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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 846 journals)
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    - CHEMISTRY (596 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (596 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 246)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access  
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
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Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 220)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 223)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 318)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 15)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 182)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 228)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Croatica Chemica Acta     Open Access  
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contamination     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery
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   Partially Free Journal Partially Free Journal
   ISSN (Print) 2190-6815 - ISSN (Online) 2190-6823
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2354 journals]
  • Editorial thematic issue BCAB
    • Authors: Frédéric Vogel
      Pages: 399 - 400
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0270-x
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Thermal stability of low and high Mw fractions of bio-oil derived from
           lignin conversion in subcritical water
    • Authors: Huyen Nguyen Lyckeskog; Cecilia Mattsson; Lars Olausson; Sven-Ingvar Andersson; Lennart Vamling; Hans Theliander
      Pages: 401 - 414
      Abstract: The thermal stability of bio-oil influences its application in industry and is, therefore, a very important factor that must be taken into consideration. In this study, the stability of low and high molecular weight (Mw) fractions of bio-oil obtained from the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of lignin in subcritical water was studied at an elevated temperature (80 °C) for a period of 1 h, 1 day and 1 week. The changes in molecular weight (gel permeation chromatography (GPC)) and chemical composition (gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and 2D heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC) NMR (18.8 T, DMSO-d6)) of low and high Mw fractions of the HTL bio-oil (i.e. light oil (LO) and heavy oil (HO)) were evaluated before and after ageing. It was found that only a slight formation of high Mw insoluble structures was obtained during ageing at elevated temperature for 1 week: 0.5% for the LO and 3.1% for the HO. These higher Mw moieties might be formed from different polymerisation/condensation reactions of the reactive compounds (i.e. anisoles, guaiacols, phenols, methylene (–CH2–) groups in phenolic dimers and xanthene). The high Mw insolubles in both the LO and the HO were analysed for structural composition using 2D HSQC NMR to obtain a better understanding of the changes in the composition of bio-oil fractions during the accelerated ageing process. In addition, a chemical shift database in DMSO-d6 was analysed for a subset of phenolic model compounds to simplify the interpretation of the 2D HSQC NMR spectra.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-016-0228-4
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Catalytic gasification of digestate sludge in supercritical water on the
           pilot plant scale
    • Authors: Nikolaos Boukis; Elena Hauer; Sophia Herbig; Jörg Sauer; Frédéric Vogel
      Pages: 415 - 424
      Abstract: Gasification in supercritical water can be assisted with heterogeneous catalysts. Effective salt separation upstream of the catalyst is important to avoid poisoning of the catalyst and to recover nutrients. Recovery of phosphorus and nitrogen as well as gasification of a significant portion of the organic carbon were demonstrated on the pilot plant scale. A Ru/C catalyst was applied to catalyze the formation of CH4, which was the desired primary gasification product. On top of the catalyst, a bed of ZnO was used as sulfur adsorbent to protect the catalyst from deactivation. As feedstock for the process, glycerol, ethanol, and digestate sludge were studied. The results confirm the activity of the catalyst under the applied conditions. At a reaction temperature of 420 °C and a pressure of 280 bar, a gas composition close to thermodynamic equilibrium was achieved. Salt separation performed at 470 °C was effective, but the separation efficiency was less for potassium than for phosphorus. Fifty-six percent of the ash contained in digestate sludge was separated and recovered. Sulfur partly escaped the salt separation system and reached the reactor. The ZnO layer trapped most of this remaining sulfur. The remaining sulfur contamination was low enough not to poison the Ru/C catalyst completely. In total, 326 kg of glycerol, 334 kg of digestate sludge, and 167 kg of ethanol were gasified without any operational issues.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0238-x
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Two-stage alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of wood to biocrude in a
           continuous bench-scale system
    • Authors: Iulia M. Sintamarean; Ionela F. Grigoras; Claus U. Jensen; Saqib S. Toor; Thomas H. Pedersen; Lasse A. Rosendahl
