Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 987 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (716 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
ACS Applied Polymer Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ACS Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 426)
ACS Photonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 95)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alchemy : Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alchemy : Jurnal Penelitian Kimia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alotrop     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology A : Applied Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 322)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio AA – Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access  
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 454)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 82)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Chemical Physics Letters : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 248)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Chemical Science International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry     Open Access  
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Chemistry & Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 211)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Chemistry Africa : A Journal of the Tunisian Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry Education Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 312)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistrySelect     Hybrid Journal  
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
ChemNanoMat     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemPhotoChem     Hybrid Journal  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chempublish Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemSystemsChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Communications Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.047
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 15  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1572-882X - ISSN (Online) 0969-0239
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Stereochemical identification of glucans by a donor–acceptor–donor
           conjugated pentamer enables multi-carbohydrate anatomical mapping in plant
    • Abstract: Optotracing is a novel method for analytical imaging of carbohydrates in plant and microbial tissues. This optical method applies structure-responsive oligothiophenes as molecular fluorophores emitting unique optical signatures when bound to polysaccharides. Herein, we apply Carbotrace™680, a short length anionic oligothiophene with a central heterocyclic benzodithiazole (BTD) motif, to probe for different glucans. The donor–acceptor–donor type electronic structure of Carbotrace™680 provides improved spectral properties compared to oligothiophenes due to the possibility of intramolecular charge-transfer transition to the BTD motif. This enables differentiation of glucans based on the glycosidic linkage stereochemistry. Thus α-configured starch is readily differentiated from β-configured cellulose. The versatility of optotracing is demonstrated by dynamic monitoring of thermo-induced starch remodelling, shown in parallel by spectrophotometry and microscopy of starch granules. Imaging of Carbotrace™680 bound to multiple glucans in plant tissues provided direct identification of their physical locations, revealing the spatial relationship between structural (cellulose) and storage (starch) glucans at sub-cellular scale. Our work forms the basis for the development of superior optotracers for sensitive detection of polysaccharides. Our non-destructive method for anatomical mapping of glucans in biomass will serve as an enabling technology for developments towards efficient use of plant-derived materials and biomass. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2019-03-21
  • Paper conservation with an aqueous NaOH/urea cellulose solution
    • Abstract: A solution of cellulose dissolved in NaOH/urea was investigated for extending the life of three different model papers. Their mechanical properties such as tensile strength, folding endurance, and tearing strength were tested before and after the treatment. These samples were also characterized by SEM, XRD and FTIR. The results showed that the pre-protection for the papers was absolutely necessary before spraying the cellulose solution on the papers, otherwise the papers would be destroyed in a matter of seconds by the strong alkalinity of the cellulose solution. The pretreatment of impregnating the papers with ethyl acetate in ethanol solution could greatly extend the time that the papers contacted with the cellulose solution to 8 min before water washing. After the treatment, the mechanical properties of the samples improved significantly, especially for their folding endurance, indicating an increase in the interfiber bonds, which improved the flexibility of the papers. The treatment neutralized the acid in the papers and greatly improved the anti-aging properties of the papers, meanwhile the appearance of the paper changed slightly. This study provided a new idea for paper conservation. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2019-03-21
  • A structural fibrillation parameter from small angle X-ray scattering to
           quantify pulp refining
