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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 841 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (50 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (593 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (593 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 234)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 214)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 293)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 124)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 98)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 13)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 71)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 176)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 260)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contamination     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
Elements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Science & Technology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Environmental Science : Nano     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover American Journal of Chemistry
  [26 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2165-8749 - ISSN (Online) 2165-8781
   Published by SAP Homepage  [105 journals]
  • Vanadium Substituted H7SiW9V3O40 as a Versatile Catalyst for Dakin–West
           Synthesis of Acetamido Carbonyl Compounds

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Reza Tayebee,Shima TaizabiFour-component condensation of an aromatic aldehyde, acetonitrile, acetyl chloride, and an enolisable ketone in the presence of H7SiW9V3O40catalyst is investigated. Findings revealed a very good catalytic activity of H7SiW9V3O40 in the desired condensation reaction. The results revealed that H7SiW9V3O40 was effective, inexpensive, recyclable, and eco-friendly.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Synthesis and Reactions of Some New Diiodocoumarin Derivatives Bearing
           Side Chains and Some of Their Biological Activities

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  A. H. F. A. El-Wahab,H. M. Mohamed,A. M. El-Agrody,A. H. Bedair,F. A. Eid,M. M. Khafagy,K. A. Abd-El-RehemThe synthesis of 6,8-diiodocoumarin derivatives (2-6) by condensation of 3,5-diiodosalicylaldehyde (1) with active methylene compounds is described. Reaction of 6 with malononitrile afforded two products pyridine and ethylidine malononitrile derivatives (7, 8), while treatment of 6 with p-methoxybenzylidenemalononitrile in absolute ethanol/piperdine provided pyrane and bis coumarin derivatives (9,10). Reaction of 6 with DMF/POCl3 afforded three products coumarin derivatives (11,12,13), while bromination of 6 with Br2/AcOH gave 3-bromo-6,8-diiodocoumarin (14). Treatment 6 with aromatic aldehydes gave the corresponding 3-(3-arylacryloyl)-6,8-diiodocoumarin derivatives (16a,b) while reaction of 6 with aniline or phenylhydrazine gave coumarin derivatives 17 and 18. Reaction of 18 with DMF/POCl3 gave pyrazole-4-aldehyde derivative (19). Condensation of 19 with active methylene compounds afforded pyrazole and pyrimidine derivatives (20a-c) and 21). Reaction of 8 with sulphur via the Gewald reaction afforded thiophene derivative (22), while the reaction of 8 with p-methoxybenzylidenemalononitrile gave biphenyl derivative (23). Treatment of 8 with chloroacetyl chloride afforded the furan derivative (24). The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR and mass spectral data. The newly synthesized compounds were also screened for their antimicrobial activity.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Spectrophotometric Determination of Metoprolol Tartrate in Pharmaceutical
           Dosage Forms on Complex Formation with Cu(II)

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  A. Golcu,M. Cesme,D. TarincA new, simple, sensitive and accurate spectrophotometric method has been developed for the assay of metoprolol tartrate (MPT), which is based on the complexation of drug with copper(II)[Cu(II)] at pH 6.0, using Britton-Robinson buffer solution, to produce a blue adduct. The latter has a maximum absorbance at 675nm and obeys Beer’s law within the concentration range 8.5-70mg/mL. Regression analysis of the calibration data showed a good correlation coefficient (r = 0.998) with a limit of detection of 5.56mg/mL. The proposed procedure has been successfully applied to the determination of this drug in its tablets. In addition, the spectral data and stability constant for the binuclear copper (II) complex of MPT (Cu2MPT2Cl2) have been reported.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Invertase Immobilization on a Metal Chelated Triazole-Functionalized
           Eupergit® C

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  K. Uzun,E. Çevik,M. ŞenelIn the present study, Eupergit® C macroporous beads were functionalized with amino triazole. Cu2+ ions were chelated on the triazole modified Eupergit® C (EC), and subsequently, the metal chelated beads were used in the adsorption of invertase. The maximum reaction rate (Vmax) and the Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) were determined for the free and the immobilized enzymes. The characteristics of immobilized invertase such as the temperature activity curve, thermal stability, operational stability, and storage stability were evaluated. The results indicated that triazole functionalized Eupergit® C beads were well applicable for metal adsorption and enzyme immobilization.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Is the Liquid a Condensed Gas or Collapsed Solid' A Statistical
           Thermodynamic and Cell Theory Approach: A Simple Introductory and Lucid
           One-Hour Class-Room Lecture for Physical Chemistry Senior Under-Graduate
           and Graduate Level Students

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  V. Jagannadham,R. SanjeevAmong the three states of matter the liquid state is tricky to be understood. The gas in an ideal approximation obeys the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. The solid if it is an ideal crystal follows the model of Einstein’s theory of heat capacity of solids. The properties of liquid lie in between those of gases and solids. The present article which is useful to senior under-graduate and graduate level students is focused to explain the properties of liquids by statistical thermodynamic approach. Using partition function approach from statistical thermodynamics and cell theory the physical meaning of liquid is well described in this article in terms of the communal entropy
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • L-Tryptophan, a Study on Interactions in Cu(II) Binary and Ternary
           Complexes in Aqueous Solution

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  S. A. A. SajadiThe acidity and stability constants of M(Trp)[i] M: Cu2+, Cu(Bpy[ii])2+, and Cu(Phen[iii])2+ complexes, were determined by potentiometric pH titration. It is shown that the stability of the binary Cu(Trp) complexes is determined by the basicity of the carboxylate group on one side and amino group on the other side. It is demonstrated that the equilibrium, Cu(Har[iv])2+ + Cu(Trp) Cu(Har)(Trp) + Cu2+, is displacement due to the well known experience that mixed ligand complexes formed by a divalent 3d ion, a heteroaromatic N base and an O donor ligand possess increased stability. The other part of this displacement, which amount on average to an increased stability of the mixed ligand Cu(Bpy)(Trp) and Cu(Phen)(Trp) complexes of about 0.97 or 1.31 log unit. The stability constants of the 1:1 complexes formed between Cu2+, Cu(Bpy)2+ or Cu(Phen)2+ and Trp2-, were determined by potentiometric pH titration in aqueous solution (I = 0.1 M, NaNO3, 25℃). The order of the stability constants was reported
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Promazine Complexes of Transition Metal Ions: Synthesis

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Dayakar R. Gouru,Vishnuvardhan R. Thakkalapally,Tarab J. Ahmad,S. Ananda,Netkal M. Made GowdaPsychotherapeutic, antiemetic, and antihistamine activities are exhibited by some of the N- alkylaminophenothiazine derivatives including promazine (P). The N-alkylamine side chain is implicated in the aforementioned pharmacological activities. Several promazine (P.HCl or C17H20N2S.HCl) complexes of the transition metal ions, Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II), have been synthesized. The complexes have been characterized by their elemental analysis, molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, UV-Visible, IR and 1H-NMR data. The molecular formulations of the new mononuclear complexes have been proposed. These complexes behave in DMF solutions as 1:1 electrolytes. Molecular structures have been proposed showing a square pyramidal environment around each metal center with an sp3d hybridization for the five-coordinate complexes, [ZnBr(C17H20N2S.HCl)2]Br, [CdBr(C17H20N2S.HCl)2]Br, [CdI(C17H20N2S.HCl)2]I.H2O and [HgBr((C17H20N2S. HCl)2]Br
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Solvent Perturbation of the Electronic Intensity of Solvated Absorbing
           Molecules

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Sikiru A. Ahmed,Nelson O. Obi-Egbedi,Idowu IweiboIn this paper, we present a general expression originating from quantum-mechanical perturbation treatment of electronic intensities and Hamiltonian operators for the system (HA and HB) of an absorber and a perturber respectively. The expression is related to the Longuet-Higgins’ definition of solute-solvent interaction and fitted into linear regression mode for the determination of transition polarizabilities of 9H-xanthene, 9H-xathone and 9H-xanthione. The result conforms to those earlier obtained when all possible interaction modes are considered
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Complex Bilding Behavior of L-Tryptophan and Related Amino Acids, a
           Comparative Investigation