      Pages: 425 - 435
      Abstract: Feedstock pumpability is one of the main obstacles for continuous processing of biomass through hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), due to their tendency to form heterogeneous slurries. In this work, a novel strategy is proposed to ensure lignocellulosic feed pumpability in HTL processing, even while applying elevated biomass loadings. In the first stage, a pumpable feed is prepared by an alkaline treatment of coarse wood chips at 180 °C, 120-min reaction time, and 0.35 NaOH-to-wood ratio. In a subsequent stage, the treated feedstock is converted into a biocrude in a continuously operated 20 kg/h scale unit. In total, 100 kg of wood paste with 25% dry matter is processed at 400 °C and 30 MPa, demonstrating the usefulness of this two-stage liquefaction strategy. An additional advantage liquefaction of such pretreated wood shows increased biocrude yields with approximately 10% compared to the case where non-pretreated wood is liquefied.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0247-9
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Hydrocarbon chemicals from hydrothermal processing of renewable oils over
           HZSM-5
    • Authors: Na Mo; Jarrett Pennebacker; Phillip E. Savage
      Pages: 437 - 443
      Abstract: We used the hydrothermal catalytic reaction (400 ℃, 200 bar, 180 min) of renewable triglyceride feedstocks over zeolite HZSM-5 to produce hydrocarbons. Crude algal oil, cold-pressed coconut oil, peanut oil, and lard were converted into aromatics, alkanes, and fuel gases in varying yields and proportions. The most abundant liquid products from coconut oil, peanut oil, and lard were xylenes and toluene, whereas 2-methyl-pentane was the most abundant for crude algal oil. Reactions with crude algal oil generated alkanes and aromatics in comparable amount with more gases than liquid products. Peanut oil and lard, the more refined triglyceride feedstocks, gave the highest total liquid product yields of nearly 90 wt.% and yields of aromatic hydrocarbons (around 50 wt %) that exceeded those from individual fatty acids under the same reaction condition. Taken collectively, these results demonstrate the technical feasibility of biorenewable aromatic chemical production from zeolite catalytic hydrothermal processing of triglyceride feedstocks.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-016-0231-9
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Hydrothermal co-liquefaction of microalgae, wood, and sugar beet pulp
    • Authors: D. W. F. Brilman; N. Drabik; M. Wądrzyk
      Pages: 445 - 454
      Abstract: Hydrothermal co-liquefaction of mixed (wet and dry) biomass residue streams would greatly enhance the viability and scale up potential of the technology as platform in bioenergy and biorefinery applications. This study aims to identify possible interaction effects between three different feeds (protein-rich microalgae, lignocellulosic wood, and carbohydrate-rich sugar beet pulp) and to broaden the data set for evaluating this concept. Co-liquefaction was evaluated at 250 and 350 °C at 10 min of holding time, using 10 wt%( in water) binary mixtures (1:1 wt basis) and a (1:1:1 wt basis) ternary mixture. Results show that interaction during co-liquefaction does play a role and especially reduced the amount of biocrude produced. The biocrude yields obtained are around 15 and 40% below the estimated values for binary and ternary mixtures, on basis of linear averaging the results for the single feeds. For mixtures including algal biomass, a more than proportional nitrogen content and fraction of high molecular mass components was found in the biocrude. For the predictability of biocrude yield and composition in case of biomass mixtures, more work is needed to unravel these interactions.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0241-2
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Conversion of a wet waste feedstock to biocrude by hydrothermal processing
           in a continuous-flow reactor: grape pomace
    • Authors: Douglas C. Elliott; Andrew J. Schmidt; Todd R. Hart; Justin M. Billing
      Pages: 455 - 465
      Abstract: Wet waste feedstocks present an attractive opportunity for biomass conversion to fuels by hydrothermal processing. In this study, grape pomace slurries from two varieties, Montepulciano and cabernet sauvignon, have been converted into a biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) in a bench-scale, continuous-flow reactor system. Carbon conversion to gravity-separable biocrude product up to 56% was accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 °C) in a pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa) when using grape pomace feedstock slurry with a 16.8 wt% concentration of dry solids processed at a liquid hourly space velocity of 2.1 h−1. Direct biocrude recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent and biomass trace mineral components were removed by precipitation and filtration so that they did not cause processing difficulties. In addition, catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup using a Ru on C catalyst in a fixed bed producing a gas composed of methane and carbon dioxide from water-soluble organics. Conversion of 99.8% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) left in the aqueous phase was demonstrated. As a result, high conversion of grape pomace to liquid and gas fuel products was found with residual organic contamination in byproduct water reduced to <150 mg/kg COD.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0264-8
