Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 1001 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (59 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (726 journals)
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    - ELECTROCHEMISTRY (28 journals)
    - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (45 journals)
    - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (49 journals)
    - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (71 journals)

CHEMISTRY (726 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
Accounts of Materials Research     Hybrid Journal  
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
ACS Applied Polymer Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ACS Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ACS Macro Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
ACS Materials Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 452)
ACS Photonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Acta Chemica Malaysia     Open Access  
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
Advanced Journal of Chemistry, Section A     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advanced Journal of Chemistry, Section B     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 108)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 50)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aggregate     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alchemy : Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alchemy : Jurnal Penelitian Kimia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alotrop     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Analytical Science Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 235)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 352)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio AA – Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access  
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 483)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Carbohydrate Polymer Technologies and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Carbohydrate Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Cell Reports Physical Science     Open Access  
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 88)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Chemical Physics Letters : X     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Chemical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 266)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Chemical Science International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry     Open Access  
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Chemistry & Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 224)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry Africa : A Journal of the Tunisian Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry Education Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 337)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistrySelect     Hybrid Journal  
Chemistry–Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
ChemNanoMat     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Chemosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemPhotoChem     Hybrid Journal  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chempublish Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemSystemsChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

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Chemoecology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.764
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1423-0445 - ISSN (Online) 0937-7409
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2658 journals]
  • Piperidine alkaloids from fire ants are not sequestered by the green and
           black poison frog (Dendrobates auratus)

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      Abstract: Abstract Neotropical poison frogs possess alkaloid-based antipredator defenses which they sequester from a diet of arthropods such as oribatid mites and myrmicine ants. Alkaloid sequestration is still poorly understood and although several studies have examined its uptake, most experiments directly feed alkaloids to the frogs. Here, we examined the alkaloid uptake system in the poison frog species Dendrobates auratus by feeding it an alkaloid-containing prey item, the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Formicidae, Myrmicinae). Captive bred frogs were either fed live ants or fruit flies dusted with powdered ants for 4 months. Using GC–MS, we confirm that S. invicta contain previously described piperidine alkaloids known as solenopsins; however, none of these piperidine alkaloids was detected in the skin of D. auratus, suggesting the frogs are incapable of sequestering solenopsins from S. invicta. It is possible that D. auratus are unable to sequester fire ant piperidines due to their long hydrocarbon side chains, a feature that makes them structurally different than most known alkaloids in poison frogs.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
       
  • Intraspecific variation of cuticular hydrocarbons in the eusocial wasp
           Polybia sericea (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

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      Abstract: Abstract Chemical communication is fundamental to maintain cohesion in social insect colonies, and in this communication process, cuticular hydrocarbons act as cues exchanged during interactions between nestmates. However, few studies have investigated intraspecific variation of these compounds in Neotropical swarm-founding wasps. We undertook the present investigation by performing two assessments. First, we assessed whether the cuticular chemical composition of females in Polybia sericea varies according to the degree ovarian development, relative age and different body parts. Second, we assessed whether the cuticular chemical profile of colony members and compounds found in nest materials could be used as complementary tools to assess population differences. To make these determinations, samples were collected from three different populations, and the compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Linear alkanes were found to be the most abundant compounds in the cuticle of females and nest material. Considering the cuticular composition, it was possible to distinguish the females according to degree of ovarian development, relative age and different body parts. In addition, cuticular compounds and nest material were different in the three analyzed populations; therefore, both the cuticular chemical profile of colony members and the chemical profile of nest material can be used as complementary tools to assess population differences.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
       
  • Identification and comparison of allelopathic effects from leaf and flower
           volatiles of the invasive plants Mikania micrantha