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  S. A. A. SajadiThe acidity constants of Tryptophan1 were determined by potentiometric pH titration. The stability constants of the 1:1 complexes formed between M2+: Ca2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+ or Zn2+ and Trp2-, were determined by potentiometric pH titration in aqueous solution (I = 0.1 M, NaNO3, 25°C). The order of the stability constants was reported. It is shown that the stability of the binary M(Trp) complexes is solely determined by the basicity of the carboxyl or amino group. All the stability constants reported in this work show the usual trend. The obtained order is Ca2+< Mg2+ Zn2+. The observed stability order for Tryptophan follows the Irving-Williams sequence. It is shown that regarding to M ion–binding properties vital differences on complex bilding were considered. It is demonstrated, that in M-Trp complexes, M ion is coordinated to the carboxyl group, M ion is also able to bild macrochelate over amino group. The up mentioned results demonstrate that for M-Trp complex the stability constants is also largely determined by the affinity of Cu2+ for amino group. It is shown that Trp can exert a direct influence on reaction mechanism through different kinds of metal ions and donor groups of Trp.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Synthesis, Characterization and Pharmacological Screening of Some
           Substituted 1,2,3- & 1,2,4-Triazoles

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Y. Murti,R. Agnihotri,D. PathakThe triazole nucleus is an important part of the therapeutically interesting drug candidate as antimicrobial, analgesic, anticancer, anticonvulsant and anti-inflammatory agents. Therefore, a number of 1,2,3- & 1,2,4-triazole derivatives were synthesized. The structures of these compounds were characterized by means of FT-IR, 1H-NMR, and elemental analysis. All the compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity, using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and anti-inflammatory activity, using carrageenan-induced acute paw oedema method. Some of the compounds exhibited encouraging antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory results when compared with standard drugs
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Evaluation of Kinetic Models of Copper and Lead Uptake from Dye Wastewater
           by Activated Pride of Barbados Shell

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  S. Idris,Y.A. Iyaka,M. M. Ndamitso,E. B. Mohammed,M. T. UmarPride of Barbados shell was effectively used as a raw materials for the production of activated carbon with HNO3 as an activating agent using twostep process. Batch adsorption was used in interacting the dye wastewater with activated carbon within 30-150 minutes contact time. The maximum adsorption of Cu and Pb were 96.63% and 85.55% at 150 minutes and 30 minute contact time respectively. The result was found to match well with pseudo second-order compared to pseudo first-order, Natarajan and khalaf first order and Elovich model tested. Therefore, activated pride of barbados shell could be employed as an adsorbent in removing Cu and Pb from similar wastewater and aqueous solution
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Antimycobacterial Friedelane-terpenoid from the Root Bark of Terminalia
           avicennioides

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Adebayo O. Oyewale,Joseph O. Amupitan,Majekodumi O. Fatope,Abdullahi Mann,Kolo Ibrahim,Joseph I. OkogunTerminalia avicennioides is used to treat tuberculosis in the folk medicine of the Nupes of North Central Nigeria. Activity guided fractionation of the extract resulted in the isolation of triterpenoid friedelin. The structure of the isolated compound was elucidated with the aid of spectral comparison of IR, UV, one and two dimensional NMR experiments values. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time friedelin is reported from this plant. The in vitro antimycobacterial activity of the isolated compound (friedelin) was performed against Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) with MIC value at 4.9 μg/mL
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Compositional Studies of Telfairia Occidentalis Leaves

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  S. IdrisThe methods used for food analysis was adopted for the proximate and mineral analysis of Telfairia occidentalis leaves. Crude fiber content of 20.17 ± 0.12% in the leaves of Telfairia occidentalis indicated that the leaves of this plant are good sources of dietary fibers compared to the RDA. Higher carbohydrate of 39.64 ± 0.01% lead to a corresponding increase of energy value recorded as 290.16 ± 0.03 Kcal/100g which further confirmed that this plant leaves could serve as a good source of energy. Mineral composition give the result as K (2760.05 ± 0.02 mg/100g), Cu (1.72 ± 0.01 mg/100g), Fe (15.64± 0.04 mg/100g), Mn (15.71± 0.01 mg/100g), Mg (76.46 ± 0.02 mg/100g) and Mg (5.52 ± 0.02 mg/100g) which indicated that the leaves of Telfairia occidentalis are good sources of K, Cu, Fe and Mn, moderate sources of Mg and Zn when compared to their RDA and they are essential in human and animal nutrition.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Utility of E-1-(4-Acetamidobenzoyl)-2-Oxirane Carboxylic Acid in Synthesis
           Some Fused Heterocycles and Spiro Compounds

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Sameh. A. RizkThe present work deals with the reaction of 4-(4-Acetyl amino phenyl-4-oxobut-2-enoic acid (1) with hydrogen peroxide afforded oxirane derivative 2.The latter compound was treated with 2-amino-5-aryl-1,3,4-thiadiazole to yield imidazolo[2,1-b]thiadiazole derivatives 4.The new heterocyclic compounds 4 are used as a key starting materials to synthesize some hetrocycles include pyrrolo-thiadiazolo imidazole , pyridazinone and spiro derivatives .The behavior of the pyridazinone compounds towards different electrophilic and nucleophilic reagents were investigated. The structure of the newly synthesized compounds were elucidated by elemental analysis and spectroscopic data.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • 3-(4-Bromobenzoyl)prop-2-enoic acid as Precursor in Synthesis of Some
           Important Heterocyclic Compounds

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Maher A. El-Hashash,Sameh A. Rizk,Ebtessam A. AhmedThe present work deals with the generation and synthesis of different heterocycles such as 2-pyrimidine thione, pyrane, pyridine and phthalazinone derivative via the treatment of 3-(4-bromobenzoyl)prop-2-enoic acid with thiourea, ethylcyanoacetate malononitrile& acetylacetone in presence of amm.acetate and/or piperidine respectively.Additionally, utility of 2-amino-3-cyano-4-carboxy-6-(4-bromophenyl)3,4-dihydropyridine (4) as a key starting material to synthesize some important heterocycles include fused pyrido-pyrimidine,fused pyrido- pyridazinopyrimidine and interesting diheterocyclic amines.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Soap Production from Agricultural Residues - a Comparative Study

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  L. E Yahaya,A. A Ajao,C. O Jayeola,R. O Igbinadolor,F. C MokwunyeFour agricultural by-products namely Cocoa pod husk (CPH), Kola pod husk (KPH), Plantain peel (PP), and Orange peel (OP) were examined for their potential as alternative source of potash for soap production. These materials were ashed and the samples were subjected to hot aqueous extraction. Extracts from the ashed samples were characterized of their inorganic elements viz calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium. Results indicated that these samples contains appreciable amount of potassium, a precursor material for soap production with CPH giving the highest value (41%).The percentage amount of the potash is of the order CPH> KPH> PPA> OPA. Liquid soaps were thus prepared from the extracts of CPA, KPH, PPA and OPA. Physical and chemical characteristics of the resulting soap products were carried out. The overall quality of the products compared well with that of the standard with exception of OP which showed little variations. Indications therefore abounds that these agricultural residues are suitable material or alternatives for convectional alkalis for soap production.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Oxidative Sequence: a Chemical Principle in Support of priority Sequence
           Rule in Systematic Nomenclature of Organic Functional Groups