    • Abstract: Pulp fibrillation results from refining and is of prime importance for papermaking. Yet a structural parameter reflecting the extent of fibrillation remains elusive. In this work, we demonstrate that in refined pulps, the interfibrillar distance at water saturated state (Ls), as derived from the interference factor from small angle X-ray scattering, structurally reflects fibrillation degree. Interestingly, the minimal L obtained at low water content is close to the crystal thickness derived from wide angle X-ray scattering. For a series of refined pulp samples, significant regressions are established between Ls and equilibrium moisture content, transmittance (T%), surface energy components (γLW, γAB), and the normalized crystallinity index (CrIn). These regressions establish Ls as a unique structural parameter for quantifying the fibrillation degree and derived properties of refined pulps without the need of a multi-parameter and time-consuming analyses. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2019-03-21
  • Thermal stability, swelling and degradation behaviour of natural fibre
           based hybrid polymer composites
    • Abstract: Unsaturated Polyester (UP) based composites with 5, 15, 25, 35 and 45 wt% filler content have been fabricated by compression moulding technique. The NaOH treated discontinuous jute fibre has been used along with vinyl silane treated zirconia (ZrO2) particle as the dispersing phases. The structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the UP and UP based composites were observed using electronic thermal insulation tester, thermo-gravimetric analyser, differential scanning calorimetry and limiting oxygen index analyser. The swelling behaviour has been investigated in different solutions having a range of pH values. The optimum results were obtained with 35 wt% filler content for UP/Jute/ZrO2 composites. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2019-03-20
  • Determining the lignin distribution in plant fiber cell walls based on
           chemical and biological methods
    • Abstract: Cellulosic fibers are widely used in biocomposites, paper and paperboard products, and other fiber-based materials. The properties of fiber-based materials are significantly affected by lignin characteristics, especially the lignin distribution in cellulosic fiber cell walls. In this study, chemical (sodium chlorite) and biological (laccase/mediator system) techniques were used to control three fiber models with different lignin contents at about 20%, 10%, 5%, respectively. The lignin distribution in cell walls was determined based on the “enzymatic peeling” method and SEM–EDS analysis. Results showed that the lignin concentrations in fiber cell walls prepared from the combined chemical and biological techniques were lower in the outer region and higher in the inner region than those from the chemical treatment only, which is due to the fact that laccase-induced lignin degradation is only limited to the outer region and not able to get into the inner region. The fiber model with less lignin in the inner region of the cell wall had a better deformation performance (the flexibility of 1.559 × 109 N−1 m−2) than that with more lignin in the same region. The relationships of fiber models of different specific lignin distribution with their deformability were established, which could be valuable to extend the wide value-added applications of fiber-based materials. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2019-03-19
  • Catalytic conversion of herbal residue carbohydrates to furanic
           derivatives in a deep eutectic solvent accompanied by dissolution and
           recrystallisation of choline chloride
    • Abstract: Abstract Catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into furfural (FF) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) requires a high reaction temperature (150–230 °C) in aqueous/organic systems. In this study, a novel choline chloride–formic acid-SnCl4·5H2O (ChCl–Fa–SnCl4) catalytic system was designed to transform herbal residues (HRs) carbohydrates into furanic derivatives at temperatures below 140 °C. The total yield of FF and xylose from HR of Heteropogon contortus (L.) Beauv (HRH) was 67.5% at 140 °C for 10 min, while the total yield of 5-HMF and glucose from HR of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge was 93.8% at 120 °C. Characteristics of substrates such as molecular weight had a great influence on formation of furanic derivatives and sugar release. Surprisingly, the dissolution and recrystallisation characteristics of ChCl make this catalytic system sustainable and economically attractive. Recovery of ChCl and SnCl4 was 73.3% following simple natural recrystallisation, and recovered material retained a high chemical reactivity for FF and 5-HMF production. Moreover, 100% lignin dissolution was achieved in this system at 140 °C, and ~ 77% could be precipitated and recovered by adding water.
      PubDate: 2019-03-19
  • Facile preparation of nitrogen-doped activated mesoporous carbon aerogel
           from chitosan for methyl orange adsorption from aqueous solution
    • Abstract: In this work, a nitrogen-doped activated mesoporous carbon aerogel (NAMC) for the removal of methyl orange from aqueous solution was prepared through carbonization and pickling using the chitosan and poly(vinyl alcohol) as the carbon source and AlCl3·6H2O as both the solvent for chitosan and the hard template for porous structure. The morphology and structural properties were characterized by N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction measurement, and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The effects of pickling time and initial aqueous concentration on the adsorption were investigated. The SEM results showed that the pickling caused NAMC to have the porous structure and thus improved the adsorption of NAMC for MO. The adsorption kinetics was studied by the pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and intra-particle diffusion rate models, respectively. This work provides a practical utilization route for chitosan. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2019-03-19