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      Abstract: Abstract Volatilization, one of the most important mechanisms of the allelopathic effects of an exotic noxious weed Mikania micrantha, has not been adequately investigated to date. In this study, laboratory bioassays showed that the effects of volatiles from the leaves and flowers of M. micrantha on seed germination and seedling growth were negative for all four tested plants (Lactuca sativa, Chrysanthemum coronarium, Bidens pilosa, Abutilon theophrasti). Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the leaf volatiles was generally greater than that of the flower volatiles. To assess the reason for the above differences and further explore which compounds played the most crucial roles, the volatiles from the two tissues were absorbed by solid phase microextraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Then, 19 and 10 terpenes were determined respectively. α-Terpineol, β-ocimene, β-myrcene, α-pinene and caryophyllene had the maximum differences in content and concentration, which were selected for further bioassays with B. pilosa. The results indicated that morphological indices and SOD activity decreased with increasing concentrations of chemicals, whereas the contents of chlorophyll, soluble protein and MDA represented adverse changes. In addition, significant responses were observed in the treatments with α-terpineol at 1.0 μL·L−1 and lower concentrations, while similar trends were observed in the treatments with β-ocimene, β-myrcene, α-pinene and caryophyllene at 10 μL·L−1 and higher concentrations. It was concluded that terpenoids released through volatilization have an important role in the allelopathic effect of M. micrantha, and the oxygenated monoterpene α-terpineol played a crucial role in these effects.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
       
  • Effect of pheromone blends, trap type and color on the capture of male
           clearwing moths, Synanthedon bicingulata (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)

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      Abstract: Abstract Two components of the Synanthedon bicingulata sex pheromone, (E,Z)-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate (E3,Z13-18:OAc) and (Z,Z)-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate (Z3,Z13-18:OAc), were synthesized to investigate the effect of pheromone blends, trap type and trap color on the capture of S. bicingulata males. The optimal sex pheromone ratio for E3,Z13-18:OAc and Z3,Z13-18:OAc was approximately 4.3:5.7 based on the purity of the two pheromone components in all test areas. A significant difference was observed in the number of S. bicingulata adult males caught in bucket and delta traps. The mean numbers of males caught in bucket and delta traps were 13.2 ± 2.2 and 7.6 ± 2.0, respectively. Trap color affected the number of adult males caught in bucket traps. More adult males were attracted to a yellow bucket trap than to green, white, blue, black and red traps. An analysis of the relationship between trap capture and trap surface-color values (L*a*b*) revealed a positive relationship between trap capture and b* value.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-021-00352-6
       
  • Uptake of yttrium, lanthanum and neodymium in Melastoma malabathricum and
           Dicranopteris linearis from Malaysia

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      Abstract: Abstract Plants that naturally accumulate aluminium (Al) may also inadvertently accumulate rare earth elements (REEs) due to the similar chemical properties of Al and REE trivalent ions, and vice versa. In this study, an Al hyperaccumulator plant species, Melastoma malabathricum, and a species known to have a propensity to hyperaccumulate REEs (in addition to Al), Dicranopteris linearis, were evaluated for potential REE accumulation in a one-year pot dosing trial in Sabah, Malaysia. To test whether the Malaysian accessions of D. linearis and M. malabathricum hyperaccumulate REEs (and Al), both species were grown in pots containing soil treated with solutions containing yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La), neodymium (Nd), and a mixture of these three REEs. The results showed that both M. malabathricum and D. linearis accumulated > 1000 µg g−1 Al in their leaves as expected. The shoots of M. malabathricum contained lower REEs than the roots (50 µg g−1 compared to 905 µg g−1). In D. linearis, the mean foliar REE concentrations ranged from 145 to 315 µg g−1, which is below the hyperaccumulation threshold set for REEs (> 1000 µg g−1 REEs). This study revealed that the Malaysian accessions of both M. malabathricum and D. linearis are Al hyperaccumulators, but their REE hyperaccumulation status requires further testing.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-021-00348-2
       
  • Cuticular hydrocarbons on old museum specimens of the spiny mason wasp,
           Odynerus spinipes (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae), shed light on the
           distribution and on regional frequencies of distinct chemotypes

