Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 1001 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (726 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
Accounts of Materials Research     Hybrid Journal  
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
ACS Applied Polymer Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ACS Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ACS Macro Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
ACS Materials Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 452)
ACS Photonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Acta Chemica Malaysia     Open Access  
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
Advanced Journal of Chemistry, Section A     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advanced Journal of Chemistry, Section B     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 108)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 50)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aggregate     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alchemy : Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alchemy : Jurnal Penelitian Kimia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alotrop     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Analytical Science Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 354)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio AA – Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access  
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 486)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 217)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Carbohydrate Polymer Technologies and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Carbohydrate Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Cell Reports Physical Science     Open Access  
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 88)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Chemical Physics Letters : X     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Chemical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 267)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Chemical Science International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry     Open Access  
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Chemistry & Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 225)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry Africa : A Journal of the Tunisian Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry Education Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 338)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistrySelect     Hybrid Journal  
Chemistry–Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
ChemNanoMat     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Chemosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemPhotoChem     Hybrid Journal  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chempublish Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemSystemsChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

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Canadian Mineralogist
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.565
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 7  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0008-4476 - ISSN (Online) 1499-1276
Published by GeoScienceWorld Homepage  [19 journals]
  • The Paleoproterozoic Kombolgie Subgroup (1.8 Ga), McArthur Basin,
           Australia: Sequence stratigraphy, basin evolution, and
           

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      Authors: Hiatt EE; Kyser T, Polito PA, et al.
      Abstract: ABSTRACTProterozoic continental sedimentary basins contain a unique record of the evolving Earth in their sedimentology and stratigraphy and in the large-scale, redox-sensitive mineral deposits they host. The Paleoproterozoic (Stratherian) Kombolgie Basin, located on the Arnhem Land Plateau, Northern Territory, is an exceptionally well preserved, early part of the larger McArthur Basin in northern Australia. This intracratonic basin is filled with 1 to 2 km-thick, relatively undeformed, nearly flat-lying, siliciclastic rocks of the Kombolgie Subgroup. Numerous drill cores and outcrop exposures from across the basin allow sedimentary fabrics, structures, and stratigraphic relationships to be studied in great detail, providing an extensive stratigraphic framework and record of basin development and evolution.Tectonic events controlled the internal stratigraphic architecture of the basin and led to the formation of three unconformity-bounded sequences that are punctuated by volcanic events. The first sequence records the onset of basin formation and is comprised of coarse-grained sandstone and polymict lithic conglomerate deposited in proximal braided rivers that transported sediment away from basin margins and intra-basin paleohighs associated with major uranium mineralization. Paleo-currents in the upper half of this lower sequence, as well as those of overlying sequences, are directed southward and indicate that the major intra-basin topographic highs no longer existed. The middle sequence has a similar pattern of coarse-grained fluvial facies, followed by distal fluvial facies, and finally interbedded marine and eolian facies. An interval marked by mud-rich, fine-grained sandstones and mud-cracked siltstones representing tidal deposition tops this sequence. The uppermost sequence is dominated by distal fluvial and marine facies that contain halite casts, gypsum nodules, stromatolites, phosphate, and “glauconite” (a blue-green mica group mineral), indicating a marine transgression. The repeating pattern of stratigraphic sequences initiated by regional tectonic events produced well-defined coarse-grained diagenetic aquifers capped by intensely cemented distal fluvial, shoreface, eolian, and even volcanic units, and led to a well-defined heterogenous hydrostratigraphy. Basinal brines migrated within this hydrostratigraphy and, combined with paleotopography, dolerite intrusion, faulting, and intense burial diagenesis, led to the economically important uranium deposits the Kombolgie Basin hosts.Proterozoic sedimentary basins host many of Earth's largest high-grade iron and uranium deposits that formed in response to the initial oxygenation of the hydrosphere and atmosphere following the Great Oxygenation Event. Unconformity-related uranium mineralization like that found in the Kombolgie Basin highlights the interconnected role that oxygenation of the Earth, sedimentology, stratigraphy, and diagenesis played in creating these deposits.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Paragenesis of gold mineralization at the Kiyuk Lake Project, Kivalliq
           Region, Nunavut, Canada

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      Authors: Jones S; Kyser K, Leybourne M, et al.
      Abstract: ABSTRACTExploration for gold in Nunavut has been primarily focused on Archean greenstone belts in the north and coastal regions of the territory, resulting in large areas of underexplored terrain in the south. The Kiyuk Lake property is located in the underexplored southwest corner of the Kivalliq Region of Nunavut within the Hearne domain of the ∼1.9 Ga western Churchill Province. The property is hosted by Proterozoic calc-silicate and clastic sedimentary units of the Hurwitz Group (<2.4–1.9 Ga) and the unconformably overlying Kiyuk Group (1.9–1.83 Ga). Gold mineralization in Proterozoic sedimentary rocks is rare in the Canadian Shield, so the Rusty Zone at Kiyuk Lake presents a unique opportunity to study the enigmatic gold mineralization hosted in such sedimentary rocks. Mineralization at the Rusty Zone is hosted by an immature lithic wacke cut by thin intermediate dikes that are associated with hydrothermal breccias composed of Fe-carbonate, calcite, calcic-amphibole, Fe-sulfide, Fe-oxide minerals, and gold. Textural and timing relationships suggest that the gold mineralization is post-sedimentary and syn- to post-intrusion of intermediate dikes. Stable isotope thermometry suggests that mineralization took place between 450 and 600 °C, and geochronological studies indicate that the intrusion and mineralization occurred before or about 1.83 Ga. Using basement breaching thrusts faults as conduits to the surface, over-pressurization along a later normal fault is thought to be the primary cause for the localized breccia pipe that controls gold mineralization. The hydrothermal fluids are postulated to be volatile-rich aqueous solutions exsolved from a source of cooling magmas at depth. Although sub-economic at present, the occurrence of high-grade gold in a Paleoproterozoic basin such as Kiyuk Lake could signal a new opportunity for exploration for gold in the Canadian Shield.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Paleoredox conditions, hydrothermal history, and target vectoring in the
           Macmillan Pass base-metal district, Yukon, Canada: 2 – Pyrite
           paragenesis and mineral chemistry

