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 Biomass Conversion and BiorefineryJournal Prestige (SJR): 0.493 Citation Impact (citeScore): 1Number of Followers: 11      Partially Free Journal ISSN (Print) 2190-6815 - ISSN (Online) 2190-6823 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2658 journals]
• Isothermal and non-isothermal drying behavior for grape (Vitis vinifera)
by new improved system: exergy analysis, RSM, and modeling

Abstract: In this study, drying of grape (Vitis vinifera) in isothermal and non-isothermal conditions has been done with the newly improved proportional integral derivative (PID) system. The average energy efficiency has been calculated in the processes in which the grapes are dried is 53.4% in the isothermal PID system, 59.7% in the non-isothermal PID system, and 30.5% in the tray dryer (forced convection). To maximum exergy efficiency in the tray dryer, the experimental optimization is made according to the response surface methodology (RSM). In the RSM design, the results have been evaluated by working at different airflow rates (1.5 m/s, 2.2 m/s, 2.9 m/s) and different temperatures (298 K, 308 K, and 318 K). In natural conditions, the drying of grapes took approximately 8 days in the sun and 11 days in the shade. A new shrinkage model has been improved based on the transformation rate, considering the drying behavior of grape grains. The consistency of the obtained model equation with the experimental data has been determined with the help of statistical analysis (R2 0.9987, SST 0.0098). Moreover, when the diffusion behavior of grapes has been investigated, it is determined that both temperature and airflow rate increase the effective diffusion coefficient in the tray dryer. The maximum effective diffusion coefficient in the tray dryer is 2.11·109 m2/s at a temperature of 318 K and an airflow rate of 2.9 m/s. Highlights • According to the exergy results, the efficiency has been found to be maximum in the non-isothermal drying performed with the new improved system. • A new model has been improved based on the conversion rate of shrinkage diameter for grape grains during drying. • To obtain maximum efficiency in the tray dryer, the experimental design of the airflow rate and temperature has been evaluated by RSM optimization. •The effective diffusion coefficient of grape has been compared in the tray dryer under the different conditions. Graphical abstract
PubDate: 2021-10-17

• Correction to: Experimental investigation of biopolymer efficiency of
double selective strain for oil extraction from petroleum reservoirs using
microdeletion injection

PubDate: 2021-10-16

• Optimisation of cellulase-assisted extraction of laminarin from the brown
seaweed Ecklonia maxima, using response surface methodology

Abstract: The β-glucan laminarin is a high-value compound well suited for the food and nutraceutical industries because of its multiple bioactivities. Enzyme-assisted-extraction (EAE) is a proposed laminarin extraction technology that may retain the laminarin bioactivity due to mild extraction conditions relative to conventional methods. The aim of the study was to optimise the extraction of laminarin from the South African kelp, Ecklonia maxima, using response surface methodology. The commercial cellulase Celluclast® was used to hydrolyse the seaweed material in the range of 0 to 4.0% (v/dw) enzyme–substrate ratio (ES), pH 3.0 to 6.0, and temperatures of 40 to 60 °C. Samples were taken at 1.5 h intervals over 6 h of hydrolysis and hydrolysate supernatant samples were analysed for solubilised yield (SY), and concentration of reducing sugars (RS) and laminarin (L). It was found that L was significantly influenced by linear and quadratic effects of pH and temperature, but not by ES over the experimental range. However, RS and SY showed a significant linear effect of the ES term. Comparisons to alternative carbohydrase extraction (Accellerase®) showed Celluclast® to perform similarly to Accellerase® in all responses. When compared to conventional dilute-acid thermal hydrolysis (DATH: pH 1.0 and 70 °C), enzymatic extraction methods were superior in releasing RS and increasing SY at 4.5 h of hydrolysis. However, conventional DATH was shown to be superior to enzymatic extraction methods in selective extraction of laminarin.
PubDate: 2021-10-16

