Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 928 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (59 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (661 journals)
    - CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (23 journals)
    - ELECTROCHEMISTRY (28 journals)
    - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (45 journals)
    - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (47 journals)
    - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (65 journals)

CHEMISTRY (661 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
Accounts of Materials Research     Hybrid Journal  
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
ACS Applied Polymer Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ACS Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
ACS Environmental Au     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
ACS Macro Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ACS Materials Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181)
ACS Photonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Acta Chemica Malaysia     Open Access  
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Advanced Journal of Chemistry, Section A     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Journal of Chemistry, Section B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 109)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Sample Preparation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aggregate     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alchemy : Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alchemy : Jurnal Penelitian Kimia     Open Access  
Alotrop     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Analytical Science Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 150)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 228)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio AA – Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 200)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Carbohydrate Polymer Technologies and Applications     Open Access  
Carbohydrate Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Carbon Capture Science & Technology     Open Access  
Carbon Trends     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cell Reports Physical Science     Open Access  
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Chem     Hybrid Journal  
Chem Catalysis     Hybrid Journal  
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Chemical Physics Impact     Full-text available via subscription  
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Chemical Science International Journal     Open Access  
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 75)
Chemical Thermodynamics and Thermal Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry     Open Access  
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 121)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Chemistry Africa : A Journal of the Tunisian Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry Education Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chemistry World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access  
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistrySelect     Hybrid Journal  
Chemistry–Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
ChemNanoMat     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Chemosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemPhotoChem     Hybrid Journal  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ChemPhysMater     Full-text available via subscription  
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chempublish Journal     Open Access  
ChemSystemsChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciencia     Open Access  
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Communications Materials     Open Access  
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Comptes Rendus : Chimie     Open Access  
Comptes Rendus : Physique     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Journal Cover
Chemoecology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.764
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1423-0445 - ISSN (Online) 0937-7409
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • The scent gland chemistry of Gagrellinae (Opiliones, Sclerosomatidae):
           evidence for sequestration of myrmicacin in a species of Prionostemma

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      Abstract: The scent gland secretion of an undetermined species of Prionostemma from Costa Rica was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and shown to consist of medium-chain carboxylic acids (mainly octanoic acid) and a ß-hydroxy-carboxylic acid, eventually identified as myrmicacin (= (R)-3-hydroxydecanoic acid). While scent gland secretions in harvestmen have traditionally been considered to be products of de novo synthesis, we here provide evidence for the unusual case of sequestration-derived scent gland constituents: at least myrmicacin appears to be sequestered from leaf-cutter ants that constitute a part of the prey of the Prionostemma-species herein investigated. This is the first report on the scent gland chemistry of the sclerosomatid subfamily Gagrellinae as well as on a possible sequestration mechanism in harvestmen.
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
       
  • Host-plant volatiles enhance the attraction of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis
           (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to sex pheromone

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      Abstract: Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a notorious pest of rice, Oryza sativa L. (Poaceae). Sex pheromones and host-plant volatiles can trap C. medinalis separately. To improve the trap efficiency of synthetic sex pheromone blend, we first tested the synergistic effect of 8 host-plant volatiles, including 2-phenylethanol, 1-hexanol, 1-heptanol, (Z)-3-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenal, octanal, valeraldehyde, and methyl salicylate, on the attraction of C. medinalis to the female-produced sex pheromones in electroantennography. The addition of (E)-2-hexenal, methyl salicylate, valeraldehyde, and (Z)-3-hexenal increased electroantennogram response of C. medinalis to sex pheromones. Further behavioral testing in wind tunnel experiments indicated that additive (E)-2-hexenal or methyl salicylate stimulated the landing behaviors of both male and female C. medinalis compared with sex pheromones alone. Field evaluations showed that mixtures of sex pheromones and (E)-2-hexenal /methyl salicylate resulted in significantly higher catches to male moths than sex pheromones alone. Using 1:1 and 1:10 combinations of the sex pheromones and (E)-2-hexenal, the attraction of C. medinalis to mixtures showed a synergistic effect of 95% and 110%, respectively. Furthermore, 1:1 and 1:10 mixtures of the sex pheromones and methyl salicylate exhibited a synergistic effect of 69% and 146%, respectively. These results may provide the basis for developing efficient pest management strategies against C. medinalis using host-plant volatiles and insect sex pheromones.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
       