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Assessment of agricultural crops and natural vegetation in Scotland for
           energy production by anaerobic digestion and hydrothermal liquefaction
    • Authors: Patrick Biller; David Lawson; René B. Madsen; Jacob Becker; Bo B. Iversen; Marianne Glasius
      Pages: 467 - 477
      Abstract: The current paper investigates the use of natural vegetation and agricultural crops commonly found in Scotland as a source of bioenergy. Such biomass is shown to have a high moisture content upon harvest (∼80%) which renders them suitable for wet conversion technologies such as anaerobic digestion (AD) and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Experimental investigations are carried out on 16 different types of biomass to assess their bio-crude yields via HTL and theoretical methane potential via AD based on compositional analysis. The different types of biomass vary significantly in biomass yield upon harvesting from 1.1 t/ha (dry matter) for bracken to a maximum of 17.5 t/ha for winter rye. These area specific yields are the most influential factor in the final energy yield per area. Area specific energy yields are found to average at 67 GJ/ha for AD and 53 GJ/ha for HTL. The respective conversion efficiencies of HTL and AD for different biomass feedstocks are also shown to be an important factor on the overall energy potential. AD averages a mass to energy conversion of 9.1 GJ/t compared to 7.2 GJ/t for HTL. A combination of AD and HTL is investigated by liquefying digestate from rye, but the results suggest this is not a viable option due to low bio-crude yields. However, analysis of the water phase post HTL allowed the calculation of theoretical methane potential from the HTL process water and suggests that this can yield additional energy. Overall, the work shows that utilisation of natural vegetation is a promising approach for bioenergy production.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-016-0230-x
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • The impact of sorbent geometry on the sulphur adsorption under
           supercritical water conditions: a numerical study
    • Authors: Florentina Maxim; Bojan Niceno; Andrea Testino; Christian Ludwig
      Pages: 479 - 485
      Abstract: A numerical model to show the impact of the adsorption bed geometry on the desulfurization process of wet biomass under supercritical water (SCW) gasification process has been developed. Three different geometries, straight channels (pipe), sharp-edged channels (sharp) and packed bed of particles (pebbles) have been considered for the sorbent bed. The influence of the flow patterns on the sulphur distribution inside the bed and on the saturation of the sorbent has been analysed. The results show that, when the flow is unidirectional with a parabolic profile, as in the pipe geometry, the adsorption process can be explained based on the 1D plug-flow model. In the case of more complex flow structures, when torus-shaped vortices appeared in the sharp or pebbles geometries, the 3D flow effects should be considered. The present work might provide useful information for the evaluation of sulphur sorption under SCW conditions. The models obtained by computational fluid dynamic, which are under experimental validation using neutron imaging, will help for the sorbent design and production by 3D printing techniques, which represent an advanced engineered tool to improve the process efficiency and sorbent material selection.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0265-7
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Gasification characteristics of histidine and 4-methylimidazole under
           supercritical water conditions
    • Authors: Thachanan Samanmulya; Obie Farobie; Yukihiko Matsumura
      Pages: 487 - 494
      Abstract: In this study, gasification characteristics of histidine and 4-methylimidazole were investigated for the first time. A tubular flow reactor was employed, and experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 500–650 °C, at a fixed pressure of 25 MPa, with residence times of 86–119 s, and with 1.0 wt% aqueous solutions of histidine and 4-methylimidazole. The gaseous products were identified and quantified by gas chromatography (GC), and the aqueous phase was analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC). The gasification characteristics were compared with those of glycine and alanine, which represented the standard amino acid structure. The result showed that the carbon gasification efficiencies of both histidine and 4-methylimidazole increased with increasing reaction temperature. The gasification rate of 4-methylimidazole followed first-order kinetics and was explained well by the Arrhenius equation. The gasification rate for histidine could be predicted by the weighted summation of the adjusted gasification rates of glycine and 4-methylimidazole.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0242-1
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Fundamentals of Hydrofaction ™ : Renewable crude oil from woody
           biomass