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      Abstract: Abstract The mason wasp Odynerus spinipes shows an exceptional case of intrasexual cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profile dimorphism. Females of this species display one of two CHC profiles (chemotypes) that differ qualitatively and quantitatively from each other. The ratio of the two chemotypes was previously shown to be close to 1:1 at three sites in Southern Germany, which might not be representative given the Palearctic distribution of the species. To infer the frequency of the two chemotypes across the entire distributional range of the species, we analyzed with GC–MS the CHC profile of 1042 dry-mounted specimens stored in private and museum collections. We complemented our sampling by including 324 samples collected and preserved specifically for studying their CHCs. We were capable of reliably identifying the chemotypes in 91% of dry-mounted samples, some of which collected almost 200 years ago. We found both chemotypes to occur in the Far East, the presumed glacial refuge of the species, and their frequency to differ considerably between sites and geographic regions. The geographic structure in the chemotype frequencies could be the result of differential selection regimes and/or different dispersal routes during the colonization of the Western Palearctic. The presented data pave the route for disentangling these factors by providing information where to geographically sample O. spinipes for population genetic analyses. They also form the much-needed basis for future studies aiming to understand the evolutionary and geographic origin as well as the genetics of the astounding CHC profile dimorphism that O. spinipes females exhibit.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-021-00350-8
       
  • Screening for effective odors through which Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley
           (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) locates its host

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      Abstract: Abstract Insect olfactory systems can efficiently distinguish important host signals in a complex background of odor. Notably, Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), a host-specific pest of Litchi chinensis and Euphoria longan, causes periodic outbreaks in southern China. However, little is known about the functions of host volatiles and olfactory mechanisms through which C. sinensis senses host taxa. Consequently, the present study analyzed the Electroantennogram (EAG) responses of C. sinensis antennae to host volatile compounds and their mixtures. The results showed that volatile components were more stimulatory to female than to male C. sinensis antennae. In addition, the highest EAG responses were observed following the stimulation of female antennae by the individual volatile component β-guaiene, followed by β-caryophyllene and β-elemene. However, odorant mixtures containing β-farnesene and α-pinene significantly altered EAG responses in female antennae. This was further confirmed by behavioral responses to host volatile compounds based on the flight orientation of females and males in a wind tunnel. These findings demonstrated that the behavior of C. sinensis can be affected by single compounds or a mixture of compounds. Moreover, real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR suggested that a combination of α-pinene with β-farnesene could alter the expression of olfactory genes. Therefore, screening for odors that can effectively alter the behavior of insects provides a theoretical basis for exploring host recognition and utilizing the olfactory networks of C. sinensis for biocontrol, at the molecular level.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-021-00353-5
       
  • Antioxidant metabolites from riparian fungal endophytes improve the
           tolerance of rice seedlings to flooding

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      Abstract: Abstract Endophytic fungi have the potential to enhance plant resistance to various stresses and promote the ecological adaptation of the hosts. To evaluate the effects of the riparian endophytes on rice seedlings to flooding tolerance, here we screened out two fungi from the plant Myricaria laxiflora growing in the Yangtze River zone. Through morphological characteristics and rDNA ITS (internal transcriber region) sequence, the two strains were, respectively, identified as Aspergillus fumigatus and Chaetomium globosum. Metabolites derived from both fungi were capable of increasing tolerance of rice to flooding. Systematic separation and purification coupled to bioassays revealed that two natural antioxidants, Z-N-4-hydroxystyryl formamide (NFA) and chaetoglobosin A (CheA), were effective for alleviating flooding stress. Both NFA and CheA can reverse the decline trend of oxidative parameters caused by long-term flooding, such as malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, ethanol dehydrogenase, and NADPH oxidase. Gene expression analyses of NADPH oxidase families indicated that OsRbohB could be involved in conferring flooding tolerance mediated by the two natural antioxidants. These findings contribute to understanding the role of the natural antioxidants in riparian endophytic fungi and providing a basis for improvement of flooding tolerance of rice and other crop plants.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-021-00351-7
       
  • Interactions of ants with native and invasive lady beetles and the role of
           chemical cues in intraguild interference