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      Authors: Leighton C; Layton-Matthews D, Peter JM, et al.
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe MacMillan Pass district in Yukon, Canada, hosts the Tom and Jason clastic sediment-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag-(Ba) deposits. Pyrite-bearing drill core samples were collected from seven drill holes that intersected sulfide mineralization and time-stratigraphically equivalent rocks at varied spatial distances extending up to 3 km away from the deposits to assess the relative timing of pyrite mineralization and the chemistry of pyrite paragenesis. There are four pyrite morphologies: framboids and polyframboids (Py1), subhedral to euhedral inclusion-free crystals (Py2a), silicate inclusion-bearing nodules with serrated edges (Py2b), and euhedral idiomorphic overgrowths on preexisting pyrite morphologies (Py3). These morphological varieties correspond in time from syngenetic to earliest diagenetic growth (Py1), early to late diagenetic growth (Py2a, Py2b), and metamorphic crystallization and/or recrystallization of previous textural varieties (Py3). A representative subset of pyrite grains was analyzed for trace element contents and distributions by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Analyses by LA-ICP-MS reveal that each textural variety of pyrite has a distinct trace element composition that also varies depending on stratigraphic unit. A suite of clastic sediment-hosted sulfide mineralization-related elements was incorporated into Py2 within sulfide mineralized units at greater abundances than that in unmineralized units (e.g., Zn, As, Pb, Tl, Bi). Lead abundances and Pb/Se and As/Mo values in pyrite are the most robust vectoring tools documented. The timing for clastic sediment-hosted Zn-Pb mineralization was syn and/or post late diagenesis (Py2b).A Ba-enriched horizon was identified in rocks and this is interpreted to be the distal time-stratigraphic equivalent unit to Zn-Pb mineralization. The Ba-enriched horizon contains Py2 with anomalous metal (Tl, Co, Mn, Cd, Zn, Sb) contents and abundant macroscopic baryte, and it is interpreted to represent the distal expression of sulfide mineralization-forming hydrothermal activity. Four genetic models for mineralization are reviewed; however, the only model that is consistent with our whole rock and pyrite geochemistry involves venting of buoyant hydrothermal fluid, mixing with ambient seawater, and remaining or sinking into unconsolidated sediments, with lateral migration up to 2–3 km from the vent source.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Paleoredox conditions, hydrothermal history, and target vectoring in the
           MacMillan Pass base‐metal district, Yukon, Canada: 1 –
           Lithogeochemistry of proximal and distal shales

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      Authors: Leighton C; Leybourne MI, Layton-Matthews D, et al.
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe MacMillan Pass District in Yukon, Canada, hosts the Tom and Jason clastic sediment-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag-(Ba) deposits. Bulk geochemical paleoredox proxies (Eu/Eu*, Ce/Ce*, Mo, Re/Mo, and Ni/Co) indicate anoxic–dysoxic water column and sulfidic porewater conditions persisted during the Late Devonian deposition of the Lower Earn Group host rocks. Positive Eu/Eu* anomalies (up to 3.31) in sulfide mineralization at the Tom deposit are consistent with relatively high temperature (probably >250 °C), reducing, acidic hydrothermal fluids that infiltrated laterally through unconsolidated sediments proximal to the hydrothermal upflow zone and/or exhaled at the seafloor as moderate- to high-density brines. Molybdenum and U enrichment factors (relative to upper continental crust) and Mo/organic C values are consistent with a moderately restricted basin; Mo/C values fall between those of the Black Sea (highly restricted) and the Framvaren Inlet (moderately restricted). A Ba-rich shale was identified in rocks that are distal and time-equivalent units to the Pb-Zn mineralization; based on the bulk chemical compositions and on previous S and Sr isotope studies, we interpret the baryte in this unit to be largely hydrothermal in origin and perhaps remobilized and reprecipitated during hydrothermal base-metal mineralization.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of fluid inclusion CO 2 and CH 4
           within the Archean Junction gold deposit, Kambalda, Western Australia