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Ohochuku N. Stephen A chemical principle supporting the priority sequence rule in the systematic nomenclature of organic compounds was sought for. The positions of functional groups containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the priority sequence were examined for possible chemical criteria that could be used to buttress the positions of the functions. Oxidative sequence emerged as possible chemical criteria. This chemical principle was applied to other functions containing nitrogen as well and the result was highly positive. However the position of -C≡C- was not favored, this is commented upon. In general oxidative sequence supports the priority sequence and provides a fast means of deciding which function has higher priority instead of resorting to rote learning.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Assessment of Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation in Spinach, Jute Mallow and
           Tomato in Farms Within Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  John O. Jacob,Samuel E. KakuluThe heavy metals levels in soil and the edible parts of three popular vegetables, widely consumed in Nigeria; spinach (Amaranthus hybridus), jute mallow (Corchorus olitorius) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were assessed in farms within the city of Kaduna, Nigeria. The city was divided into 20 zones, for the purpose of this study, and composite samples of soils and vegetables were collected from farms and gardens in each zone and also from two rural villages, about 30 km from the city (as control). Samples were digested using a 3:1 mixture of concentrated HNO3 and HClO4 acids. Recovery test on method of digestion gave % recoveries> 95% while in the analysis of reference materials of soil and plant, t-test results (at 95% Confidence Interval) show that statistically, there exists no significant difference between certified and obtained values. Digests were analysed using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The mean and range of heavy metals concentrations (µg/g dry weight) in digested soil samples were Pb; 134+94 (18.2 – 441), Cd; 3.2+1.6 (1.8 – 9.1), Ni; 36+40 (13.5 – 195) and Cr; 58+39 (31.8 – 212), respectively, while that of vegetable samples were Pb; 19.2+4.9 (1.6 – 67.2), Cd; 3.2+1.0 (1.0 – 12.5), Ni; 9.6+2.5 (1.6 – 23.1) and Cr; 14.1+2.3 (2.8 – 32.4),) respectively. Pollution Load Index (PLI) values indicated that the city farm soils were moderately enriched with Cd and Cr, but strongly enriched with Pb and Ni, due to anthropogenic contributions. The Soil-Plant Transfer Factor (TF) shows that the order of uptake of metals by vegetables is Cd> Ni> Cr> Pb. The mean concentrations of metals in soil samples were generally higher than the WHO/FAO maximum permissive limits in agricultural soil for Pb and Cd, but lower for Ni and Cr, while for vegetables the mean concentrations of metals were generally higher than the permissive limits for all the metals, except Ni. This calls for concern especially in the case of Pb and Cd which are highly toxic and of no known biological use.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • A Comparative Study on the Impact of Avu and Ihie Dumpsites on Soil
           Quality in Southeastern Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Amadi A. N.,Olasehinde P. I.,Okosun E. A.,Okoye N. O.,Okunlola I. A.,Alkali Y. B.,Dan-Hassan M. A. The effects of leachate from unlined open waste dumps on the soil and aquifer system in Avu and Ihie area of Southeastern Nigeria was investigated in this study. The soil pH in both dumpsites is very low and it is a reflection of the microbial action in the process of decomposition of waste materials as well as the acid-rain formation via gas flaring. It was established that the mean concentrations of manganese, lead, iron and bacteria count were higher in Avu dumpsite soil while the other parameters are higher at Ihie dumpsite soil. The concentrations of all the parameters analyzed were below the crustal abundance of the respective elements except cadmium. The high concentration of cadmium can be attributed to the decay of abandoned electric batteries and other electrical parts. The soil samples collected far away from the dumpsites have lower concentrations compared to the samples collected in the vicinity of the dumpsites suggesting a possible soil contamination via leachate from the nearby dumpsites. The graphs of sieve and correlation analyses from the dumpsites were very similar and this implies similarity in wastes materials and geohistory. Construction of future dumpsites in the area should follow the prescribed design of a modern sanitary landfill system that quarantee protection to the soil and aquifer materials.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Recovery of Symmetry of Non-Empiric Force Fields of Cyclic Molecules in
           Going to Complete Sets of Equivalent Natural Coordinates

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  G. А. Pitsevich,А. E. MalevichThe force field of a benzene molecule computed using the quantum-chemical GAMESS package with a set of independent vibrational coordinates in the approximation B3LYP/cc-pVTZ has been transformed to the set of redundant vibrational coordinates including all groups of the equivalent natural coordinates. It has been demonstrated that by the use of the transformed field all the initial frequencies of normal molecular vibrations may be found and the field symmetry may be recovered, with more adequate and clear forms of normal vibrations.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Determination of Iron by Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction
           Procedure in Environmental Samples

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  F. Sánchez Rojas,C. Bosch Ojeda,J. M. Cano PavónA greener analytical procedure based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled to flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) detection was developed. Various influencing factors on the separation and preconcentration of iron, such as the acidity of the aqueous solution, extraction and disperser solvent type and their volume have been investigated systematically, and the optimized operation conditions were established. Under the optimum conditions i.e., pH 4.0, [DPTH] = 5x10-3%, a preconcentration factor of 45 was reached. The lower limit of detection (LOD) obtained under the optimal conditions was 9 μg L-1. The precision for 8 replicate determinations at 50 and 100 μg L-1 of Fe were 1.8 % and 4.4 % relative standard deviation (R.S.D.), respectively. The calibration graph using the preconcentration method was linear from 10 to 5000 μg L-1, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9904. The proposed method was successfully applied to the preconcentration and determination of iron in food, vegetation, soil and water samples.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Development and Validation of Headspace Method for Determination of
           Residual Solvents in Diphenoxylate Hydrochloride Bulk Drug

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  R. S. Lokhande,P. U. Singare,P. V. Jadhav Organic volatile impurities by Headspace GC method was developed and validated for Diphenoxylate hydrochloride bulk drug for its seven residual solvents. Analysis was performed on Perkin Elmer HS 40 system with auto injector. Carrier gas Helium was used with constant flow rate of 2.5mL/min as carrier gas and the separation of residual solvents were achieved on DB-5 column. The thermostat temperature was 125 °C for 20 minute for each vial and after the equilibration the vials were pressurized and injected on GC column. FID detector was used for detection. The parameter for which the method was validated included specificity, limit of detection and quantification, linearity, precision, accuracy and robustness. The method was successfully used to quantify the levels of specified limit for residual solvents in Diphenoxylate hydrochloride bulk drug.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Synthesis and Characterization of γ-irradiated PVA/PEG/CaCl2 Hydrogel for
           Wound Dressing

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Joydeep Dutta The mixtures of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) with calcium chloride (CaCl2) were exposed to gamma-irradiation to synthesize transparent hydrogels for wound dressing. In this system, CaCl2 was used not only as a gelling material but also as a plasticizer. The presence of CaCl2 enhances the effects of PEG, this synergistic effects give births a new hydrogel with improved characteristics. The water absorption capacity of the hydrogel was in the range of 350-375% after immersion in normal saline for 72 h. In vitro weight loss experiments were conducted at 37 oC in order to simulate the use of dressing on wounded skin. The enhanced thermal stability of the hydrogel was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). FTIR studies confirmed the cross-linking between PVA and PEG in the hydrogel. Furthermore, the microbe penetration test of the hydrogel was carried out to confirm its impermeability to bacteria. The effect of hydrogel on cell proliferation was also evaluated to ensure that the hydrogel does not release materials which might be deleterious to cell proliferation. The results showed that the hydrogel could be considered as a potential wound-dressing material.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidative Conversion of 5-Hydroxyindole to
           2-Oxo-5-hydroxyindole by Chloramine-B in Basic Solutions

