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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 841 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (50 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (593 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (593 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 234)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 214)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 293)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 124)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 98)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 13)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 71)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 176)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 260)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contamination     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
Elements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Science & Technology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Environmental Science : Nano     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Chemistry & Biodiversity
  [SJR: 0.542]   [H-I: 49]   [6 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1612-1872 - ISSN (Online) 1612-1880
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1577 journals]
  • Chemical components, biological activities, and toxicological evaluation
           of the fruit (aril) of two precious plant species from genus Taxus
    • Authors: Na Li; Zheng Pan, Dan Zhang, Huaxing Wang, Bao Yu, Shengping Zhao, Jiajia Guo, Jianwei Wang, Ling Yao, Weiguo Cao
      Abstract: The fruit (aril) of the endangered genus Taxus plants is an abandoned herbal resource. Traditionally, people enthusiasticly focus on its bark, its renewable, tremendous arils fall into the soil with seeds after they are mature. The present research investigated the fruit of two species from the genus Taxus, Taxus chinensis var. mairei and Taxus media, with regards to their antioxidant and antihyperglycaemic activities, safety, and bioactive constituents. Results showed that T. chinensis var. mairei and T. media both had certain biological activities with T. chinensis var. mairei better in antioxidant activity and T. media better in antihyperglycaemic activity. Correlation analysis revealed that the differences in bioactivities depended on content of their mainly chemical components. The mice acute oral toxicity test indicated that the methanol extracts of the two biotypes of Taxus were safe. And nineteen compounds were tentatively assigned from the two varieties, via tandem mass spectrometry using a LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS instrument, which included phenols, flavonoids and terpenes. These results indicate a possible application of Taxus fruit extracts in various fields like in food industry, however this still needs further investigations.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18T03:35:55.704988-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700305
       
  • Synthesis and biological evaluation of new natural phenolic 2E, 4E, 6E
           octatrienoic esters
    • Authors: Raffaella Gandolfi; Alessandro Contini, Daniela Pinto, Barbara Marzani, Stefano Pandini, Donatella Nava, Elena Pini
      Abstract: In the present study the esterification of the hydroxyl groups of resveratrol, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and ß-sitosterol with an antioxidant polyconjugated fatty acid, 2E,4E,6E-octatrienoic acid, was achieved. As the selective esterification of hydroxyl groups of natural compounds can affect their biological activity, a selective esterification of resveratrol and caffeic acid was performed by an enzymatic approach. The new resulting compounds were characterized spectroscopically (FT-IR, NMR mono and bidimensional techniques); when necessary the experimental data were integrated by quantum chemical calculations. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and proliferative activity was evaluated. The good results encourage the use of these molecules as antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory agents. in dermocosmetic application.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13T10:30:42.031272-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700294
       
  • Synergistic Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effect of Artichoke, Fig,
           Mulberry Herbal Mixture on HepG2 Cells and their Metabolic Profiling Using
           NMR Coupled with Chemometrics
    • Authors: Fadia S. Youssef; Rola M. Labib, Omayma A. Eldahshan, Abdel Nasser B. singab
      Abstract: The edible plants have long been reported to possess a lot of biological activities. Herein, the hepatoprotective and the antioxidant activity of the aqueous infusion of the edible parts of Cynara cardunculus, Ficus carica and Morus nigra and their herbal mixture (CFM) was investigated in vitro using CCl4 induced damage in HepG2 cells. The highest amelioration was observed via the consumption of CFM at 1 mg/ml showing 47.00, 37.09% decline in AST (Aspartate Transaminase) and ALT (Alanine Transaminase) and 77.32 and 101.02% increase in GSH (Reduced Glutathione) and SOD (Superoxide dismutase) comparable to CCl4 treated cells. Metabolic profiling of their aqueous infusions was done using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic experiments coupled with chemometrics particularly HCA (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) and PCA (Principal Component Analysis). The structural closeness of the various metabolites existing in black berry and the mixture as reflected in the PCA score plot and HCA processed from the 1H NMR spectral data could eventually explained the close values in their biological behavior. For fig and artichoke the existence of different phenolic metabolites that act synergistically could greatly interpret their potent biological behavior. Thus, it can be concluded that a herbal mixture composed of black berry, artichoke and fig could afford an excellent natural candidate to combat oxidative stress and counteract hepatic toxins owing to its phenolic compounds.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12T11:00:31.567504-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700206
       
  • Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. Chemotypes in Eastern Iberian Peninsula. Essential
           Oil Variation and Relation with Ecological Factors
    • Authors: J. A. Llorens-Molina; C. Rivero, S. Vacas, H. Boira
      Abstract: The genus Mentha (Labiatae) is a paleotemplate taxon including aromatic perennial herbs long cultived as flavouring, mint sauce and jelly, spearmint oil, antiparasitic and insecticide [1], [2], etc. Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. (“apple or woolly menthe”, “mentastro” in vernacular name), is one of the five basic Eurosiberian and Mediterranean mentha species, common in grasslands on periodically flooded soils (Cl. Phragmitetea Tx. Et Presing, 1942), or moist soils with high phreatic level (Cl. Molinio Arrhenatheretea Tx., 1957). It is included, as a characteristic, in the association Mentho suaveolentis-Juncetum inflexi, [3].This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08T12:05:24.34811-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700320
       
  • New Cytotoxic Triterpenoid Saponins from the Roots of Albizia gummifera
           C.A. Smith
    • Authors: Line Made Simo; Olivier Placide Noté, Joséphine Ngo Mbing, Sarah Ali Aouazou, Dominique Guillaume, Christian Dominique Muller, Dieudonné Emmanuel Pegnyemb, Annelise Lobstein
      Abstract: As part of our search of new bioactive saponins from Cameroonian medicinal plants, two new oleanane-type saponins, named gummiferaosides D–E (1–2), along with one known saponin, julibroside J8 (3), were isolated from the roots of Albizia gummifera. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR (1H-, 13C-NMR, DEPT, COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY and HMBC) and HRESIMS studies, and by chemical evidence. The apoptotic effect of saponins 1–3 was evaluated on the A431 human epidermoid cancer cell. Flow cytometric analyses showed that saponins 1–3 induced apoptosis of human epidermoid cancer cell (A431) in a dose-dependent manner.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-09-06T11:01:22.988249-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700260
       
  • Comparision of chemical profile and antioxidant capacity of seeds and oils
           from Salvia sclarea and Salvia officinalis
    • Authors: Jelena Živković; Mihailo Ristić, Josephine Kschonsek, Anna Westphal, Milica Mihailović, Vladimir Filipović, Volker Böhm
      Abstract: Composition of tocopherols, tocotrienols, carotenoids, fatty acids as well as hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activities were determined in seeds of two Salvia species and oils obtained from them. Both seeds contained a large amount of oil (around 20%) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. While S. officinalis seed oil can be classified as oleic-linoleic oil, the predominant fatty acid in S. sclarea was α-linolenic acid (around 54%). Among tocols, the main isomers in both seeds and oils were γ-tocopherol, followed by α-tocopherol. Concerning carotenoids, their concentration was around 0.75 mg/100 g of seeds and 0.16 mg/100 g of oils, with a predominance of lutein. Oil and seeds of S. officinalis exhibited higher antioxidant potential compared to S. sclarea investigated samples which could be attributed to higher content of total vitamin E and carotenoids. This study provides results that enables use of two Salvia species as new alternative sources of vegetable oils.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-09-02T10:41:15.969591-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700344
       
  • Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel
           1-(4-(Hydroxy(1-oxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-inden-2-ylidene)methyl)phenyl)-3-phenylurea
           Derivatives
    • Authors: Hayreddin Gezegen; Ceylan Hepokur, Uğur Tutar, Mustafa Ceylan
      Abstract: A series of novel phenylurea containing 2-benzoylindan-1-one derivatives 3a-j were synthesized from the reaction of phenylurea-substituted acetophenones 1a-j with phthalaldehyde 2 under mild reaction conditions in good yields. All synthesized compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods. The obtained compounds (3a-j) were evaluated for anticancer activity against HeLa and C6 cell lines. Antiproliferative activity was determined by the BrdU proliferation ELISA assay, 3f and 3g were found to be most active compounds. The compounds were also screened for antimicrobial activity and all compounds showed remarkable activity against used microorganisms.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-09-02T10:35:45.640198-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700223
       
  • Efficacy of the volatile oil from water celery (Helosciadium nodiflorum,
           Apiaceae) against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus, the
           housefly Musca domestica, and the African cotton leafworm Spodoptera
           littoralis
    • Authors: Giovanni Benelli; Roman Pavela, Massimo Ricciutelli, Giulio Lupidi, Filippo Maggi
      Abstract: Water celery (Helosciadium nodiflorum, Apiaceae), is a common and invasive hydrophyte occurring in rivers and slow waters of Europe. In the past, it was consumed as a vegetable and spices, but currently it has mostly been abandoned. As a result, this plant produces an unexploited biomass occluding rivers and slow waters. With the aim to valorise water celery as an important biomass source for the development of botanical insecticides, in this work we investigated the inhibitory effects of the essential oil hydro-distilled from its aerial parts against larvae of the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus, adults of the housefly Musca domestica, and larvae of the African cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis. The essential oil, that was characterized by the insecticidal limonene (39.8%) and myristicin (35.3%), exerted important toxic effects on 3rd instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and S. littoralis and on adults of M. domestica, with LD50 of 50.4 μl L−1, 116.7 μg larvae−1, and 45.1 (male) and 70.1 (female) μg larvae−1, respectively. The oil did not show any noticeable inhibitory activity on the acetylcholinesterase enzyme. Our findings add scientific evidences highlighting water celery as an important biomass source to be used for the control of insect pests and vectors of high economic importance.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01T10:42:07.155951-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700376
       
  • On the Dynamical Behavior of the Cysteine Dioxygenase-L-Cysteine Complex
           in the Presence of Free Dioxygen and L-Cysteine
    • Authors: Francesco Pietra
      Abstract: In this work viable models of cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and its complex with L-cysteine dianion were built for the first time, under strict adherence to the crystal structure from X-ray diffraction studies, for all atom molecular dynamics (MD). Based on the CHARMM36 FF, the active site, featuring an octahedral dummy Fe(II) model, allowed us observing water exchange, which would have escaped attention with the more popular bonded models. Free dioxygen (O2) and L-cysteine, added at the active site,could be observed being expelled toward the solvating medium under Random Accelerated Molecular Dynamics (RAMD) along major and minor pathways. Correspondingly, free dioxygen (O2), added to the solvating medium, could be observed to follow the same above pathways in getting to the active site under unbiased MD. For the bulky L-cysteine, 600 ns of trajectory were insufficient for protein penetration, and the molecule was stuck at the protein borders. These models pave the way to free energy studies of ligand associations, devised to better clarify how this cardinal enzyme behaves in human metabolism.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T09:15:32.328598-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700290
       
