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 Biomass Conversion and BiorefineryJournal Prestige (SJR): 0.493 Citation Impact (citeScore): 1Number of Followers: 11      Partially Free Journal ISSN (Print) 2190-6815 - ISSN (Online) 2190-6823 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2658 journals]
• Improved production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) by extremely halophilic
archaeon Haloarcula sp. TG1 by utilization of rCKT3eng-treated sugar beet
pulp

Abstract: Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are leading “green” alternatives for the production of biodegradable plastics. They accumulate inside archaea and bacteria as the sources of carbon and energy under stress conditions. This study evaluates the biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), one of the major PHAs, in the extremely halophilic archaeon Haloarcula sp. TG1 by microscopic, spectroscopic, and thermal analyses. The PHB production by TG1 strain was optimized in terms of growth conditions and media. The optimum PHB content (34.6% of the biomass) was obtained in Mineral Salt Medium (MSM) cultures containing 5 M NaCl and 4% glucose, at pH 7.35, incubated for 72 h at 37 °C. Replacement of glucose with starch or glycerol lowered the PHB content in biomass. Alternatively, agricultural wastes (sugar beet pulp, corn cob, and hazelnut husk) were used as cheap carbon sources. The highest PHB content (45.6% of the biomass) was obtained using sugar beet pulp treated with recombinant endoglucanase (rCKT3eng), while PHB amount was 17.8% of the biomass with chemically hydrolyzed sugar beet pulp. In conclusion, PHB production by Haloarcula sp. TG1 was shown to be promising biotechnologically, using a low-cost fermentation medium at optimal culture conditions.
PubDate: 2021-10-13

• Research of the two-step pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass based on the
cross-coupling of components by Py-GC/MS

Abstract: Two-step pyrolysis (TSP) of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin; the three-component cross-coupling samples; and the acid-washed walnut shell (AWS) were carried out by a pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) to investigate the effects of components and their proportions on the TSP of biomass. The results showed that different components dominated the formation of different products. Cellulose generated more furans and carbohydrates in both the first (S1) and second steps (S2). Hemicellulose achieved higher selectivity of ketones, acids, and alcohols in S1, and higher selectivity of hydrocarbons in S2. Lignin mainly produced phenols in S1, and hydrocarbons and phenols in S2. The increase of holocellulose (hemicellulose and cellulose) improved the contents of aldehydes, ketones, furans, acids, and alcohols but reduced the content of phenols in S1. In S2, more holocellulose increased the contents of aldehydes, ketones, and acids, but decreased the contents of phenols, hydrocarbons, and alcohols. The generation of carbohydrates was strongly inhibited in S1 by hemicellulose and lignin. More cellulose improved the contents of aldehydes, acids, and furans in S1, and increased the content of ketones but reduced the content of acids in S2. Hemicellulose facilitated the generation of hydrocarbons, but inhabited the produce of carbohydrates in S2. The small amount of the low-content components (protein, alkali and alkaline earth metals, etc.) and the connection structure of the components resulted in the significant difference in the pyrolysis reactions and product distribution of AWS and the mixed sample with corresponding component proportion. Therefore, more influence factors, such as the low-content components, the connection structure of the components, and different pyrolysis conditions, should be considered in the near future to investigate the interactions on the two or more components in TSP.
PubDate: 2021-10-13

• Optimization of growth conditions for the biosynthesis of medium-chain
length polyhydroxyalkanoates from Bacillus megaterium DSM 509:
experimental analysis, statistical modelling, and characterization