• Utilization of eutrophicated Lemna minor for biosorption of acid blue dye

Abstract: Dyes and pigments utilized for colouring purposes by textile industries play a pivotal role in the accumulation of numerous toxic substances in an aquatic environment. This provokes a keen interest in the environmentalist in developing a novel sorbent material that could remove the organic pollutants from the waste effluent. In the current study, Lemna minor, a duckweed plant, acts as the low cost, eco-friendlier sorbent to remove the toxic acid blue 113 dye from the effluents. The characteristic traits of the dried biosorbent were analysed by scanning electron microscope to analyse the porous and rough exterior surface, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reveal the presence of specific entities such as amine, hydroxyl, carboxyl and alkyl groups and gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy for the presence of numerous polyphenolic compounds. Optimization was done by response surface methodology to study their potential in the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent. The removal efficiency of 98.5% was attained in the batch study at optimized parameters of contact time (40 min), pH (4.0), temperature (40 °C) and concentration of sorbent (1 g). The reaction mechanism was evaluated with the kinetics and isotherm studies. Kinetics study includes pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and intra-particle diffusion, and the isotherm study includes Langmuir, Freundlich, Langmuir–Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. The system follows the pseudo-second-order kinetics model, Langmuir and Langmuir–Freundlich isotherm model with the maximum sorption capacity of 395.7 mg/g. Thermodynamic studies were evaluated to determine the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the reaction.
PubDate: 2021-10-16

• Assessing the effectiveness of Bael leaf extract towards stabilization of
biodiesel during accelerated oxidation tests

Abstract: Poor stability is among the most significant challenges faced by the biodiesel industry. Although the oxidation of the fuel is inevitable, it can be substantially delayed by antioxidant additives. The attractive attributes of plant phenolics as potential radical scavengers, among others, are renewability, non-toxicity, and activity similar to that of synthetic antioxidants. The present work explores the efficacy and antiradical activity of Bael leaf extract (BLE) in delaying the onset of (soybean) biodiesel oxidation during accelerated tests. A three-factor (each at two levels) experimental design was used to enrich the content of phenolics in BLE. At optimum conditions, the BLE contained 74.66 mg GAE g−1of phenolics, and the extract could scavenge over 73% of DPPH radicals in vitro. The BLE offered greater protection to soybean biodiesel than most of the natural antioxidants reported in the literature and offered a relative protection factor of 3.04. The ASTM D6751, EN 14214, and IS 15607 specifications for minimum stability requirement of blendstock biodiesel were met at a BLE concentration of 500 ppm. The efficacy of BLE has been compared with BHT using structure-activity relationships. One of the shortcomings of plant extracts is their poor solubility in biodiesel in the absence of a solvent or some treatment.
PubDate: 2021-10-16

• A comprehensive review on enhanced production of microbial lipids for
high-value applications

Abstract: Microbes are the major source of lipids, which include fatty acids and glycerolipids. Lipids are used as bioplastic and biosurfactants in several industries. Value-added compounds like alpha-linolenic acid, 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO), fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), keto-carotenoids, lactic acid, 2,3-butanediol, citric acid, lutein, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), 1,3-dihydroxyacetone, oleic acid, propionic acid, and succinic acid have huge applications in textile, cosmetic, food, metallurgy, and pharmaceutical industries. These microbial-based lipids have various industrial and technology applications as printing inks, lubricants, coatings, polymers, solvents, leather processing, hydraulic fluids, surfactants, glycerin (glycerol), pesticide/herbicide adjuvants, and fuels. Biotechnological processes such as medium engineering and metabolic engineering can enhance lipid production in microbes to a certain limit. Integrated biorefinery concept was introduced for cost reduction, efficient utilisation of feedstocks, high yield, zero waste discharges, high productivity, and economically viable technology development. It integrates the conversion of biomass to energy and other high-value products. This review focuses on the bioreactor design; integrated biorefineries; genetic and metabolic engineering prospect of enhanced microbial lipid production; application of microbial lipids in various sectors such as pharmaceuticals, dietary supplement, cosmetics, and biodiesel production; costing; and life cycle assessment. Furthermore, value-added products such as carotenoids, organic acids, polyhydroxyalkanoates, and fatty acids were also discussed. Graphical abstract
PubDate: 2021-10-16

• Correction to: Evaluation of chemical compositions and antioxidant
potential of marine microalgae of the genus Nannochloropsis