  • Benzoxazinoids in roots and shoots of cereal rye (Secale cereale) and
           their fates in soil after cover crop termination

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      Abstract: Abstract Cover crops provide many agroecosystem services, including weed suppression, which is partially exerted through release of allelopathic benzoxazinoid (BX) compounds. This research (1) characterizes changes in concentrations of BX compounds in shoots, roots, and soil at three growth stages (GS) of cereal rye (Secale cereale L.), and (2) their degradation in soil over time following termination. Concentrations of shoot dominant BX compounds, DIBOA-glc and DIBOA were lowest at GS 83 (boot). The root dominant BX compound, HMBOA-glc, concentration was least at GS 54 (elongation). Rhizosphere soil BX concentrations were 1000 times smaller than in root tissues. Dominant compounds in soil were HMBOA-glc and HMBOA. Soil BX compound concentrations were similar near root crowns and between-rows. Soil BX concentrations following cereal rye termination declined exponentially over time in three of four treatments: incorporated shoots (S) and roots (R), no-till S + R (cereal rye rolled flat), and no-till R (shoots removed); no-till S had consistently low concentrations. In treatments showing changes, soil concentrations of HMBOA-glc and HMBOA increased above initial concentrations on the day following cereal rye termination. Concentrations of these two compounds decreased more rapidly than the other compounds. Placement of shoots on the surface of an area where cereal rye had not grown (no-till S) did not increase soil concentrations of BX compounds. The short duration and complex dynamics of BX compounds in soil prior to and following termination illustrate the limited window for enhancing weed suppression directly by cereal rye allelochemicals; valuable information for programs breeding for enhanced weed suppression.
      PubDate: 2022-04-24
       
  • Reproduction and fertility signalling under joint juvenile hormone control
           in primitively eusocial Mischocyttarus wasps

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      Abstract: Abstract Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key insect hormone involved in the regulation of physiological, developmental and behavioural processes. In social insects, it has been shown that JH can play a key role in modulating reproductive division of labour, age-related division of labour and chemical signalling, and can display marked changes in function of the degree of sociality. Here, we checked the effects of JH on reproduction in single foundresses of two neotropical primitively eusocial wasp species, Mischocyttarus cerberus and Mischocyttarus cassununga, by examining how treatments with the JH-analogue methoprene and the anti-JH precocene affect egg-laying, ovarian activation and chemical profiles. Our hypothesis was that reproduction and the production of particular fertility-linked cuticular hydrocarbon cues might be under shared JH control already in primitively eusocial wasp species, and this could have been a key enabler to allow such cues to later evolve into full-fledged queen pheromone signals in advanced eusocial species. In line with this hypothesis, we show that our hormone treatments significantly affected both egg laying and the production of particular hydrocarbons present on the egg surface. We discuss the relevance of these findings in the context of the evolution of social insect queen pheromones in advanced eusocial species with a morphologically differentiated queen–worker caste.
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
       
  • Synergistic attraction of kleptoparasitic flies, Desmometopa spp.
           (Diptera: Milichiidae) to two vespid venom volatiles, trans-conophthorin
           and N-(3-methylbutyl)acetamide

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      Abstract: Abstract Spiroacetals such as E-7-methyl-1,6-dioxaspiro[4,5]decane (trans-conophthorin; tC) and acetamides [predominantly N-(3-methylbutyl)acetamide; N3MBA], are two major groups of volatiles discovered in venoms of many Vespidae. In the course of testing the attractiveness of tC and N3MBA to Vespidae using Rescue® Wasp TrapStiks, a significant number of female milichiids, Desmometopa nearctica Sabrosky and D. sordida (Fallén) (Diptera: Milichiidae) were trapped as well. However, the attraction of vespid wasps was not significant at the dosages tested. We found a significant synergistic effect of tC and N3MBA in attracting Desmometopa flies. Both D. nearctica and D. sordida are kleptoparasitic species; and we conclude that females of these two milichiid flies use tC and N3MBA (and likely other volatiles) released from venom glands of the social vespids (yellowjackets, paper wasps and hornets) as kairomones to locate disturbed, injured, or freshly killed insects (vespids and/or their prey) as a protein-rich food source for egg development and production.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Crinoid anthraquinones as kairomones allowing host selection for the
           symbiotic snapping shrimp Synalpheus stimpsonii

