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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 880 journals)
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    - CHEMISTRY (616 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (616 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 275)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 66)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 165)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 244)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access  
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access  
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 341)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 122)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 18)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 73)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 186)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 252)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Croatica Chemica Acta     Open Access  
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Chromatography     Hybrid Journal  
Current Green Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Microwave Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery
  [10 followers]  Follow
    
   Partially Free Journal Partially Free Journal
   ISSN (Print) 2190-6815 - ISSN (Online) 2190-6823
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter from enoki mushroom
           drove gene expression of exogenous cellulase in Aspergillus niger
    • Authors: Peizhou Yang; Haifeng Zhang; Zhi Zheng
      Pages: 11 - 17
      Abstract: Lacking the system balance of Aspergillus niger cellulase limits synergistic saccharification of biomass material. To improve the overall expression level of A. niger cellulase system, eukaryotic expression vector containing Ampullaria gigas spix cellulase gene was constructed. Using the method of protoplast-mediated transformation, cellulase gene from A. gigas spix was genetically integrated into A. niger genome. The enoki mushroom glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) promoter could effectively drive gene expression of exogenous cellulase sestc gene in A.niger. Filter paper activity (total cellulase activity) of the transformant No. 17 (1.736 ± 0.051 Uml−1) induced by wheat bran was 1.21-fold higher compared with that of the A.niger wild type. Beta-endo-1-4-glucanase, beta-exo-1-4-glucanase, and xylanase produced by the engineered A.niger were 1.37-fold, 1.25-fold, and 1.3-fold higher than those of the wild-type strain. Total cellulase activity of A. niger transformant No. 17 induced by alkaline-pretreated rice straw reached 1.476 ± 0.021 FPU ml−1, which was 1.31-fold higher compared with the wild type strain.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-016-0226-6
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Comparative studies on catalytic properties of immobilized lipase on
           low-cost support matrix for transesterification of pinnai oil
    • Authors: A. Arumugam; Gautham B. Jegadeesan; V. Ponnusami
      Pages: 69 - 77
      Abstract: In the present study, we synthesized cost-effective biocatalysts by immobilizing lipase on different low-cost matrixes. The oil obtained from Pinnai (Calophyllum inophyllum) seed, a non-edible feedstock, was used for biodiesel production. The reaction was catalyzed by immobilized lipase. It was found that lipase immobilized on silica aerogel provided highest percentage yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) compared to other matrixes. The most significant finding of the research was that the lipase immobilized on silica aerogel showed negligible reduction in FAME yields even after 8 cycles of reuse, thus providing a real, cost-effective option for biodiesel production. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0250-1
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Influence of catalyst additives on vapor-phase hydrogenation of furfural
           to furfuryl alcohol on impregnated copper/magnesia
    • Authors: Samira Shirvani; Mohammad Ghashghaee; Vahid Farzaneh; Samahe Sadjadi
      Pages: 79 - 86
      Abstract: Vapor-phase hydrogenation of furfural is among the most industrially important biomass-based processes giving a vast range of products over different catalysts. In this paper, the effects of three modifiers (cobalt, chromium, and calcium) on the physicochemical properties of impregnated MgO-supported copper catalysts were evaluated for the first time using BET, XRD, SEM, EDX, and TG analyses. The performance of the catalysts was also assessed in terms of intrinsic activity and selectivity towards furfuryl alcohol. The cobalt- and chromium-promoted catalysts presented the highest conversion of furfural (75.1 and 68.8%) and high selectivity to furfuryl alcohol (96.9 and 98.5%) after 4 h of operation. The improvement by additives was more pronounced in the case of furfural conversion than furfuryl alcohol selectivity with respect to the unpromoted Cu/MgO catalyst (with a 54.5% conversion after 4 h). Overall, the Cu-Co/MgO was the most favored catalyst in terms of productivity to furfuryl alcohol. The addition of calcium showed a rather prohibitive influence on the activity of the base catalyst, however.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0244-z