Abstract: Bioplastics are biobased materials produced from renewable sources like vegetable fats and oils, corn starch, straw, woodchips, sawdust, and recycled food wastes. Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), a type of bioplastics, has unique biocompatibility, non-toxicity, and biodegradability properties, making it suitable as an eco-friendly plastic material. Bacillus megaterium DSM 509 is known to produce short-chain length (scl) PHA. The present study explores the capability of Bacillus megaterium DSM 509 to produce a novel type of PHA, medium-chain length (mcl), and its mixture with scl-PHA. Statistical modelling and experimental results were used to optimize the growth conditions for enhanced production of cost-effective and biocompatible polyhydroxyoctanoates and polyhydroxydecanoates. A 6-run mixture design for glycerol and ammonium sulphate concentrations ratio was performed. A linear regression model was built based on experimental data, and the optimum conditions for different glycerol and nitrogen concentrations were derived and validated. A positive correlation (r2, 0.95, and 0.87) was observed, resulting in the model’s fitness. Optical density studies showed the impact of dissolved oxygen (DO) content on PHA production. It was observed that PHA production was enhanced for each sample at the optimum value of DO. The highest intracellular PHA was produced by microbial culture, having a C/N ratio of 25 (high glycerol and low nitrogen source) as detected on FTIR: peak height at 1740 cm−1 was 2.157. Results on gas chromatographic (GC–MS and GC-FID) analysis confirmed the presence of a mixture of scl and mcl-PHA as well as their monomer composition. The maximum PHA production obtained was 4.73 g.L−1 (60%) of dry cell weight at C/N ratio 25. The nature and physical form of bacterial cells was revealed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is concluded that Bacillus megaterium is capable of producing a combination of scl-PHA and mcl-PHA, while feeding on nitrogen-deficient mineral medium.
PubDate: 2021-10-12

• Correction to: Ball milling as an important pretreatment technique in
lignocellulose biorefineries: a review

PubDate: 2021-10-11

• Synthesis of advanced asbestos-free material using rice husk ash and
marble waste for thermal insulation applications

PubDate: 2021-10-11

• A comprehensive assessment of state-wise biogas potential and its
utilization in India

Abstract: Conventional sources of energy like fossil fuels are available in limited quantities and harm environment. So, for sustainable growth, renewable energy is the only way forward. Biomass-based energy has untapped potential and is one of the most economical and best-proven options among the various alternative energy sources available. To fully utilize the biomass, the estimation of the possible potential is much needed. A state-wise biomass database is valuable for localized bioenergy policy. However, in India, a state-level biomass resource database is inadequate. This paper assessed the state-wise potential of biogas from various of sources including crop residues, livestock and poultry wastes, municipal solid wastes, and wastewater (sewage and industrial). The overall estimated biogas potential from organic waste in India is 74.795 billion m3/year. Also, the state-wise current generation capacity of digesters installed under various schemes is assessed in this paper. Currently, digesters with a generation capacity of 3.635 billion m3/year are achieved in India. The results show that there is a massive gap between the potential and its utilization. Among all the states, Uttar Pradesh (14.73 billion m3/year) has the highest biogas potential, and Maharashtra (671.40 million m3/year) has the highest installed achievement. The statistics generated in this research is expected to be beneficial for decentralized biogas planning and management in the state.
PubDate: 2021-10-11

• Study on CO2 gasification characteristics of pyrolysis char from pinewood
block and pellet

Abstract: Gasification reaction characteristics of pinewood block char (PW char) and pinewood pellet char (PWP char) were studied by analyzing CO (a component of syngas) generating rate at different temperatures (900, 1000, 1100 °C), respectively. The results demonstrated that the char with smaller size (15 mm) showed higher reactivity index than bigger size (30 mm). Increase in temperature (900 − 1100 °C) improved reaction rate and likely compensated for the diffusion resistance for larger particle. The reaction rate of PW char could be considered a constant varying from 10 to 90% carbon conversion when temperature was less than 1000 °C, and the nucleation and growth model with two close nucleation speed stages confirmed it. The parameter with great influence on PW char and PWP char gasification was porosity, followed by pore structure. Similar porosity between PW char and PWP char resulted in similar carbon conversion time, while more smaller pores (2–13.5 nm) of PW char led to high specific surface area (SSA) then increased higher gasification reactivity. These results are useful for gasification materials selection. Specifically of interest is adjustment of gasifier and bed layer movement to better match properties of materials.
PubDate: 2021-10-11