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      Abstract: Abstract The predator-predator naïveté hypothesis suggests that non-native predators benefit from being unknown to native predators, resulting in reduced intraguild interference with native predators. This novelty advantage should depend on the ability of native predators to recognize cues of non-native predators. Here, we compared ant aggression and lady beetle reaction in four native and the invasive lady beetle species Harmonia axyridis. In addition, we tested whether lady beetle cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are involved in species recognition, which might explain naïveté if the invasive species has a specific CHC profile. To this end, we conducted behavioral assays confronting two native ant species with both living lady beetles and lady beetle elytra bearing or lacking CHCs of different lady beetle species. Finally, we characterized CHC profiles of the lady beetles using GC–MS. In general, the aggression of Lasius niger was more frequent than that of Myrmica rubra and L. niger aggression was more frequent towards most native lady beetle species compared to H. axyridis. The removal of CHCs from lady beetle elytra reduced aggression of both ant species. If CHCs of respective lady beetle species were added on cue-free elytra, natural strength of L. niger aggression could be restored. CHC analyses revealed a distinct cue composition for each lady beetle species. Our experiments demonstrate that the presence of chemical cues on the surface of lady beetles contribute to the strength of ant aggression against lady beetles. Reduced aggression of L. niger towards H. axyridis and reduced avoidance behavior in H. axyridis compared to the equally voracious C. septempunctata might improve the invasive lady beetle’s access to ant-tended aphids.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-021-00354-4
       
  • Synergistic attraction of kleptoparasitic flies, Desmometopa spp.
           (Diptera: Milichiidae) to two vespid venom volatiles, trans-conophthorin
           and N-(3-methylbutyl)acetamide

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      Abstract: Abstract Spiroacetals such as E-7-methyl-1,6-dioxaspiro[4,5]decane (trans-conophthorin; tC) and acetamides [predominantly N-(3-methylbutyl)acetamide; N3MBA], are two major groups of volatiles discovered in venoms of many Vespidae. In the course of testing the attractiveness of tC and N3MBA to Vespidae using Rescue® Wasp TrapStiks, a significant number of female milichiids, Desmometopa nearctica Sabrosky and D. sordida (Fallén) (Diptera: Milichiidae) were trapped as well. However, the attraction of vespid wasps was not significant at the dosages tested. We found a significant synergistic effect of tC and N3MBA in attracting Desmometopa flies. Both D. nearctica and D. sordida are kleptoparasitic species; and we conclude that females of these two milichiid flies use tC and N3MBA (and likely other volatiles) released from venom glands of the social vespids (yellowjackets, paper wasps and hornets) as kairomones to locate disturbed, injured, or freshly killed insects (vespids and/or their prey) as a protein-rich food source for egg development and production.
      PubDate: 2021-09-30
       
  • Fate of carotenoids in the closed living system of gall–gall
           wasp–parasitoid

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      Abstract: Abstract Carotenoids play multiple roles in insects, including coloration and protection. Most insects can obtain carotenoids only from their diet. Therefore, carotenoids are proposed to reflect trophic chains and lifestyles of insects. We investigated the mini-ecosystem of a gall on a hawkweed Hieracium × robustum induced by the gall wasp Aulacidea hieracii (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) that is attacked by parasitoid wasp Eurytoma cynipsea (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae). The parasitoid larvae consume the gall wasp larvae that consume the gall tissues. We employed resonance Raman spectroscopy to trace the fate of carotenoids in living larvae and pupae of these insects. We showed that carotenoid composition in the parasitoid closely corresponds to that of its diet—the gall wasp. On the contrary, carotenoid composition in the gall wasp was independent of that in the gall tissues, and the carotenoid concentration increases as non-feeding larvae mature. Thus, A. hieracii is suggested as a candidate among insects to have the ability to synthesize and modify carotenoids. Our findings give rise to the question of the relevance of using carotenoids as markers of trophic flow in the gall community.
      PubDate: 2021-09-21
       