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Nirmala Vaz,K. N. Vinod, Puttaswamy,Netkal M. Made Gowda The conversion of 5-hydroxyindole (Indole) to 2-oxo-5-hydroxyindole is an important oxidative transformation in synthetic organic and biochemistry. Under pseudo first-order conditions of[Indole]o>>[chloramine-B or CAB]o, the indole oxidation reaction in a basic solution follows the following experimental rate law: rate = k‘[CAB]o[Indole]o[OH-]x/[BSA]y, where BSA represents benzenesulfonamide and x and y are fractional orders. The retarding effect of BSA on the rate indicates its involvement in a fast pre-equlibrium in the mechanism of oxidation. Activation parameters have been determined. The variation of[OH-] at constant[BSA] was performed to evaluate the equilibrium and decomposition constants. Based on the mechanism proposed, a rate law has been derived. Furthermore, the methodology developed could be adopted in the synthesis of 2-oxo-5-hydroxyindole. Advantages of the method include: mild reaction conditions, short reaction time, ease of isolation of products, cost effectiveness, and the use of eco friendly reagents.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • An atomic-level Catalysis of Au n (SR) m Nanoclusters for Stereoselective
           Epoxidation of Stilbene

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Yan Zhu,Guoxiang Chen,Rongchao Jin,Yuhan SunThe efficient and stereoselective epoxidation of cis-stilbene and trans-stilbene was achieved at the atomic level using atomically precise Aun(SR)m nanoclusters catalysts in mild conditions, involving thiolate-capped Au25(SR)18, Au38(SR)24, and Au144(SR)60 nanoclusters. These Aun nanoclusters, which are ideally composed of an exact number of gold atoms, have unique atom packing structures and non-metallic electronic properties and show super catalysis comparing to current gold nanoparticles. The atomic-level understanding of mechamism is particularly interesting and the correlation of their structure and properties may provide us a deep insight into the fundamental nanogold catalysis.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • The Association and Formation Constants for CuCl2 Stoichiometric Complexes
           with (E)-3-(2-Benzylidene Hydrazinyl)-3-oxo-N-(thiazol-2-yl)Propanamide in
           Absolute Ethanol Solution at 294.15 K

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Kamal M. Ibrahim,Esam A.Gomaa,Rania R. Zaky,Mahmoud N. Abdel El-Hady The association constants and Gibbs free energies for CuCl2 with (E)-3-(2-benzylidene hydrazinyl)-3-oxo-N-(thiazol-2-yl)propanamide (H2BH) had been calculated by using the conductometric titration curves in absolute ethanol at 294.15 K. New equation was applied to determine the association constant for 1:2 asymmetric salts. Different stoichiometric complexes were obtained on drawing the relation between (/\m) and (M:L). The association free energies that were evaluated for CuCl2-ligand complexes were small and spontaneous indicating electrostatic attraction force. The formation constants and Gibbs free energies of different complexes follow that order: Kf (2:1) › Kf (1:1) › Kf (1:2) for (M:L), and ΔGf (2:1) › ΔGf (1:1) › ΔGf (1:2) for (M:L).
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Ab-initio Study of the Ground State Structure and Properties of Fe+2
           (Adenine)2 (H2O)2 Complex

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  D. De,S. Dhar,B. R. De Hartree-Fock calculations with 6-31G(d) basis set have been done in the gas phase on Fe+2 (Adenine)2(H2O)2 complex with complete geometry optimization. Stable structure for the complex has been found. Single point water phase calculation (PCM) has also been done which shows that the complex is more stable in water implying its physiological action for the removal of excess hazardous Fe+2 from the body. Selected optimized geometrical parameters, charge densities on selected atoms have been reported. HOMO-LUMO energies and structures are shown. The LUMO structure shows that the Fe+2 play the key role of the complex. The study may help in the new drug discovery.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding in
           2,3-Bis-(3,4-dimethoxybenzoyl)Propionitrile

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Francisco Sanchez-Viesca,Martha Berros,Reina Gomez3,4-Dimethoxybenzoylacetonitrile, required in the synthesis of some isoxazole derivatives, was obtained from α-bromoacetoveratrone and potassium cyanide. In this reaction, a byproduct could be isolated. From its IR, 1H-NMR, MS and elemental analysis data, it was identified as 2,3-bis-(3,4-dimethoxybenzoyl)propionitrile. A careful study of its NMR spectrum revealed the existence of two intramolecular weak hydrogen bonds, in solution in CDCl3, of the type C-H---O=C. Paramagnetic shifts, Δδ, of 0.5 and 1 ppm, were found for the hydrogens involved in the interactions, as well as significant differences in the coupling constants. A molecular model confirmed the findings made by the conformational analysis. Thus, the secondary structure of the title compound was established.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Assessment of Toxic Levels of Some Heavy Metals in Road Deposited
           Sediments in Suleja, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Jonathan Yisa,John O. Jacob,Christian C. OnoyimaRoad deposited sediments contain toxic metals which can pollute terrestrial as well as aquatic environments when these pollutants are mobilized during storm run-off. Assessment of toxic metals in the road deposited sediments of Suleja streets was carried out. 30 samples were collected from seven selected streets. The road sediment samples were digested with a mixture of HNO3 and HClO4 (2:1 v/v), and analyzed for the metals Pb, Cu, Cr, Zn, Cd and Ni using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Results showed that metal concentrations were in the order Zn>Pb>Cu>Ni>Cd>Cr. Geo-accumulation Index indicated that the contamination degree ranged from unpolluted to moderately polluted areas. Potential Ecological Risk Index demonstrated that overall risk caused by metals ranges from moderate to low. Only Cd constitutes considerable risk and contributed 60.15% of the total risk.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Thiocarbohydrazides: Synthesis and Reactions

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Mohamed A. Metwally,Mohamed E. Khalifa,M. KoketsuThiocarbohydrazides are an important class of compounds which possess applications in many fields. The chemistry of thiocarbohydrazides has gained increased interest in both synthetic organic chemistry and biological fields and has considerable value in many useful applications such as the assessment process of the three-dimensional ultrastructure examination techniques of interphase nuclei and tissues, besides their therapeutic importance. They are also described for use as fogging agents and are considered as safe, storable, and cool-burning pyrotechnic compounds for dissemination of smoke, chemical warfare agents. On the other hand, thiocarbohydrazides are used in performing a highly selective heavy metal ion adsorbent and as complexing agents for the solvent extraction separation methods. The present review covers the literature up to date for the synthesis, reactions and applications of such compounds.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Synthesis, Complexation and Characterization of 1-Phenyl-3-Methyl-4-
           (p-nitrobenzoyl) Pyrazolone-5(HNPz) and its complexes of Barium(II),
           Strontium(II) and Zinc(II)

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Martins O.C. Ogwuegbu,Nneka D. Ekekwe,Amaka J. Arinze,Lebe A. Nnanna,Chibueze F. Ukpabi,Akuagwu AgwuComplexes of Ba(II), Sr(II) and Zn(II) with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4- (p-nitrobenzoyl) pyrazolone-5(HNPz) have been synthesized and characterized. The HNPz was prepared from high grade p-nitrobenzoyl chloride and 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone. The process involved benzoylation of 17.60 g (0.10 M) 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (HPMP) with 14.55 g (0.103 M) nitrobenzoylchloride. The complexes of Ba (II), Sr (II) and Zn (II) were prepared by dissolving 5 mmol of BaCl2.2H2O,SrCl2.6H2O and ZnSO4.7H2O respectively in 10 mmol of HNPz. The complexing agent and the metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, UV-visible and infrared spectroscopies. The results show the complexes to be dihydrated bischelates conforming to a general molecular formula, MLn.2H2O, where L is the 4-acylpyrazolonato ion and n is the ligand number or oxidation state of metal,M (Ba, Sr, Zn). The study also indicates the formation of octahedral complexes which are presumed to have been formed through the enolic and carbonyl oxygen atoms of the coordination reagent; in which water molecules complete the expected coordination numbers of Ba(II), Sr(II) and Zn(II).
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Electron Transfer Reactions: a Treatise