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Binary- and triple-enzyme cocktails and their application mode affect
           fermentable sugar release from pretreated lignocellulo-starch biomass
    • Authors: M.G. Mithra; J. Sreekumar; G. Padmaja
      Pages: 97 - 111
      Abstract: Lignocellulo-starch biomass (LCSB) comprising roots and vegetable processing wastes has high starch besides cellulose and hemicelluloses and warrants different pretreatment and saccharification approaches. The fermentable sugar yield from steam/dilute sulphuric acid (DSA)-pretreated biomass during saccharification with binary [cellulase + amylolytic enzyme (Stargen)] or triple (cellulase + xylanase + Stargen) enzyme cocktails was compared. The factors such as pH (5.0), temperature (50 °C) and enzyme dosage (16 FPU/g cellulose) for cellulase (Ecozyme RT80) action were optimized using response surface methodology. As pretreated liquor is rich in sugars, whole slurry saccharification was needed for LCSBs and saccharification efficiency (120 h) was significantly higher for steam-pretreated biomass with all application modes. Preferential hydrolysis of starch in steam-pretreated biomass by Stargen followed by cellulolysis was advantageous than the application sequence with cellulase followed by Stargen. Triple-enzyme-based saccharification of steam-pretreated biomass significantly enhanced the overall conversion efficiency (OCE; 85–98%) compared to only 28–49% in the native untreated biomass, while lower OCE was observed in the case of DSA-pretreated and saccharified biomass. Supplementation with both xylanase and Stargen pronouncedly enhanced the OCE for steam-pretreated biomass with only insignificant difference between the exposure periods, indicating the obligatory need for both enzymes for optimal saccharification of LCSBs.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0237-y
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Isothermal kinetics of torrefied Cryptomeria japonica in CO 2 gasification
    • Authors: Kanit Manatura; Jau-Huai Lu; Keng-Tung Wu
      Pages: 125 - 133
      Abstract: Cryptomeria japonica (CJ) samples were heated in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) with CO2 as agent to study the gasification kinetics in the isothermal process. The samples were torrefied at 250 and 350 °C for 1 h. before being tested in TGA. Three isothermal conditions of 750, 800, and 850 °C were tested in this study to estimate the kinetic parameters of the Arrhenius form with the proposed models. The homogeneous model (HM), shrinking core model (SCM), and linear model (LM) were used, and the predicted results obtained from these models were compared with experimental data. The reaction rate of gasification was enhanced as temperature was raised, and a correlation of kinetic parameters with temperature was obtained. The simulated results of the linear model (LM) fit well with experimental data. This work is useful for design gasification in downdraft gasifier.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-016-0232-8
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Characterization of fat and biodiesel from mango seeds using 1 H NMR
           spectroscopy
    • Authors: Emmanuel Damilano Dutra; Thaysa Araujo de Lima; Jéssica Laís de Oliveira Souza; Joanna Gabriela Vicente Silva; Kátia Aparecida da Silva Aquino; Fabiana da Silva Aquino; Clecio Souza Ramos; Rômulo Simões Cezar Menezes
      Pages: 135 - 141
      Abstract: The investigation of processes to use oil-rich organic wastes to generate biodiesel is an important research area nowadays. In this respect, quantifying oil/fat and biodiesel with less labor demanding analytical tools such as proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) can provide faster and more accurate acquisition of the chemical quality parameters of the organic samples. In the present study, the fat obtained from mango seed kernel (MSK) and its biodiesel were investigated using 1H NMR spectra to identify its physicochemical parameters. The results indicate that MSK fat shows high oxidative stability, and the biodiesel produced from MSK fat was compatible with European (EN 14214) and Brazilian (RANP 07/08) standards. The 1H NMR technique was efficient for providing the chemical parameters of MSK fat and its biodiesel without the need of any pretreatment. In addition, complementary analysis was performed to determine the MSK biodiesel quality.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0286-2