  • Chemical composition, enantiomeric analysis, AEDA sensorial evaluation and
           antifungal activity of the essential oil from the Ecuadorian plant
           Lepechinia mutica Benth (Lamiaceae)
    • Authors: Jorge Ramírez; Gianluca Gilardoni, Miriam Jácome, José Montesinos, Marinella Rodolfi, Maria Lidia Guglielminetti, Cecila Cagliero, Carlo Bicchi, Giovanni Vidari
      Abstract: This study describes the GC-FID, GC-MS, GC-O, and enantioselective GC analysis of the essential oil hydrodistilled from leaves of Lepechinica mutica (Lamiaceae), collected in Ecuador. GC-FID and GC-MS analyses allowed the characterization and quantification of 79 components, representing 97.3% of the total sample. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (38.50%) and monoterpene hydrocarbons (30.59%) were found to be the most abundant volatiles, while oxygenated sesquiterpenes (16.20%) and oxygenated monoterpenes (2.10%) were the minor components. In order to better characterize the oil aroma, the most important odorants, from the sensorial point of view, were identified by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA) GC-O. They were α-pinene, β-phellandrene, and dauca-5,8-diene, exhibiting the characteristic woody, herbaceus and earthy odors, respectively. Enantioselective GC analysis of L. mutica essential oil revealed the presence of twelve couples and two enantiomerically pure chiral monoterpenoids. Their enantiomeric excesses were from a few percent units to 100%. Moreover, the essential oil exhibited moderate in vitro activity against five fungal strains, being especially effective against M. canis, which is a severe zoophilic dermatophyte causal agent of pet and human infections.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T09:10:21.942099-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700292
       
  • Synthesis of 8-Substituted 2′-Deoxyisoguanosines, via Unprotected
           8-Brominated 2-Amino-2′-deoxyadenosine
    • Authors: Wen Zhang; Qian Gao, Shuxian Wei, Bicheng Fu, Qian Yang, Xin Ming
      Abstract: A variety of applications of 8-alkynylated nucleosides has prompted the synthesis of new purine analogues. Bromination of unprotected 2-amino-2′-deoxyadenosine with Br2/AcOH/NaOAc gives 8-bromo-2-amino-2′-deoxyadenosine (87%). Brominated derivative is converted to 8-alkynylated 2-amino-2′-deoxyadenosines by palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction via microwave assistance (81-95%). The resulting compounds are further transformed to 8-alkynylated 2′-deoxyisoguanosines (52-70%). The physical properties of new compounds are investigated.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-29T19:20:30.47873-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700335
       
  • Sorbus aucuparia and Sorbus aria as a source of antioxidant phenolics,
           tocopherols and pigments
    • Authors: Katarina P. Šavikin; Gordana M. Zdunić, Dijana B. Krstić-Milošević, Helena J. Šircelj, Danijela D. Stešević, Dejan S. Pljevljakušić
      Abstract: Due to its nutritive and medicinal properties, berries of some Sorbus species are used for the preparation of jams and jelly as well as in traditional medicine. On the other hand, their chemical composition is not much studied especially of those grown in Balkan Peninsula. We have analyzed individual phenolics, tocopherols, carotenoids and chlorophylls using HPLC in berries from Sorbus aucuparia and S. aria collected in different localities in Serbia and Montenegro together with the amounts of total phenolics and proanthocyanidins as well as their radical scavenging activity against DPPH radical. Berries of S. aucuparia were richer source of polyphenolics in comparision with S. aria and, regardless the species and locality, caffeoylquinic acids such as neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acid were the most abundant compounds. Among analyzed tocopherols the most abundant in all samples was α-tocopherol (0.48 – 19.85 μg/g dw) as it was β-carotene among carotenoids (mean concentration of 0.98 μg/g dw in S. aucuparia and 0.40 μg/g dw in S. aria, respectively). Correlation between total phenolics and DPPH radical scavenging activity was noticed. Our study represents comprehensive report on chemical composition of S. aucuparia and S. aria which could contribute to a better understanding of their quality.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-28T04:05:33.126127-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700329
       
  • Fraxitoxin, a New Isochromanone Isolated from Diplodia fraxini
    • Authors: Alessio Cimmino; Lucia Maddau, Marco Masi, Benedetto T. Linaldeddu, Gennaro Pescitelli, Antonio Evidente
      Abstract: A new isochromanone, named fraxitoxin, was isolated together with (-)-mellein and tyrosol from liquid cultures of Diplodia fraxini a pathogen involved in the etiology of canker and dieback disease of Fraxinus spp. in Europe. It was characterized as 5-methoxy-3-methyl-isochroman-1-one using spectroscopic methods (essentially NMR and HREIMS). Its absolute configuration (R) at C-3 was assigned by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) measurements and calculations. Phytotoxic activity of the compound was evaluated on ash, cork and holm oak leaves at concentration of 1 mg/mL by the leaf-puncture assay. Interestingly, fraxitoxin caused necrotic lesions only on ash leaves.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-23T08:50:30.085401-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700325
       
  • Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Docking Studies of Novel
           4-Arylpyridin-1(4H)-yl) benzoic acid Derivatives as Anti-HIV-1 Agents
    • Authors: Saghi Sepehri; Sepehr Soleymani, Rezvan Zabihollahi, Mohammad R. Aghasadeghi, Mehdi Sadat, Lotfollah Saghaie, Afshin Fassihi
      Abstract: The structural similarities between N1 substituted 1,4-dihydropyridines and the known gp41 inhibitors, NB-2 and NB-64, were considered in the current research for the design of some novel anti-HIV-1 agents. A series of novel 4-arylpyridin-1(4H)-yl) benzoic acid derivatives were synthesized and after a comprehensive structural elucidation were screened for in vitro anti-HIV-1 activity. Most of the tested compounds displayed moderate to good inhibitory activity against HIV-1 growth and were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic activity using XTT assay at the concentration of 100 μM. Among the tested compounds, 1c, 1d and 1e showed potent anti-HIV-1 activity against P24 expression at 100 μM with inhibition percentage of 84.00, 76.42 and 80.50%, respectively. All the studied compounds possessed no significant cytotoxicity on MT-2 cell line. The binding modes of these compounds to gp41 binding site were determined through molecular docking study. Docking studies proved 1a as the most potent compound and binding maps exhibited that the activities might be attributed to the electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions and additional H-bonds with the gp41 binding site. The Lipinski's ‘‘rule of five’’ and drug-likeness criteria were also calculated for the studied compounds. All derivatives obeyed the Lipinski's ‘‘rule of five’’ and had drug-like features. The findings of this study suggest that novel 4-arylpyridin-1(4H)-yl) benzoic acid might be a promising scaffold for the discovery and development of novel anti-HIV-1 agents.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T03:50:19.768004-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700295
       
  • Cover Picture
    • PubDate: 2017-08-20T23:35:18.895288-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201770091
       
  • The Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Responsible For The Production of
           Z-Norendoxifen In Vitro
    • Authors: Dabei Tang; Zhong Chu, Jessica Bo Li Lu, Jinzhong Liu, Qingyuan Zhang
      Abstract: BackgroundNorendoxifen, an active metabolite of tamoxifen, is a potent aromatase inhibitor. Little information is available regarding production of norendoxifen in vitro. Here, we conducted a series of kinetic and inhibition studies in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and expressed P450s to study the metabolic disposition of norendoxifen.MethodsTo validate that norendoxifen was the metabolite of endoxifen, metabolites in HLMs incubates of endoxifen were measured using a HPLC/MS/MS method. To further probe the specific isoforms involved in the metabolic route, endoxifen was incubated with recombinant P450s (CYP 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 3A4, 3A5 and CYP4A11). Formation rates of norendoxifen were evaluated in the absence and presence of P450 isoform specific inhibitors using HLMs.ResultsThe peak of norendoxifen was found in the incubations consisting of endoxifen, HLMs and cofactors. The retention times of norendoxifen, Endoxifen and the internal standard (diphenhydramine) were 7.81, 7.97 and 5.86 min, respectively. The Km (app) and Vmax (app) values of norendoxifen formation from endoxifen in HLM was 47.8 μM and 35.39 pmol/min/mg. The apparent hepatic intrinsic clearances [Clint app] of norendoxifen formation were 0.74 μl/ mg × min. CYP3A5 and CYP2D6 were the major enzymes capable of norendoxifen formation from endoxifen with rates of 0.26 and 0.86 pmol/pmol P450×min. CYP1A2, 3A2, 2C9 and 2C19 also contributed to norendoxifen formation, but the contributions were at least 6-fold lower.1μM ketoconazole (CYP3A inhibitor) showed an inhibitory effect on rates of norendoxifen formation by 45%, but 1μM quinidine (CYP2D6 inhibitor) does not show an inhibitory effect.ConclusionNorendoxifen, metabolism from endoxifen by multiple P450s that including CYP3A5.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17T11:10:21.360533-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700287
       
  • Isolation of the New Antiplasmodial Butanolide Malleastrumolide A from a
           Malleastrum sp. (Meliaceae) from Madagascar
    • Authors: Yongle Du; Alexander K. Abedi, Ana Lisa Valenciano, Maria L. Fernández-Murga, Maria B. Cassera, Vincent E. Rasamison, Wendy L. Applequist, James S. Miller, David G. I. Kingston
      Abstract: An extract of a Malleastrum sp. (Meliaceae) collected in Madagascar by the Madagascar International Cooperative Biodiversity Group was found to have antimalarial activity, with an IC50 value between 2.5 and 5 μg/mL. After purification by liquid-liquid partition, chromatography on a Diaion open column, C-18 SPE and C-18 reverse phase HPLC, the new butanolide malleastrumolide A was isolated. The structure of malleastrumolide A was determined by mass spectrometry, NMR and ECD. The double bond position was determined by cross-metathesis and mass spectrometry. The compound has antiproliferative activity against the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line with an IC50 value of 17.4 μM and antiplasmodial activity against the drug-resistant Dd2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum with an IC50 value of 2.74 μM.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17T10:00:20.156007-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700331
       
  • Constituents from Scutellaria barbata Inhibiting Nitric Oxide Production
           in LPS-stimulated Microglial Cells
    • Authors: So Ra Lee; Min-Suk Kim, Sunggun Kim, Kwang Woo Hwang, So-Young Park
      Abstract: The arial parts of Scutellaria barbata D. Don (Lamiaceae) efficiently inhibited NO production in BV2 microglial cells, and the active constituents were further isolated based on activity-guided isolation using silica-gel column chromatography, RP-C18 MPLC and prep-HPLC. As the results, 2 flavonoids including 6-methoxynaringenin (1) and 6-O-methylscutellarein (5), and 6 neo-clerodane diterpenes such as scutebarbatine W (2), scutebatas B (3), scutebarbatine B (4), scutebarbatine A (6), 6-O-nicotinolylscutebarbatine G (7) and scutebarbatine X (8) were isolated. The structures of these compounds were elucidated based on NMR and MS data, and the comparison of literature values. All the compounds except compound 7 inhibited NO production efficiently with IC50 values of lower than 50 μM. Particularly, compound 1 and 8 were the most efficient with IC50 values of 25.8 and 27.4 μM, respectively. This is the first report suggesting the potential of S. barbata on the reduction of neuroinflammation.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-14T09:55:26.95271-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700231
       