PubDate: 2021-10-15

• Improved production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) by extremely halophilic
archaeon Haloarcula sp. TG1 by utilization of rCKT3eng-treated sugar beet
pulp

Abstract: Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are leading “green” alternatives for the production of biodegradable plastics. They accumulate inside archaea and bacteria as the sources of carbon and energy under stress conditions. This study evaluates the biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), one of the major PHAs, in the extremely halophilic archaeon Haloarcula sp. TG1 by microscopic, spectroscopic, and thermal analyses. The PHB production by TG1 strain was optimized in terms of growth conditions and media. The optimum PHB content (34.6% of the biomass) was obtained in Mineral Salt Medium (MSM) cultures containing 5 M NaCl and 4% glucose, at pH 7.35, incubated for 72 h at 37 °C. Replacement of glucose with starch or glycerol lowered the PHB content in biomass. Alternatively, agricultural wastes (sugar beet pulp, corn cob, and hazelnut husk) were used as cheap carbon sources. The highest PHB content (45.6% of the biomass) was obtained using sugar beet pulp treated with recombinant endoglucanase (rCKT3eng), while PHB amount was 17.8% of the biomass with chemically hydrolyzed sugar beet pulp. In conclusion, PHB production by Haloarcula sp. TG1 was shown to be promising biotechnologically, using a low-cost fermentation medium at optimal culture conditions.
PubDate: 2021-10-13

• Research of the two-step pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass based on the
cross-coupling of components by Py-GC/MS

Abstract: Two-step pyrolysis (TSP) of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin; the three-component cross-coupling samples; and the acid-washed walnut shell (AWS) were carried out by a pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) to investigate the effects of components and their proportions on the TSP of biomass. The results showed that different components dominated the formation of different products. Cellulose generated more furans and carbohydrates in both the first (S1) and second steps (S2). Hemicellulose achieved higher selectivity of ketones, acids, and alcohols in S1, and higher selectivity of hydrocarbons in S2. Lignin mainly produced phenols in S1, and hydrocarbons and phenols in S2. The increase of holocellulose (hemicellulose and cellulose) improved the contents of aldehydes, ketones, furans, acids, and alcohols but reduced the content of phenols in S1. In S2, more holocellulose increased the contents of aldehydes, ketones, and acids, but decreased the contents of phenols, hydrocarbons, and alcohols. The generation of carbohydrates was strongly inhibited in S1 by hemicellulose and lignin. More cellulose improved the contents of aldehydes, acids, and furans in S1, and increased the content of ketones but reduced the content of acids in S2. Hemicellulose facilitated the generation of hydrocarbons, but inhabited the produce of carbohydrates in S2. The small amount of the low-content components (protein, alkali and alkaline earth metals, etc.) and the connection structure of the components resulted in the significant difference in the pyrolysis reactions and product distribution of AWS and the mixed sample with corresponding component proportion. Therefore, more influence factors, such as the low-content components, the connection structure of the components, and different pyrolysis conditions, should be considered in the near future to investigate the interactions on the two or more components in TSP.
PubDate: 2021-10-13

• Optimization of growth conditions for the biosynthesis of medium-chain
length polyhydroxyalkanoates from Bacillus megaterium DSM 509:
experimental analysis, statistical modelling, and characterization

Abstract: Bioplastics are biobased materials produced from renewable sources like vegetable fats and oils, corn starch, straw, woodchips, sawdust, and recycled food wastes. Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), a type of bioplastics, has unique biocompatibility, non-toxicity, and biodegradability properties, making it suitable as an eco-friendly plastic material. Bacillus megaterium DSM 509 is known to produce short-chain length (scl) PHA. The present study explores the capability of Bacillus megaterium DSM 509 to produce a novel type of PHA, medium-chain length (mcl), and its mixture with scl-PHA. Statistical modelling and experimental results were used to optimize the growth conditions for enhanced production of cost-effective and biocompatible polyhydroxyoctanoates and polyhydroxydecanoates. A 6-run mixture design for glycerol and ammonium sulphate concentrations ratio was performed. A linear regression model was built based on experimental data, and the optimum conditions for different glycerol and nitrogen concentrations were derived and validated. A positive correlation (r2, 0.95, and 0.87) was observed, resulting in the model’s fitness. Optical density studies showed the impact of dissolved oxygen (DO) content on PHA production. It was observed that PHA production was enhanced for each sample at the optimum value of DO. The highest intracellular PHA was produced by microbial culture, having a C/N ratio of 25 (high glycerol and low nitrogen source) as detected on FTIR: peak height at 1740 cm−1 was 2.157. Results on gas chromatographic (GC–MS and GC-FID) analysis confirmed the presence of a mixture of scl and mcl-PHA as well as their monomer composition. The maximum PHA production obtained was 4.73 g.L−1 (60%) of dry cell weight at C/N ratio 25. The nature and physical form of bacterial cells was revealed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is concluded that Bacillus megaterium is capable of producing a combination of scl-PHA and mcl-PHA, while feeding on nitrogen-deficient mineral medium.
PubDate: 2021-10-12