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      Abstract: Abstract Quinones are one of the major pigment groups that provide such bright colors to feather stars (Echinodermata, Crinoidea). These secondary metabolites also act as defensive molecules rendering crinoids unpalatable and repellent to other organisms. However, feather stars are usually associated with numerous symbiotic organisms, amongst which the ectocommensal snapping shrimp Synalpheus stimpsonii. We investigated the chemical stimulus allowing host selection in S. stimpsonii through the combination of behavioral tests, chemical extractions, and mass spectrometry analyses. The individuals of S. stimpsonii used in the experiments were sampled around the Great Reef of Toliara (Madagascar) where they are found in association with two crinoid species: Comanthus wahlbergii and Phanogenia distincta. The chemical attractiveness of the two crinoid hosts and a non-host species, Cenometra bella, was tested in an olfactometer. The three crinoids produced attractive kairomones allowing the snapping shrimp to recognize them. Mass spectrometry analyses on purified extracts of P. distincta revealed the presence of three different anthraquinones (rhodoptilometrin, comantherin, and a new crinoid anthraquinone). Compared to the existing literature, this anthraquinonic cocktail is specific to P. distincta. When these extracts were injected in the olfactometer, they triggered similar attracting behavior suggesting that crinoid anthraquinones are kairomones allowing host selection for S. stimpsonii. This hypothesis is also supported by the fact that shrimps were chemically attracted by pure commercial anthraquinones. In addition to their traditional defensive role (allomones), anthraquinones would, therefore, also function as kairomones, maintaining the symbiosis between S. stimpsonii and its crinoid hosts.
      PubDate: 2022-03-08
       
  • Allelochemicals from Thapsia garganica leaves for Lolium perenne L.
           control: the magic of mixtures

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      Abstract: Abstract Luteolin 7-O-glucoside (1), 10β-acetoxy-8α-butyryloxy-11α-hydroxy-2β-((2-methylbutanoyl)oxy)-1βH,6αH,7αH,11βH-guaian-3-en-12,6-olide (2) and thapsigargin (3) herbicidal activities’ were evaluated in comparison with their binary and tertiary mixtures, against Lolium perenne. These allelochemicals were isolated from Thapsia garganica leaves methanolic extract. Experiments were carried out by irrigation and spray in pot trials. Each compound was tested at the concentration that inhibits 50% of L. perenne root growth (IC50). Mixtures were prepared at the total concentration determined to inhibit 50% of weed root growth based upon the IC50 value for each compound (1000 µM, 154 µM and 300 µM for 1, 2 and 3, respectively). The greatest herbicidal effect was observed in tertiary mixtures, followed by binary ones, and single compounds showed the lowest phytotoxicity. Moreover, spray treatment was more effective at inhibiting growth of L. perenne, compared with irrigation. For sprayed binary mixtures, the 2 and 3 mixture showed the best inhibitions in shoot (75.79%) and root (91.02%) growth, and fresh weight (89.28%). These values significantly improved those of the most active single compound, 1 (48.01%, 58.62% and 57.14%, respectively, following spray). On the other hand, compound 3, whose structure is related to guaianolide sesquiterpene lactones, was a common constituent of the most active mixtures, suggesting that it plays a more relevant role in the improvement of the phytotoxicity of mixtures. Results obtained for the spray treatment of the tertiary mixture of 1 (333.33 µM), 2 (51.33 µM) and 3 (100 µM) were even more prominent, since weed growth was completely inhibited. After irrigation with a tertiary mixture, the greatest inhibitions in shoot and root growth and fresh weight did not exceed 88.16%, 94% and 90.47%, respectively. The results reported highlight a synergistic behavior of the test allelochemicals which could be applied in the development of bio-herbicides.
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-022-00369-5
       
  • Transcriptome response of cold-pretreated Pantoea agglomerans KSC03 to
           exogenous green leaf volatile E-2-hexenal