    • Authors: Claus Uhrenholt Jensen; Julie Katerine Rodriguez Guerrero; Sergios Karatzos; Göran Olofsson; Steen Brummerstedt Iversen
      Pages: 495 - 509
      Abstract: As a response to the global requirement for renewable transportation fuels that are economically viable and fungible with existing petroleum infrastructure, Steeper Energy is commercializing its proprietary hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) technology as a potential path to sustainable lignocellulosic-derived transport fuels. Hydrofaction™ utilizes high-density, supercritical water chemistry at distinctly higher pressures and temperatures than most literature on HTL. The paper presents a direct relation between density and the chemical properties that make near-critical water an appealing HTL reaction medium. Further, the fundamentals of Hydrofaction™ and how these are carefully chosen to favor certain chemical reaction paths are explained, including the use of high-density supercritical water, homogenous alkaline metal catalysts at alkaline conditions and recycling of aqueous and oil products. Steady state operational data from a campaign producing 1 barrel (>150 kg) of oil at a dedicated pilot plant is presented, including closure of mass, energy, and three elemental balances. A detailed oil assay specifying the oil quality as well as mass and energy recoveries from wood to oil of 45.3 wt.% and 85.6%, respectively, reflect that Hydrofaction™ is an energy-efficient technology for sourcing renewable biofuels in tangible volumes.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0248-8
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Hydrogen-enhanced catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass
    • Authors: J. Reimer; S. Müller; E. De Boni; F. Vogel
      Pages: 511 - 519
      Abstract: The impact of hydrogen co-feeding on the catalytic hydrothermal gasification of wet biomass was explored in a continuous test rig using a feed of 10 wt% glycerol in water and a fixed bed of a carbon-supported ruthenium catalyst. The reactor was operated at a nominal temperature of 400 °C and at pressures of 26–28 MPa. Variation of the hydrogen-to-glycerol ratio as well as of the total pressure showed clearly the methanation reaction to be promoted at the expense of carbon dioxide and hydrogen formation. This is explained by a higher hydrogen surface coverage and consecutively higher rates for hydrogenation of surface-bound carbon. An increase in peak temperature of ca. 75 K occurred in the catalytic fixed-bed when co-feeding hydrogen. The measured product gas composition was close to the thermodynamic equilibrium calculated at the outlet temperature of the reactor. A maximum methane concentration of 86 vol% in the raw gas was obtained at 28 MPa with a stoichiometric addition of hydrogen. Full catalytic activity was maintained during and after the hydrogen co-feeding experiments, verified by comparing the performance of a run with a 10 wt% glycerol in water feed after co-feeding hydrogen, for which the product distribution was very close to the experiments before hydrogen co-feeding.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0253-y
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Erratum to: Hydrogen-enhanced catalytic hydrothermal gasification of
           biomass
    • Authors: J. Reimer; S. Müller; E. De Boni; F. Vogel
      Pages: 521 - 521
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0260-z
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Microreactor technology for biodiesel production: a review
    • Authors: Akansha Madhawan; Arzoo Arora; Jyoti Das; Arindam Kuila; Vinay Sharma
      Abstract: Due to a rise in global demand for energy and an increase in greenhouse gases, biodiesel has been accepted as an alternative fuel because of its biodegradability, low environment detrimental effect, better quality of exhaust gas emission, and renewability. Biodiesel is a mixture of monoalkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids also known as fatty acid methyl esters. Transesterification is the most commonly adopted technique for the production process. But the conventional biodiesel technology has its own disadvantages. Process intensification technologies can overcome these drawbacks. Some novel reactors such as microchannel reactor, static mixers, oscillatory flow reactors, and spinning tube reactors have been developed so as to improve mass transfer and mixing. These technologies can achieve rapid and high reaction rates due to the high surface area/volume ratio and short diffusion distance thus intensifying the transesterification process. Various factors such as alcohol to triglyceride molar ratio, microchannel size, residence time, reaction temperature, mixing mechanism, and catalyst affect the production process. Although biodiesel production has been commercialized in several countries, it still requires a clean, effective, and environment-friendly technology to make it cost-effective and increase its competency against conventional fossil fuels. Microreactor technology, however, has proved to be a benchmark to serve this purpose. The current review paper provides an overview about different types of microreactors used in biodiesel production and the parameters affecting biodiesel production in microreactors. The microreactor technology discussed in this paper aims to improve the production process by decreasing the reaction time from hours to minutes.