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  V. JagannadhamIn the introduction the concept of oxidation-reduction is well defined. In the discussion a systematic classification of electron transfer reactions is made based on the nature of the redox partners. There were total of eight sets of redox reactions under two main headings four sets for each class of outer sphere electron transfer reactions, and inner sphere electron transfer reactions: containing (i) Inorganic oxidant and inorganic substrate, (ii) Inorganic oxidant and organic substrate, (iii) Organic oxidant and organic substrate, and (iv) Organic oxidant and inorganic substrate. At least one example for each set of redox partners is given and well explained. At the end an example of atom transfer reaction, inner sphere synchronous three and four electron transfer reactions are included.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Microwave Assisted Acid Digestion of Biomorphic Ceramic Obtained from
           Beech Wood Infiltrated with Nickel Oxide: Factorial Design

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  F. Sánchez Rojas,C. Bosch Ojeda,J. M. Cano PavónBiomorphic ceramics is a novel inorganic materials with hierarchical structures derived from natural biological structures. This work describes the use of experimental design for optimization of microwave-assisted digestion of biomorphic NiO-ceramic. Beech wood is used as template and it was infiltrated with NiO. XPS and SEM have been used to verify the effectiveness of the synthesis. The effects of different combination of acids in the digestion of this sample have been optimized taking as response the concentration of several metallic ions measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS).
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Enzyme Activity in the Nervous Tissue of Lymnaea Acuminata Fed to
           Different Bait Formulations

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Pradeep Kumar,V. K. Singh,D. K. Singh Lymnaeid snails transmit medical and veterinary trematodiases, mainly fascioliasis. Vector specificity of fasciolid parasites defines disease distribution and characteristics. Control of fascioliasis is to de-link the life cycle of fluke, by destroying the Lymnaeid snails. Different Bait formulations were fed to snail Lymnaea acuminata in clear glass aquaria having diameter of 30 cm. Snail attractant containing bait formulations were prepared from different binary combination of amino acid (valine, aspartic acid, lysine and alanine 10 mM) in 100 ml of 2% agar solution + sub-lethal (20% and 60% of 24h LC50 and 96h LC50) doses of different molluscicides (eugenol, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, and limonene). Snails were fed bait with sub-lethal concentration of different molluscicides inside the snail attractant pellets, which caused a significant inhibition in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the nervous tissue of the vector snail L. acuminata. Combination of different amino acids such as valine + aspartic acid, lysine + valine, lysine + alanine and alanine + valine was used as attractant with active molluscicidal components. Maximum inhibition in ALP (23.57% of control) and AChE (49.48% of control) activity were observed in the nervous tissue of the L. acuminata exposed to 60% of 96h LC50 of ferulic acid, umbelliferone, respectively in the bait pellets containing valine + aspartic acid as attractant.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Solvents Design on the Basis of Molecular-Microscopic Properties of Binary
           Mixtures for Lycopene Extraction

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Hadi Salari,Hanie Rohani,Mohammad Reza Elahifard,Mohammad Hosseini,Mohammad Reza GholamiLycopene is a natural compound with high-value of nutritional and medical properties. Nowadays, the extraction of Lycopene with mixtures of solvents to obtain more efficiency and less toxicity is interested. In this study, the Lycopene extraction in three binary mixtures of solvents (Ethyl-acetate/Ethanol, Hexane/Isopropanol and Benzene/Isopropanol) was measured and then the effects of solvatochromic parameters (π*, dipolarity/polarizability; β, hydrogen-bond acceptor basicity; α, hydrogen-bond donor acidity) and solvophobicity (Sp) parameters on the extraction from tomato tissues have been considered. Among the all parameters, Sp shows the biggest contribution in the extraction that is well justified, knowing that Lycopenes are lypophobic. Our calculation results show that in addition to Sp, another parameter is needed to get the reasonable correlation between the parameters and the extraction. For Ethanol/Ethyle-acetate mixture, β, for Isopropanol/Benzene mixture, π* and for Isopropanol/Hexane mixture, α, participated in the correlation equation in addition to Sp.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Kinetics in a Double Antibody Radioimmunoassay (RIA): Diffussion Control

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  C. Olivas Arroyo,J. L. Moreno FrigolsCompetitive protein binding radioimmunoassay (CPB-RIA) is a principal method for quantifying serum C Peptide concentration. The accuracy of this method is critically dependent on factors that influence the reaction between anti-C Peptide antibody (P) with 125I-C Peptide (M). We studied the influence of initial concentration of M, ionic strength, and viscosity on the reaction between M and P. A kinetic model for the the reaction between. Such model adjusts satisfactorily to the results. Bi-exponential and irreversible kinetics is determined. The results of the viscosity analysis show clear negative influence on the direct reaction rate. The ionic strength shows scarce influence on equilibrium and negligible influence upon the rate constant, which suggests that the variation resulting from the effect of the glycerol addition is not due to the influence of the dielectric constant of the solutions used. The effect of temperature shows activation parameters similar to the viscous flow energy of water, which suggests that the reaction is diffusion-controlled. The value of ΔHº for the immucomplex formation is positive, as is the case with endothermic processes.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Kinetic and Mechanistic Study of Oxidation of Protein-based Elastin
           Polymer with its Constituent Amino Acids and Peptides

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  R. Suhas,L. P. Ravi Kumar,A. Ramesha Baba,D. Channe Gowda,N. M. Made Gowda Four peptides (Ps) with varying chain lengths, VP, GVP, VGVP, GVGVP, and a poly pentapeptide (PPP or poly(GVGVP) have been synthesized by a classical solution phase method and characterized. Oxidations of these peptides, including their constituent amino acids (AAs), V and P, have been studied using the oxidant, quinolinium dichromate (QDC), in perchloric acid medium at 25℃. Each reaction has been monitored spectrophotometrically at the λmax of 440 nm. The reactions follow an identical kinetics with the following general, experimental rate law: rate = k′ [QDC][substrate][H+], where substrate = AA/P/PPP. Effects of dielectric constant of the medium and the added salts have been studied. The reaction stoichiometry has been determined and the products have been characterized. The dependence of the reaction rate on temperature has been determined and the activation parameters have been evaluated. A plausible mechanism has been envisaged based on the kinetic results. An apparent correlation has been noted between the rate of oxidation and the length of the peptide chain. The polymer, poly(GVGVP), has the slowest rate as compared to peptides, ranging from dipeptide to pentapeptide, which in turn have slow rates than their individual amino acid constituents. This is consistent with the dependence of the reaction rate on chain length.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Toxicity and Antimetabolic Properties of Biologically Treated Neem Seed
           (Azadiracta indica) Kernel Cake

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Mubarak O. Ameen,Moshood A.Belewu,Lamidi A.Usman,Oladoyin O.Onifade,Sophia O. AdetutuSeeds from Neem plants were ground and defatted to obtain the meal, the neem seed cake (NSC). The seed cake was fermented with two different fungi Aspergillus niger and Mucor mucedo. Proximate compositions as well as antinutrient factor of the treated cakes were analyzed. The results obtained reveals that the defatted Neem seed cake treated with A. niger contains protein of 47.70% which is higher than the seed cake treated with M. mucedo and the untreated sample. The untreated sample which is the control contains more dry matter and crude fiber of 80.67% and 0.51% respectively. It was also observed that the sample treated with A. niger contains more phytate and tannin of 7.95% and 1.30% respectively. Though the treatment has increased the crude protein content of Neem seed cake, but the biological treatment may not be suitable for the detoxification of neem seed cake as the antinutrient factors (oxalate, phytate, tannin and cyanide) determined were significantly higher in the treated than the untreated seed cake.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Microwave-Assisted Synthesis and Pharmacological Activity of Pyrazolyl
           Benzofuran Deravatives