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Thermogravimetric characteristic and kinetic of catalytic co-pyrolysis of
           biomass with low- and high-density polyethylenes
    • Authors: Mohammed Umar Garba; Adoga Inalegwu; Umaru Musa; Alechenu Audu Aboje; Abdulsalami Sanni Kovo; David Olalekan Adeniyi
      Pages: 143 - 150
      Abstract: The pyrolysis of wood fuel (WF) and polyethylenes (low-density polyethylene; LDPE and high-density polyethylene; HDPE) in a non-catalytic and catalytic co-pyrolysis over zeolite catalyst (ZSM-5) were studied via a thermogravimetric analysis. The result obtained for the biomass with LDPE and HDPE blends shows that the peak temperature decreases significantly only at blends with catalyst as compared to the peak temperature of isolated LDPE and HDPE materials. The peak temperature of WF/LDPE/ZSM-5 (390 °C) was lower than that of WF/HDPE/ZSM-5 (480 °C). The weight loss differences between experimental and theoretical values were greater than 1% at temperature higher than 500 °C in the various admixtures which depicts the occurrence of chemical interactions between the blends. After catalysts were added to the blend, the fuels became more reactive to thermal degradation. The results of the non-catalytic pyrolysis kinetics revealed activation energy values of 54.09 and 95.90 KJ/mol for WF/LDPE and WF/HDPE, respectively. However, with the presence of ZSM-5 activation, energy falls to 24.13 and 50.45 for WF/LDPE/ZSM-5 and WF/HDPE/ZSM-5, respectively. The findings in this work show that the kinetic of catalytic co-pyrolysis of biomass with plastic can be viewed as a potential thermochemical conversion method that can be effectively utilized for a marked reduction in energy requirement of the process.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0261-y
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • TG-FTIR study on pyrolysis of Enteromorpha prolifera
    • Authors: Yuhui Ma; Jing Wang; Yushan Zhang
      Pages: 151 - 157
      Abstract: Pyrolysis of Enteromorpha prolifera was investigated for the first time by using thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (TG-FTIR). The activation energies of pyrolysis reactions were obtained via the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose method, respectively. The experimental results showed that the main weight loss of EP occurred between 200 and 350 °C, and almost all the volatiles were evolved in this stage. CO2 was the most prominent non-condensable product, while aldehydes, organic acids, ketones, and ethers were the dominating condensable products. The minor weight loss of EP above 720 °C was possibly caused by the decomposition of calcium carbonate, and it resulted in the formation of CO2, which was further reduced to CO by EP char above 750 °C. In addition, the evolution curves of CH4 and aliphatic C-H exhibited two peaks located between 200 and 600 °C, due to the rupture of methoxy, ethoxy, and methylene. The activation energy of the pyrolysis of EP increased with the increase of conversion rate, and its average value was calculated as 299.84 kJ mol−1 for FWO method and 306.81 kJ mol−1 for KAS method. All of the findings would help further understanding of pyrolysis behavior of EP and its thermo-chemical utilization for fuels and chemicals.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-016-0234-6
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Catalytic deoxygenation of C18 fatty acids over HAlMCM-41 molecular sieve
    • Authors: F. C. M. Silva; M. S. Lima; C. O. Costa Neto; J. L. S. Sá; L. D. Souza; V. P. S. Caldeira; A. G. D. Santos; G. E. Luz Jr
      Pages: 159 - 167
      Abstract: The large demand for energy combined with ecological, economic, and social reasons encouraged the studies for alternative sources of fuel. The deoxygenation process of oils and fatty acids has emerged as a promising resource in obtaining fuels. This paper studied the deoxygenation process of oleic and stearic acids carried out in a distillation system, under the temperature of 450 °C over MCM-41, AlMCM-41-41, and HAlMCM-41 molecular sieves, which were synthesized by direct hydrothermal synthesis method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy in the infrared site (FTIR), adsorption and desorption of N2, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The products were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and acid-base titration. The results showed that stearic acid deoxygenates more than the oleic acid, and that the performance of HAlMCM-41 was superior to AlMCM-41, indicating that the total acidity positively influenced the process. Furthermore, from the stearic acid deoxygenation, it obtained mainly heptadecanes (C17:0) structures, while the oleic acid produces heptadecenes (C17:1).