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      Abstract: Abstract Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) are initially formed in the form of aldehydes, and then converted to alcohol and ester forms by the enzymes from plants. However, it remains unclear whether and how plant microbes work with aldehyde GLVs, especially under stressed conditions. Here, transcriptional response of cold-pretreated Pantoea agglomerans KSC03, an endophyte from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus roots to E-2-hexenal was investigated and verified by real-time PCR and GC–MS after the time length of cold pretreatment was optimized. The results revealed that a 12-h cold stress was the most effective for KSC03 to trigger positive response to E-2-hexenal as far as the cell density was concerned. Transcriptome analysis showed that differentially expressed genes induced by E-2-hexenal were enriched in the following pathways: ABC transporter, phosphotransferase system, nitrotoluene degradation, and metabolisms of hexose and butanoate. Amongst, the upregulated transcription of gene3176 and gene4782 encoding N-ethylmaleimide reductase and diacetyl reductase in E-2-hexenal treatment was confirmed by real-time PCR. So did the enhanced production of 2,3-butanediol triggered by E-2-hexenal. Additionally, the transcription of gene3176 and gene4782 and the production of 2,3-butanediol chronologically reached their peaks in the E-2-hexenal-treated cells at the stationary phase. The results also indicated that exogenous E-2-hexanal passed through the cell membrane at the lag/early logarithmic phase and could not be utilized directly. In summary, E-2-hexenal triggers the positive cell response of cold-pretreated KSC03 at the transcriptional and metabolic levels in a time-length dependent manner.
      PubDate: 2022-01-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-021-00367-z
       
  • Piperidine alkaloids from fire ants are not sequestered by the green and
           black poison frog (Dendrobates auratus)

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      Abstract: Abstract Neotropical poison frogs possess alkaloid-based antipredator defenses which they sequester from a diet of arthropods such as oribatid mites and myrmicine ants. Alkaloid sequestration is still poorly understood and although several studies have examined its uptake, most experiments directly feed alkaloids to the frogs. Here, we examined the alkaloid uptake system in the poison frog species Dendrobates auratus by feeding it an alkaloid-containing prey item, the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Formicidae, Myrmicinae). Captive bred frogs were either fed live ants or fruit flies dusted with powdered ants for 4 months. Using GC–MS, we confirm that S. invicta contain previously described piperidine alkaloids known as solenopsins; however, none of these piperidine alkaloids was detected in the skin of D. auratus, suggesting the frogs are incapable of sequestering solenopsins from S. invicta. It is possible that D. auratus are unable to sequester fire ant piperidines due to their long hydrocarbon side chains, a feature that makes them structurally different than most known alkaloids in poison frogs.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-021-00357-1
       
  • Intraspecific variation of cuticular hydrocarbons in the eusocial wasp
           Polybia sericea (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

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      Abstract: Abstract Chemical communication is fundamental to maintain cohesion in social insect colonies, and in this communication process, cuticular hydrocarbons act as cues exchanged during interactions between nestmates. However, few studies have investigated intraspecific variation of these compounds in Neotropical swarm-founding wasps. We undertook the present investigation by performing two assessments. First, we assessed whether the cuticular chemical composition of females in Polybia sericea varies according to the degree ovarian development, relative age and different body parts. Second, we assessed whether the cuticular chemical profile of colony members and compounds found in nest materials could be used as complementary tools to assess population differences. To make these determinations, samples were collected from three different populations, and the compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Linear alkanes were found to be the most abundant compounds in the cuticle of females and nest material. Considering the cuticular composition, it was possible to distinguish the females according to degree of ovarian development, relative age and different body parts. In addition, cuticular compounds and nest material were different in the three analyzed populations; therefore, both the cuticular chemical profile of colony members and the chemical profile of nest material can be used as complementary tools to assess population differences.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-021-00355-3
       
  • Identification and comparison of allelopathic effects from leaf and flower
           volatiles of the invasive plants Mikania micrantha