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Raghunandan Deshpande,Bhagawan Raju M,Parameshwar S,Shanth Kumar S.M,Appalaraju S,Manjunath S YelagattiMicrowave-assisted Organic Reaction Enhancement (MORE) has emerged as a new ‘lead’ in organic synthesis. During the studies we observed that microwave –assisted organic synthesis requires 2-4 min. of time whereas the conventional ones takes 4-6 hrs and often with poor yields. Hence, with an objective of reducing the reaction time, application of microwave technique has proved to be advantageous in case of synthesis of new benzofuran derivatives. The structures of synthesized derivatives emerged is confirmed by their IR, NMR and Mass spectra. The representative compounds synthesized with this route is further screened for anti-bacterial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and ulcerogenic studies. In this study we have observed that the benzofuran derivatives are less ulcerogenic compared to phenyl butazone. The structural comparisons have revealed that the chloro substitution will increase the ulcerogenic toxicity.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Groundwater Mineralization Analysis of Osisioma Local Government Area of
           Aba, Abia State, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Adindu R. U,Igboekwe M.U,Lebe NnannaWater is directly linked to human and animal health, so it has to be suitable for drinking. Its suitability depends on its characteristics. The objective of this study is to determine the quality and suitability of groundwater of Osisioma Local Government Area (L.G.A) of Aba, Abia State, Southeastern Nigeria, for drinking and domestic purposes or otherwise, through physiochemical analysis. Five (5) samples of borehole water were collected and analyzed. The physiochemical analysis showed that the water is tasteless, odorless and colourless. It was determined to be free from heavy metals contamination, like Lead, Arsenic, Mercury and Barium. Aluminum and Manganese were also not detected. A mean pH of 6.3 was recorded, while the highest calcium Hardness value recorded out of the five samples was 15mg/L. This indicates that the water is soft. Conductivity is low, (23µs/cm – 145 µs/cm). The chloride concentration is also low (11mg/L-22mg/L) while an average value of 0.15mg/l of magnesium was detected. Copper falls within the range of 0.1mg/l to 0.14mg/l, Phosphate ranged from 0.04mg/l – 0.7mg/l and Zinc from 0.29mg/l – 0.34mg/l. All of these values are within the permissible limits of WHO drinking water standards.. Total Dissolved Solid was found to be, between 10mg/L and 67mg/L. The groundwater was found to be safe, therefore the people of this area do not stand the health risk associated with heavy metals contaminated drinking water.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Dual functionalities of Beta Zeolite: Alkylation and Isomerization

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  S. D. Sharma,Shailandra Singh H-Beta zeolite was modified by mild and severally repeated dealumination followed by acid leaching.On mild dealuminated beta zeolite 0.6 wt% Platinum was impregnated by incipient wetness method. Platinum impregnated Beta zeolite catalyst was tested for feed-1(rich paraffins) in presence of H2 gas i.e. hydroisomerization and also mild dealuminated Beta Zeolite for feed-2(rich Isoparaffin/olefin) in presence of N2 and H2 gas i.e. Alkylation. The RON was observed 25-45 units increase for platinum impregnated beta zeolite and 15-25 units for dealuminated beta zeolite on feed-1 and feed-2 respectively. This RON was increased due to production of branched paraffins. This increase in branched paraffins showed that alkylation, dimerisation and isomerization pathways would have been taken place. It could be concluded that beta zeolite has multi functional properties i.e. for hydroisomerization as well as for alkylation.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Dynamics of Apolar Guest Solubilized in Bile Salt Micelles: Photochemistry
           of Acenaphthylene as a Probe to Understand the Supramolecular
           Characteristics of the Aggregates

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Nick Carter,Mahesh Pattabiraman,Luis Albert AriasProduct distribution resulting from the excited state reactivity of acenaphthylene is influenced predominantly by multiplicity of the excited state, mobility of the substrate in a given medium, and spatial constraints. The photochemistry of acenaphthylene solubilized by sodium cholate, a member of the atypical micelle forming molecules called bile salts, in water was investigated to understand the interior of the aggregates. Results indicate that the supramolecular characteristics of the aggregates change significantly with concentration which in turn affects the mobility of the encapsulated acenaphthylene guest leading to changes in product distribution from the reaction.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Effect of Irradiation on Sprouting of Water Yam (Dioscorea Alata) Using
           Different Doses of Gamma Radiation

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  James Imeh,M. Y. Onimisi,S. A. Jonah Water yam (Dioscorea Alata) tuber samples from Abuja, Nigeria were irradiated with gamma radiation of doses 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140 gray respectively at an average dose rate of 3 gray/min and some un-irradiated used as control. All were monitored during storage for 7 months. Results indicated that all the un-irradiated water yams sprouted by the end of the 3rd month of storage. 90% of the irradiated water yams at 60 gray, 30% of the irradiated water yams at 80 gray and only 10% of the irradiated water yam at 100 gray sprouted within the storage period. None of the irradiated water yams at 120 and 140 gray sprouted. The results suggest that gamma radiation dose range of 100 – 140 gray could effectively inhibit sprouting in water yams for 7 months. 80% of the un-irradiated water yams rotted while none of the irradiated water yams rotted within the storage period. The percentage weight loss (64.79±13.45%) in the un-irradiated was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than the irradiated tubers. There were no significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in the average values of the lipid, protein and carbohydrate content of the irradiated and un-irradiated water yam tubers. The results suggest that radiation processing preserved the quality of water yam tubers through sprout inhibition, reduction of weight loss, preservation of macronutrients such as protein, lipid, and carbohydrate content.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Inhibitory Action of 1–phenyl–3–methylpyrazol–5–one (HPMP) and
           1–phenyl–3–methyl–4–(p–nitrobenzoyl)– pyrazol–5–one
           (HPMNP) on the Corrosion of Alpha and Beta Brass in HCl Solution

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  C. I. Akabueze,A. U. ItodoThe inhibition of corrosion of Alpha – Brass (70% Cu, 30% Zn) coupons and Beta – Brass (60% Cu, 40% Zn) coupons in different concentrations of Hydrochloric acid solution (HCl) at room temperature by 1-phenyl–3– methylpyrazol– 5– one (HPMP) and 1–phenyl–3–methyl–4–(p–Nitrobenzoyl)–pyrazol–5-one (HPMNP) was investigated, using weight loss technique. Generally, inhibition was found to increase with increasing inhibitor concentration. HPMNP inhibited the two Brasses better than HPMP, and Beta – Brass (60% Cu, 40% Zn) corroded faster than Alpha – Brass ( 70% Cu, 30% Zn ). The inhibition was assumed to occur via adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on the metal surface. The effect of immersion time was also carefully followed to study the corrosion and inhibition phenomenon.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Synyhesis and Antibacterial Activities of New
           3-Amino-2-Methyl-Quinazolin-4 (3h)-One Derivatives

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Abdul Jabar Kh. Atia,Suhair S. Al-MufrgeiyNew derivatives of Quinazolin-4 (3H)-one ring comprising Schiff's bases, 1,3,4-Thiadiazole, 1,3,4-Oxadiazole and 1,2,4-Triazole,Thiaurease moieties are reported. Compounds 3-aminoquinazolin-4(3H)-one (2) was synthesized by reaction of compounds (1) with hydrazine hydrate. Quinazolin-4(3H)-one ester (6) was converted into quinazolin-4(3H)-one hydrazide ester (7) and quinazolin-4(3H)-one thiosemicarbazide ester (8), then compounds (2), (7) and (8) were converted into a variety of derivatives. The structure of these compounds has been established on the basis of their elemental, analytical, and spectral data. These compounds were tested for invitro antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aurousandProteus mirabbilisby standard methods. These synthesized compounds have been shown moderate to good antibacterial activity.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Palladium Complex Containing Curcumin as Ligand: Thermal and Spectral
           Characterization

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Mônica Aparecida Rodrigues,Jehorgyelly Nunes Fernandes,Reinaldo Ruggiero,Wendell Guerra Reaction of curcumin with K2PdCl4 at pH 9.0 (60℃) produces a neutral complex of palladium containing curcumin as ligand. The compound was characterized by conductivity measurements, elemental analysis, infrared and UV-visible electronic spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTA). The spectroscopic techniques show that the ligand is coordinated to palladium(II) via -diketone group. Thermal studies supported the chemical formulation of this complex and showed that the same has general structure [Pd(Cur-H)2].2H2O.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Kinetics of the Partially Autocatalytic Hexacyanoferrate(II)−Iodate
           Reaction and the Effect of a Added Iodide