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      Authors: Polito PA; Kyser TK, Vuletich A, et al.
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe Junction orogenic gold deposit in the St Ives district of Western Australia is characterized by a syn-gold mineral assemblage dominated by quartz-calcite-albite-biotite-chlorite-pyrrhotite. The deposit had a light hydrocarbon,CO2, and O2 soil-gas signature above known mineralization prior to mining and it has been proposed that the source of the light hydrocarbon gases in the soil was gas-rich fluid inclusions trapped in gold-related alteration minerals, particularly calcite, albite, quartz, and pyrrhotite. Linking the soil gases with those in the deposit is extremely difficult. However, establishing that the gases in the soil are indeed present within the deposit and that those gases are related to the syn-Au alteration minerals is achievable through stable-isotope studies. Carbon and O stable-isotope compositions of pre-gold, syn-gold, and post-gold quartz veins; syn-gold and post-gold calcite; and CO2 and CH4 in the fluid inclusions that each of these minerals host were investigated to establish if the various mineral and fluid-gas species in the deposit are in isotopic equilibrium with each other, an important first step to relate syn-ore minerals with the relevant gases.Pre-ore Mo-type quartz veins contain CO2 (δ13Cgas = –1‰) and CH4 (δ13Cgas = ca. –33‰) in fluid inclusions at a ratio of ca. 93:7. The paucity of Mo-type quartz veins in the deposit suggests that these veins were not the main source of the soil-gas signature. Syn-gold alteration post-dates the Mo-type quartz veins. Quartz and co-existing calcite in the Au-bearing Junction shear zone have δ18Omineral values around 12.0 and 10.5‰, respectively. Multiple co-existing quartz-calcite pairs indicate that gold deposition occurred at ∼400 °C. This temperature agrees with mineral equilibria temperature estimates, the entrapment temperatures of fluid inclusions, and temperature modelling of solid-solution mineral phases. The temperature dictates that the quartz and calcite are in isotopic equilibrium with each other.The calcite in the Junction shear zone has δ13Cmineral values from –7.4 to –2.5‰, indicating that the CO2-rich ore fluid had a δ13Cfluid value of –3.7 ± 0.9‰. CO2 and CH4 released from quartz-hosted fluid inclusions have δ13Cgas values from –4.3 to +3.5‰ (mean = –1.5 ± 1.9‰) and –50.5 to –35.2‰, respectively. The isotopic composition of the fluid inclusion CO2 is in disequilibrium with co-existing CH4 that was co-released from the same quartz vein and the calculated δ13Cfluid value from co-existing calcite. Isotopic mass balance calculations using the two co-released gases show that the CO2 was initially in equilibrium with the syn-ore calcite but has since re-equilibrated with CH4 at temperatures below 200 °C. The abundance of CH4 in some quartz veins suggests that the syn-gold vein assemblage could be the source for the soil-gas anomaly.Post-gold veins contain quartz and calcite that have δ18Omineral values of ca. 11.0 and 10.0‰, respectively. Individual mineral pairs indicate precipitation at ∼320 °C from a fluid with a δ18Ofluid value of 4.7 ± 0.9‰, distinct from that which formed the syn-gold quartz veins. The post-gold calcite has δ13Ccalcite values from –7.5 to –5.4‰, indicative of formation from a CO2-bearing fluid having a δ13Cfluid value of –4.6 ± 0.9‰. The δ13Cfluid values are indistinguishable from fluid inclusion CO2 values of –3.6 ± 0.9‰, indicating no post entrapment re-equilibration, which suggests that CH4 was at trace volumes or absent in the post-gold quartz veins.These data lead to the conclusion that post-entrapment reequilibration between fluid inclusion CO2 and CH4 has occurred, but that the two gases were likely in equilibrium at the time of entrapment. This has implications for the interpretation of C isotope studies that focus on fluid inclusion CO2 measured from other gold and base-metal deposits, especially when the isotopic value of that CO2 is assumed to represent a specific source for the ore-forming fluids. The data also lead to a model that proposes that the syn-gold alteration assemblage could have produced the soil-gas anomalies observed above the mineralization.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Alteration mineralogy and pathfinder element inventory in the footprint of
           the McArthur River unconformity-related uranium deposit, Canada

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      Authors: Joyce N; Layton-Matthews D, Kyser K, et al.
      Abstract: ABSTRACTPathfinder elements associated with the exploration footprint of the McArthur River unconformity-related U deposit include U, radiogenic Pb, V, Ni, Co, Cu, Mo, As, Zn, and rare earth elements. In this study, the mineralogical and paragenetic context for their occurrence was established by integrating in situ mineral chemistry and laser ablation mass spectrometry chemical mapping of interstitial assemblages, detrital grains, and cements with whole-rock analyses of drill core samples from the diagenetically altered background and the hydrothermally altered sandstone host rocks. Diagenetically altered background sandstones contain a matrix assemblage of illite and dickite, with trace to minor aluminum-phosphate-sulfate (APS) minerals, apatite, and Fe-Ti oxide minerals. Aluminum-phosphate-sulfate minerals account for the majority of the Sr and light rare earth element concentrations, whereas early diagenetic apatite, monazite, and apatite inclusions in detrital quartz and detrital zircon contribute significant U and heavy rare earth elements to samples analyzed with an aggressive leach (partial digestion) such as aqua regia. Hydrothermally altered sandstone host rocks also contain variable assemblages of Al-Mg chlorite (sudoite), alkali-deficient tourmaline, APS minerals, kaolinite, illite, Fe-oxide, and sulfide minerals. Late pre-mineralization chlorite accounts for a significant portion of the observed Ni concentrations, whereas Co, Cu, Mo, and Zn occur predominantly in cryptic sub-micron sulfide and sulfarsenide inclusions within clay mineral aggregates and in association with Fe-Ti oxides. Elevated concentrations of U were observed in cryptic micro-inclusions associated with sulfides in quartz overgrowths, with Fe-Ti oxide micro-inclusions in kaolinite, and in post-mineralization Fe-oxide veins. The distribution of pathfinder elements throughout the deposit footprint appears to be less related to the primary dispersion of alteration minerals from the hydrothermal system than to the secondary dispersion of elements post-mineralization. Their occurrence throughout pre-, syn-, and post-mineralization assemblages further demonstrates the limitations to defining geochemical footprints from pathfinder element concentrations expressed in lithogeochemical data sets without structural, lithological, and mineralogical context.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Dendrogeochemistry and soil geochemistry applied to exploration for
           alkalic Cu-Au porphyry mineralization under cover at the Racecourse
           prospect, NSW, Australia