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0263-9
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Conversion of corn stover hydrolysates to acids: comparison between
           Clostridium carboxidivorans P7 and microbial communities developed from
           lake sediment and an anaerobic digester
    • Authors: Chunjie Xia; Aditi Kumar; Xiaowen Chen; Melvin Tucker; Yanna Liang
      Pages: 169 - 178
      Abstract: Anaerobic fermentation is an environmentally sustainable technology for converting a variety of feedstocks to biofuels and bioproducts. Considering the complex nature of lignocellulosic hydrolysates, we aimed to investigate product formation from corn stover hydrolysates by using microbial communities under anaerobic conditions. A community developed from lake sediment was able to produce lactic acid from only glucose in the raw or overlimed hydrolysates. Another community from an anaerobic digester, however, was capable of using all hexose and pentose sugars in the raw and undetoxified hydrolysates and released lactic acid at 26.76 g/L. A pure acetogen, Clostridium carboxidivorans P7, was able to grow on the raw and overlimed hydrolysates, too. But the consumption of sugars was minimal and the total released acid concentrations were less than 2 g/L. Next generation sequencing of the enriched community derived from the anaerobic digester revealed the presence of Lactobacillus strains. The predominant species were Lactobacillus parafarraginis (72.6%) and L. buchneri (13.4%). Product titer from using this enriched community can be further enhanced by cultivating at fed-batch or continuous fermentation modes. Results from this study widened the door for producing valuable products from lignocellulosic feedstocks through using mixed cultures.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0239-9
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Thermochemical pretreatment of corn husk and enzymatic hydrolysis using
           mixture of different cellulases
    • Authors: Shivani Sharma; Vinay Sharma; Arindam Kuila
      Pages: 179 - 188
      Abstract: The present study compared dilute acid and alkaline pretreatment of corn husk. It showed that maximum reducing sugar production was obtained when biomass was pretreated using dilute sodium hydroxide. Further, effectiveness of dilute alkaline pretreatment was evaluated through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and biochemical composition study. Batch enzymatic hydrolysis of dilute alkaline pretreated biomass was carried out using several combinations of different cellulases (Trichoderma, Fusarium, and Aspergillus). Maximum reducing sugar production was obtained when pretreated biomass was hydrolyzed using mixture of Trichoderma, Fusarium, and Aspergillus cellulases. Further, batch enzymatic hydrolysis process was optimized using CCD (central composite design)-based RSM (response surface methodology). In addition, using mixture of different cellulases, batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis processes were compared. It showed that 14.34-mg/mL higher reducing sugar production was obtained in the case of fed-batch process compared to batch process.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0255-9
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Study of time reaction on alkaline pretreatment applied to rice husk on
           biomass component extraction
    • Authors: Lara Soares Monte; Viviane Alves Escócio; Ana Maria Furtado de Sousa; Cristina Russi Guimarães Furtado; Marcia Christina Amorim Moreira Leite; Leila Lea Yuan Visconte; Elen Beatriz Acordi Vasquez Pacheco
      Pages: 189 - 197
      Abstract: Rice husk (RH) residue was submitted to a sequence of experimental procedures, specifically to investigate the reaction time influence of NaOH pretreatment on the extraction of silica, hemicellulose, and lignin components. In order to follow the extraction of each non-cellulosic components of rice husk, techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis, and scanning electron microscopy were performed on untreated RH and samples collected from the NaOH reaction media at several different reaction times, as well as the sample after alkaline-peroxide treatment. Under the process parameters used in the present study, the results showed that a great part of hemicellulose and silica contents was removed during the first 30 min of reaction time in NaOH pretreatment. Although there is evidence that NaOH pretreatment also removed some lignin content, the complete delignification process was more effective just after alkaline-peroxide reaction, which produced material rich in type I cellulose.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0271-9
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Characteristics of hydrochar and hydrothermal liquid products from
           hydrothermal carbonization of corncob
    • Authors: Kamonwat Nakason; Bunyarit Panyapinyopol; Vorapot Kanokkantapong; Nawin Viriya-empikul; Wasawat Kraithong; Prasert Pavasant
      Pages: 199 - 210
      Abstract: Corncob (CC) was converted to renewable fuel resource by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC). HTC was performed by varying process temperature (160–200 °C), residence time (1–3 h), and biomass to water ratio (BTW) (1:5 to 1:15). The properties of hydrochar were significantly enhanced where the fixed carbon and carbon content of hydrochar increased at about 24.9 and 83.7% from original contents in CC, respectively. The calorific values and yield of hydrochar were between 19.3–23.5 MJ/kg and 50.1–58.6%. The optimal condition for the production of hydrochar as solid fuel was determined at 200 °C, 3 h residence time, and BTW of 1:5 with maximum energy yield of 68.74%. In addition, hydrothermal liquid was characterized where volatile fatty acid, furfural, furfuryl alcohol, and hydroxymethylfurfural were the most abundant compositions with their highest yields of 17.3, 11.5, 7.9, and 5.1%, respectively. Process temperature was the most influencing variable on product properties and characteristics. The results suggested that corncob has high potential as a source for solid fuel and valuable platform chemicals.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0279-1