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Amina S. Al-Jaber,Mohamed A-Z. Eltayeb,Yousif SulfabThe oxidation of [Fe(CN)6]4- by IO3- in the pH 1.62 -2.70 range is autocatalytic whether the reductant or oxidant is in excess. Typical first order plots of -ln(A∞ -At) versus time are curved showing an increase in rate with the progress of the reaction. It was possible, however, to obtain the pseudo first order rate constants (ku) for the uncatalyzed [Fe(CN)6]4--IO3- reaction from the linear parts of these plots. The linearity of the plots decreases with increasing concentrations of [Fe(CN)6]4-, IO3- and H+. The pseudo first order rate constant (kobs) for the whole reaction was obtained using ln[(At/A∞)/(1 - At/A∞)] versus time and/or a nonlinear curve fitting for sigmoidal reactions. The rate constant, kobs obtained by both methods varies with the initial concentration of [Fe(CN)6]4- according to Eqn. (i), where ku is the rate constant of the direct reaction between [Fe(CN)6]4- and IO3- and ka is the rate constant of the autocatalytic reaction. The values of ku, at different reactions conditions, obtained from plots of kobs vs [Fe(CN)64-]i are in fairly good agreement with values obtained from linear sections of first order plots. (i)Both ku and ka showed a first order dependence on [IO3-]. The dependence of ku on [H+] is complex as shown in Eqn. (ii). A polynomial fit of k2(1 + K1[H+]) vs [H+] has a zero intercept in agreement with Eqn. (iii)The catalytic rate constant varies with [H+] according to Eqn. (iii)(ii) (iii) (iv)The overall dependence of kobs on [Fe(CN)64−], [IO3−] and [H+] is given by Eqn. (v). (v)At pH 4.33 no reaction between [Fe(CN)6]4− and IO3−was observed. When iodide is added to the reaction mixture at this pH, the reaction proceeded at measureable rate.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Sorption Study of Co (II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions Removal from Aqueous
           Solution by Adsorption on Flamboyant Flower (Delonix Regia)

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Jimoh T. O.,Iyaka Y. A,Nubaye M. MThe ability of Delonix regia (Flamboyant) flower to remove Co(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions through biosorption was investigated in multimetal batch experiments at 32ºC. The metal ions concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopic (AAS) method. The influence of pH, Contact time, adsorbent dosage and initial metal ion concentration were investigated. The study revealed that maximum removal of Co(II), Cu(II) Pb(II) ion from aqueous solution occurred at pH of 5. The contact time for the adsorption process was found to be at 60 minutes. The amount of metal ions adsorbed increases with increase in adsorbent dosage and initial metal ion concentration. The biosorption of Pb(II) and Co(II) ions exhibited pseudo-second-order kinetics models whereas Cu(II) ion followed for both pseudo first order and second order kinetics model. This study shows that Delonix regia flower is a viable agricultural waste for the removal of Co(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Sediment Heavy Metal Contaminants in Vasai Creek Of Mumbai: Pollution
           Impacts

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Pravin U. Singare,Manisha P. Trivedi, Ravindra M. In the present investigation, quantification study of different toxic heavy metals in the sediment samples of Vasai Creek of Mumbai was performed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy technique. The study is of importance because such assessment of heavy metals in sediments helps to understand long term pollution load in aquatic environment. Such study will also help to provide a means for evaluating the long term accumulation of heavy metal contaminants. The results of the study indicates that the concentration level of most of the toxic heavy metals like Al, As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sr and Mn for the assessment year 2010-11 were higher than that obtained for the year 2009-10 by the factor of 1.0 to 2.5 µg/g. It is expected that results of present investigation will help in rational planning of pollution control strategies so as to reduce the toxicity impact on marine life of Vasai Creek.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Synthesis and Characterization of Transition Metal Complexes of
           Chlorpromazine

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Yakubreddy Naini,Tarab J. Ahmad,Gilles K. Kouassi,S. Ananda,Netkal M. Made GowdaThe chlorpromazine (CP) complexes of the transition metal ions, Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II), have been synthesized. The complexes have been characterized by their elemental analysis, molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, UV-Visible, IR and 1H-NMR data. The molecular formulations of the new mononuclear complexes have been found to be [ZnBr(C17H19ClN2S.HCl)2]Br, [CdBr(C17H19ClN2S.HCl)2]Br.H2O, [Cd(C17H19ClN2S.HCl)2]I2 and[HgBr((C17H19ClN2S.HBr)2]Br.2H2O, where the ligand chlorpromazine or CP = C17H19ClN2S. The complexes, [ZnBr(C17H19ClN2S.HCl)2]Br, [CdBr(C17H19ClN2S.HCl)2]Br.H2O, and [HgBr((C17H19ClN2S.HBr)2]Br.2H2O, behave in DMF solutions as 1:1 electrolytes while the other complex, [Cd(C17H19ClN2S.HCl)2]I2, shows an ionic ratio of 1:2 in solution. Molecular structures have been proposed showing a square pyramidal environment around each metal center with an sp3d hybridization for the five-coordinate complexes, [ZnBr(C17H19ClN2S.HCl)2]Br, [CdBr(C17H19ClN2S.HCl)2]Br.H2O, and[HgBr((C17H19ClN2S.HBr)2]Br.2H2O. In the four-coordinate [Cd(C17H19ClN2S.HCl)2]I2 complex, the Cd(II) center with an sp3 hybridization has a tetrahedral environment around it.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Cationic Surfactants from Arginine: Synthesis and Physicochemical
           Properties

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Pravin U. Singare,Jyoti D. MhatreThe present invention concerns the preparation of cationic surfactants derived from the condensation of an acid chloride, preferably a fatty acid with a number of carbon atoms 8, 9 and 14 with esterified amino acids, preferably basic-type amino acids, like (L)-arginine. The method comprises a first step in which the esterification of the amino acid with an alcohol is performed and a second step for the condensation with a chloride of fatty acid, using Schotten Baumann conditions. These surfactants constitute a novel class of chemicals of low toxicity with excellent surface properties and considerable antimicrobial activity. As in a conventional series of surfactants with different chain lengths, changes in the chain result in changes in the physicochemical properties. Excellent antimicrobial activity is observed for the homologue of 14 carbon atoms.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Heavy Metal Contamination and Risk Assessment in the Marine Environment of
           Arabian Sea, along the Southwest Coast of India

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Robin R. S,Pradipta R. Muduli,K. Vishnu Vardhan,D. Ganguly,K. R Abhilash,T. BalasubramanianMarine ecosystem is being threatened by the discharge of untreated sewage wastes and industrial effluents which ultimately affects the sustainability of living resources and public health. These wastes carry enormous level of toxicants especially the heavy metals have the tendency to accumulate into the basic food chain and move up through the higher trophic level and results in negative impact on the marine resources thus causing economic loss. In this regard, to ascertain the level of heavy metals in water, particulate, zooplankton (Zn, Mn, Pb, Cu, Cd and Hg) and in sediment (Pb, Al, Cd and Hg) along southern Kerala coast, India has been evaluated during early 2006. The heavy metal concentrations followed the hierarchy; Zn>Mn>Pb>Cu>Cd>Hg; Pb>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cd>Hg; Zn>Pb>Mn>Cu>Cd>Hg and Pb>Al>Cd>Hg in seawater, particulate matter, zooplankton and sediment respectively. The results revealed that in all the transacts (except Cochin) the heavy metal concentrations are below the threshold levels associated with the toxicological effects and the regulatory limits. Metal enrichments were observed close to the major urban areas of coastal waters, mostly associated with large scale industrialization. Enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index and pollution load index were calculated to evaluate the heavy metal threats along the coastal sediment. It revealed minor to moderately severe enrichment of Cd, Pb and Hg in the industrial zones of the coastal stretches especially at Cochin. A comparison with sediment quality guideline quotient indicated that there may be probability of ecotoxicological threats to the benthic community along Cochin transect.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Antioxidant Activity and Phytochemical Contents of Some Selected Nigerian
           Fruits and Vegetables