  • Structural modification of stilbenoids from Acanthopanax leucorrhizus and
           their cytotoxic activity
    • Authors: Hu Hao-Bin; Liang Hai-Peng, Li Hai-Ming, Yuan Ru-Nan, Sun Jiao, Wu Yun, Zhang La-La, Han Ming-Hu
      Abstract: A new cis-stilbenoid, 1,9-dihydroxy-10-methoxy-6H-dibenzo [b, f] oxocin-6-one (2) was isolated from the EtOAc extract of the stem barks of Acanthopanax leucorrhizus, along with three known stilbenoids, 9-hydroxy-10- methoxy-6H-dibenzo [b, f] oxocin-6-one (1), 5-O-methyl-(E)-resveratrol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3) and (E)- resveratrol 3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (4). Two derivatives (2a and 2b) were synthesized by the structural modification of compound 2, which exhibited certain cytotoxic activities against HT-29 and Hela cell lines in vitro. All compounds were structurally characterized by comprehensive analysis of their spectroscopic data and comparison with literature information, and evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against three human tumor cell lines (HL-60, HT-29 and Hela) by the standard MTT assay in vitro. The results showed that derivatives 2a and 2b exhibited strong activities than compounds 2 against HT-29 and Hela cell lines.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-14T09:45:33.94795-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700244
       
  • Biocidal potential and chemical composition of industrial essential oils
           from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula x intermedia var. super and Santolina
           chamaecyparissus
    • Authors: Gonzalo Ortiz de Elguea-Culebras; Raúl Sánchez-Vioque, María Isabel Berruga, David Herraiz-Peñalver, Azucena González-Coloma, María Fé Andrés, Omar Santana-Méridas
      Abstract: This work presents the biocidal (insecticidal, ixodicidal, nematicidal and phytotoxic) effects and chemical compositions of three essential oils obtained from the industrial steam distillation (IEOs) of hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.), lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia or L. x hybrida var. Super) and cotton lavender (Santolina chamaecyparissus L.). Their chemical composition analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry showed 1,8-cineole (53%) and β-pinene (16%) as the major components of H. officinalis, linalyl acetate (38%) and linalool (29%) of L. x intermedia; and 1,8-cineole (10%) and 8-methylene-3-oxatricyclo[5.2.0.0(2.4)]nonane (8%) in S. chamaecyparissus. The biocidal tests showed that L. x intermedia IEO was the most active against the insect Spodoptera littoralis and toxic to the tick Hyalomma lusitanicum, IEO of H. officinalis was strongly active against S. littoralis, and finally, S. chamaecyparissus IEO was a strong antifeedant against the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi, toxic to H. lusitanicum and with moderate effects against Leptinotarsa decemlineata, S. littoralis and Lolium perenne.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-12T03:05:21.380337-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700313
       
  • Chaetochromones A-C, Three New Polyketides from Mangrove Plant Derived
           Endophytic Fungus Phomopsis sp. SCSIO 41006
    • Authors: Zhi-Ran Ju; Xiu-Ping Lin, Minke Li, Ying Wang, Yong-Qi Tian, Jun-Feng Wang, Juan Liu, Zhengchao Tu, Shi-Hai Xu, Yonghong Liu
      Abstract: Three new polyketides, chaetochromones A-C (1-3), together with a chromone (4), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of mangrove-derived fungus Phomopsis sp. SCSIO 41006. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic techniques (1D and 2D NMR, MS, UV and IR). The absolute configurations of the new compounds were established by CD data.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-10T04:52:06.236268-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700266
       
  • Variation on composition and bioactivity of essential oils of four common
           Curcuma herbs
    • Authors: Lanyue Zhang; Zhiwen Yang, Dingkang Chen, Zebin Huang, Yongliang Li, Xinzi Lan, Ping Su, Wanyi Pan, Wei Zhou, Xi Zheng, Zhiyun Du
      Abstract: Chemical compositions, antioxidative, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of essential oils extracted from four common Curcuma species (Curcuma longa, Curcuma phaeocaulis, Curcuma wenyujin and Curcuma kwangsiensis) rhizomes in China are comparatively studied. In total, 47, 49, 35 and 30 compounds are identified in C. longa, C. phaeocaulis, C. wenyujin and C. kwangsiensis essential oils by GC-MS, and their richest compounds are ar-turmerone (21.67%), elemenone (19.41%), curdione (40.23%) and (36.47%), respectively. Moreover, C. kwangsiensis essential oils display the strongest DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging activity (IC50, 3.47 μg/ml), much higher than ascorbic acid (6.50 μg/ml). C. phaeocaulis oils show the best antibacterial activities against E. coli (MIC, 235.54 μg/ml), P. aeruginosa (391.31 μg/ml) and S. aureus (378.36 μg/ml), while C. wenyujin and C. kwangsiensis oils show optimum activities against C. albicans (208.61 μg/ml) and S. cerevisiae (193.27 μg/ml), respectively. C. phaeocaulis (IC50, 4.63 μg/ml) and C. longa essential oils (73.05 μg/ml) have the best cytotoxicity against LNCaP and HepG2, respectively. C. kwangsiensis oils also exhibit the strongest anti-inflammatory activities by remarkably down-regulating expression of COX-2 and TNF-α. Therefore, due to their different chemical compositions and bioactivities, traditional Chinese Curcuma herbs should be differentially served as natural additives for food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-10T04:51:27.616435-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700280
       
  • Highly Enantioselective Production of Chiral Secondary Alcohols using
           Lactobacillus paracasei BD101 as a New Whole Cell Biocatalyst and
           Evaluation of Their Antimicrobial Effects
    • Authors: Durmuşhan Yılmaz; Engin Şahin, Enes Dertli
      Abstract: Chiral secondary alcohols are valuable intermediates for many important enantiopure pharmaceuticals and biologically active molecules. In this work, we studied asymmetric reduction of aromatic ketones to produce the corresponding chiral secondary alcohols using lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as new biocatalysts. Seven LAB strains were screened for their ability to reduce acetophenones to their corresponding alcohols. Among these strains Lactobacillus paracasei BD101, was found to be the most successful at reducing the ketones to the corresponding alcohols. The reaction conditions were further systematically optimized for this strain and high enantioselectivity (99%) and very good yields were obtained. These secondary alcohols were further tested for their antimicrobial activities against important pathogens and significant levels of antimicrobial activities were observed although these activities were altered depending on the secondary alcohols as well as their enantiomeric properties. The current methodology demonstrates a promising and alternative green approach for the synthesis of chiral secondary alcohols of biological importance in a cheap, mild and environmentally useful process.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-09T08:37:00.59011-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700269
       
  • New Bioactive Macrocyclic Diterpenoids from Euphorbia helioscopia
    • Authors: Juan Hua; Shi-Hong Luo, Yan Liu, Yan-Chun Liu, Yan-Yun Tan, Ling Feng, Chao-Jiang Xiao, Ke-Qin Zhang, Sheng-Hong Li, Xue-Mei Niu
      Abstract: Three new macrocyclic diterpenoids, euphoscopoids A-C (1-3), including two new jatrophanes and a new lathyrane, were isolated from the whole plant of Euphorbia helioscopia. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Antifeedant and cytotoxic activities of these isolates were evaluated. All compounds showed significant antifeedant activity against a generalist plant-feeding insect, Helicoverpa armigera, with EC50 values ranging from 2.05 to 4.34 μg/cm2. In addition, compound 2 showed moderate cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines NCI-H1975, HepG2 and MCF-2, while compounds 1 and 3 were not active at 80 μM. The results suggested not only the defensive function of macrocyclic diterpenoids in E. helioscopia against insect herbivores, but also their potential applications as new natural insect antifeedants.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T11:30:31.182535-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700327
       
  • Bioactive secondary metabolites from orchids (Orchidaceae)
    • Authors: Stefania Sut; Filippo Maggi, Stefano Dall'Acqua
      Abstract: The Orchidaceae family is the largest group of flowering plants in the Angiosperm monocotyledons spread on our planet. Its members, called orchids, are herbs or epiphytes with showy flowers distributed mainly in tropical regions. Several classes of phytoconstituents have been so far isolated from therapeutically-used orchids showing a great chemical diversity. Among them, phenolic derivatives have been studied for their biological activities, especially in the field of cancer, inflammation and neurodegeneration. On the other hand, limited information has been so far obtained on the numerous alkaloids and terpenoids isolated from several orchids species. Recent papers revealed pronounced effects of some alkaloids on the CNS. Published literature on orchids that are used in traditional medicine has been reviewed in this work indicating a great potential of such organisms as source of chemical entities for the development of new drugs.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T11:30:23.222623-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700172
       
  • Ecotype variation of methyl eugenol content in tea tree (Melaleuca
           alternifolia and M. linariifolia)
    • Authors: Mervyn Shepherd; Dale Savins, Ashley Dowell, Samantha Morrow, Gareth Allen, Ian Southwell
      Abstract: Methyl eugenol is a natural phenylpropanoid compound found in a wide range of plants used for food, flavouring, cosmetics and health-care. As a suspected rodent carcinogen, methyl eugenol may also be harmful to humans when present in significant concentrations. Consequently, its level has been restricted in some foodstuffs and cosmetics for some markets. In order to assess the potential to breed uniformly low methyl eugenol cultivars for an essential oil crop, tea tree, the source of “Oil of Melaleuca, terpinene-4-ol type”, we examine levels in individual trees (n= 30) from two geographic regions and six terpene chemotypes. Overall, methyl eugenol levels were low in this species (Mean (SD) 354 (239) ppm n=30), much lower than levels predicted to be of toxicological concern. Within each chemotype, there was a lack of evidence for correlations between terpenoid constituents and methyl eugenol levels. Further support for the independence of methyl eugenol and terpene biosynthesis was evident from similar mean levels in selected (Mean (SD) 586 (339) ppm n=12) and undomesticated M. alternifolia trees (Mean (SD) 480 (299) ppm n=5) with terpinen-4-ol type oils. By contrast, methyl eugenol level varied by geographic origin and chemotype. Trees from the upland region, where there is a prevalence of terpinolene type trees, had lower average methyl eugenol levels than trees from the coastal region, where there is a prevalence of terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole type trees.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-27T06:15:21.714922-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700278
       
  • Highly Enantioselective Production of Chiral Secondary Alcohols with
           Candida Zeylanoides as a New Whole Cell Biocatalyst
    • Authors: Engin Şahin; Enes Dertli
      Abstract: The increasing demand for biocatalysts in synthesizing enantiomerically pure chiral alcohols results from the outstanding characteristics of biocatalysts in reaction, economic, ecological issues. Herein fifteen yeast strains belonging to three food originated yeast species Candida zeylanoides, Pichia fermentans and Saccharomyces uvarum were tested for their capability for asymmetric reduction of acetophenone to 1-phenylethanol as biocatalysts. Of these strains, Candida zeylanoides P1 showed an effective asymmetric reduction ability. Under optimized conditions, substituted acetophenones were converted to corresponding optically active secondary alcohols in up to 99% enantiomeric excess and at high yield. The preparative scale asymmetric bioreduction of 4-nitro acetophenone 1m by Candida zeylanoides P1 gave (S)-1-(4-nitrophenyl) ethanol 2m 89% yield, and>99% enantiomeric excess. Compound 2m has been obtained in an enantiomerically pure and inexpensive form. Additionally, these results indicate that Candida zeylanoides P1is a promising biocatalyst for the synthesis of chiral alcohols in industry.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-26T11:47:32.361542-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700121
       