  • Cellulose non-woven fabric-derived porous carbon films as binder-free
           electrodes for supercapacitors
    • Abstract: In this study, porous carbon films with a high specific surface area and excellent electrical conductivity were prepared from cheap cellulose non-woven fabrics (CNWFs) for high-performance supercapacitors. CNWFs were stabilized under the optimized conditions and then carbonized at various temperatures under inert atmosphere, resulting in carbonized CNWFs (C-CNWFs) with a high specific area without any activation process and a low surface resistance. The specific surface area and electrochemical properties of the C-CNWFs were found to be strongly dependent on the carbonization temperature. In particular, the C-CNWFs prepared at 1000 °C showed superior electrochemical performance in a KOH aqueous electrolyte, including a high specific capacitance of ~ 240 F g−1 at a current density of 1 A g−1, and a good capacitance retention of 99.7%. This excellent performance demonstrates the potential for the application of C-CNWFs as an electrode material in high-performance supercapacitors. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2019-03-19
  • Preparation and characterization of carboxylated cellulose nanofibrils
           with dual metal counterions
    • Abstract: Surface C6-carboxylated cellulose nanofibrils (TCNF-COONa) were prepared from wood cellulose by TEMPO/NaBr/NaClO oxidation in water at pH 10 and successive mechanical disintegration of the oxidized cellulose in water. Aqueous TCNF dispersions with magnesium and calcium carboxylate groups, TCNF-COOMg and TCNF-COOCa, respectively, were prepared in high yields of 85–90% from aqueous TCNF-COONa dispersion by addition of aqueous MgCl2 and CaCl2 solutions, respectively, to the aqueous TCNF-COONa dispersion, washing the gels with water by filtration without drying, and successive mechanical disintegration of the gels in water. The cast-dried TCNF-COONa, TCNF-COOMg, and TCNF-COOMg films had no significant differences in density and water content at 23 °C and 50% relative humidity. Consequently, they had similar mechanical properties. Aqueous TCNF-COONa/Mg and TCNF-COONa/Ca dispersions were prepared by mixing TCNF-COONa and either TCNF-COOMg or TCNF-COOCa dispersion at a weight ratio of 1:1. Oxygen permeabilities of the TCNF-COONa/Mg and TCNF-COOCa films had the lowest and highest values at 50% RH, respectively, while those of the TCNF-COOMg and TCNF-COONa/Ca films had the lowest and highest values at 80%, respectively. The Na and Mg counterions in the aqueous TCNF-COONa/Mg dispersion were homogeneously distributed in each TCNF element without separately keeping individual TCNF-COONa and TCNF-COOMg elements. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2019-03-18
  • Flexible and freestanding electrodes based on polypyrrole/carbon
           nanotube/cellulose composites for supercapacitor application
    • Abstract: In this study, freestanding paper-like composite films were fabricated using a simple, but scalable and efficient, approach: an environmentally friendly freeze-and-thaw process giving a porous fibrous matrix of cellulose and functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs), followed by in situ chemical polymerization for the incorporation of polypyrrole (PPy). A homogeneous porous fibrous matrix was formed as a result of strong hydrogen bonding between the f-CNTs and the regenerated cellulose; this material served as an excellent template for the uniform coating of PPy. The structural, morphological, thermal, and electrochemical properties of the as-prepared PPy/f-CNT/cellulose composite films were investigated to evaluate their potential for use as flexible, lightweight, and inexpensive freestanding electrode materials within flexible supercapacitors. The unique microstructure—with high electrical conductivity, good wettability, and a porous architecture—provided large interfacial areas for the storage/release of charge carriers and for the facile diffusion of electrolyte ions in the prepared composite electrodes. With these attributes, the freestanding electrode having the optimal PPy loading exhibited not only an excellent areal capacitance (2147 mF cm−2 at a current density of 1 mA cm−2) but also a good rate capability and an outstanding cycling stability. Moreover, the flexibility, environmental friendliness, and biodegradability of the PPy/f-CNT/cellulose composite films suggest that they will be suitable for use as green and sustainable electrode materials within flexible supercapacitors. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2019-03-18
  • Facile flame retardant finishing of cotton fabric with hydrated sodium
    • Abstract: Abstract Flame retardant (FR) cotton fabric was facilely prepared using hydrated sodium metaborate (SMB) crystalized in situ in the interstices and on the surface of cotton fabric via one-pot impregnation approach, and the thermal, FR and mechanical properties were investigated. TGA results showed that SMB treatment improved the thermal stability of cotton fabric and enhanced the char yield. The treated cotton also had an LOI value of 28.5% with an afterglow time of less than 1 s in the UL-94 test (V-0). Considerable reductions in peak heat release rate (PHRR ~ 91.8%), total heat release (THR ~ 47.2%), peak carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide produced (PCOP ~ 28.6, PCO2P ~ 85.5%) were obtained. The postburn residues examined by SEM and Raman spectroscopy revealed a preserved fabric structure with high graphite content. SMB treated cotton fabrics demonstrated negligible changes in the tensile strength and the elongation at break. The result demonstrates SMB as an effective flame-retardant for cotton fabrics.
