercial cocktail with a high β-glucosidase activity secreted by Aspergillus fumigatus. This cocktail was preliminary compared to a commercial secretome of Aspergillus niger, which was also subjected to the aforementioned immobilization methods. Due to its higher activity, the cocktail from A. fumigatus immobilized on ReliZyme™ HA403 activated with glutaraldehyde was employed for pNPG and cellobiose hydrolysis in diverse operational conditions and at diverse enzyme loadings, showing a very high activity at high enzyme load. A kinetic model based on the Michaelis–Menten hypothesis, in which double inhibition occurs due to glucose, has been selected upon fitting it to all experimentally retrieved data with the lowest-activity immobilized enzyme. This model was compared to the one previously established for the free form of the enzyme, observing that cellobiose acompetitive inhibition does not exist with the immobilized enzyme acting as the biocatalyst. In addition, stability studies indicated that the immobilized enzyme intrinsically behaves as the free enzyme, as expected for a one-bond low-interaction protein-support immobilization.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061225
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1226: Novel Approaches Concerning the Numerical
           Modeling of Particle and Cell Separation in Microchannels: A Review

    • Authors: Ioannis H. Karampelas, Jenifer Gómez-Pastora
      First page: 1226
      Abstract: The demand for precise separation of particles, cells, and other biological matter has significantly increased in recent years, leading to heightened scientific interest in this topic. More recently, due to advances in computational techniques and hardware, numerical simulations have been used to guide the design of separation devices. In this article, we establish the theoretical basis governing fluid flow and particle separation and then summarize the computational work performed in the field of particle and cell separation in the last five years with an emphasis on magnetic, dielectric, and acoustic methods. Nearly 70 articles are being reviewed and categorized depending on the type of material separated, fluid medium, software used, and experimental validation, with a brief description of some of the most notable results. Finally, further conclusions, future guidelines, and suggestions for potential improvement are highlighted.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061226
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1227: Experimental Study on Activated Diatomite
           Modified Asphalt Pavement in Deep Loess Area

    • Authors: Ting Du, Peng Song, Liping Liu
      First page: 1227
      Abstract: In order to effectively prevent and control the rutting problem of asphalt pavement in the deep loess area of Eastern Gansu and reduce road diseases, diatomite was added into the asphalt mixture for laboratory tests. Through Marshall test and rutting test, the optimum mix proportion of the diatomite asphalt mixture, and the optimal mix amount of the diatomite in this area were determined. The pavement performance of activated diatomite asphalt pavement and SBS asphalt pavement in this area is compared and analyzed through laboratory tests and on-site road paving. The test results show that under the same ambient temperature, the activated diatomite asphalt pavement has the advantages of lower surface temperature, high stability, and low-water permeability coefficient than SBS modified asphalt pavement. In addition, by fitting the fatigue test data of these two asphalt pavements, it is found that the fatigue life of diatomite asphalt mixture is more sensitive to the change in stress level and has better fatigue resistance. Therefore, it is concluded that the use of diatomite modified asphalt pavement in the loess area can improve the temperature stability of the pavement, prolong the service life, and reduce the cost of construction, which can be popularized.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061227
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1228: Predicting the Effect of Mo Addition on
           Metastable Phase Equilibria and Diffusion Path of Fe in NiAl Laser-Clad
           Coatings Using First-Principle Calculations and CALPHAD Simulations

    • Authors: Chun-Ming Lin
      First page: 1228
      Abstract: This study used first-principle calculations and CALPHAD simulations to investigate the effects of adding Mo to NiAl laser-clad coatings in terms of metastable phase equilibria and Fe diffusion path with a focus on thermodynamic phase stability and element diffusion behavior. First-principle calculations were performed using 3 × 3 × 3 supercells to determine the formation energies of NiAl and Mo-rich phases within a Mo-doped NiAl cladding layer. The findings of this analysis are consistent with the d-orbital energy and bond order results obtained using DV-Xa molecular orbital calculations and phase diagrams obtained using Thermo-Calc simulations. The results also revealed that the substitution of Ni and Al atoms for Fe and Mo in the NiAl matrix decreased the stability of the B2 structure, thereby reducing phase formation energy. DICTRA simulations were also performed to characterize the diffusion behavior of Fe from the substrate to the surface of the coating. This analysis revealed that the rate of Fe diffusion was slower in the Mo phase than in the NiAl phase. Furthermore, the rate of Fe diffusion in molten material was inversely proportional to the Mo content. These results are consistent with the substitution mechanism used to describe diffusion, wherein diffusivity is inversely proportional to Mo content, due to its high melting point and the fact that un-paired electrons in the outer shell of Mo atoms increase the bonding strength, thereby hindering the diffusion of Fe. Due to the high cooling rates involved in the laser-cladding process, DICTRA simulations tend to overestimate the Fe diffusion distance. Nonetheless, the theoretical results obtained in this study were in good agreement with experiment observations (EPMA line scans). These results confirm the feasibility of using quantum modeling techniques and first-principle calculations to predict the effects of Mo addition on phase formation and element diffusion behavior in the NiAl laser-cladding process.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061228
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Processes, Vol. 10, Pages 1229: Impact of Combining Tumbling and Sous-Vide
           Cooking Processes on the Tenderness, Cooking Losses and Colour of Bovine

    • Authors: Konan Charles Aimeric N’Gatta, Alain Kondjoyan, Raphael Favier, Jason Sicard, Jacques Rouel, Dominique Gruffat, Pierre-Sylvain Mirade
      First page: 1229
      Abstract: This study investigated the effect of combining tumbling and sous-vide cooking processes on the tenderness, cooking losses and colour of bovine Semitendinosus (ST) muscles sampled from Charolais-breed cows. Half of the ST muscles were tumbled for 12 h with a compression rate of 40%. All muscle samples, whether tumbled or not, were then sous-vide cooked at 50 °C, 60 °C or 80 °C for 1 h or 4 h. After cooking, we measured the shear forces (SF), cooking losses, total water content and the main colour characteristics of pre-tumbled and non-tumbled meat pieces. Pre-tumbled meat pieces had 20% lower SF values than non-tumbled meat pieces, regardless of the cooking conditions applied. All meat pieces cooked at 50 °C had significantly higher (p < 0.05) SF values and lower (p < 0.05) cooking losses than meat pieces cooked at 60 °C or 80 °C. Pre-tumbled meat pieces showed significantly lower cooking losses (p < 0.001) than non-tumbled meat pieces. Applying the tumbling process before cooking led to an increase in meat colour lightness values (p < 0.001), and the colour parameters were significantly affected (p < 0.05) by temperature, cooking time, and temperature × cooking time interaction. Combining a 12-h tumbling process with cooking at 60 °C appears to provide the best compromise between increasing meat tenderness and limiting cooking losses.
      Citation: Processes
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/pr10061229
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
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