      PubDate: 2017-12-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0296-0
       
  • A quick and effective method for evaluating substrate-enzyme systems in
           the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass
    • Authors: Javier Ulises Hernández-Beltrán; Karla Cervantes-Quintero; Héctor Hernández-Escoto
      Abstract: This work describes a microreaction technique to carry out hydrolysis of certain substrate by certain enzyme under several conditions, and reports its usefulness to determine effective process conditions and to compare performances between different systems substrate-enzyme, in a quick and economic way. The microreaction system consists of microtubes, as microreactors, that are placed into a thermomixer, allowing a set of 24 experiments at a certain constant temperature but with different pH and substrate-enzyme ratios. The outcomes of the numerous experiments are processed via response surface methodology and means analysis. In order to illustrate the technique effectiveness, it is discussed the comparison of two commercial enzyme complexes, and two delignification procedures of wheat straw.
      PubDate: 2017-12-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0297-z
       
  • Continuous catalytic depolymerisation and conversion of industrial kraft
           lignin into low-molecular-weight aromatics
    • Authors: Omar Y. Abdelaziz; Kena Li; Per Tunå; Christian P. Hulteberg
      Abstract: Base-catalysed depolymerisation of lignin using sodium hydroxide has been shown to be an effective approach towards exploiting industrial (technical) lignins within the pulp and paper industry. In the present work, a pine kraft lignin (Indulin AT) which is precipitated from black liquor of linerboard-grade pulp was depolymerised via base catalysis to produce low-molecular-mass aromatics without any organic solvent/capping agent in a continuous-flow reactor setup for the first time. The catalytic conversion of lignin was performed/screened at temperatures varying from 170 to 250 °C, using NaOH/lignin weight ratio ≈ 1 with 5 wt% lignin solids loadings for residence times of 1, 2 and 4 min, respectively, with comprehensive characterisation of substrate and produced reaction mixtures. The products were characterised using size exclusion chromatography (SEC), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and supercritical fluid chromatography-diode array detector-tandem mass spectrometry (SFC-MS). The optimum operating conditions for such depolymerisation appeared to be at 240 °C and 30 h−1, yielding the highest concentration of low-molecular-weight phenolics below the coking point. It was also found that the depolymerised lignin products exhibited better chemical stability during long-term storage at lower temperatures (~ 4 °C). Graphical abstract Base-catalysed depolymerisation of lignin using a new continuous-flow reactor system enables theproduction of value-added aromatic chemicals
      PubDate: 2017-11-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0294-2
       
  • Assessment of zeolite 13X and Lewatit® VP OC 1065 for application in a
           continuous temperature swing adsorption process for biogas upgrading
    • Authors: Elisabeth Sonnleitner; Gerhard Schöny; Hermann Hofbauer
      Abstract: Two commercially available CO2-adsorbent materials (i.e., zeolite 13X (13X) and Lewatit® VP OC 1065 (Lewatit)) were evaluated for their applicability in a continuous temperature swing adsorption (TSA) process for biogas upgrading. The equilibrium adsorption characteristics of carbon dioxide and methane were determined by fixed bed and TGA tests. While relatively high CO2 capacities were measured for both materials (3.6 and 2.5 mol kg−1), neither of them was found to adsorb significant amounts of CH4. Lewatit showed to be fully regenerable at 95 °C, whereas for 13X, the regeneration was not complete at this temperature. However, 13X showed no degradation up to 190 °C, whereas Lewatit started to degrade at 110 and 90 °C when exposed to N2 and air, respectively. Fluidization tests showed that Lewatit provides a high mechanical stability, while on the contrary, the tested 13X showed considerable attrition. An equilibrium adsorption model was fitted to the measured CO2 adsorption data. The adsorption model was then integrated into an existing simulation tool for the proposed TSA process to roughly estimate the expectable regeneration energy demand for both materials. It was found that depending on the operating conditions, the regeneration energy demand lies between 0.32–0.54 kWhth/m3 prodgas for 13X and 0.71–1.10 kWhth/m3 prodgas for Lewatit. Since heat integration measures were not considered in the simulations, it was concluded that the proposed TSA process has a great potential to reduce the overall energy demand for biogas upgrading and that both tested adsorbent materials may be suitable for application in the proposed TSA process.