  • Characterization and influence of green synthesized of nano-sized zinc
           complex with 5-aminolevulinic acid on bioactive compounds of aniseed
    • Authors: Vahid Tavallali; Sadegh Rahmati, Vahid Rowshan
      Abstract: A new water soluble zinc-aminolevulinic acid nano complex (n[Zn(ALA)2]), which characterized by TEM, IR and EDX spectra, has been prepared via sonochemical method under green conditions in water. In the current study, the effectiveness of foliar Zn amendment using synthetic Zn-ALA nano complex, as a new introduced Zn-fertilizer here, was evaluated. As the model plant, Pimpinella anisum, the most valuable spice and medicinal plant grown in warm regions, was used. By using zinc nano complex, further twenty compounds were obtained in the essential oil of anise plants. Application of 0.2% (w/v) Zn-ALA nano complex increased the levels of E-Anethole, β-Bisabolene, Germacrene D, Methyl chavicol and α-Zingiberene in the essential oil. Nano Zn complex at the rate of 0.2% induced considerable high phenolic compounds and zinc content of shoots and seeds. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) had the highest level between four detected phenolic compounds. The maximum antioxidant activity was monitored through the application of Zn nano complex. According to the results, nanoscale nutrients can be provided with further decreased doses for medicinal plants. Using Zn-ALA nano complex is a new and efficient method to improve the pharmaceutical and food properties of anise plants.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-26T11:46:08.328667-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700197
       
  • Evolution of volatile emission in Rhus coriaria organs during different
           stages of growth and evaluation of the essential oil composition
    • Authors: Rose Vanessa Bandeira Reidel; Pier Luigi Cioni, Luigi Majo, Luisa Pistelli
      Abstract: Rhus coriaria, also known as sumac, have been traditionally used in many countries as spice, condiment, dying agent and medicinal herb. The chemical composition of essential oils and the volatile emissions from different organs of this species collected in Sicily (Italy) were analyzed by GC–FID and GC–MS. Monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were the most abundant class in the volatile emissions with β-caryophyllene and α-pinene were the main constituents in the majority of the examined samples. The EO composition was characterized by high amount of monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons together with diterpenes. The main compounds in the EO obtained from the leaves and both stages of fruit maturation were cembrene and β-caryophyllene, while α-pinene and tridecanoic acid were the key compounds in the flower EO. All the data were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis showing many differences among the different plant parts and their ontogenetic stages.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-25T07:42:52.264916-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700270
       
  • Bioactive Pimarane-type Diterpenes from Marine Organisms
    • Authors: Xiaoli Wang; Haobing Yu, Yixin Zhang, Xiaoling Lu, Bin Wang, Xiaoyu Liu
      Abstract: Marine organisms represent an abundant sources of bioactive natural products with unique chemical structure. Pimarane diterpenes are a structurally diverse family of natural products with various biological activities and pharmacological properties. A prolific source of new marine-derived pimarane diterpenes have attracted considerable interest because of their unique structural diversity and varied biological activities, including antimicrobial, antitumor, and antiproliferative activities. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the structures, names, bioactivities, and references of 80 marine-derived pimarane-type natural products for the first time.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-24T03:00:22.261443-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700276
       
  • Discrimination and characterization of two Mediterranean species from the
           Laurencia complex (Rhodomelacea) using an NMR-based metabolomic approach
    • Authors: Sylvain Sutour; Hélène Esselin, Ange Bighelli, Joseph Casanova, Line Le Gall, Félix Tomi
      Abstract: Generic and specific determination among the Laurencia complex is a challenging task. DNA barcoding combined with phenotypic investigations are mandatory for species differentiation. In this study, two morphologically different members of the Laurencia complex were investigated using untargeted 1H NMR-based metabolomics. Twenty-one population samples were collected in order to evaluate both temporal and geographical homogeneity. Data obtained from 1H NMR analysis followed by statistical analysis allowed a clear separation of all the samples into two groups. DNA mitochondrial tests confirmed this pattern and identified the two species as Laurenciella sp. and Laurencia obtusa. In addition, metabolites responsible of this discrimination were investigated directly in crude extracts by 13C NMR using an in-house computer-assisted method. The combination of both untargeted (1H) and targeted (13C) NMR-based metabolomic approaches proves to be a powerful and complementary approach to discriminate species from the Laurencia complex.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-19T11:05:31.707455-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700226
       
  • Variations in the bioactive compounds composition and biological
           activities of loofah (Luffa cylindrica) fruits in relation to maturation
           stages
    • Authors: Takoua Ben Hlel; Feten Belhadj, Fatih Gül, Muhammed Altun, Ayşe ŞahinYağlıoğlu, Ibrahim Demirtaş, M. Nejib Marzouki
      Abstract: The present work aimed to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of Luffa cylindrica fruits collected at two different maturation stages and to identify and compare their functional components composition. The methanolic extracts of L. cylindrica fruits harvested at 60 to 65 days after seeding (S1) and 85 to 90 days after seeding (S2) were investigated for their antioxidant activity using various assays. Furthermore, the antiproliferative activity of the extracts against HeLa human cervical cancer cells was explored with xCELLigence real time cell analyzer while the effect of the samples on the membrane integrity of the same cell line was assessed using LDH cytotoxicity leakage assay. Ultimately, the phytochemicals were analyzed using GCMS and HPLC/TOF-MS. The S1 sample had higher contents and more diversity in the phenolic compounds composition than S2. Furthermore, S1 extract showed the highest antioxidant and antiproliferative activity while S2 extract had higher cytotoxicity towards HeLa cells. The findings revealed that the time of harvest has a big impact on the phytochemicals content and activity and that harvesting L. cylindrica at an early stage before the beginning of the development of the cellulose fibrous system is recommended for a rich phytochemical composition and efficient antioxidant and antiproliferative activities.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-19T11:05:24.724694-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700178
       
  • In vitro Antiproliferative and Antibacterial Activities of Essential Oils
           from Four Species of Guatteria
    • Authors: Anderson R. Santos; Thalita Gilda S. Benghi, Angelita Nepel, Francisco A. Marques, Adriana Q. Lobão, Marta Cristina T. Duarte, Ana Lúcia T. G. Ruiz, João E. Carvalho, Beatriz H. L. N. S. Maia
      Abstract: The essential oils extracted from four species of the genus Guatteria, G.australis, G. ferruginea, G. latifolia and G. sellowiana were analyzed. A total of 24, 22, 25 and 19 constituents of the oils from four species, respectively, were identified by GC-MS. These oils showed qualitative and quantitative differences. All the oils contained the oxygenated sesquiterpenes spathulenol (11.04 - 40.29%) and caryophyllene oxide (7.74 - 40.13%) as predominant constituents. Evaluation of antiproliferative activity of the essential oils showed strong selectivity (1.1 - 4.1 μg/mL) against the tumor cell line OVCAR-03 (ovarian cancer), i.e. more active than the positive control doxorubicin (11.7 μg/mL). All essential oils showed strong antibacterial activity (MICs of 0.062 – 0.25 mg/mL) against strains of Rhodococcus equi.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-18T10:29:19.795709-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700097
       
  • Enzyme-Free Ligation of 5′-Phosphorylated Oligodeoxynucleotides in a
           DNA Nanostructure
    • Authors: Markus Kramer; Clemens Richert
      Abstract: Multicomponent reactions are difficult synthetic transformations. For DNA, there is a special opportunity to align multiple strands in a folded nanostructure, so that they are preorganized to give a specific sequence. Multistrand reactions in DNA origami structures have previously been performed using photochemical crosslinking, 1,3-diploar cycloadditions or phosphoramidate-forming reactions. Here we report carbodiimide-driven phosphodiester formation in a small origami sheet that produces DNA strands up to 600 nucleotides in length in a single step. The method uses otherwise unmodified oligodeoxynucleotides with a 5′-terminal phosphate as starting materials. Compared to an enzymatic multistrand ligation involving linear duplexes, the carbodiimide-driven ligation gave fewer side products, as detected by gel electrophoresis. The full-length 600mer product was successfully amplified by polymerase chain reaction.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-15T00:30:25.128644-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700315
       
  • Caryophyllane thiols, vinyl thioethers, di- and bis-sulfides: antioxidant
           and membrane protective activities
    • Authors: Yulia V. Gyrdymova; Denis V. Sudarikov, Oksana G. Shevchenko, Svetlana A. Rubtsova, Pavel A. Slepukhin, Aleksandr V. Kutchin
      Abstract: Caryophyllane thioterpenoids were synthesized in 23-81% yields. The antioxidant properties of the obtained compounds in various model systems were found. It was revealed that 4,5-epoxycaryophyll-9-ylmethanethiol has the greatest antioxidant activity. The isomerism of sesquiterpenic fragments was shown to have a significant effect on the biological activity of the compounds.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13T12:15:20.725345-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700296
       
  • Characterization of sugar and polyphenolic diversity in floral nectar of
           different ‘Oblačinska’ sour cherry clones
    • Authors: Basem Guffa; Nebojša M. Nedić, Dragana Č. Dabić Zagorac, Tomislav B. Tosti, Uroš M. Gašić, Maja M. Natić, Milica M. Fotirić Akšić
      Abstract: ‘Oblačinska’ sour cherry, an autochthonous cultivar, is the most planted cultivar in Serbian orchards. Since fruit trees in temperate zone reward insects by producing nectar which ‘quality’ affects the efficiency of insect pollination, the aim of this study was analyzing of sugars and polyphenolics in floral nectar of 16 ‘Oblačinska’ sour cherry clones with different yielding potential. The contents of sugars and sugar alcohols were analyzed by ion chromatography, while polyphenolic profile was established using liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry technique (LC/MS). 14 sugars and 6 sugar alcohols were detected in nectar samples and the most abundant were fructose, glucose, and sucrose. 11 polyphenols were quantified using available standards, while another 17 were identified according to their exact masses and characteristic fragmentations. Among quantified polyphenols, rutin, naringenin, and chrysin were the most abundant in nectar. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that some polyphenol components (naringin, naringenin, and rutin) together with sugars had high impact of spatial distribution of nectar samples on score plot.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:15:31.738463-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700061
       
  • A nitrile glucoside and biflavones from the leaves of Campylospermum
           excavatum (Ochnaceae)
    • Authors: Gaétan Bayiha Ba Njock; Raphaël Grougnet, Antonia Efstathiou, Despina Smirlis, Grégory Genta-Jouve, Sylvie Michel, Joséphine Ngo Mbing, Marina Kritsanida
      Abstract: The study of the MeOH extract of the leaves of Campylospermum excavatum led to the isolation of a nitrile glucoside, named campyloside C (1) and an original derivative of ochnaflavone, 7-O-methylochnaflavone (2) along with three known biflavonoids, amentoflavone, sequoiaflavone, and sotetsuflavone (3-5). The linkage site of the sub-units of 2 was confirmed by chemical correlation, after semi-synthesis of a trimethoxylated derivative of ochnaflavone (2a). The structure of these compounds as well as their relative and absolute configurations were assigned by 1D and 2D NMR experiments, HRESIMS and Electronic Circular Dichroism (ECD) calculations. A low-pass J filter HMBC experiment was performed in order to define the stereochemistry of the double bond of 1. All of the biflavonoids were evaluated against protozoan parasites. Amentoflavone moderately inhibited the promastigote form of Leishmania infantum.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T03:10:44.807306-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700241
       