• Water Boiling Test of carbonized briquettes produced from charcoal fines
using African Elemi (Canarium schweinfurthii) resin as an organic binder

Abstract: The study evaluated carbonized briquettes produced from charcoal fines using African Elemi (Canarium schweinfurthii) resin as a binder. Briquette samples (B25, B30, B35, B40) with the ratio of charcoal fines:binder of 3:1, 7:3, 13:7, and 3:2, respectively, were produced. The phases of the Water Boiling Test (WBT) considered were Cold start high power (CSHP), Hot start high power (HSHP), and simmer phases. Ignition properties, combustion properties, gas temperature, water temperature, ambient temperature, emissions, and WBT performance metrics were investigated using the Laboratory Emission Monitoring System. The ignition properties evaluated included ignition time, flame, and incandescence. The combustion properties included smoke, flame, soot, and ash. The emissions measured were PM2.5, S $${\mathrm{O}}_{2}$$ , $${\mathrm{NO}}_{x}$$ , $${\mathrm{C}}_{x}{\mathrm{H}}_{y}$$ , $$\mathrm{CO}$$ , and $${\mathrm{CO}}_{2}$$ . The WBT performance metrics evaluated were time to boil, burning rate, thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption (sfc), firepower, total emissions, emissions per MJ, specific emissions, and emissions rate. The ash from charcoal fines was analysed using x-ray diffraction. The results showed that ignition time was 6.47–7.01 min, time to boil was 14.7–41.9 min, burning rate was 1.1–8.2 g/min, thermal efficiency was 21.79–54.61%, sfc was 21.7–70.1 g/L, and firepower was 535.9–4123.2 W. The ash was found to contain $${\mathrm{CaCO}}_{3}$$ (76.6 wt%) followed by $$\mathrm{CaO}$$ (13.1 wt%) and the remainder was the amorphous compounds (10.3 wt%). The briquettes can be used as an alternative source of fuel to wood fuel since they exhibit similar combustion properties.
PubDate: 2021-10-10

• Bioprocessing of fermentable sugars derived from water hyacinth into
microbial lipids and single cell proteins by oleaginous yeast
Rhodosporidium toruloides NCIM 3547

Abstract: In this study, we employed microwave-acid pretreatment for water hyacinth (WH) to obtain liquid hydrolysate that contains sugars derived from holocellulosic components of biomass for further oleaginous yeast fermentation. In order to remove the inhibitors such as furans after acid treatment, detoxification of hydrolysate was done and we compared the efficiency of this step with non-detoxified hydrolysate towards capability of the Rhodosporidium toruloides NCIM 3547 (an oleaginous yeast) to produce microbial lipid and single cell protein. The results indicated that the reducing sugar concentration was found to be higher in non-detoxified hydrolysate (65.41 g/L) than detoxified one (59.18 g/L). When the non-detoxified liquid hydrolysate was supplemented with yeast extract as a complex organic source for R. toruloides, resulted in a maximum lipid yield of about 0.813 ± 0.041 (g/g) and 53.60 ± 2.68 (g/g) of single cell protein content with 0.038 g/L/d of protein productivity. Two kinetic models, hybrid Logistic-Monod and Luedeking-Piret, were employed to assess the microbial growth and the substrate utilization that were found to be in well agreement with the experimental data with a coefficient of determination (R2) value ranging from 0.95 to 0.99 thereby demonstrating the efficiency of the hydrolysate supplemented media. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis of transesterified lipids revealed the presence of various FAME (fatty acid methyl esters) and also the presence of increased levels of total saturated fatty acids (35.03%) advocates its high potential in biodiesel production. This study demonstrates the feasibility of sustainable valorization of WH-derived liquid hydrolysate towards a greener biorefinery framework. Graphical abstract
PubDate: 2021-10-09