      PubDate: 2017-11-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0293-3
       
  • Evaluation of organosolv pretreatment for bioethanol production from
           lignocellulosic biomass: solvent recycle and process integration
    • Authors: André Rodrigues Gurgel da Silva; Massimiliano Errico; Ben-Guang Rong
      Abstract: The production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic feedstock has proven to be a complex task due to the recalcitrant structure of the biomass. Organosolv pretreatment is a promising alternative to remove nearly pure lignin from the biomass and make the sugars available for conversion. However, in order for the organosolv pretreatment to be technically feasible, an efficient solvent recycle is required. This work studied the complete process for lignocellulosic bioethanol production based on organosolv pretreatment method. First, process synthesis is applied to devise six process alternatives for the bioethanol production based on theoretical and experimental works. The analysis was focused on the solvent recovery and recirculation, integrating the pretreatment and product separation and purification areas. Technical and economic indicators were employed to reveal the best alternative among the proposed designs. The results showed that the minimum ethanol selling price for the process was US$1.27/kg of ethanol with a total energy consumption of 29.02 kWh per kilogram of ethanol produced, with 43% of that from hot utilities and 57% from cold utilities.
      PubDate: 2017-11-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0292-4
       
  • A novel dual-bed for steam gasification of biomass
    • Authors: Y. H. Li; Z. Chen; P. Watkinson; X. Bi; J. Grace; C. J. Lim; N. Ellis
      Abstract: A unique indirect steam gasification system for biomass has been developed and tested. The unit features a bubbling bed gasifier equipped with a “sore thumb” and central standpipe, which circulate a mixture of bed material and char through a U-bend to a riser in which char combustion occurs. Re-circulated silica sand from the riser is returned to the bubbling bed through a trickle valve at sufficiently high temperatures to drive biomass gasification. Factors which govern re-circulation of solids are explored and pressure profiles demonstrated. Gasification tests using wood pellets fed at 10–15 kg/h showed that syngas with heating value of about 12 MJ/m3 and nitrogen contents < 5% can be produced. Trends of gas composition versus bed temperature are established. The char combustor required a continuous flow of auxiliary fuel (natural gas) to compensate for high heat losses in the system. Circulation rates were such that riser top temperatures roughly 100 °C above those of the bubbling bed were adequate to provide the gasification heat, without auxiliary fuel to the gasification stage.
      PubDate: 2017-10-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0288-0
       
  • Understanding the mechanisms of cooperative physico-chemical treatment and
           mechanical disintegration of biomass as a route for enhancing enzyme
           saccharification
    • Authors: Roger Ibbett; Sanyasi Gaddipati; Greg Tucker
      Abstract: A novel chemico-kinetic disintegration model has been applied to study the cooperative relationship between physico-chemical treatment and supplementary wet-state milling of biomass, as an efficient process route to achieve high enzyme accessibility. Wheat straw, Miscanthus and short-rotation willow were studied as three contrasting biomass species, which were subjected to controlled hydrothermal pretreatment using a microwave reactor, followed by controlled wet-state ball-milling. Comparative particle disintegration behaviour and related enzyme digestibilities have been interpreted on the basis of model parameters and with evaluation of textural and chemical differences in tissue structures, aided by the application of specific material characterisation techniques. Supplementary milling led to a 1.3×, 1.6× and 3× enhancement in glucose saccharification yield after 24 h for straw, Miscanthus and willow, respectively, following a standardised 10-min hydrothermal treatment, with corresponding milling energy savings of 98, 97 and 91% predicted from the model, compared to the unmilled case. The results confirm the viability of pretreatment combined with supplementary wet-milling as an efficient process route. The results will be valuable in understanding the key parameters for process design and optimisation and also the key phenotypical parameters for feedstock breeding and selection for highest saccharification yield.
      PubDate: 2017-10-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0289-z
       
 
 
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