  • A novel tropoloisoquinoline alkaloid, neotatarine, from Acorus calamus L
    • Authors: Juan Li; Zhao-Xing Li, Jianping Zhao, Wei Wang, Xiao-Fang Zhao, Bo Xu, Lin Li, Lan Zhang, Jie Ren, Ikhlas A. Khan, Shun-Xiang Li
      Abstract: A novel tropoloisoquinoline alkaloid, neotatarine (1), was isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of the rhizome parts of Acorus calamus L. The chemical structure was unambiguously elucidated by spectroscopic and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Neotatarine (1) exhibited significantly inhibitory activity against Aβ25-35 induced PC12 cell death with 2, 4 and 8 μM comparing with the assay control (P < 0.01).This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T03:05:28.060083-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700201
       
  • Cuticular hydrocarbon profiles differentiate tropical fire ant populations
           (Solenopsis geminata, Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
    • Authors: Lin Hu; Robert K. Vander Meer, Sanford D. Porter, Li Chen
      Abstract: The cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) from hexane rinses of workers from two Florida populations (dark and red forms) of the tropical fire ant, Solenopsis geminata, were separated by silica gel chromatography and identified by GC-MS analysis. Both the dark form and the red form produce similar CHCs with carbon chain lengths ranging from 17 to 35. However, the relative percentages of these CHCs were consistently different between the two color forms. The largest CHC component in the dark form is tricosane, and (Z)-9-tricosene for the red form. There were several significant differences in percent composition. For example, the dark form was characterized by a low tricosene:tricosane ratio (≈ 0.25), whereas this ratio was> 2.5 for the red form. The ratio of tricosene:tricosane can be used as a diagnostic biomarker to delimit the dark and red forms. Cluster analysis showed that the CHCs patterns of dark form colonies are completely separated from the CHC pattern of red form colonies. Differences in social behaviors like nestmate recognition and polygyny between workers from this dark form and the red form await further investigation.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T03:05:21.114679-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700192
       
  • Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil
           and Extracts of Satureja subspicata Vis. growing in Bosnia and Herzegovina
           
    • Authors: Mejra Bektašević; Ivana Carev, Marin Roje, Mladenka Jurin, Olivera Politeo
      Abstract: The phytochemical composition and the antioxidant activities of the essential oil as well as methanol and hot water extracts of endemic Satureja subspicata Vis. growing in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) were described. ß-caryophyllene, cis-ß-ocimene and α-pinene, identified by GC-MS and GC-FID, were dominant oil components. The major compound of both of extracts, identified by HPLC-DAD, was rosmarinic acid. Analyzed essential oil showed moderate antioxidant activity. In this first report on extracts of S. subspicata growing in BiH, the obtained results showed a high content of rosmarinic acid as well as considerable amount of total phenols and flavonoids. Compared to hot water extract, methanol extract exhibits higher antioxidant potential, measured by DPPH and FRAP assay (IC50 = 0,45 g l−1 and 1879.43 Eq Fe2+ μM), while hot water extract showed higher potential in inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation (51,7% and 61,5% for 1 and 10 g l−1). A good antioxidant potential of tested extracts indicates their potential use as antioxidants, particularly for lipid protection, and partly explains the justification of the use of this plant in traditional medicine of BiH.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10T03:55:36.746017-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700239
       
  • The molting biomarker molecule exists as 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-gluconic acid
           in urine of blue crabs and helmet crabs
    • Authors: Michiya Kamio; Yasuhiro Nagakura, Hirona Yano
      Abstract: N-Acetyl-D-glucosamino-1,5-lactone (NAGL) 1 has been reported as a candidate component of the sex pheromone mixture of female blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, since it is present in the urine of reproductive females and males detect it. Theoretically, 1 can convert to a 1,4-lactone isomer 2 or corresponding carboxylic acid, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-gluconic acid 3 by hydrolysis in aqueous solution. In this study, we examined the biologically relevant state of equilibrium mixture of 1, 2 and 3 in crab urine using ESI-MS and NMR analyses. The ESI-MS analysis showed that the dominant form of solubilized synthetic 1 is lactone 1 and/or 2, immediately after solubilization in deuterated water, seawater, and phosphate buffer and gradually changing to carboxylic acid 3 which becomes most predominant in phosphate buffer. The NMR analysis showed that synthetic 1 converts to other forms in deuterated water and seawater, and reaches an equilibrium mixture of at least three forms within 24 h. In contrast, 1 converts to a single state of another form in deuterated water with 35 mmol l-1 phosphate buffer pH 7.6 within 24 h, which is identical to the state in urine with or without phosphate buffer. Thus, we conclude that the molting biomarker sensed by male crabs is 3.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-07T09:05:32.351118-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700063
       
  • Exploration of phytoconstituents from Mussaenda roxburghii and studies of
           their antibiofilm effect
    • Authors: Ranjit Ghosh; Manash C. Das, Arpita Sarkar, Antu Das, Padmani Sandhu, Biswanath Dinda, Yusuf Akhter, Surajit Bhattacharjee, Utpal Ch. De
      Abstract: In the context of ethno botanical importance with no phytochemical investigations, Mussaenda roxburghii have been investigated to explore it's phytoconstituents and studies of their antibiofilm activity. Four compounds have been isolated from the aerial parts of this plant and were characterized as 2α, 3β, 19α, 23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (1), β-sitosterol glucoside (4), lupeol palmitate (5) and myoinositol (6). All these compounds were tested for antibacterial and antibiofilm activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Compound 1 exhibited three times more antibiofilm activity with MIC at 0.74mM compared to that of streptomycin. Molecular docking studies exhibited a very high binding affinity of 1 with P. aeruginosa quorum sensing proteins and motility associated proteins viz. LasR and PilB, PilY1, PilT respectively. Compound 1 was also found to be non-cytotoxic against sheep RBC and murine peritoneal macrophages at selected sub-MIC doses.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-07T08:20:34.81188-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700165
       
  • Chemical compositions and antioxidant activities of essential oil
           extracted from the petals of three wild tree peony species and eleven
           cultivars
    • Authors: Jia-yi Sun; Xiao-Xiao Zhang, Li-Xin Niu, Yan-Long Zhang
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the essential oil (EO) compositions and antioxidant activities from petals of three wild tree peony species (Paeonia delavayi, P. lutea and P. rockii) and eleven P. suffruticosa cultivars from different cultivar groups. The EOs yields varied from 0.63% to 1.25% (v/v) among samples when using supercritical CO2 extraction. One hundred and sixty-three components were detected by GC-MS; and among them, linalool oxide, Z-5-dodecen-1-yl acetate, nonadecane, Z-5-nonadecene, heneicosane, phytol, and linoleic acid ethyl ester were dominant. According to hierarchical cluster analysis, principal component analysis and correspondence analysis, P. lutea, P. delavayi, and ‘High Noon’ were clustered in a group described as having a refreshing herbal-like note due to high rates of phytol and linalool oxide. Notably, P. lutea and P. delavayi also had strong DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities. These results suggest that P. lutea and P. delavayi are the most promising candidates as useful sources of fragrances and natural antioxidants.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-04T22:40:21.554695-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700282
       
  • Effect of the polyphenol rich ethyl acetate fraction from the leaves of
           Lycium chinense Miller on oxidative stress, dyslipidemia and diabetes
           mellitus in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats
    • Authors: Opeyemi J Olatunji; Hongxia Chen, Yifeng Zhou
      Abstract: Lycium chinense Miller, popularly known as boxthorn, is a plant that is traditionally used for treating night sweat, cough, inflammation and diabetes mellitus. However, the leaves have received little or no attention despite their potentials as a potent therapeutic agent. This study was aimed at investigating the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of the polyphenols-rich ethyl acetate fraction from the leaves of Lycium chinense Miller on streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. The ethyl acetate fraction (LFE) was selected and orally gavaged at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg dose to streptozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. The rats’ body weight, fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipid profile and oxidative stress markers were evaluated after the treatment period. Treatment with LFE resulted in a significant decrease in the FBG level, altered lipid profiles, and reduced the activities of the enzymes alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) in the treated diabetic rats. Furthermore, LFE significantly elevated the antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities) and reducing malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the treated rats. The present study has revealed that L. chinense Miller possess anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic properties which is mediated through modulation of oxidative stress and polyphenolics might be responsible for the action.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-04T22:35:25.099649-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700277
       
  • Phytochemical and biological activities of Pseudocalymma elegans; A false
           Garlic
    • Authors: Sana Wahid; Muhammad Ali Versiani, Sajid Jahangir, Khurshid Jawaid, Maryam Shafique, Huma Khan, Shaheen Faizi
      Abstract: Evaluation of phytochemical constituents and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of hexane (PELH), dichloromethane (PELDCM), ethyl acetate (PELEA) and methanolic (PELM) extracts of young leaves of P. elegans have been carried out. Moreover, extracts have also been explored for the presence of sulphur containing compounds, 1, 2-dithiolane (33), diallyl disulphide (35), 3-Vinyl-1,2-dithiacyclohex-5-ene (37), diallyl trisulphide (38) responsible for the garlic like smell of P. elegans. All the extracts were found to be antioxidant and showed potent inhibition with IC50 values 0.168±0.001, 0.128±0.002, 0.220±0.011 and 0.054±0.001 respectively as compared to standard drugs ascorbic acid (AA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The ethyl acetate extract (PELE) showed excellent activities against few Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and some fungi as compared with standard drug ceftriaxone (3rdgeneration cephalosporin) and nystatin respectively. Chemical constituents of hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and mass spectral library search. Over all fifty five (55) chemical constituents were first time identified from the leaves which included branched and n-hydrocarbons, fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters, fatty alcohols, terpenes, alkaloid, vitamins, glycosides, aromatic compounds and sulfur containing compounds. Two known chemical constituents, ursolic acid (1) and β-amyrin (2), were also purified for the first time from the methanolic extract. To elucidate the structures of these compounds UV, IR, EIMS, 1H and 13C –NMR spectroscopy were used.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03T12:32:10.940817-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700222
       
  • Metabolomic Tools to Assess the Chemistry and Bioactivity of Endophytic
           Aspergillus Strain
    • Authors: A.F. Tawfike; R. Tate, G Abbott, L Young, C Viegelmann, M Schumacher, M. Diederich, R.A. Edrada-Ebel
      Abstract: Endophytic fungi associated with medicinal plants are a potential source of novel chemistry and biology that may find applications as pharmaceutical and agrochemical drugs. In this study, a combination of metabolomics and bioactivity-guided approaches were employed to isolate anticancer secondary metabolites from an endophytic Aspergillus aculeatus. The endophyte was isolated from the Egyptian medicinal plant Terminalia laxiflora and identified using molecular biological methods. Metabolomics and dereplication studies were accomplished by utilizing the MZmine software coupled with the universal Dictionary of Natural Products database. Metabolic profiling, with aid of multivariate data analysis, was performed at different stages of the growth curve to choose the optimised method suitable for up-scaling. The optimised culture method yielded a crude extract abundant with biologically-active secondary metabolites. Crude extracts were fractionated using different high-throughput chromatographic techniques. Purified compounds were identified by HRESI-MS, 1D and 2D-NMR. This study introduced a new method of dereplication utilising both high-resolution mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. The metabolites were putatively identified by applying a chemotaxonomic filter. We also present a short review on the diverse chemistry of terrestrial endophytic strains of Aspergillus, which has become a part of our dereplication work and this will be of wide interest to those working in this field.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03T12:22:12.748375-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700040
       