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      Authors: McGill C; Layton-Matthews D, Kyser T, et al.
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe Racecourse Cu-Au porphyry prospect is found within the Macquarie Arc of the Lachlan Fold Belt, in the Lachlan Transverse Zone, a cross-arc structure hosting significant world-class mineralization, including the Cadia and Northparks districts. Several geochemical and geophysical surveys of the prospect have been complimented by a total of 19,819 m of drilling, with only four holes reaching a depth greater than 300 m. Positive lithogeochemistry (fertility indices, comparisons with the Cadia and Northparks systems) subtle alteration, and mineralized intercepts indicate heightened mineral potential, yet the prospect has lacked a comprehensive geochemical survey outlining the extent of the mineralized target at surface. Soil samples and Monterey pine (Pinus radiata) tree cores were collected above and distal to mineralization intercepted by prior drilling in order to outline the ore deposit footprint and test the viability of dendrogeochemistry as an exploration tool for porphyry Cu mineralization. Ultimately, this study documented the spatial extent of the Racecourse target and identified potential areas for additional Cu mineralization. Soil samples were separated with the <250 μm size fraction analyzed and show distinct anomalous populations of Au, Cu, Mo, Pb, and Zn above prior drilling. Tree cores were collected by increment borer and tree rings of the Pinus radiata were counted and measured, with an age interval of 2003–2008 exhibiting the least ring-width variability chosen to chemically analyze. Selected intervals were digested and analyzed and have elevated Cu, Mo, and Zn in an area that overlaps a previously drilled soil anomaly, whereas an anomaly in the southwest of the survey area documents a Cu, Pb anomaly corresponding to localized faulting and tertiary basalt subcrop. Tree roots are directly tapping chemical variability at depth, aided via metal mobilization through faulted fluid conduits. Lead isotope ratios from the Pinus radiata identify distinct groups of lead spatially associated with discrete metal anomalies of varied lithological ages. At the Racecourse target, anomalous Pinus radiata samples yield a similar isotopic signature to the faulted southwestern anomaly, potentially linking the source of these two metal anomalies. When these results are integrated with the current understanding of the mineralized body, geochemical media suggest that mineralization may continue down-plunge at depth.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Application of molybdenum and thallium isotopes as indicators of
           paleoredox conditions and genesis of hyper-enriched black shale deposits,
           Peel River, Yukon, Canada

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      Authors: Crawford I; Layton-Matthews D, Peter JM, et al.
      Abstract: ABSTRACTHyper-enriched black shale (HEBS) deposits in northern Yukon, consist of thin (<10 cm), laterally extensive (tens of thousands of km2) stratiform sulfide mineralization layer(s) that are hyper-enriched in Ni, Mo, Zn, platinum group elements, Re, and Au. The genesis of HEBS deposits and the ambient paleoenvironment in which they formed are the subject of vigorous debate. Non-traditional stable isotopes, particularly molybdenum and thallium, are robust paleoredox indicators and we have employed these isotope systems in this study of Yukon HEBS. Systematic sampling and Mo and Tl isotopic analysis of a continuous 200 m stratigraphic section through the Yukon HEBS mineralization and footwall and hanging-wall strata at the Peel River north and south bank showings (spaced five km apart) give δ98Mo –1.24 to –0.53‰ and –8.1 to –5.2 ε-units for the mineralization and –0.70 to 0.60‰ and –6.5 to –2.0 ε-units for the unmineralized strata. These values preclude a hydrothermal origin and strongly suggest that redox processes were responsible for the Yukon HEBS mineralization. The isotopic compositions, together with rare earth element (REE) systematics (REE profile, Y positive anomalies, Ce negative anomalies, and Y/Ho values) and other bulk geochemical redox indicators (Mo, V, Re/Mo, Ni/Co, U/Th, and V/Cr) indicate that the Peel River HEBS mineralization formed because of metal scavenging from seawater in a quiescent, euxinic basinal paleoenvironment.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Exploration geochemistry of surficial media over the high-grade McArthur
           River uranium deposit, Saskatchewan, Canada