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      Abstract: Abstract Volatilization, one of the most important mechanisms of the allelopathic effects of an exotic noxious weed Mikania micrantha, has not been adequately investigated to date. In this study, laboratory bioassays showed that the effects of volatiles from the leaves and flowers of M. micrantha on seed germination and seedling growth were negative for all four tested plants (Lactuca sativa, Chrysanthemum coronarium, Bidens pilosa, Abutilon theophrasti). Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the leaf volatiles was generally greater than that of the flower volatiles. To assess the reason for the above differences and further explore which compounds played the most crucial roles, the volatiles from the two tissues were absorbed by solid phase microextraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Then, 19 and 10 terpenes were determined respectively. α-Terpineol, β-ocimene, β-myrcene, α-pinene and caryophyllene had the maximum differences in content and concentration, which were selected for further bioassays with B. pilosa. The results indicated that morphological indices and SOD activity decreased with increasing concentrations of chemicals, whereas the contents of chlorophyll, soluble protein and MDA represented adverse changes. In addition, significant responses were observed in the treatments with α-terpineol at 1.0 μL·L−1 and lower concentrations, while similar trends were observed in the treatments with β-ocimene, β-myrcene, α-pinene and caryophyllene at 10 μL·L−1 and higher concentrations. It was concluded that terpenoids released through volatilization have an important role in the allelopathic effect of M. micrantha, and the oxygenated monoterpene α-terpineol played a crucial role in these effects.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-021-00356-2
       
  • Floral secondary metabolites in context of biotic and abiotic stress
           factors

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      Abstract: Abstract Floral displays constitute signals conveyed to potential pollinators by pigments and fragrance compounds, which are secondary metabolites biosynthesized through a limited number of major metabolic pathways. In recent years, the role of defensive secondary metabolites, targeted to tolerate/resist herbivory, pathogen-borne diseases and other kinds of stress, has become apparent in the context of floral displays. Apart from pigments and volatile compounds, these defensive compounds include alkaloids, specialized molecules such as glucosinolates (in Brassicaceae), and proanthocyanidin phenolics. All these functionally overlapping groups of metabolites vary in floral concentrations under different kinds of environmental conditions as well as due to endogenous regulatory factors, resulting in metabolic and functional synergies or trade-offs according to the physiological status of the flowers. In this review, we discuss such associations among varying secondary metabolites in flowers, and their implications in context of plant stress-response mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2021-11-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-021-00366-0
       
  • Effect of pheromone blends, trap type and color on the capture of male
           clearwing moths, Synanthedon bicingulata (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)

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      Abstract: Abstract Two components of the Synanthedon bicingulata sex pheromone, (E,Z)-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate (E3,Z13-18:OAc) and (Z,Z)-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate (Z3,Z13-18:OAc), were synthesized to investigate the effect of pheromone blends, trap type and trap color on the capture of S. bicingulata males. The optimal sex pheromone ratio for E3,Z13-18:OAc and Z3,Z13-18:OAc was approximately 4.3:5.7 based on the purity of the two pheromone components in all test areas. A significant difference was observed in the number of S. bicingulata adult males caught in bucket and delta traps. The mean numbers of males caught in bucket and delta traps were 13.2 ± 2.2 and 7.6 ± 2.0, respectively. Trap color affected the number of adult males caught in bucket traps. More adult males were attracted to a yellow bucket trap than to green, white, blue, black and red traps. An analysis of the relationship between trap capture and trap surface-color values (L*a*b*) revealed a positive relationship between trap capture and b* value.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-021-00352-6
       
  • Fate of carotenoids in the closed living system of gall–gall
           wasp–parasitoid

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      Abstract: Abstract Carotenoids play multiple roles in insects, including coloration and protection. Most insects can obtain carotenoids only from their diet. Therefore, carotenoids are proposed to reflect trophic chains and lifestyles of insects. We investigated the mini-ecosystem of a gall on a hawkweed Hieracium × robustum induced by the gall wasp Aulacidea hieracii (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) that is attacked by parasitoid wasp Eurytoma cynipsea (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae). The parasitoid larvae consume the gall wasp larvae that consume the gall tissues. We employed resonance Raman spectroscopy to trace the fate of carotenoids in living larvae and pupae of these insects. We showed that carotenoid composition in the parasitoid closely corresponds to that of its diet—the gall wasp. On the contrary, carotenoid composition in the gall wasp was independent of that in the gall tissues, and the carotenoid concentration increases as non-feeding larvae mature. Thus, A. hieracii is suggested as a candidate among insects to have the ability to synthesize and modify carotenoids. Our findings give rise to the question of the relevance of using carotenoids as markers of trophic flow in the gall community.
      PubDate: 2021-09-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-021-00364-2
       