  • Enzymatic Process Enhances the Flavour Profile and Increases the
           Proportion of Esters in Citrus Essential Oils
    • Authors: Kun Zhang; Ying Lin, Zhou-Jian Diao, Wei-Hua Zhang, Sui-Ping Zheng, Shu-Li Liang, Shuang-Yan Han
      Abstract: Citrus essential oils (CEOs) are important flavors in the food and confectionary industries. A lipase process was proposed for enhancing the flavor profiles and increasing the proportions of esters in CEOs. The effects of the enzymatic process were explored by detecting the constituents of the CEOs of American sweet orange oil (ASO) and Brazil mandarin oil (BMO) through GC-MS and sensory evaluation by a trained panel, and positive effects were confirmed by both methods. A further 11 kinds of CEOs were treated via the lipase process and increments of 10% to 1170% were achieved in the proportions of esters, which were mostly ethyl esters. Enhancement in fruity odor, especially the top note, was demonstrated by all CEOs after enzymatic processing. All CEOs were tested for antimicrobial activities and only ASO displayed fairly ideal antimicrobial activities. Meanwhile, modified ASO showed a certain increase in antimicrobial activities. This methodology might be considered a sustainable route for acquiring ‘natural’ essential oils with enhanced flavor profiles and simultaneously enhancing the comprehensive utilization of citrus fruits.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03T12:21:45.685954-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700187
       
  • Chemical composition, antioxidant properties, α-glucosidase inhibitory
           and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Acacia mollissima and
           Acacia cyclops cultivated in Tunisia
    • Authors: Amira Jelassi; Manel Hassine, Malek Besbes Hlila, Hichem Ben Jannet
      Abstract: The genus Acacia is quite large and can be found in the warm subarid and arid parts but little is known about its chemistry, specially the volatile parts. The volatile oils from fresh flowers of A. mollissima and A. cyclops (growing in Tunisia) obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by GC then GC-MS. 18 (94.7% of the total oil composition) and 23 (97.4%) compounds were identified in these oils, respectively. (E,E)-α-Farnesene (51.5%) and (E)-cinnamyl alcohol (10.7%) constituted the major compounds of the flower oil of A. mollissima, while n-nonadecane (29.6%) and caryophyllene oxide (15.9%) were the main constituents of the essential oil of A. cyclops. Antioxidant activity of the isolated oils was studied by varied assays, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the 2,2-azinobis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS); the isolated oils showed lowest IC50 (4-39 μg/mL) indicating their high antioxidant activity. The α-glucosidase inhibitor activity was also evaluated and Acacia oils were found to be able to strongly inhibit this enzyme with IC50 values (81-89 μgLmL) very close to that of acarbose which was used as positive control. Furthermore, they were tested against five Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and one Candida species. Essential oil of A. mollissima was found to be more active than that of A. cyclops, especially against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC=0.31 mg/mL and MBC=0.62 mg/mL).This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03T03:15:20.536535-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700252
       
  • α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Xanthones from the Roots of Garcinia fusca
    • Authors: Nam K. Nguyen; Xuyen A. Truong, Thai Q. Bui, Dzung N. Bui, Hai X. Nguyen, Phuong T. Tran, Lien-Hoa D. Nguyen
      Abstract: An ethyl acetate extract of the roots of Garcinia fusca produced two new compounds, fuscaxanthones J (1) and K (2), together with eight known xanthones (3-10). Their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods, mainly 1-D and 2-D NMR. α-Glucosidase inhibitory activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated and fuscaxanthone J (1) showed the most significant effect with IC50 value of 8.3 ± 1.8 μM (compared with acarbose, IC50 = 214.5 ± 2.3 μM).This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30T10:06:34.286072-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700232
       
  • Effect of the leaf essential oil from Cinnamosma madagascariensis Danguy
           on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure in rats
    • Authors: Rianasoambolanoro Rakotosaona; Emmanuel Randrianarivo, Philippe Rasoanaivo, Marcello Nicoletti, Giovanni Benelli, Filippo Maggi
      Abstract: In the Malagasy traditional practices, smoke from burning leaves of Cinnamosma madagascariensis Danguy is inhaled to treat brain disorders such as dementia, epilepsy and headache. In the present work we have evaluated the in vivo anticonvulsant effects of the essential oil from leaves of C. madagascariensis (CMEO). CMEO was isolated by steam distillation. The anticonvulsant activity of CMEO (0.4 and 0.8 mL/kg bw) administered subcutaneously was evaluated on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures in Wistar rats; diazepam was used as positive control. Linalool, limonene and myrcene were the major CMEO constituents. At the dose of 0.8 mL/kg, CMEO completely arrested the PTZ-induced convulsions with moderate sedative effects. The traditional anticonvulsant use of C. madagascariensis was confirmed allowing us to candidate molecules from CMEO as potential drugs to treat convulsions associated with strong agitation.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28T04:30:20.353714-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700256
       
  • Two new sesquiterpene alcohols isolated from Senecio hadiensis Forssk.
           grown in Saudi Arabia
    • Authors: Sarfaraz Ahmed; Mohammad Shamim Ahmad, Muhammad Yousaf, Mohammad Nur-e-Alam, Adnan J. Al-Rehaily
      Abstract: Phytochemical investigation on the aerial parts of Senecio hadiensis Forssk. led to the isolation of two new sesquiterpenoids, presilphiperfolan-2α,5α,8α-triol (1) and presilphiperfolan-2α,5α,8α,10α-tetraol (2) featuring the rare presilphiperfolane-type frameworks. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS) methods and by comparison with the literature data. The isolates 1 and 2 were evaluated in-vitro for antiinflammatory, cytotoxic and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha and gamma (PPARα and PPARγ) agonistic activities.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28T04:25:34.223369-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700144
       
  • NMR, HS-SPME-GC-MS and HPLC-MSn analyses of phytoconstituents and aroma
           profile of Rosmarinus eriocalyx L
    • Authors: Hamdi Bendif; Mohamed Djamel Miara, Gregorio Peron, Stefania Sut, Stefano Dall'Acqua, Guido Flamini, Filippo Maggi
      Abstract: In this work a comprehensive study on the chemical constituents of the aerial parts of Rosmarinus eriocalyx L. (Lamiaceae), an aromatic shrub traditionally consumed as a food and herbal remedy in Algeria, is presented. The aroma profile was analysed by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), whereas the crude extract constituents were analyzed by 1H-NMR and by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MSn). Thirty-nine volatile compounds, most of them being monoterpenes, have been identified, with camphor, camphene and α-pinene as the most abundant constituents. 1H-NMR analysis revealed the presence of phenolic and betulinic acid while HPLC-MSn allowed the identification of glycosilated and aglyconic flavonoids as well as phenylpropanoid derivatives. Some of these constituents, namely as betulinic acid, rosmanol and cirsimaritin were reported for the first time in R. eriocalyx.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28T04:25:27.661667-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700248
       
  • Screening of Polish fir honeydew honey using GC-MS, HPLC-DAD and
           physical-chemical parameters: benzene derivatives and terpenes as chemical
           markers
    • Authors: Piotr M. Kuś; Igor Jerković, Zvonimir Marijanović, Carlo I. G. Tuberoso
      Abstract: GC-MS of HS-SPME and solvent extractives along with targeted HPLC-DAD of Polish fir (Abies alba Mill.) honeydew honey (FHH), were used to determine the chemical profiles and potential markers of botanical origin. Additionally, typical physical-chemical parameters were also assigned.The values determined for FHH were: conductivity (1.2 mS/cm), water content (16.7 g/100 g), pH (4.5) and CIE chromaticity coordinates (L* = 48.4, a* = 20.6, b* = 69.7, C* = 72.9 and h° = 73.5). FHH contained moderate-high total phenolic content (533.2 mg GAE/kg) and antioxidant activity (1.1 mmol TEAC/kg) and (3.2 mmol Fe2+/kg) in DPPH and FRAP assays. The chemical profiles were dominated by source plant-originated benzene derivatives: 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (up to 8.7 mg/kg, HPLC/ honey solution), methyl syringate (up to 14.5%, GC/ solvent extracts) or benzaldehyde (up to 43.7%, GC/ headspace). Other markers were terpenes including norisoprenoid (4-hydroxy-3,5,6-trimethyl-4-(3-oxo-1-butenyl)-cyclohex-2-en-1-one, up to 20.3%, GC/ solvent extracts) and monoterpenes, mainly linalool derivatives (up to 49%, GC/ headspace) as well as borneol (up to 5.9%, GC/ headspace).The application of various techniques allowed comprehensive characterisation of FHH. 4-Hydroxy-3,5,6-trimethyl-4-(3-oxo-1-butenyl)-cyclohex-2-en-1-one, coniferyl alcohol, borneol, and benzaldehyde were first time proposed for FHH screening. Protocatechuic acid may be a potential marker of FFH regardless of the geographical origin.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28T04:25:24.197213-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700179
       
  • Transformations of Some Sesquiterpene Lactones by Filamentous Fungi.
           Cytotoxic Evaluations
    • Authors: Arturo Cano-Flores; Guillermo Delgado
      Abstract: Biotransformation is an economically and ecologically viable technology which has been used to modify the structures of many classes of biologically active products. Some fungi may be useful for the biotransformation of sesquiterpene lactones (SLs), leading to unusual structural changes that modify their biological activities, and other transformations mimic their biosynthetic pathways, generating evidences for the proposed biogenesis. Eight filamentous fungi were screened for their ability to transform different SLs (1-9), and microbial reactions yielded compounds 11 -– 18, which in turn have been isolated as natural products, thus mimicking their biosynthesis. Their structures were identified based on NMR and MS spectroscopic analyses. The cytotoxicities of SLs 1, 4, 6, 7 and 9, and their biotransformed produts (10, 14, 15 and 17) against human cancer cell lines U251 (glia), PC3 (prostate), K562 (leukemia), HCT-15 (colon), MCF7 (breast), and SKLU-1 (lung), were determined, confirming that the presence of Michael acceptor is an important feature for the bioactivity.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-26T01:37:35.343521-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700211
       
  • Chemical Composition and Allelopathic, Antibacterial, Antifungal and
           Antiacetylcholinesterase activity of Fish-mint (Houttuynia cordata Thunb.)
           from India
    • Authors: Ram S. Verma; Neeta Joshi, Rajendra C. Padalia, Ved R. Singh, Prakash Goswami, Ajay Kumar, Hina Iqbal, Rajesh K. Verma, Debabrata Chanda, Amit Chauhan, Dharmendra Saikia
      Abstract: Fish-mint (Houttuynia cordata Thunb.), belongs to family Saururaceae has long been used as food and traditional herbal medicine. The present study was framed to assess the changes occurring in the essential-oil composition of Houttuynia cordata during annual growth and to evaluate allelopathic, antibacterial, antifungal and antiacetylcholinesterase activities. The essential-oil content ranged from 0.06–0.14% and 0.08–0.16% in aerial-parts and underground-stem, respectively. The essential oils were analysed by GC-FID, GC-MS and NMR (1H & 13C). Major constituents of aerial-parts oil was 2-undecanone (19.4–56.3%), myrcene (2.6–44.3%), ethyl decanoate (0.0–10.6%), ethyl dodecanoate (1.1–8.6%), 2-tridecanone (0.5–8.3%) and n-decanal (1.1–6.9%). However, major constituents of underground-stem oil were 2-undecanone (29.5–42.3%), myrcene (14.4–20.8%), sabinene (6.0–11.1%), 2-tridecanone (1.8–10.5%), β-pinene (5.3–10.0%) and ethyl dodecanoate (0.8–7.3%). Cluster analysis revealed that essential-oil composition varied substantially due to the plant-parts and season of collection. The oils exhibited significant allelopathic (inhibition: 77.8–88.8%; LD50: 2.45–3.05 μL/plate), antibacterial (MIC: 0.52–2.08 μL/mL; MBC: bacteriostatic) and antifungal (MIC: 2.08–33.33 μL/mL; MFC: 4.16–33.33 μL/mL) activities. The results indicate that the essential-oil from H. cordata has a significant potential to allow future exploration and exploitation as a natural antimicrobial and allelopathic agent.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21T11:20:58.906681-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700189
       