• Correction to: Ball milling as an important pretreatment technique in
lignocellulose biorefineries: a review

PubDate: 2021-10-11

• Synthesis of advanced asbestos-free material using rice husk ash and
marble waste for thermal insulation applications

Abstract: The importance and utilization of advanced thermal insulating materials increase due to their broad and irreplaceable energy conservation role. This paper describes the novel way of achieving insulating material. In two waste by-products, namely rice husk ash (RHA), agriculture waste, and marble waste powder (MWP), industrial waste has been utilized to make asbestos-free advanced material for thermal insulation. A novel method for making asbestos-free advanced material for thermal insulation using RHA and marble waste’s inherent characteristics has developed mechano-chemical for appropriate physico-chemical consolidation, densification, and ceramic processing route. The Si and Ca sources undergo a series of chemical transformations accompanied by mass transfer and thermal reactions during the synthesis process. The formation of this silicate compound occurs due to the presence of higher contents of CaO in marble waste powder (MWP) and silica in rice husk ash (RHA), resulting in thermal insulating characteristics in the advanced thermal insulation material (ATIM). Raman spectra of ATIM after heating at 1100 °C were mainly amorphous, which had a broad peak at 1072 cm−1. This shows thermal transformation occurs after the heating process, the admixture of tailored powder, and fly ash (FA). The density of the ATIM is found to be 1150 kg/m3. The phase transformation (glass transition temperature) was found in all the samples between 600 and 800 °C. The mechanical properties, namely the compressive strength and impact strength evaluation test, showed that the material meets the standard specifications for ceramic tiles. The thermal conductivity (W/mK) was calculated from different temperature 30, 50, 100,150, and 200 °C and found to be 0.571, 0.541, 0.516, 0.498, and 0.477, respectively. According to the test results, it is concluded that ATIM from MWP, RHA, and FA were excellent insulating components. The novel feature of the reported process is the development of non-toxic and asbestos-free thermal insulating low-cost material wherein chemically designed and mineralogically formulating desired phases lead to the homogeneous and effective thermal insulating matrix. The process is feasible, simple, cheap, and highly energy-efficient, increases production efficiency, and is environmentally friendly. The widespread use of advanced material for a broad application spectrum ranges from aerospace, automobile, electronics, transportation, construction, to other industries. Graphical abstract
PubDate: 2021-10-11

• A comprehensive assessment of state-wise biogas potential and its
utilization in India

Abstract: Conventional sources of energy like fossil fuels are available in limited quantities and harm environment. So, for sustainable growth, renewable energy is the only way forward. Biomass-based energy has untapped potential and is one of the most economical and best-proven options among the various alternative energy sources available. To fully utilize the biomass, the estimation of the possible potential is much needed. A state-wise biomass database is valuable for localized bioenergy policy. However, in India, a state-level biomass resource database is inadequate. This paper assessed the state-wise potential of biogas from various of sources including crop residues, livestock and poultry wastes, municipal solid wastes, and wastewater (sewage and industrial). The overall estimated biogas potential from organic waste in India is 74.795 billion m3/year. Also, the state-wise current generation capacity of digesters installed under various schemes is assessed in this paper. Currently, digesters with a generation capacity of 3.635 billion m3/year are achieved in India. The results show that there is a massive gap between the potential and its utilization. Among all the states, Uttar Pradesh (14.73 billion m3/year) has the highest biogas potential, and Maharashtra (671.40 million m3/year) has the highest installed achievement. The statistics generated in this research is expected to be beneficial for decentralized biogas planning and management in the state.
PubDate: 2021-10-11