  • Biogeochemical cycling of nickel and nutrients in a natural high-density
           

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      Abstract: Abstract The extend of biogeochemical cycling of nickel (Ni) by tropical hyperaccumulator plants in their native habitat is largely unknown, although these unusual plants are suspected to play a major role in the recycling of this element in ultramafic ecosystems. In this study, we have assessed the biogeochemical cycling of Ni (and other elements, including mineral nutrients) by a tropical Ni hyperaccumulator plant, i.e., Phyllanthus rufuschaneyi, which is one of the most promising species for tropical Ni agromining. The study site was a young secondary forest in Sabah (Malaysia) where Phyllanthus rufuschaneyi occurs as the dominant species on an ultramafic Cambisol. For 2 years, we monitored a 100-m2 plot and collected information on weather, biomass increase, soil fertility, water fluxes to the soil and litter fluxes for a wide range of elements, including Ni. The Ni cycle is mainly driven by internal fluxes, notably the degradation and recycling of Ni-rich litter. Over the period of investigation, the Ni litter flux corresponded to the total Ni stock of the litter (5.2 g m−2 year−1). The results further show that Ni turnover varies significantly with the accumulation properties of the plant cover. This points to the major influence of Ni hyperaccumulator plants in building up Ni available stocks in the topsoils, as has also been shown in temperate ultramafic systems. Litterfall and throughfall contribute substantially to the cycling of phosphorus, sulphur and potassium in this ecosystem, with throughfall contributing 2-, 220- and 20-fold higher to the respective nutrient fluxes relative to litterfall. The magnesium:calcium ratio far exceeded 1 in the soil, but was < 1 in the leaves of Phyllanthus rufuschaneyi. The insights from this study should be taken into account when designing tropical agromining operations; as Ni stocks could be more labile than initially thought. The removal of Ni- and nutrients-rich biomass will likely affect available Ni (and major nutrients) for the next cropping seasons, and requires sustainable fertilisation, to be utilized to replenish depleted major nutrients. These findings also have major ecological implications.
      PubDate: 2021-09-21
       
  • Electrophysiological and behavioral activities of sex pheromone and
           structurally related compounds in lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas
           postvittana

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      Abstract: Abstract Species-specific pheromone communication in moths is often achieved by the precise control of the production of a multi-component sex pheromone blend in females and selective perception of pheromone compounds in males. Reproductive isolation mediated by sex pheromone can be enhanced by the sensitive detection of structurally related non-pheromone components that are not used as pheromone in the same species but used as pheromone components in similar species. Here, we identified several unsaturated aliphatic acetates inhibiting the attraction of male moths to conspecific female sex pheromone in the lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), through electroantennogram (EAG) and field trapping studies. In EAG screening with 46 pheromone and structurally related compounds, eleven compounds exhibited significant male-specific EAG responses at 1 µg dose. The EAG-active compounds were mainly mono- or di-unsaturated 14-carbon acetates. In subsequent field trapping tests to evaluate the behavioral activities of the EAG-active compounds on male attraction to the binary blend (E11-14:Ac + E9E11-14:Ac) of female sex pheromone of E. postvittana, each of nine compounds (E9-12:Ac, Z9-12:Ac, E9-14:Ac, Z9-14:Ac, Z10-14:Ac, Z11-14:Ac, Z12-14:Ac, Z9E11-14:Ac and Z9E12-14:Ac) displayed clear inhibition of male moths to the sex pheromone blend in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings provide useful information in understanding the pheromone communication system of E. postvittana and related species.
      PubDate: 2021-09-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-021-00362-4
       
  • Colonial chemical signature of social wasps and their nesting substrates

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      Abstract: Abstract Social wasps build their nests using plant material and can thereby occupy different types of habitats. The organization of their colonies is generally based on complex communication systems that include chemical compounds of the cuticle that are shared with the material of their nests thus contributing to the specific chemical signature of their colony. These compounds can vary by environmental factors, in this case the nesting substrate may interfere with this composition. However, no study to date has investigated whether there is any relationship between the chemical signature of the colony and the nesting substrate of their nests. Therefore, in this study we investigated the relationship between the colonial chemical signature and the plant in which the colonies were nesting. Colonies of three species of social wasps and samples of plants where they nested were collected, then extractions of the chemical composition of adult wasps, nest material and plants were performed. The results show that the colonies of social wasps investigated here share their chemical composition with the plants where their nests were built. Our results suggest that the plant can provide the colony with more than just a place with ideal physical conditions and safety, but also compounds that compose the colonial chemical signature.
      PubDate: 2021-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-021-00361-5
       