  • The interaction mode of groove binding between quercetin and calf thymus
           DNA based on spectrometry and simulation
    • Authors: Yijie Sha; Xu Chen, Bing Niu, Qin Chen
      Abstract: Quercetin, a ubiquitous flavanoid, has numerous pharmacological effects, such as antioxidant and antitumor. Previous studies showed nucleic acids were the potential biological targets for antitumor medicine. For exploring the mechanism of DNA-target medicine, the interaction between quercetin and calf thymus DNA was studied based on the method of spectrometry and simulation in our study. Firstly, the interaction between quercetin and calf thymus DNA was confirmed by fluorescence spectrometry. Furthermore, circular dichroism, fluorescence polarization, competitive displacement assay and salt concentration dependence assay were applied to search the interaction mode of quercetin-calf thymus DNA, which proved the existence of groove binding and electrostatic interaction. Meanwhile, quenching constant Ksv, binding constant Ka and the number of binding sites n was calculated, inferring that the fluorescence quenching occurred by static quenching process, and the main acting force was hydrogen bond. Finally, molecular docking was used to simulate and analyze the interaction between quercetin and calf thymus DNA.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20T06:25:30.766669-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700133
       
  • Chemistry of Two Distinct Aeolid Spurilla Species:Ecological Implications
    • Authors: M. Letizia Ciavatta; Stella García-Matucheski, Marianna Carbone, Guido Villani, Claudia Muniain, Margherita Gavagnin
      Abstract: The lipophilic extracts of two marine aeolid nudibranch molluscs of the genus Spurilla collected in distinct geographical areas have been chemically analysed. The Et2O extracts of the nudibranchs were dominated by the presence of usual fatty acids and sterols and contained terpenoid compounds 1-3 as minor metabolites. Spurillin A (1) and spurillin B (3) were new molecules whereas cis-γ-monocyclo-farnesol (2) was already reported in the literature as a synthesis product. Interestingly, bursatellin (4), previously isolated from anaspidean molluscs of the genus Bursatella, was found in the butanol extract of both Spurilla species. Compounds 1-4 were not detected in the extracts of the sea-anemone preys collected together with the molluscs.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19T03:50:57.216716-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700125
       
  • Derivatives of Holomycin and Cyclopropaneacetic Acid from Streptomyces sp.
           DT-A37
    • Authors: Hui Ding; Jianan Wang, Dashan Zhang, Zhongjun Ma
      Abstract: On the basis of the one strain–many compounds (OSMAC) strategy, five compounds including two new holomycin derivatives (2–3), two new cyclopropaneacetic acid derivatives (4–5), together with one known compound holomycin (1) were isolated from a marine-derived bacterium Streptomyces sp. DT-A37. Their structures were elucidated using NMR and HRESIMS analyses. All these compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity, cytotoxic activity, and inhibitory activity against BRD4 protein. Compound 1 exhibited potent cytotoxicity against H1975 cells with IC50 value of 1 μM, and its MIC values against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were both 64 μM.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19T02:12:29.965947-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700140
       
  • Bioactive Neolignans and Other Compounds from Magnolia grandiflora L.:
           Isolation and Antiplasmodial Activity
    • Authors: Abdul Latif; Yongle Du, Seema R. Dalal, Emilio F. Merino, Maria B. Cassera, Michael Goetz, David G. I. Kingston
      Abstract: Bioassay-guided fractionation of a methanol extract of Magnolia grandiflora against Plasmodium falciparum yielded two new (1 and 2) and six known (3 - 8) bioactive compounds. The structures of the new compounds were assigned by mass spectrometric and 1D and 2D NMR data. Known compounds were identified by comparison of 1H NMR and MS data with literature data. The two known neolignans 3 and 4 showed moderate antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 2.8 ± 0.1 and 3.4 ± 0.1 μM, respectively. Weak antiplasmodial activity was recorded for compounds 1, 2, 5, 6, 7 and 8, with IC50 values of 38 ± 2, 23 ± 2, 16.5 ± 0.2, 86 ± 1, 44 ± 4 and 114 ± 9 μM, respectively.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-16T00:15:38.748037-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700209
       
  • Chemical compositions, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of
           essential oil of Psidium guajava L. leaves from different geographic
           regions in China
    • Authors: Lu Wang; Yanan Wu, Tao Huang, Kan Shi, Zhenqiang Wu
      Abstract: Hydrodistilled essential oils (EO) of Psidium guajava L. leaves from different regions in China were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The samples from Guangdong province displayed high EO yields (0.61-0.75%, v/w). A total of 50 components, representing over 98.00% of the EOs, were identified and semi-quantitatived. The major constituents of EOs included β-caryophyllen (17.17-31.38%), γ-gurjunene (9.17-15.22%), τ-cadinol (1.35-10.02%) and calamenene (2.13-7.80%). The terpenoids in all sample oils were dominated by sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons (70.18-84.35%), followed by oxygenated sesquiterpenes (9.89-22.19%). The similarities and differences among EOs from different samples were evaluated by hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis methods. The IC50 values of EOs from different regions were between 18.52-33.72 mg/mL (DPPH) and 13.12-25.15 mg/mL (ABTS+). The FRAP value of EO from Guangdong province was 7.34-9.13 mmol Vc/g DM, while the FRAP value of EO from Taiwan province was 2.29-2.36 mmol Vc/g DM. The antimicrobial tests revealed that EO had a higher antimicrobial activity against all Gram-positive bacteria and two fungi. Moreover, EO from P. guajava leaves of Guangdong province showed the highest antimicrobial activity. These properties can be considered in the design of industrial products and for further application in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T15:15:22.58568-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700114
       
  • UHPLC-ESI-HR-MS/MS profiling of phenolics from Tunisian Lycium arabicum
           Boiss. Antioxidant and anti-lipase activities’ evaluation
    • Authors: Marwa Affes; Jawhar Fakhfakh, Ines Douad, Vincent Brieudes, Maria Halabalaki, Abdelfattah El Feki, Noureddine Allouche
      Abstract: This study was performed in the aim to evaluate 9 different extracts from Tunisian L. arabicum for their total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid (TFC) contents, phytochemical analyses as well as their antioxidant and anti-lipase activities. The in vitro antioxidant property was investigated using three complementary methods (DPPH, Ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP) and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching assays) while anti-lipase activity was evaluated using 4-methylumbelliferyl oleate method. From all of the tested extracts the most potent found to be the polar methanol extracts especially those of stems and leaves. In order to investigate the chemical composition of these extracts and possible correlation of their constituents with the observed activities an UHPLC-ESI-HR-MS/MS analysis was performed. Several compounds belonging to different chemical classes were tentatively identified such as rutin and kampferol rutinoside, the major constituents of the leaves, and N-caffeoyltyramine, lyciumide A, N-dihydrocaffeoyltyramine as well as fatty acids: trihydroxyoctadecedienoic acid and hydroxyoctadecedienoic acid isomers were detected abundantly in the stems. These results showed that the methanolic extracts of stems and leaves of L. arabicum can be considered as a potential source of biological active compounds.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T09:50:20.337231-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700095
       
  • Chemical composition and biological studies of the essential oil from
           aerial parts of beta vulgaris subsp. maritima (L.) arcang. growing in
           Tunisia
    • Authors: Afifa Zardi-Bergaoui; Aymen Ben Nejma, Fethia Harzallah-Skhiri, Guido Flamini, Roberta Ascrizzi, Hichem Ben Jannet
      Abstract: The chemical composition, antioxidant, cytotoxic, anticholinesterase and anti-tyrosinase activities of the hydrodistilled essential oil of the aerial parts of Beta vulgaris subsp. Maritime (L.) Arcang. from Tunisia have been evaluated. The chemical composition of the oil (yield 0.037% (w/w)), determined by GC-FID and GC-MS is reported for the first time. Twenty five components, accounting for 98.1% of the total oil have been identified. The oil was characterized by a high proportion of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (39.2%), followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (30.3%) and one apocarotenoids (26.3%). The main compounds were γ-irone (26.3%), α-cadinol (12.1%), T-cadinol (10.6%), bicyclogermacrene (10.4%) and δ-cadinene (6.0%). The isolated oil was tested for its antioxidant activity using the DPPH., ABTS.+, catalase and paraoxonase assays and also for its cytotoxic, anticholinesterase and anti-tyrosinaseactivities.The essential oil exhibited high antioxidant activity (IC50= 0.055 ± 0.006 mg/mL)and important result oncatalase (524.447 ± 2.58 Units/mg protein). Furthermore, it exerted a significant cytotoxic effect against A549 cell line, with IC50= 42.44 ± 1.40 μg/mL. The results indicate that the essential oil of B. vulgaris subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang. aerial parts may be used in future as an alternative to synthetic antioxidant agents, with potential application in the food and pharmaceutical industries.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T09:45:19.787707-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700234
       
  • Utilization of UPLC/Q-TOF MS-based metabolomics and AFLP-based
           marker-assisted selection to facilitate/assist conventional breeding of
           Polygala tenuifolia
    • Authors: Juan Li; Dan-dan Wang, Xiao-shuang Xu, Lu Bai, Bing Peng, Ya-jie Pu, Hong-ling Tian, Xue-mei Qin, Fu-sheng Zhang, Cun-gen Ma
      Abstract: As one of the most important traditional Chinese medicine, the quality of Polygala tenuifolia is difficult to control and a new method must be established to facilitate/assist the breeding of P. tenuifolia. In this study, UPLC/Q-TOF MS-based metabolomics analysis was performed to determine the chemical composition and screen metabolite biomarkers according to agronomic traits. A total of 29 compounds and 18 metabolite biomarkers were found. AFLP-based marker-assisted selection (MAS) was used to identify molecular marker bands and screen characteristic bands associated with specific agronomic traits. 184 bands and 76 characteristic AFLP bands were found. The correlation network between compounds and characteristic AFLP bands was built, so we may directly breed certain P. tenuifolia herbs with special agronomic traits (or characteristic AFLP bands), which exhibit specific pharmacological functions depending on the content of the active compounds. The proposed method of metabolomics coupled with MAS could facilitate/assist the breeding of P. tenuifolia.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T07:56:47.240553-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700163
       