  • Biogeochemical cycling of nickel and nutrients in a natural high-density
           

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      Abstract: Abstract The extend of biogeochemical cycling of nickel (Ni) by tropical hyperaccumulator plants in their native habitat is largely unknown, although these unusual plants are suspected to play a major role in the recycling of this element in ultramafic ecosystems. In this study, we have assessed the biogeochemical cycling of Ni (and other elements, including mineral nutrients) by a tropical Ni hyperaccumulator plant, i.e., Phyllanthus rufuschaneyi, which is one of the most promising species for tropical Ni agromining. The study site was a young secondary forest in Sabah (Malaysia) where Phyllanthus rufuschaneyi occurs as the dominant species on an ultramafic Cambisol. For 2 years, we monitored a 100-m2 plot and collected information on weather, biomass increase, soil fertility, water fluxes to the soil and litter fluxes for a wide range of elements, including Ni. The Ni cycle is mainly driven by internal fluxes, notably the degradation and recycling of Ni-rich litter. Over the period of investigation, the Ni litter flux corresponded to the total Ni stock of the litter (5.2 g m−2 year−1). The results further show that Ni turnover varies significantly with the accumulation properties of the plant cover. This points to the major influence of Ni hyperaccumulator plants in building up Ni available stocks in the topsoils, as has also been shown in temperate ultramafic systems. Litterfall and throughfall contribute substantially to the cycling of phosphorus, sulphur and potassium in this ecosystem, with throughfall contributing 2-, 220- and 20-fold higher to the respective nutrient fluxes relative to litterfall. The magnesium:calcium ratio far exceeded 1 in the soil, but was < 1 in the leaves of Phyllanthus rufuschaneyi. The insights from this study should be taken into account when designing tropical agromining operations; as Ni stocks could be more labile than initially thought. The removal of Ni- and nutrients-rich biomass will likely affect available Ni (and major nutrients) for the next cropping seasons, and requires sustainable fertilisation, to be utilized to replenish depleted major nutrients. These findings also have major ecological implications.
      PubDate: 2021-09-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-021-00363-3
       
  • Electrophysiological and behavioral activities of sex pheromone and
           structurally related compounds in lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas
           postvittana

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      Abstract: Abstract Species-specific pheromone communication in moths is often achieved by the precise control of the production of a multi-component sex pheromone blend in females and selective perception of pheromone compounds in males. Reproductive isolation mediated by sex pheromone can be enhanced by the sensitive detection of structurally related non-pheromone components that are not used as pheromone in the same species but used as pheromone components in similar species. Here, we identified several unsaturated aliphatic acetates inhibiting the attraction of male moths to conspecific female sex pheromone in the lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), through electroantennogram (EAG) and field trapping studies. In EAG screening with 46 pheromone and structurally related compounds, eleven compounds exhibited significant male-specific EAG responses at 1 µg dose. The EAG-active compounds were mainly mono- or di-unsaturated 14-carbon acetates. In subsequent field trapping tests to evaluate the behavioral activities of the EAG-active compounds on male attraction to the binary blend (E11-14:Ac + E9E11-14:Ac) of female sex pheromone of E. postvittana, each of nine compounds (E9-12:Ac, Z9-12:Ac, E9-14:Ac, Z9-14:Ac, Z10-14:Ac, Z11-14:Ac, Z12-14:Ac, Z9E11-14:Ac and Z9E12-14:Ac) displayed clear inhibition of male moths to the sex pheromone blend in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings provide useful information in understanding the pheromone communication system of E. postvittana and related species.
      PubDate: 2021-09-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-021-00362-4
       
  • Colonial chemical signature of social wasps and their nesting substrates

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      Abstract: Abstract Social wasps build their nests using plant material and can thereby occupy different types of habitats. The organization of their colonies is generally based on complex communication systems that include chemical compounds of the cuticle that are shared with the material of their nests thus contributing to the specific chemical signature of their colony. These compounds can vary by environmental factors, in this case the nesting substrate may interfere with this composition. However, no study to date has investigated whether there is any relationship between the chemical signature of the colony and the nesting substrate of their nests. Therefore, in this study we investigated the relationship between the colonial chemical signature and the plant in which the colonies were nesting. Colonies of three species of social wasps and samples of plants where they nested were collected, then extractions of the chemical composition of adult wasps, nest material and plants were performed. The results show that the colonies of social wasps investigated here share their chemical composition with the plants where their nests were built. Our results suggest that the plant can provide the colony with more than just a place with ideal physical conditions and safety, but also compounds that compose the colonial chemical signature.
      PubDate: 2021-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-021-00361-5
       