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • The effects of air velocity, temperature and particle size on
           low-temperature bed drying of wood chips
    • Authors: Niranjan Fernando; Mahinsasa Narayana; W. A. M. K. P. Wickramaarachchi
      Pages: 211 - 223
      Abstract: This paper describes a mathematical model for wood chip packed bed drying process with the effects of hot air flow velocity, temperature and particle size. A single-particle drying model was developed by considering impacts of external and internal parameters. External parameters are hot air flow velocity and air temperature. Internal parameters are porosity and particle size. These parameters are incorporated to the present model by introducing two mass transfer coefficients. The model was fine-tuned by comparing simulation results and experimental data. Effects of a factor relating to internal mass transfer coefficient were found for three wood types, and a functional dependence of internal mass transfer on temperature was suggested in this study. The model was implemented in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to evaluate spatial variation of moisture in the packed bed drying process. The CFD model was validated by results of lab-scale packed bed. Drying performance of the packed bed was estimated by CFD simulations for variations of external hot air flow velocity, flow temperature and particle size. Sensitivity of these parameters for dying performance was evaluated by design of experiment (DOE) method. It was clarified that air temperature is most critical for the drying process. Interaction of between external hot air flow velocity and particle size for dying performance is also significant.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0257-7
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Erratum to: Greenhouse gas assessment of palm oil mill biorefinery in
           Thailand from a life cycle perspective
    • Authors: Gabrielle Beaudry; Caroline Macklin; Elizabeth Roknich; Laney Sears; Margaret Wiener; Shabbir H. Gheewala
      Pages: 235 - 235
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0245-y
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • High-grade activated carbon from pyrolytic biochar of Jatropha and Karanja
           oil seed cakes—Indian biodiesel industry wastes
    • Authors: Sonal Garg; Piyali Das
      Abstract: Most of the commercially available pyrolysis plants use fluidized bed technologies where bio-oil is the major product and the biochar produced is combusted for process heat. However, auger-based technologies are now gaining importance because of their small to medium scale of operation and decentralized nature where biochar is obtained as a by-product. One of the factors which may greatly influence the techno-economic viability of such decentralized plants is making high-grade carbon from pyrolytic biochar. In the present study, Jatropha and Karanja oil seed cake-based biochar is obtained as a by-product in a pilot-scale (20 kg/h) direct gas-fired auger pyrolysis process at 500 °C under fast pyrolysis conditions that is originally aimed at maximizing the bio-oil yield. The biochar has low surface area and porosity. To value add to this carbon, downstream physical and chemical activation are carried out in an externally heated laboratory-scale reactor. CO2 activation resulted in the formation of activated carbon with BET surface area up to ~ 200 m2/g with marginal improvement in porosity, while K2CO3 activation enhanced the surface area to as high as 2400 m2/g along with substantial enhancement of porosity.
      PubDate: 2018-04-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0308-8
       
  • Bioprocessing of cardboard waste for cellulase production
    • Authors: Ahlam S. Al Azkawi; Nallusamy Sivakumar; Saif Al Bahry
      Abstract: Waste paper, a major source of cellulosic biomass, could be utilized as a potential substrate for cellulase production. In this work, different pretreated waste papers were used as substrates for cellulase production. Among them, cardboard treated with 0.1% H2SO4 was found to be the best substrate for cellulase production by Bacillus subtilis S1 (Accession number MG457704). The optimization of the culture conditions for cellulase production was performed using the Plackett-Burman design (PB) and response surface methodology (RSM). The factors considered for PB design were cardboard concentration, yeast extract, inoculum concentration, cultivation temperature, and pH, with cellulase activity (FPase) as a response. PB design at 30 h was highly significant (F = 0.0018 and R2 = 0.99). Cardboard, yeast extract, and inoculum concentrations were the variables selected for optimization by RSM. The model with 15 runs was highly significant (F = 0.0004). The model that predicted a maximum FPase activity of 2.956 U/mL could be achieved with 7.78% inoculum concentration, 3.99 g/L yeast extract, and 25.89 g/L cardboard. The results showed that the predicted values agreed well with the experimental values. The validation experiment proved the adequacy and accuracy of model. This study demonstrates that cardboard could serve as a low-cost substrate for cellulase production.