• Study on CO2 gasification characteristics of pyrolysis char from pinewood
block and pellet

Abstract: Gasification reaction characteristics of pinewood block char (PW char) and pinewood pellet char (PWP char) were studied by analyzing CO (a component of syngas) generating rate at different temperatures (900, 1000, 1100 °C), respectively. The results demonstrated that the char with smaller size (15 mm) showed higher reactivity index than bigger size (30 mm). Increase in temperature (900 − 1100 °C) improved reaction rate and likely compensated for the diffusion resistance for larger particle. The reaction rate of PW char could be considered a constant varying from 10 to 90% carbon conversion when temperature was less than 1000 °C, and the nucleation and growth model with two close nucleation speed stages confirmed it. The parameter with great influence on PW char and PWP char gasification was porosity, followed by pore structure. Similar porosity between PW char and PWP char resulted in similar carbon conversion time, while more smaller pores (2–13.5 nm) of PW char led to high specific surface area (SSA) then increased higher gasification reactivity. These results are useful for gasification materials selection. Specifically of interest is adjustment of gasifier and bed layer movement to better match properties of materials.
PubDate: 2021-10-11

• Water Boiling Test of carbonized briquettes produced from charcoal fines
using African Elemi (Canarium schweinfurthii) resin as an organic binder

Abstract: The study evaluated carbonized briquettes produced from charcoal fines using African Elemi (Canarium schweinfurthii) resin as a binder. Briquette samples (B25, B30, B35, B40) with the ratio of charcoal fines:binder of 3:1, 7:3, 13:7, and 3:2, respectively, were produced. The phases of the Water Boiling Test (WBT) considered were Cold start high power (CSHP), Hot start high power (HSHP), and simmer phases. Ignition properties, combustion properties, gas temperature, water temperature, ambient temperature, emissions, and WBT performance metrics were investigated using the Laboratory Emission Monitoring System. The ignition properties evaluated included ignition time, flame, and incandescence. The combustion properties included smoke, flame, soot, and ash. The emissions measured were PM2.5, S $${\mathrm{O}}_{2}$$ , $${\mathrm{NO}}_{x}$$ , $${\mathrm{C}}_{x}{\mathrm{H}}_{y}$$ , $$\mathrm{CO}$$ , and $${\mathrm{CO}}_{2}$$ . The WBT performance metrics evaluated were time to boil, burning rate, thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption (sfc), firepower, total emissions, emissions per MJ, specific emissions, and emissions rate. The ash from charcoal fines was analysed using x-ray diffraction. The results showed that ignition time was 6.47–7.01 min, time to boil was 14.7–41.9 min, burning rate was 1.1–8.2 g/min, thermal efficiency was 21.79–54.61%, sfc was 21.7–70.1 g/L, and firepower was 535.9–4123.2 W. The ash was found to contain $${\mathrm{CaCO}}_{3}$$ (76.6 wt%) followed by $$\mathrm{CaO}$$ (13.1 wt%) and the remainder was the amorphous compounds (10.3 wt%). The briquettes can be used as an alternative source of fuel to wood fuel since they exhibit similar combustion properties.
PubDate: 2021-10-10

• Bioprocessing of fermentable sugars derived from water hyacinth into
microbial lipids and single cell proteins by oleaginous yeast
Rhodosporidium toruloides NCIM 3547