  • Soybean leaf age and plant stage influence expression of resistance to
           velvetbean caterpillar and fall armyworm

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      Abstract: Abstract Numerous species of herbivorous insects are associated with soybeans, including the specialist velvetbean caterpillar (VBC), Anticarsia gemmatalis, and the generalist fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda. Expression of plant resistance is influenced by factors intrinsic to host plants, such as leaf age and plant stage, which can differentially affect specialist and generalist insects due to varying levels of plant defense and corresponding insect adaptation. In this study, four experiments were carried out to test the hypotheses that levels of antibiosis-resistance to VBC and FAW in the resistant genotype PI 227,687 and susceptible genotype IGRA RA 626 RR are related to leaf age and plant stage of soybean. Furthermore, the concentrations of nutrients and selected flavonoids were quantified to give insights into possible chemical mechanisms underlying the resistance. As results, development of VBC and FAW were negatively affected when larvae fed leaves of the resistant genotype, older leaves from the lower part of plants, or leaves from reproductive-stage soybeans. The effects were partly different for each insect species, and the generalist FAW was more affected by higher resistance levels in the older leaves of soybean than the specialist VBC. Distribution and concentrations of nutrients and flavonoids in soybean in function of leaf age and plant stage may explain the varying levels of antibiosis-resistance to VBC and FAW. These results can benefit developments of specific protocols for screening resistant soybean genotypes and pest management strategies focused in plant parts and growth stages that insect-resistance levels are lowest.
      PubDate: 2021-08-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-021-00360-6
       
  • Differential responses to aldehyde pheromone blends in two bed bug species
           (Heteroptera: Cimicidae)

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      Abstract: Abstract The behavioral responses of two bed bug species, Cimex lectularius L. and C. hemipterus (F.), to conspecific or heterospecific nymphal aldehyde blends were examined using a two-choice olfactometer. Volatile cues from exuviae or a synthetic blend containing (E)-2-hexenal, 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and 4-oxo-(E)-2-octenal were tested. In both species, the adults settled preferentially on the olfactometer treatment side when conspecific volatile aldehyde cues were provided. When tested with heterospecific volatile aldehyde cues, only adult C. lectularius preferentially responded to C. hemipterus volatile cues. Adult C. hemipterus was indifferent to the aldehyde blend of C. lectularius. Potential implications of the finding on bed bug biology and practical pest management are discussed.
      PubDate: 2021-07-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-021-00359-z
       
  • Identification of male produced compounds in the bark beetle Polygraphus
           subopacus and establishment of (Z)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)-ethanol
           as an aggregation pheromone component

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      Abstract: Abstract Bark beetles of the genus Polygraphus have recently been involved in large bark beetle outbreaks in central Sweden, together with the European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus. Three species of Polygraphus can be found in this region; Polygraphus poligraphus, Polygraphus punctifrons and Polygraphus subopacus. Efficient pheromone traps would facilitate further investigations of these species and their role in bark beetle outbreaks. Pheromone compounds have previously been identified in P. poligraphus and P. punctifrons, but not in P. subopacus. Thus, we allowed males and females of P. subopacus to bore in the bark of stem sections of Norway spruce (Picea abies) in the laboratory. Volatile organic compounds from boring insects were sampled with SPME and analysed with GC–MS and several male-specific compounds were observed. The male specific compounds were 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl-2-butenal, grandisol, fragranol, (Z)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)-ethanol, (E)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)-ethanol, (Z)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)-acetaldehyde, (E)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)-acetaldehyde, geranial and γ-isogeraniol. (Z)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)-ethanol, [(Z)-DMCHE], was identified from GC–MS analysis to be the major male-specific compound while the (E)-isomer, [(E)-DMCHE], was found as a minor compound. These two compounds gave positive responses in EAG analyses with antennae from males and females of P. subopacus. Thus, (Z)- and (E)-DMCHE were used in a field experiment in central Sweden but only (Z)-DMCHE was found to be attractive to males and females of P. subopacus. Consequently, (Z)-DMCHE was established to be a component of P. subopacus aggregation pheromone.
      PubDate: 2021-07-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-021-00358-0
       
 
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