  • Soybean leaf age and plant stage influence expression of resistance to
           velvetbean caterpillar and fall armyworm

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      Abstract: Abstract Numerous species of herbivorous insects are associated with soybeans, including the specialist velvetbean caterpillar (VBC), Anticarsia gemmatalis, and the generalist fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda. Expression of plant resistance is influenced by factors intrinsic to host plants, such as leaf age and plant stage, which can differentially affect specialist and generalist insects due to varying levels of plant defense and corresponding insect adaptation. In this study, four experiments were carried out to test the hypotheses that levels of antibiosis-resistance to VBC and FAW in the resistant genotype PI 227,687 and susceptible genotype IGRA RA 626 RR are related to leaf age and plant stage of soybean. Furthermore, the concentrations of nutrients and selected flavonoids were quantified to give insights into possible chemical mechanisms underlying the resistance. As results, development of VBC and FAW were negatively affected when larvae fed leaves of the resistant genotype, older leaves from the lower part of plants, or leaves from reproductive-stage soybeans. The effects were partly different for each insect species, and the generalist FAW was more affected by higher resistance levels in the older leaves of soybean than the specialist VBC. Distribution and concentrations of nutrients and flavonoids in soybean in function of leaf age and plant stage may explain the varying levels of antibiosis-resistance to VBC and FAW. These results can benefit developments of specific protocols for screening resistant soybean genotypes and pest management strategies focused in plant parts and growth stages that insect-resistance levels are lowest.
      PubDate: 2021-08-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-021-00360-6
       
  • How two sesquiterpenes drive horse manure rolling behavior in wild giant
           pandas

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      Abstract: Abstract In this work, we discussed and counter-commented Paul J. Weldon's comments on our recent paper (Zhou et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 117:32493, 2020a), where we reported that BCP/BCPO (beta-caryophyllene/caryophyllene oxide) in fresh horse manure is sufficient to drive manure rolling behavior (HMR) in giant panda and attenuate the cold sensitivity of mice by directly targeting and inhibiting transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8), an archetypical cold-activated ion channel of mammals. The main question we arise in this response is: “which is the reasonable target of BCP/BCPO' Parasites or TRPM8'” Based on the knowledge of TRPM8-mediated cooling sensation, interaction between BCP/BCPO and TRPM8, BCP/BCPO concentration in horse manure samples, correlation between HMR frequency and habitat temperature, insecticidal activity of BCP/BCPO and thermal ecology of parasites, we prefer a simple idea that BCP/BCPO-induced TRPM8 antagonism bestows the wild giant pandas with cold tolerance at low-ambient temperatures. Compared with the speculation of insecticidal activity induced by HMR behavior, our study provided a comprehensive mechanism to confirm a physiological target of BCP/BCPO during the highly cold-correlated behavior.
      PubDate: 2021-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-021-00344-6
       
  • 3D-printed insect models offer a feasible method for mating studies of
           chrysomelid beetles

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      Abstract: Abstract A variety of models have been used in mating bioassays of insects to assess the contribution of chemical and visual signals to mate location and mate selection. Although the use of such ‘dummies’ has had varying degrees of success, some insect species refuse to accept simplistic models. In the present study, we developed a 3D-printed model to explore whether more realistic models will be more successful than simplistic models in mating assays of difficult to manipulate species such as the flea beetle Altica fragariae. We ran five experiments to test (1) whether males could discriminate between males and females solely based on differences in cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), (2) whether males use shape or (3) color to choose mates, and (4) whether males can discriminate between 3D-printed models and freshly killed beetles either with or (5) without legs and antennae. The results of these experiments confirmed that male A. fragariae preferred models coated with CHCs of females over that of male CHCs, providing strong support for the role of CHCs in mate choice in Altica. We also showed that males use both shape and color in mate selection, and that males are capable of discriminating between the models and real beetle specimens. Together, the results indicate that 3D-printed models can provide a feasible and cost-effective method for mating studies of insects.
      PubDate: 2021-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-021-00345-5
       