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      Authors: Beyer SR; Kyser K, Kotzer TG, et al.
      Abstract: ABSTRACTAn orientation survey using surficial media was performed over the high-grade McArthur River unconformity-related U deposit (Saskatchewan, Canada) to test whether or not secondary dispersion of elements related to the ore body or alteration zone can be detected at the surface more than 500 m above the deposit. Organic-rich Ah-horizon soils, Fe-rich B-horizon soils, C-horizon soils, tree cores of Jack pine (Pinus banksiana), and glacially dispersed boulders of Manitou Falls Formation sandstone that host the U deposit were collected in four sampling grids near the mine site. Two of the grids overlaid the trace of the P2 fault that hosts the deposit and extends nearly to the surface, one grid overlaid both the P2 fault and one of the high-grade ore bodies (Zone 4), and one grid was located 2.5 km away from the ore body surface trace in the barren hanging wall of the P2 fault. The grid overlying the Zone 4 ore body had the highest proportion of samples with elevated U and low 207Pb/206Pb ratios, the latter indicative of radiogenic Pb from a high-U source, measured in two size fractions of Ah-horizon soils using Na pyrophosphate leach, pine tree cores using total digestion, and sandstone boulders using 2% HNO3 leach. A handful of pathfinder elements, such as As, Co, Ni, and Pb, are variably associated with the U and radiogenic Pb. Sandstone boulders with an assemblage of dravite + kaolinite ± illite, determined using shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy and matching the alteration mineralogy in the Manitou Falls Formation above the U deposit, were prevalent in the grid above the Zone 4 ore body and in the adjacent grid in the direction of glacial dispersion. A coarse fraction of the B-horizon soils, leached with 5% HNO3, highlighted the grid above the Zone 4 ore body to a lesser extent, whereas HNO3 leaches and aqua regia digests of C-horizon soil separates did not highlight the P2 fault or ore body trace due to influence by parent till mineralogy. Results of environmental monitoring at the mine site, which was active at the time of sampling, suggest that dust containing U, Pb, and radionuclides from waste rock piles and a ventilation shaft could influence A-horizon soil geochemistry near the mine site, and that U and radiogenic Pb anomalies in B- and C-horizon soils near the water table are close to a treated mine effluent discharge point. However, older trees that record elevated U and radiogenic Pb in annual rings that pre-date mining activity, and alteration mineralogy and geochemistry of boulders that are less susceptible to the influences of mining activity, add confidence that the geochemical anomaly in diverse surficial media above the Zone 4 ore body represents secondary dispersion from the underlying U deposit.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Mineralogy and petrogenesis of fracture coatings in Athabasca Group
           sandstones from the McArthur River uranium deposit

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      Authors: Valentino M; Kyser T, Leybourne MI, et al.
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe McArthur River unconformity-related uranium deposit, located in the Athabasca Basin of Saskatchewan, Canada, is structurally hosted near the unconformity between Archean to Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary basement and the Proterozoic Athabasca Group sandstones. In this study, the mineralogy and geochemistry of fracture materials within the entire ca. 550 m thickness of the Athabasca Group sandstones and the metasedimentary (host) rocks from the McArthur River area were used to determine the paragenetic sequence and origin of minerals in and near the fractures. Our work sought to determine if the host minerals record elements associated with the uranium deposit at depth and if they could be used to guide exploration (vectoring). Fracture orientations indicate that most are moderately dipping (<50°) and provided permeable pathways for fluid movement within the basin, from below, and through the overlying sedimentary rocks. Many of the fractures and adjacent wall rocks record evidence of multiple distinct fluid events.Seven types of fracture fillings were identified from drill core intersecting the Athabasca Basin and present distinct colors, mineralogy, and chemical features. Brown (Type 1) and pink (Type 7) fractures host paragenetically late botryoidal goethite, Mn oxide minerals, and poorly crystallized kaolinite that formed from relatively recent low-temperature meteoric fluids, as indicated by poor crystallinity and low δ2H values of –198 to –115‰. These minerals variably replaced higher temperature minerals that are rarely preserved on the fractures or in wall rock near the fractures. Hydrothermal alteration associated with the mineralizing system at ca. 200 °C is recorded in assemblages of dickite, well-crystallized kaolinite, and spherulitic dravite in some white and yellow (Type 2) and white (Type 3) fractures, as reflected by the crystal habits and variable δ2H values of –85 to –44‰. Fibrous goethite in white and yellow (Type 2) and black and orange (Type 5) fractures and microfibrous Mn oxy-hydroxide minerals in black (Type 4) fractures also crystallized from hydrothermal fluids, but at temperatures less than 200 °C.White and yellow fractures (Type 2) containing fibrous goethite reflect fracture networks indicative of hydrothermal fluids associated with the mineralizing system during primary dispersion of pathfinder elements and therefore extend the deposit footprint. Brown (Type 1) and pink (Type 7) fractures have low δ2H values in botryoidal goethite and poorly crystallized kaolinite and are indicative of the movement of meteoric waters. Secondary dispersion of elements from the deposit to the surface on some fractures is evidence that fractures are pathways for element migration from the deposit to the surface, over distances exceeding ∼500 m.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Generation of high-pH groundwaters and H 2 gas by groundwater–kimberlite
           interaction, northeastern Ontario, Canada