• Agro-industrial-residues as potting media: physicochemical and biological
characters and their influence on plant growth

Abstract: Nursery cultivation is recognized globally as an intensive production system to support quality seedlings as well as to manage resources efficiently. Apart from other factors, potting media (PM) play a crucial role in determining the success of nursery cultivation. Worldwide, peat is the most commonly used substrate in PM because of its favorable physicochemical properties. However, due to ascending environmental and ecological concerns regarding the use of peat, a variety of new substrates have been used/tested by researchers/practitioners/growers as PM. Bark, coir pith, wood fiber, compost derived from various agro-residues, and vermicompost either alone or in combination are some of the commonly explored substrates and found to have the potential to replace peat to a greater extent. In lieu of availability, abundance, low cost, and no/low processing requirement, the use of agro-industrial residue (AIR) in the PM is the current trend. However, challenges associated with their adoption cannot be ignored. The present review is focused on providing collective information, scientific knowledge and detailed analysis of various AIR used in PM. The critical evidence-based review would help in developing a consistent approach for the identification, selection and characterization of a new renewable substrate. In addition, it would help in developing a rationale understanding of the practical and economic realities involved in the adoption of the same in PM. Graphical abstract
PubDate: 2021-10-09

• Mathematical investigation into the sequential adsorption of silver ions
and brilliant green dye using biochar derived from Gracilaria Rhodophyta
algae

Abstract: The present work investigates the ability of robust biochar from Gracilaria Rhodophyta red weeds collected from the deep sea waters of the Bay of Bengal, for sequential removal of silver and Brilliant Green (BG) dye from contaminated water. The impacting operating parameters viz contact time, the dosage of biochar, pH, and initial Ag+ concentration are optimized using 24 factorial central composite design (CCD)-based statistical modeling. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) projected an excellent history match of model data with experimental through high correlation coefficients. The sequential batch adsorption studies performed at a temperature of 303 K projected an uptake of 4.7 mg/g and 17.8 mg/g at the optimal operating conditions of pH 5–7 and 6, biochar dosage 1.0 and 0.5 g/100 mL, initial concentration 50 mg Ag+ ions and 100 mg BG dye per liter, and operating time 45 and 60 min, respectively, for Ag+ ions and BG dye. Further, the surface morphology, elemental compositions, functional groups, depositional, and structural characteristics of the biochar analyzed using FESEM, EDX, FTIR, BET, and XRD respectively confirmed its ability to successfully treating the contaminants. Moreover, the isothermal, thermodynamic, and kinetic analysis established the Langmuir model-based mono-layered homogeneous physisorption of Ag+ and BG dye with pseudo-second-order depositional characteristics at the solid-solution interface. The biochar is regenerative enough and could remove substantial amounts of Ag+ and BG dye from industrial contaminated water bodies. Moreover, the present work aids in promoting seaweed harvesting as an alternate occupation for littoral fisher societies.
PubDate: 2021-10-09

• Thematic issue: advanced biohydrogen production processes from organic
materials

PubDate: 2021-10-07

• Thematic issue: Bioenergy and biorefinery approaches for environmental
sustainability

PubDate: 2021-10-07

• Editorial: Thematic issue “Bio-based materials for biorefineries:
innovative processes and concepts”

PubDate: 2021-10-07

• Treatment of motor oil-contaminated water via sorption onto natural
organic lignocellulosic waste: thermodynamics, kinetics, isotherm,
recycling, and reuse