  • Differential responses to aldehyde pheromone blends in two bed bug species
           (Heteroptera: Cimicidae)

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      Abstract: Abstract The behavioral responses of two bed bug species, Cimex lectularius L. and C. hemipterus (F.), to conspecific or heterospecific nymphal aldehyde blends were examined using a two-choice olfactometer. Volatile cues from exuviae or a synthetic blend containing (E)-2-hexenal, 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and 4-oxo-(E)-2-octenal were tested. In both species, the adults settled preferentially on the olfactometer treatment side when conspecific volatile aldehyde cues were provided. When tested with heterospecific volatile aldehyde cues, only adult C. lectularius preferentially responded to C. hemipterus volatile cues. Adult C. hemipterus was indifferent to the aldehyde blend of C. lectularius. Potential implications of the finding on bed bug biology and practical pest management are discussed.
      PubDate: 2021-07-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-021-00359-z
       
  • Identification of male produced compounds in the bark beetle Polygraphus
           subopacus and establishment of (Z)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)-ethanol
           as an aggregation pheromone component

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      Abstract: Abstract Bark beetles of the genus Polygraphus have recently been involved in large bark beetle outbreaks in central Sweden, together with the European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus. Three species of Polygraphus can be found in this region; Polygraphus poligraphus, Polygraphus punctifrons and Polygraphus subopacus. Efficient pheromone traps would facilitate further investigations of these species and their role in bark beetle outbreaks. Pheromone compounds have previously been identified in P. poligraphus and P. punctifrons, but not in P. subopacus. Thus, we allowed males and females of P. subopacus to bore in the bark of stem sections of Norway spruce (Picea abies) in the laboratory. Volatile organic compounds from boring insects were sampled with SPME and analysed with GC–MS and several male-specific compounds were observed. The male specific compounds were 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl-2-butenal, grandisol, fragranol, (Z)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)-ethanol, (E)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)-ethanol, (Z)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)-acetaldehyde, (E)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)-acetaldehyde, geranial and γ-isogeraniol. (Z)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)-ethanol, [(Z)-DMCHE], was identified from GC–MS analysis to be the major male-specific compound while the (E)-isomer, [(E)-DMCHE], was found as a minor compound. These two compounds gave positive responses in EAG analyses with antennae from males and females of P. subopacus. Thus, (Z)- and (E)-DMCHE were used in a field experiment in central Sweden but only (Z)-DMCHE was found to be attractive to males and females of P. subopacus. Consequently, (Z)-DMCHE was established to be a component of P. subopacus aggregation pheromone.
      PubDate: 2021-07-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-021-00358-0
       
  • Why do giant pandas ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca ; Carnivora: Ursidae) rub and
           roll in heterospecific scents'

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      Abstract: Abstract Free-ranging giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in China recently were reported to rub and roll in horse manure, a behavior that was observed frequently at low ambient temperatures. Two sesquiterpenes, β-caryophyllene (BCP) and caryophyllene oxide (BCPO), that are abundant in fresh horse manure elicited rolling in captive giant pandas. Mice and rats treated with BCP/BCPO exhibited enhanced cold tolerance in behavioral assays, and BCP/BCPO inhibited cold-activated ion channels of mammals expressed in human kidney cells; these laboratory results were cited in support of the contention that giant pandas tolerate low ambient temperatures by applying horse manure to their integument. The demonstrated biocidal activities of BCP and BCPO against insects and ticks, and the reported elicitation of anointing in giant pandas with materials other than horse manure, including substances or constituents thereof known to act as arthropod biocides, are consistent with an anti-consumer function of anointing by giant pandas. Anointing with the scents of heterospecifics as a defense against nuisance arthropods constitutes a viable hypothesis for the rubbing and rolling behaviors of giant pandas and other ursids.
      PubDate: 2021-04-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-021-00346-4
       
 
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