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Azeez L.,Adeoye M. D,Majolagbe T. A,Lawal A. T,Badiru R.Ten plants which are used as condiments, spices, herbs, and eaten raw in Nigeria were investigated for their antioxidant activities using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Phytochemicals such as total phenols, flavonoids, β- Carotene, and lycopene were also determined. The results showed that the highest antioxidant activity was found in Lactuca sativa (92.62%) and Allium sativum had the lowest (4.32%). Lactuca sativa with the lowest IC50 (0.26mg/mL), is the most potent vegetable of the samples analyzed. Phenolic contents of fruits and vegetables ranged from 106mg quercetin/g of extract for Capsicum annuum to 360mg quercetin/g of extract for Lycopersicon esculentum (unripe) while flavonoid contents ranged from 64 mg quercetin/g of extract for Daucus carota to 482 mg quercetin/g of extract for Zingiber officinale. Ripe Lycopersicon esculentum and Capsicum frutescens have higher Phenolic and Flavonoid contents than the unripe ones. There was significant correlation (r = 0.63, p< 0.05) between antioxidant activity and flavonoid contents but phenolic contents poorly correlate with antioxidant activity (r = 0.31, p< 0.05) of samples analyzed. Zingiber officinale had the highest content of β-carotene (66.30µg/g of extract) and Allium sativum had the lowest (2.37µg/g of extract). Ripe Lycopersicon esculentum (22.73µg/g of extract) had the highest lycopene and Allium sativum had the lowest (1.23µg/g of extract). Ripe Lycopersicon esculentum has higher lycopene and β-carotene contents than the unripe ones, but a decrease was obtained for Capsicum frutescens upon ripening. Both β-carotene and lycopene poorly correlate with antioxidant activity but significantly correlate with each other. These fruits and vegetables can be considered as good sources of antioxidants as shown by the values obtained for antioxidant activity, phenolic, flavonoid, β-carotene and lycopene contents.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • The Influences of Catalysts and Co-catalysts On The Thermal Decomposition
           Of Potassium Peroxydisulphate In Aqueous Solution at 70 ℃

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  M. J. A. AbualreishThe thermal decomposition of potassium peroxydisulphate at 70OC under catalyzed conditions was investigated. The decomposition was catalyzed by different systems namely, the silver (I) ion, the copper (II) ion and in the presence of both ions (co- catalysts). It is obvious that the presence of small amount of silver(I) or copper (II) ion enhance the rate of decomposition of peroxydisulphate. A systematic kinetic study showed that the catalytic influence of the different systems used in the decomposition is in the following order :co-catalyst> Ag +> Cu2+ .
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Nonempiric Anharmonic Computations of IR Spectra of Ethanol Conformers in
           B3LYP/сс-pVQZ Approximation (Stretch С-Н Vibrations)

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Pitsevich G. А.,Doroshenko I. Yu.,Pogorelov V. Е.,Shablinskas V.,Balevichus V.,Kozlovskaya Е. N.Low-temperature FTIR spectra of ethanol in the argon matrix have been recorded in the spectral interval 2800-4000 cm-1. The spectra were obtained for several temperatures over the range 20-50 К and for the number ratios 1:1000 and 1:2000 of the molecules studied and atoms in the matrix. A tentative interpretation has been performed on the basis of the temperature and concentration changes in FTIR spectra with the use of the relevant literature data. The computations of harmonic and anharmonic IR spectra for gauche - and trans-rotamers of the ethanol molecule and its two deuterated derivatives (СD3CH2OH and CH3CD2OH) have been carried out in the approximation B3LYP/cc-pVQZ. An interpretation of the bands and lines in the region of stretching С-Н vibrations has been proposed with regard to the anharmonicity effects and Fermi resonances using the literature data on IR and Raman spectra of the molecule under study.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Appraisal of Heavy Metal Contents in Commercial Inorganic Fertilizers
           Blended and Marketed in Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Ukpabi Chibueze F.,Akubugwo E. 1.,Agbafor Kingsley N,Lebe Nnanna A.,Nwaulari Nwokocha J.,Nneka Ekekwe DHuman food chain toxicity has been shown to be influenced by application of inorganic fertilizers. Three samples of commercial inorganic fertilizers marketed in Nigeria were analysed for their heavy metal contents. The fertilizer samples used were N15P15K15 (CF1), N20P10K10 (CF2) and N27P13K13 (CF3). Molybdenum (Mo) levels were the highest and Vanadium (V), Arsenic (As), Mercury (Hg) and Silver (Ag) were not detected by our analytical method. The concentrations of Mo in the CF1 (2, 570.0 mg/kg), CF2 (2,3000.0 mg/kg) and CF3 (1,340.0 mg/kg), were above the maximum acceptable concentration (20mg/kg) while CF1 (0.129 mg/ha/yr) and CF2 (0.115 mg/ha/yr) were above the maximum annual metal addition to soil (0.079 mg/ha/yr), as established by Canadian standard for fertilizers. Only CF1 (5.805 kg/ha) was above long-term cumulative assessment of metal addition to soil (3.57 kg/ha). Other heavy metals detected were Magnesium(Mg), Iron(Fe), Nickel(Ni), Zinc(Zn), Cadmium(Cd), Manganese(Mn), Cupper(Cu), Cobalt(Co), Lead(Pb), Chromium(Cr) and Boron(B). Cd and Pb mean concentrations of the fertilizer samples examined ranged from 2.84 to 11.32 mg/kg and 7.43 to 9.02 mg/kg respectively. Cd followed significantly (p
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Evaluation of Benzo-[a]-Pyrene Residue on Olive Fruits and in Oil within
           the Jenin Governorate

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Orwa Jaber Houshia,Najat Al-daqqa,Tahani Alawneh,Ismail ElmasriOlive trees, fruits and oil play an essential part of the Mediterranean life, culture, economy and diet. Taking good care the trees, fruits and oil is one of the main concerns to the farmers in Palestine, because of the impact on the final quality of olives. Proximity of the olive tree to streets frequented by high traffic diesel trucks influences the overall health of the trees that affects quality of the product. Exhaust emission from diesel engines releases by product called Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH’s), which are known to be carcinogenic agents. The purpose of the project is to analize olive fruits and olive oil for the presence of such chemicals using Solid-Phase Extraction (SPE) followed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and U.V. Florescence for rapid Detection. Interesting results were obtained and showed that most olive oil samples tested negative, while the olive fruits tested positive for PAH’s.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
  • Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamics of Biosorption of Lead (II) Copper
           (II) and Cadmium (II) Ions fromAqueous Solutions ontoOlive Leaves Powder

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Chemistry,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Akl M. Awwad,Ahlam M. FarhanBiosorption of lead (II), copper (II) and cadmium (II) ions from aqueous solutions onto olive leaves powder has been investigated. The biosorption of lead (II), copper (II), and cadmium (II) was found to be dependent on solution pH, initial metal ion concentrations, biosorbent dose, contact time and temperature. The experimental equilibrium biosorption data were analyzed by two widely used two-parameters, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Langmuir model gave a better fit than the Freundlich model. The kinetic studies indicated that the biosorption process of the metal ions followed well pseudo-second-order model. The thermodynamic parameters Gibbs free energy, ∆G◦, enthalpy, ∆H◦, and entropy, ∆S◦ were also calculated, and the values indicated that the biosorption process was endothermic and spontaneous in nature. It was concluded that olive leaves powder can be used as an effective, low cost, and environmentally friendly biosorbent for removal of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:18:49
       
 
 
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