Abstract: Ipomoea batatas peel (IBP) is established as a viable lignocellulosic sorbent for wastewater treatment but has not been applied for the decontamination of oil-polluted water. This work reports for the first time the sorption of motor oil from water onto IBP as a natural eco-friendly sorbent. The FTIR spectra of IBP showed several functional groups desirable for efficient uptake of motor oil from water. SEM characterizations revealed an irregular and porous surface morphology, while EDX showed carbon (56.2%) and oxygen (39.0%) as major constituents of IBP sorbent. The BET surface area and pore characterizations of IBP revealed a surface of 5.774 m2/g, a pore volume of 0.00423 cm3/g, and an average pore diameter of 3.062 nm. The Langmuir model presented the best fit to the isotherm oil sorption analysis with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.9034 and a sum square error (SSE) of 0.0071. Kinetic modeling revealed that the process conformed to the intraparticle diffusion and pseudo-second-order model, while thermodynamics displayed a physical, endothermic, and feasible uptake of motor oil onto IBP. The oil sorption was found to be dominated by absorption mechanism and hydrophobic interactions. The motor oil-loaded IBP showed 96.2% oil desorption using petroleum ether as eluent. Besides, IBP exhibited efficient recycling and reuse for oil uptake with a decrease from 3.39 (initial uptake) to 2.82 g/g (fourth cycle). These investigations prove that IBP sorbent is a highly efficient biodegradable, eco-friendly, and reusable natural organic material for sequestration of motor oil from water.
PubDate: 2021-10-07

• Mitigating plastic pollution through better process design: an opportunity
from biomass to bioplastic

Abstract: Bioplastics are typically made from food crops, which have contributed to the global food crisis by occupying vast areas of land that were formerly used to cultivate crops for human consumption or animal feed. Therefore, empty fruit bunch (EFB) is selected in this paper due to its suitable characteristics in every aspect such as its high cellulosic composition, non-food crop, and its affordable price for sustainable production of bioplastics. However, carbon sources which have approximately account for 50% of the entire polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production cost incurred limitations. Therefore, economic assessment which accounts for the capital expenditure (CAPEX), operating expenditure (OPEX), and revenue (REV) as well as life cycle assessment (LCA) which includes global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP), and freshwater ecotoxicity (FE) are performed specifically on different pretreatment and hydrolysis process for the production of PHA from EFB. Then, a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) optimizing model was used to optimize the start-to-end process of the production of PHA from the raw EFB for six different process routes. The objective function of the MINLP is set to minimize the total annualized cost and life cycle normalized score of the PHA production. Biological pretreatment followed by enzyme hydrolysis (biological pretreatment – enzymatic Hydrolysis) shows the most environmentally friendly and cost-effective route with the carbon sources accounting for 24.3% of the total annualized cost.
PubDate: 2021-10-07

• Bioconversion of waste glycerol for enhanced lipid accumulation in
Trichosporon shinodae

Abstract: Oleaginous yeast lipids have myriad of industrial applications that are gaining significant interest owing to shorter incubation, ability to use broad spectrum substrates, and quality lipids. However, the lipid content produced is low and need to enhance by optimization of varied parameters. In the present study, crude glycerol a by-product of biodiesel industry was supplemented to Trichosporon shinodae for lipid accumulation using central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM). The developed quadratic model was found to be significant with the R2 value of 95.20% and adj. R2 value of 91.97%. An optimal lipid content of 49.85 ± 0.8% (w/w) was obtained using T. shinodae with 6.2% (v/v) inoculum volume, pH 3.6, C/N ratio 105, 1.52 (g/L) of MgSO4, and 4.55 mM FeSO4 in 120.72 h at 30 °C. Lipid composition from T. shinodae depicted the presence of linoleic acid (C18:2), oleic acid (C18:1), stearic acid (C18:0), palmitic acid (C18:0), myristic acid (C14:0), and lauric acids (C12:0), respectively. T. shinodae lipids have 61.1% (w/w) saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids proportion accord to 38.9% (w/w). Lipid composition of T. shinodae indicates that these lipids were suitable for synthesis of high value products like fuel additives, surfactants, detergents, and cleaning applications. Graphical abstract
PubDate: 2021-10-07