  • Angupyrones A-E, α-pyrone analogues with ARE-activation from a
           sponge-associated fungus Truncatella angustata
    • Authors: Yang Zhao; Dong Liu, Peter Proksch, Siwang Yu, Wenhan Lin
      Abstract: TLC-DPPH guided fractionation of a sponge-associated fungus Truncatella angustata with a solid culture resulted in the isolation of five new α-pyrone-based analogues namely angupyrones A-E (1-5), and 3-enthyl-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2-pyrone. Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses, including the modified Mosher's method, bulkiness rule and specific rotation for the configurational assignments. Angupyrones A-E exhibited moderate antioxidant response element (ARE) activation in HepG2C8 cells, while the preliminary structure-activity relationship was discussed.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-09T11:35:24.9018-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700236
       
  • Antioxidant and proteinase inhibitory activities of selected poppy
           (Papaver somniferum L.) genotypes
    • Authors: Erik Krošlák; Tibor Maliar, Peter Nemeček, Jana Viskupičová, Mária Maliarová, Michaela Havrlentová, Ján Kraic
      Abstract: Poppy seeds (Papaver somniferum L.) belong to tasty food ingredients however, they should be considered also as valuable source of biologically active compounds. Content of selected metabolites, antioxidant and proteinase inhibitory activities were analyzed in vitro in extracts from seeds of fifteen poppy genotypes. Considerable variation in all parameters was detected within the set of analyzed poppy genotypes. The genotype Major expressed the highest antioxidant activity determined by all four methodological approaches (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, RP). The genotype MS 423 exhibited the highest inhibitory activities against trypsin, thrombin and collagenase. Very specific position among all had the genotype Redy. Its grain extract reached significantly high levels in 9 out of 14 measured parameters (TPC, TFC, TTC, TAC, FRAP, RP, inhibitory activities against trypsin, thrombin, collagenase). Edible grains of poppy are valuable source of natural compounds which may be beneficial in pathological states associated with oxidative stress or increased proteinase activities.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-09T11:35:19.347432-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700176
       
  • Qualitative HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF-MS analysis, cytotoxic and apoptotic effects
           of Croatian endemic Centaurea ragusina L. aqueous extracts
    • Authors: Mila Radan; Ivana Carev, Vele Tešević, Olivera Politeo, Vedrana Čikeš Čulić
      Abstract: Centaurea ragusina L., an endemic Croatian plant species, revealed a good cytotoxic activity of aqueous extracts on human bladder (T24) and human glioblastoma (A1235) cancer cell lines. The chemical constituents were tentatively identified using high performance liquid chromatography HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF-MS in negative ionization mode. The main compounds of herba extract were sesquiterpene lactones: solstitialin A-3, 13 diacetate and epoxyrepdiolide; organic acid: quinic acid. The main compounds of flower extract were organic acids: quinic acid, citric acid and malic acid; sesquiterpene lactone: cynaropicrin; phenolic compounds: chlorogenic acid and phenylpropanoid: syringin. The aqueous extracts of C. ragusina were investigated for correlation of their effects on human bladder (T24) and human glioblastoma (A1235) cancer cell lines using the MTT assay. Although both extracts showed significant dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic activity against both cancer cell lines, the flower extract exhibited slightly higher activity. In order to determine type of cell death induced by treatment, cell lines were exposed subsequently to a treatment with both flower and herba aqueous extracts. The majority of the cells died by induced apoptosis treatment. Flower aqueous extract (26.25%), compared to a leaf aqueous extract (22.15%) showed slightly higher percentage of an apoptosis in T24 cells, when compared to a non-treated cells (0.04%).This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07T11:15:19.864295-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700099
       
  • New prenylated ortho-dihydroxycoumarins from the fruits of Ficus nipponica
    • Authors: Yui Akihara; Emi Ohta, Tatsuo Nehira, Hisashi Ômura, Shinji Ohta
      Abstract: Two new prenylated ortho-dihydroxycoumarins, designated fipsomin (1) and fipsotwin (2), were isolated from the fruits of Ficus nipponica together with a known prenylated coumarin, apigravin (3). Their structures were established by spectroscopic data and X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compound 1 exhibited antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis with an MIC value of 61 μM, while 2 and 3 showed very weak activity.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-02T10:55:29.185769-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700196
       
  • Synthesis and Deprotection of Biodegradably and Thermally Protected
           Dinucleoside-2′,5′-Monophosphate Prodrug Model of 2-5A
    • Authors: Emilia Kiuru; Suvi Malmikare, Mikko Ora
      Abstract: Protected dinucleoside-2′,5′-monophosphate has been prepared to develop a prodrug strategy for 2-5A. The removal of enzymatically and thermally labile 4-acetylthio-2-ethoxycarbonyl-3-oxo-2-methylbutyl phosphate protecting group and enzymatically labile 3′-O-pivaloyloxymethyl group was followed at pH 7.5 and 37°C by HPLC from the fully protected dimeric adenosine-2′,5′-monophosphate 1 used as a model compound for 2-5A. The desired unprotected 2′,3′-O-isopropylideneadenosine-2′,5′-monophosphate (9) was observed to accumulate as a major product. Neither the competative isomerization of 2′,5′- to a 3′,5′-linkage nor the P-O5′ bond cleavage was detected. The phosphate protecting group removed faster than the 3′-O-protection and, hence, the attack of the neighbouring 3′-OH on phosphotriester moiety did not take place.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-29T07:30:24.091957-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700220
       
  • Acetazolamide inhibits the level of tyrosinase and melanin: An enzyme
           kinetic, in vitro, in vivo and in silico studies
    • Authors: Qamar Abbas; Hussain Raza, Mubashir Hassan, Abdul Rehman Phull, Song Ja Kim, Sung-Yum Seo
      Abstract: Melanin is the major factor that determines skin color and protects from ultraviolet radiation. In present study we evaluated the anti-melanogenesis effect of acetazolamide (ACZ) using four different approaches: enzyme kinetic, in vitro, in vivo and in silico. ACZ demonstrated significant inhibitory activity (IC50 7.895 ± 0.24 μM) against tyrosinase as compared to the standard drug kojic acid (IC50 16.84 ± 0.64 μM) and kinetic analyses showed that ACZ is a non-competitive inhibitor without cytotoxic effect. In in vitro experiments, A375 human melanoma cells were treated with 20 or 40 μM of ACZ with or without 50 μM of L-DOPA. Western blot results showed that ACZ significantly (p
      PubDate: 2017-05-29T07:25:29.055598-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700117
       
  • Diversity of polyhydroxynaphthoquinone pigments in North Pacific sea
           urchins
    • Authors: Elena A. Vasileva; Natalia P. Mishchenko, Sergey A. Fedoreyev
      Abstract: Using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) we investigated the composition of polyhydroxynaphthoquinone (PHNQ) pigments from sea urchins Strongylocentrotus pallidus, St. polyacanthus, St. droebachiensis, Brisaster latifrons and Echinarachnius parma, collected in the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea. Identification of PHNQ pigments from sea urchins St. polyacanthus, B. latifrons, and E. parma was performed for the first time. Among the usual PHNQ pigments, mono- and dimethoxy derivatives of spinochrome E, not previously found in other sea urchins, were discovered in St. polyacanthus and St. droebachiensis. In St. droebachiensis, two monomethoxy derivatives of echinochrome A were detected, isolated previously from only tropical sea urchins. It was found that the composition and total content of pigments of St. droebachiensis depends on the collection area of the sea urchins and its depth and varies from 88 to 331 μg per g of dry shells. Sea urchins St. pallidus, B. latifrons and E. parma had average values for PHNQ pigment content, approximately 30 μg/g, and St. polyacanthus had a low PHNQ content, 13 μg/g.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-29T07:25:24.371957-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700182
       
  • Influence of Environmental Factors on Essential Oil Variability in
           Origanum compactum Benth. Growing Wild in Morocco
    • Authors: Kaoutar Aboukhalid; Chaouki Al Faiz, Ahmed Douaik, Mohamed Bakha, Karolina Kursa, Monika Agacka-Mołdoch, Nathalie Machon, Félix Tomi, Abdeslam Lamiri
      Abstract: The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on essential oils (EOs) composition of O. compactum populations sampled all over the distribution area of the species in Morocco, and to determine the extent of the chemical profiles throughout the geographical distribution of the species. The chemical compositions were submitted to Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) and Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) that indicated a significant relationship between oil components and some environmental factors. According to their chemical composition and edapho-climatic characteristics, two major groups of populations were differentiated. The first group was composed of samples growing in regions with humid climate, clayey, sandy, and alkaline soils. These samples showed high thymol, α-terpineol, linalool, and carvacryl methyl oxide content. The second group consisted of plants belonging to semi-arid climate, and growing at high altitudes and silty soils. These samples were characterized by high carvacrol, α-thujene, α-terpinene and myrcene content. However, populations exposed to sub-humid climate, appeared less homogeneous and belong mainly either to the first or second group. A significant correlation between some edaphic factors (pH, K2O content, soil texture) and the EOs yield of O. compactum plants was evidenced. In spite of the correlation obtained for the oil composition with edapho-climatic factors and the variance explained by the environmental data set, the observed EO diversity might be also genetically determined.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-27T03:50:23.896753-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700158
       
  • A new anti-inflammatory alkaloid from roots of Heracleum dissectum
    • Authors: Hai-Long Zhang; Xin-Yuan Wu, Jie Mi, Ya-Jie Peng, Zhi-Gang Wang, Ying liu, Xiu-Li Wu, Yang Gao
      Abstract: Using various chromatographic methods, a new piperidinone alkaloid, (3S, 13E)-3-(4-(3-hydroxyprop-1-en-1-yl)-2-methoxyphenoxy) piperidin-2-one (1), together with ten known compounds, bergapten (2), xanthotoxol (3), isopimpinellin (4), isobergapten (5), heratomol-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), scopoletin (7), apterin (8), 3-methoxy-4-β-D-glucopyranosyloxypropiophenone, (praeroside) (9), tachioside (10) and coniferin (11), were isolated from roots of Heracleum dissectum Ledeb. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and the detailed interpretation of various spectroscopic data. All the isolated compounds were screened for anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. As the results, compound 1 and 8 showed significantly inhibitory activity on nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cells.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-27T02:35:23.855831-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700184
       
  • Phenolic Composition, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial
           Activities of Alchemilla mollis (Buser) Rothm
    • Authors: Gökçe Şeker Karatoprak; Selen İlgün, Müberra Koşar
      Abstract: The current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of Alchemilla mollis (Buser) Rothm. (Rosaceae) aerial parts extracts. Chemical composition was analyzed by spectrophotometric and chromatographic (HPLC) techniques. The antioxidant properties assessed included, DPPH● and ABTS●+ radical scavenging, β-carotene-linoleic acid co-oxidation assay. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated with disc diffusion and micro dilution method. In order to evaluate toxicity of the extracts with the sulforhodamine B (SRB) colorimetric assay L929 cell line (mouse fibroblast) was used. The anti-inflammatory activities of the potent antioxidant extracts (methanol, 70% methanol and water extracts) were determined by measuring the inhibitory effects on NO production and pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. 70% methanol and water extracts which were found to be rich in phenolic compounds (184.79 and 172.60 mgGAE/gextract) showed higher antioxidant activity. Luteolin-7-O-glucoside was the main compound in the extracts. Ethyl acetate and 70% methanol extracts showed higher antibacterial activity against S. aureus and S. enteritidis with MIC value of 125 μg/mL. 70% methanol extract potentially inhibited the NO and TNF-α production (18.43 μM and 1556.22 pg/mL, respectively, 6h).This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-14T05:22:19.467494-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700150
       
 
 
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