      PubDate: 2018-04-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0309-7
       
  • Ethanol production from acid-pretreated and detoxified rice straw as sole
           renewable resource
    • Authors: Mustafa Germec; Irfan Turhan
      Abstract: Renewable resources are the most abundant available and inexpensive materials on the earth. This study was undertaken not only to optimize acid pretreatment conditions of rice straw but also to produce ethanol from the detoxified rice straw hydrolysate (RSH) by the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Scheffersomyces stipitis. Box-Behnken response surface design was used to determine optimum temperature (105–135 °C), dilute sulfuric acid ratio (1–5%, w/v), and solid-to-liquid ratio (1:19–1:15, w/v). Results indicated that the optimum hydrolysis conditions of rice straw were 126.5 °C, 1:15 solid-to-liquid ratio (w/v) and 5% acid ratio (w/v). Reducing sugar concentration (RSC) was 21.50 g/L (0.323 g sugar/g biomass) under optimal conditions. After detoxification process with activated charcoal, the percentage removal of acetic acid, hydroxymethyl furfural, 2-furaldehyde, and phenolics was 2.01, 78.58, 100, and 94.67%, respectively. The catalytic efficiency of sulfuric acid was achieved to be 3.40 and 5.33 g/g in non-detoxified and detoxified RSHs, respectively. The ethanol yields and maximum production rates for S. cerevisiae and S. stipitis (ATCC 58784 and ATCC 58785) were calculated as 47.20% of theoretical ethanol yield and 0.37 g/L/h, 42.95% of theoretical ethanol yield and 0.09 g/L/h, and 48.81% of theoretical ethanol yield and 0.07 g/L/h, respectively. Consequently, rice straw can be a good substrate source for production of value-added products such as ethanol by fermentation. Besides, in the case of further improvement of fermentation media in terms of inhibitors, especially of acetic acid, better fermentation results would be obtained.
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0310-1
       
  • Hydrothermal liquefaction of kraft lignin in sub-critical water: the
           influence of the sodium and potassium fraction
    • Authors: Tallal Belkheiri; Sven-Ingvar Andersson; Cecilia Mattsson; Lars Olausson; Hans Theliander; Lennart Vamling
      Abstract: As a part of developing a hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process to valorise lignin, it is important to consider integration possibilities with existing infrastructures in order to obtain an overall positive economic impact. One obvious example is to integrate the HTL process with the kraft pulp mill: transport and storage costs is reduced, the temperature levels on process streams can be matched (energy integration) and the recovery/use of alkali can be made efficient. In this study, softwood kraft lignin was depolymerised using sub-critical water (623 K; 25 MPa) in a continuous, small pilot unit with a flow rate of 2 kg/h. ZrO2, K2CO3/KOH and Na2CO3/NaOH were used as catalytic system, and phenol as the capping agent. The influence of the ratio between sodium and potassium in the feed on the yield and composition of the product stream was investigated. The results showed that bio-oil, water-soluble organics (WSO) and char yields were not remarkably influenced by shifting the catalytic system from potassium to sodium. Moreover, the yields of most phenolic compounds did not change significantly when the sodium fraction was varied in the feed. The amounts of suspended solids in the bio-oil produced showed, however, a diminishing trend, (decrease from 10.8 to 3.8%) when the sodium fraction was increased in the feed, whilst the opposite trend was observed for the heavy oil, which increased from 24.6 to 37.6%.
      PubDate: 2018-03-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0307-9
       
  • A comparable study on the hot-water treatment of wheat straw and okra
           stalk prior to delignification
    • Authors: Saleem Ullah; Hannu Pakkanen; Joni Lehto; Raimo Alén
      Abstract: Wheat straw and okra stalk were studied to evaluate their potential use for integrated lignocellulosic biorefining. Besides chemical pulp, a wide spectrum of value-added by-products were prepared by hot-water extraction of the feedstocks under varying conditions (140 °C for 60 and 240 min and 150 °C for 25 and 100 min) prior to sulfur-free soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulping (NaOH charge 15 and 20% by weight on o.d. feedstock for wheat straw and okra stalk, respectively, with an AQ charge of 0.05% by weight on o.d. for both feedstocks). During the hot-water pre-treatment, the most significant mass removal, respectively, 12% (w/w) and 23% (w/w) of the initial wheat straw and okra stalk was obtained at 150 °C with a treatment time of 100 min. The hydrolysates were characterized in terms of pH and the content of carbohydrates (6–20% (w/w) of the initial amount), volatile acids (acetic and formic acids), and furans. The pre-treatment stage also facilitated the delignification stage, and, for example, the pulp yields (w/w), 57% (145 °C, 15 min, and kappa number 18) and 41% (165 °C, 180 min, and kappa number 32) were obtained for the pre-treated (150 °C, P200) wheat straw and okra stalk, respectively. Results clearly indicated that both non-wood materials were suitable for this kind of biorefining approach.
      PubDate: 2018-03-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0306-x
       
 
 
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