• Dietary fibers from fruit and vegetable waste: methods of extraction and

Abstract: Dietary fiber (DF) is a crucial part of a healthy human diet due to its health benefits in the issues related to cardiovascular, overweight, and digestion. The primary source of DF is fruit and vegetables, but excessive wastage during pre- and post-harvest makes it unaffordable. The globe’s population reach 9.7 billion in next 30 years. To satisfy DF need of increasing population on one side and to valorize fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) on other, DF extraction and purification from FVW is an optimum way. This review highlights various types of FVW reported and even has the potential to explore as a feedstock for DF purification. Paper presents detailed composition of FVW like fat, protein, soluble dietary fiber (SDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), and total dietary fiber (TDF). The merits and demerits of different DF purification methods like dry processing, wet processing, chemical, microbial, gravimetric, and hybrid methods are discussed. Attempts are made to comply with green chemistry principles by substituting inorganic acids with organic acids like lemon juice in hydrolysis and using dry processing as it’s convenient though yielding less. In many FVW-DF, the ratio of SDF to IDF is less than desired (1:2); hence, attempts are made to convert IDF to SDF. Reported methods of increasing SDF are critically examined and found that physical methods like ultrasonication, microwave irradiation, extrusion, homogenization, and micronization are more efficient and environmentally benign. The FVW-DF is used in food industries like bakery, dairy, meat, and processed food industries. The paper deliberate on the research opportunities, challenges, and research gaps.
PubDate: 2021-10-07

• Biotransformation of palm oil wastewater to scl- and
mcl-polyhydroxyalkanoates by mixed microbial consortia using different
nitrogen and phosphorus sources

Abstract: Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) with short-chain-length (scl-PHA) and medium-chain-length (mcl-PHA) was accumulated by mixed microbial cultures (MMCs) using enzymatically pretreated palm oil wastewater as a feedstock. The effects of different nitrogen and phosphorus sources on the cell growth, PHA yield, monomer composition, and microbial communities were investigated. The results showed that NH4Cl and Na2HPO4 were the most suitable nitrogen and phosphorus sources for mcl-PHA from palm oil wastewater using MMCs. The monomer contents of PHA were significantly changed under different nitrogen and phosphorus sources. The maximum PHA yield of 805 mg COD/L was obtained under the C/N ratio of 33 and C/P ratio of 100. Moreover, 1.8 kg COD of palm oil waste was converted into 0.53 kg COD of PHA. Bacteria genera had no obvious effect on the microbial community under different phosphorus sources, but had an important effect on its relative abundance. Graphical abstract
PubDate: 2021-10-07

• Enhancement of thermochemical properties on rice husk under a wide range
of torrefaction conditions

Abstract: In the present study, local biomass rick husk (RH) was torrefied by an electronic furnace for improving its thermochemical properties under a wide range of torrefaction temperature (i.e., 240, 280, 320, and 360 °C) and residence time (i.e., 0, 30, 60, and 90 min). In comparison with the thermochemical properties of the starting feedstock, the torrefaction temperature at around 360 °C for residence time of 0 min would be optimal to produce the RH-torrefied product. The calorific value can be raised by 41.2%, increasing from 13.96 to 19.71 MJ/kg. Based on the calorific values of the RH-torrefied products, it was found that torrefaction temperature and residence time are important parameters affecting their fuel properties and applications in solid biofuels. Consistently, their calorific values and carbon-to-hydrogen ratios generally increased at higher torrefaction temperatures for longer residence times. In contrast, the energy yield decreased with an increase in torrefaction temperatures and residence time. These findings also supported the thermal decomposition mechanism of the lignocellulosic biomass by the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Using the van Krevelen diagram for all RH-torrefied products as compared to various coals, it showed that several torrefied solids belong to the characteristics of lignite-like coal. However, the RH-torrefied biomass would not be appropriate to be directly reused as an auxiliary fuel in boilers because of the high content of silica (SiO2).
PubDate: 2021-10-07

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