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      Authors: Sader JA; Harrison AL, McClenaghan M, et al.
      Abstract: ABSTRACTWe report new isotopic data for H2 and CH4 gases and Sr for groundwater collected from Jurassic Kirkland Lake kimberlites in northern Ontario, Canada. Groundwaters interacting with kimberlites have elevated pH (up to 12.4), are reducing (Eh as low as the H2-H2O couple), are dominated by OH− alkalinity, and have non-radiogenic (mantle) 87Sr/86Sr values (∼0.706–0.707). Most significantly, the highest pH groundwaters have low Mg, high K/Mg, and are associated with abundant reduced gases (H2 ± CH4). Open system conditions favor higher dissolved inorganic carbon and CH4 production, whereas under closed system conditions low DIC, elevated OH− alkalinity, and H2 production are enhanced. Hydrogen gas is isotopically depleted (δ2HH2 = −771 to −801‰), which, combined with δ2HH2O, yields geothermometry temperatures of serpentinization of 5–25 °C. Deviation of H2-rich groundwaters (by up to 10‰) from the meteoric water line is consistent with Rayleigh fractionation during reduction of water to H2. Methane is characterized by δ13CCH4 = −35.8 to −68‰ and δ2HCH4 = −434‰. The origin of CH4 is inconclusive and there is evidence to support both biogenic and abiogenic origins. The modeled groundwater–kimberlite reactions and production of elevated concentrations of H2 gas suggest uses for diamond-production tailings, as a source of H2 for fuel cells and as a carbon sink.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Geometallurgical ore characterization of the high-grade polymetallic
           unconformity-related uranium deposit

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      Authors: Kaczowka AJ; Kyser T, Kotzer TG, et al.
      Abstract: ABSTRACTCigar Lake is a polymetallic, unconformity-related uranium deposit with complex geochemistry and mineralogy located in the eastern Athabasca Basin of northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Variable concentrations and spatial distributions of elements of concern, such as As, Mo, Ni, Co, Se, and Zr, associated with the high-grade tetravalent uranium ores [UO2+x; U(SiO4)1–x(OH)4x] present unique mining, metallurgical, and environmental challenges. Sulfide and arsenide minerals have significant control over As, Mo, Ni, Co, and Se abundances and have properties that affect element of concern mobility, thus requiring consideration during mineral processing, mine-effluent water treatment, and long-term tailings management.The U-bearing (uraninite, coffinite) and metallic arsenide (nickeline, often called “niccolite” in the past), sulfarsenide (gersdorffite, cobaltite), and sulfide (chalcopyrite, pyrite, galena, bornite, chalcocite, sphalerite, pyrrhotite) minerals provide the main controls on the distributions of the elements of concern. Arsenic, Ni, and Co occur primarily in a reduced state as 1:1 molar ratio, Ni-Co:As, arsenide, and sulfarsenide minerals such as gersdorffite, nickeline, and cobaltite. Molybdenum occurs within molybdenite and uraninite. Selenium occurs within coffinite, sulfide, and sulfarsenide minerals. Zirconium is found within detrital zircon and coffinite.The spatial distribution and paragenesis of U-, As-, and S-bearing minerals are a result of the elemental composition, pH, and redox conditions of early formational and later meteoric fluids that formed and have modified the deposit through access along lithostratigraphic permeability and tectonic structures. Using the holistic geometallurgical paradigm presented here, the geochemistry and mineral chemistry at Cigar Lake can be used to optimize and reduce risk during long-term mine and mill planning.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Diagenesis of paleodrainages in Lake Way and Lake Maitland, Western
           Australia, and the role of authigenic Mg-clays and dolomite in the genesis
           of channel and playa uranium deposits

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      Authors: Drummond JR; Kyser T, Bowell RR, et al.
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThis study integrates mineralogical and hydrogeochemical analysis of channel and playa uranium deposits to characterize aquifer evolution and the physico-chemical mechanisms that result in the accumulation of uranium into potentially economic deposits. This subset of surficial U deposits occur in Tertiary to Recent calcrete and dolomitic, clay-rich fluvial paleochannel and palustrine sediments, wherein uranium is largely bound in the potassium-uranyl-vanadate mineral carnotite [K2(UO2)2(VO4)2·3H2O].Scanning electron microanalysis indicates that the carnotite mineralization is part of a late-diagenetic mineral assemblage that critically includes Mg-clays (sepiolite and stevensite), amorphous magnesium silicate, and synsedimentary dolomite. This authigenic mineral assemblage is observed concentrated in fractures and pores in groundwater calcrete and silty salt marsh “palustrine” sediments. Drill-hole gamma ray and conductivity data from the Centipede-Millipede uranium deposit indicate that the locus of uranium mineralization occurs near the present-day water table where oxidizing fresh-to-brackish groundwater interacts with playa brine, forming a hypopycnal groundwater estuary beneath the clay pan and salt marsh. It is interpreted that effective U fixing occurs in areas where groundwater, near-saturated with respect to carnotite, is hydrologically focused upward and into the zone of evaporation. The appreciable precipitation deficit in the Northern Yilgarn is interpreted to produce an evaporation-driven positive feedback mechanism that results in the co-precipitation of Mg-clays, dolomite, and carnotite. The presence of vanadium-rich Mn-oxide phases in high-grade U ore zones indicates that Mn-redox cycling may serve an important role in increasing the local activity of V, and thus carnotite saturation. Mineralogical comparison of other channel and playa uranium deposits throughout Western Australia and Namibia have identified a similar mineral association and paragenetic trend, suggesting that contemporaneous evaporative precipitation of Mg-clays and dolomite are integral in achieving carnotite saturation and precipitation.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Metal sources in the Proterozoic Vazante-Paracatu sediment-hosted Zn
           District, Brazil: Constraints from Pb isotope compositions of
           meta-siliciclastic units