Abstract: In this study, we employed microwave-acid pretreatment for water hyacinth (WH) to obtain liquid hydrolysate that contains sugars derived from holocellulosic components of biomass for further oleaginous yeast fermentation. In order to remove the inhibitors such as furans after acid treatment, detoxification of hydrolysate was done and we compared the efficiency of this step with non-detoxified hydrolysate towards capability of the Rhodosporidium toruloides NCIM 3547 (an oleaginous yeast) to produce microbial lipid and single cell protein. The results indicated that the reducing sugar concentration was found to be higher in non-detoxified hydrolysate (65.41 g/L) than detoxified one (59.18 g/L). When the non-detoxified liquid hydrolysate was supplemented with yeast extract as a complex organic source for R. toruloides, resulted in a maximum lipid yield of about 0.813 ± 0.041 (g/g) and 53.60 ± 2.68 (g/g) of single cell protein content with 0.038 g/L/d of protein productivity. Two kinetic models, hybrid Logistic-Monod and Luedeking-Piret, were employed to assess the microbial growth and the substrate utilization that were found to be in well agreement with the experimental data with a coefficient of determination (R2) value ranging from 0.95 to 0.99 thereby demonstrating the efficiency of the hydrolysate supplemented media. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis of transesterified lipids revealed the presence of various FAME (fatty acid methyl esters) and also the presence of increased levels of total saturated fatty acids (35.03%) advocates its high potential in biodiesel production. This study demonstrates the feasibility of sustainable valorization of WH-derived liquid hydrolysate towards a greener biorefinery framework. Graphical abstract
PubDate: 2021-10-09

• Agro-industrial-residues as potting media: physicochemical and biological
characters and their influence on plant growth

Abstract: Nursery cultivation is recognized globally as an intensive production system to support quality seedlings as well as to manage resources efficiently. Apart from other factors, potting media (PM) play a crucial role in determining the success of nursery cultivation. Worldwide, peat is the most commonly used substrate in PM because of its favorable physicochemical properties. However, due to ascending environmental and ecological concerns regarding the use of peat, a variety of new substrates have been used/tested by researchers/practitioners/growers as PM. Bark, coir pith, wood fiber, compost derived from various agro-residues, and vermicompost either alone or in combination are some of the commonly explored substrates and found to have the potential to replace peat to a greater extent. In lieu of availability, abundance, low cost, and no/low processing requirement, the use of agro-industrial residue (AIR) in the PM is the current trend. However, challenges associated with their adoption cannot be ignored. The present review is focused on providing collective information, scientific knowledge and detailed analysis of various AIR used in PM. The critical evidence-based review would help in developing a consistent approach for the identification, selection and characterization of a new renewable substrate. In addition, it would help in developing a rationale understanding of the practical and economic realities involved in the adoption of the same in PM. Graphical abstract
PubDate: 2021-10-09

• Mathematical investigation into the sequential adsorption of silver ions
and brilliant green dye using biochar derived from Gracilaria Rhodophyta
algae

Abstract: The present work investigates the ability of robust biochar from Gracilaria Rhodophyta red weeds collected from the deep sea waters of the Bay of Bengal, for sequential removal of silver and Brilliant Green (BG) dye from contaminated water. The impacting operating parameters viz contact time, the dosage of biochar, pH, and initial Ag+ concentration are optimized using 24 factorial central composite design (CCD)-based statistical modeling. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) projected an excellent history match of model data with experimental through high correlation coefficients. The sequential batch adsorption studies performed at a temperature of 303 K projected an uptake of 4.7 mg/g and 17.8 mg/g at the optimal operating conditions of pH 5–7 and 6, biochar dosage 1.0 and 0.5 g/100 mL, initial concentration 50 mg Ag+ ions and 100 mg BG dye per liter, and operating time 45 and 60 min, respectively, for Ag+ ions and BG dye. Further, the surface morphology, elemental compositions, functional groups, depositional, and structural characteristics of the biochar analyzed using FESEM, EDX, FTIR, BET, and XRD respectively confirmed its ability to successfully treating the contaminants. Moreover, the isothermal, thermodynamic, and kinetic analysis established the Langmuir model-based mono-layered homogeneous physisorption of Ag+ and BG dye with pseudo-second-order depositional characteristics at the solid-solution interface. The biochar is regenerative enough and could remove substantial amounts of Ag+ and BG dye from industrial contaminated water bodies. Moreover, the present work aids in promoting seaweed harvesting as an alternate occupation for littoral fisher societies.
PubDate: 2021-10-09

• Thematic issue: advanced biohydrogen production processes from organic
materials

PubDate: 2021-10-07

• Thematic issue: Bioenergy and biorefinery approaches for environmental
sustainability

PubDate: 2021-10-07

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