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      Authors: Fernandes N; Olivo GR, Layton-Matthews D, et al.
      Abstract: ABSTRACTDifferent types of sediment-hosted whole-rock Pb isotope (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, 208Pb/204Pb) compositions were determined from phyllites, carbonaceous phyllites (>1% TOC), and meta-litharenites belonging to the Serra do Garrote Formation, which is part of the Proterozoic Vazante Group, Brazil. Results were integrated with lithogeochemistry in order to identify the Pb isotopic signature of Zn enrichment (up to 0.24 wt.% Zn) associated with meta-siliciclastic-hosted sulfide mineralization that formed prior to the Brasiliano Orogeny (850 to 550 Ma) in order to (1) understand the nature of siliciclastic sediment sources, (2) identify possible metal sources in pre-orogenic meta-siliciclastic-hosted Zn mineralization, and (3) evaluate the genetic links between the Zn enrichment in the relatively reduced phyllite package, and different styles of syn-orogenic Zn ± Pb mineralization (hypogene Zn-silicate and Zn-Pb sulfide) in overlying dolomitic carbonates throughout the Vazante-Paracatu Zn District, Brazil.The whole-rock 206Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204Pb isotope ratios of meta-siliciclastic rocks plot as positively sloping, sub-parallel arrays with radiogenic, upper continental crust compositions, which could represent a detrital contribution from at least two upper continental crust sources. However, the 206Pb/204Pb versus207Pb/204Pb isotope system does not distinguish between Zn-enriched samples and un-mineralized samples. In the whole-rock 206Pb/204Pb–208Pb/204Pb plot, Zn-enriched samples form a flat trend of lower 208Pb/204Pb values (38.3 to 39.5) compared to the Zn-poor ones that follow common upper crustal trends. Zinc-enriched samples have low whole-rock Th/U values (<4) and higher whole-rock U concentrations compared to unmineralized samples. These support the hypothesis that U (± Pb) was added by pre-orogenic metalliferous fluids, which were in turn derived from underlying Paleoproterozoic and Archean basement rocks. Due to U addition, the original whole-rock thorogenic and uranogenic Pb isotope systems were decoupled in mineralized samples. Pre-orogenic metalliferous fluids have similar present-day first-order characteristics, including: (1) relatively high U/Pb and (2) low Th/U values, when compared to galena in the major carbonate-hosted Zn ± Pb deposits (Vazante, Morro Agudo, Ambrosia, Fagundes) in the Vazante Group. These results support the hypothesis that Zn-rich layers and veins in mineralized carbonaceous phyllites could be linked to the same origins as carbonate-hosted mineral deposits throughout the Vazante Basin, but further data are warranted. We suggest that the tectonic evolution of the Vazante Basin saw multiple phases of Zn-rich mineralization over protracted time periods from around 1200 to 550 Ma.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Exploration advancement of the Stewardson Lake uranium project (Athabasca
           Basin, Canada) using an integrated geological and geochemical methodology
           and academic–industry collaboration

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      Authors: Beyer SR; Stewart P, Lahusen L, et al.
      Abstract: ABSTRACTKurt Kyser contributed significantly to understanding the role that fluids play in the formation of unconformity-related U deposits in Canada and Australia and also in the exploration for these deposits. Kurt's exploration research was collaborative with industry, and arguably the most productive of the many industry-collaborative relationships Kurt developed was with Uravan Minerals, a junior exploration company. Ten years of collaborative U-deposit and exploration geochemical research with Uravan, including development of innovative multi-media surface sampling and analytical methods, culminated with the Stewardson Lake uranium exploration project in the Proterozoic Athabasca Basin, Canada. Soil clay separates, pine and spruce tree cores and vegetation, and glacially transported sandstone boulders collected at Stewardson Lake record 207Pb/206Pb ratios as low as 0.18, indicative of radioactive decay of U in a Proterozoic-aged U deposit, and elevated pathfinder elements such as Ni and Co in two areas of the Stewardson Lake property named Areas A and B. Four diamond drill holes in Areas A and B tested targets consisting of anomalous surface-media geochemistry coincident with conductive host rocks determined using geophysical methods. The favorable targeting characteristics were not explained by two of the drill holes in Area A, where only narrow intervals of elevated U, radiogenic Pb, and pathfinder elements or structural disruption that can accompany Athabasca U deposits were intersected. Two drill holes in Area B intersected a broad zone of characteristic chlorite + hematite + illite alteration and U concentrations >1 ppm (aqua regia) in the basal host sandstone. One drill hole in Area B intersected a ∼30-meter-thick hydrothermal alteration zone consisting of silicification, chlorite + kaolinite clay alteration, smoky quartz, Ni-Fe sulfides, and disseminated uraninite accompanied by elevated gamma count rates. Fractures in the host sandstone in Area B record the highest pathfinder concentrations and the most radiogenic Pb isotope ratios and were likely a conduit for secondary dispersion of alteration-related components to the surface. The results validate the Uravan/QFIR exploration model developed over a decade of collaborative applied research and confirm that the Stewardson Lake area is highly prospective to host unconformity-related U mineralization. Lastly, clay alteration mineralogy in the Stewardson Lake area is contrasted with that in the eastern Athabasca Basin, and the value of the industry–academic relationship that benefited both Uravan Minerals and Kurt's Queen's Facility for Isotope Research laboratory is discussed.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Jan 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Rare earth element partitioning between fluids and uraninite at
           50−700 °C

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      Authors: Shabaga BM; Fayek M, McNeil A, et al.
      Abstract: ABSTRACTUranium deposits are globally diverse, occurring in a wide variety of geological settings and ranging in age from Archean to Holocene. As a result, understanding the mechanisms involved in the genesis and subsequent alteration of these complex deposits is challenging. Building on recent work on the geochemical signatures of uraninite, a series of experiments were designed to document the partitioning of rare earth elements between uraninite and fluids over a range of temperatures and to explore the impact of O and H diffusion, under reducing conditions, on U-Pb isotope systematics and rare earth element concentrations in uraninite.Our results show that O and H diffusion in the presence of a rare earth element-rich fluid, under reducing conditions, has no effect on rare earth element concentrations and patterns or U-Pb isotopic compositions of uraninite. Our results also show that temperature (300 to 700 °C) has no effect on the rare earth element patterns, indicating that the dominant control on rare earth element concentration in uraninite is the metal source(s), the ability of the fluids to transport rare earth elements without inducing fractionation, and the degree of recrystallization. These results have implications for nuclear forensics, as well as for our understanding of the genesis of uranium-bearing ore deposits.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The role of industry-academia collaborative research in mineral
           exploration

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      Authors: Marlatt J.
      Abstract: ABSTRACTMany people may not be aware of the extent of Kurt Kyser's collaboration with mineral exploration companies through applied research and the development of innovative exploration technologies, starting at the University of Saskatchewan and continuing through the Queen's Facility for Isotope Research. Applied collaborative, geoscientific, industry-academia research and development programs can yield technological innovations that can improve the mineral exploration discovery rates of economic mineral deposits. Alliances between exploration geoscientists and geoscientific researchers can benefit both parties, contributing to the pure and applied geoscientific knowledge base and the development of innovations in mineral exploration technology. Through a collaboration that spanned over three decades, we gained insight into the potential for economic uranium deposits around the world in Canada, Australia, USA, Finland, Russia, Gabon, Namibia, Botswana, South Africa, and Guyana. Kurt, his research team, postdoctoral fellows, and students developed technological innovations related to holistic basin analysis for economic mineral potential, isotopes in mineral exploration, and biogeochemical exploration, among others. In this paper, the business of mineral exploration is briefly described, and some examples of industry-academic collaboration innovations brought forward through Kurt's research are identified. Kurt was a masterful and capable knowledge broker, which is a key criterion for bringing new technologies to application—a grand, curious, credible, patient, and attentive communicator—whether talking about science, business, or life and with first ministers, senior technocrats, peers, board members, first nation peoples, exploration geologists, investors, students, citizens, or friends.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Geochemistry of the Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan, Canada, and the
           unconformity-related uranium deposits hosted by it

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      Authors: Alexandre P.
      Abstract: ABSTRACTA large data set comprising near-total digestion analyses of whole rock samples from the Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan, Canada (based principally on the Geological Survey of Canada open file 7495), containing more than 20,000 analyses, was used to define the average chemical composition of Athabasca Group sandstones and of unconformity-related uranium deposits hosted by the basin.The chemical composition of unaltered and un-mineralized Athabasca Group sandstones is dominated by Al (median Al2O3 of 1.14 wt.%), Fe (median Fe2O3 of 0.24 wt.%), and K (median K2O of 0.11 wt.%; Si was not measured), corresponding mostly to the presence of kaolin, illite, and hematite, in addition to the most-abundant quartz. The median concentration of U in the barren sandstones is 1 ppm, with 5 ppm Th, 3 ppm Pb, and 56 ppm ΣREE. Other trace elements present in significant amounts are Zr (median of 100 ppm), Sr (median of 69 ppm), and B (median of 43 ppm), corresponding to the presence of zircon, illite, and dravite.The elements most enriched in a typical Athabasca Basin unconformity-related uranium deposit relative to the barren sandstone are U (median enrichment of ×710), Bi (×175), V (×77), and Mg (×45), followed by five elements with enrichment factors between 20 and 30 (Co, Mo, K, As, and Ni). These correspond to the presence in the ore bodies of alteration minerals (dravite, kaolinite, illite, chlorite, aluminum-phosphate-sulfate minerals, and a suite of sulfide minerals) and are similar to what has been observed before. These elements are similar to the typical pathfinder elements described above known deposits, but their usefulness has to be assessed based on their relative mobility in the predominantly oxidizing Athabasca Basin sandstones.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
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