      PubDate: 2019-03-18
  • Freeze dried cellulose nanocrystal reinforced unsaturated polyester
           composites: challenges and potential
    • Abstract: Abstract Functionalized cellulose particles were studied as a potential reinforcement for an unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) system, a common material for automotive applications of fiber reinforced plastics. A preliminary process for incorporating freeze-dried cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) powder into UPR was developed. Three surface chemistries were explored including sulfonated, methyl(triphenyl) phosphonium (PhCNC), and maleic acid (MCNC). By optical microscopy the filler was seen to be agglomerated within the matrix. Fractography showed that these agglomerates acted as stress concentration points resulting in decreased tensile and flexural strength. With the addition of 1 wt% CNCs, the flexural and tensile modulus increased by up to 53% and 22%, respectively. Dynamic mechanical analysis indicated that the PhCNC- and MCNC-UPR samples had a 61% and 66% higher glassy modulus than neat UPR, respectively. Despite the lack of nano-scale dispersion of CNC in UPR, these results reflect potential in the use of functionalized CNC agglomerates as an additive in UPR systems to produce composites with high moduli and good thermo-mechanical stability.
      PubDate: 2019-03-16
  • Reinforcing effect of poly(furfuryl alcohol) in cellulose-based porous
    • Abstract: The mechanical reinforcement of porous materials made of microfibrillated cellulose by in situ polymerisation of furfuryl alcohol prior to freeze-drying from aqueous slurry was studied. Besides a slight improvement in the modulus of elasticity measured in compression testing, no beneficial effects of furfuryl alcohol addition on porous materials produced from microfibrillated cellulose derived from bleached softwood pulp were observed. By contrast, when microfibrillated cellulose containing substantial amounts of residual non-cellulosic cell wall polymers, termed microfibrillated lignocellulose, was used, clear mechanical reinforcement effects due to furfuryl alcohol addition were measured. By means of SEM, significantly improved wetting of the cellulosic fibrillary architecture of porous materials with furfuryl alcohol was observed for microfibrillated lignocellulose compared to microfibrillated cellulose. It is proposed that the specific surface-chemical character of microfibrillated lignocellulose enables wetting of fibrils with furfuryl alcohol, thus providing micron fibre-reinforced structures with improved strength after in situ polymerisation. Besides mechanical properties, the density and thermal stability of cellulose-based porous materials were found to increase with increasing amounts of furfuryl alcohol added to the initial reaction slurry. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2019-03-15
  • Mechanisms of strength and stiffness improvement of paper after PFI
           refining with a focus on the effect of fines
    • Abstract: Abstract Refining (i.e., mechanical beating of pulp) is a common procedure that is used in paper-making to improve the mechanical properties of the final product. The improvements caused by refining are mainly attributed to increased density and to a better bonding between fibers. In this work, we study how various mechanisms that can be triggered by refining affect the tensile behavior of the sheets. Consequently, we use direct numerical simulations of fiber networks. We relate our finding to the experimental measurements that we conducted on handsheets. We have found that fibrillar fines with size distributions below the resolution of modern state-of-the art pulp characterization tools have a substantial contribution to the increased strength and stiffness of the sheets.
      PubDate: 2019-03-14
  • Preparation of all-cellulose composites with optical transparency using
           the banana pseudostem as a raw material
    • Abstract: Biopolymers are intended to substitute the petroleum-based polymers and all-cellulose composite has emerged as a green alternative, especially if it can be prepared through a method consuming less energy and fewer chemicals. Here, a novel approach to obtain a nanocomposite film made of cellulose fibrils imbibed into a nanocellulose matrix is described. Banana pseudostem was used as raw material and characterized along with the resulting materials using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, while the cellulose/nanocellulose film was studied through X-ray diffraction, UV–Vis-NIR spectroscopy and laser scanning microscopy. Results indicate that cellulose (fibrils) and nanocellulose (platelets), extracted from banana pseudostem were successfully purified using hydrolysis at a relatively low amount of chemicals. Transparent films made of a fibrils/nanoplatelets blend were prepared by the solution casting method, exhibiting a transmittance of ≈ 83–88% and a crystallinity index of ≈ 70, hence demonstrating the feasibility of this novel method to obtain cellulose/nanocellulose free-standing films. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2019-03-14
  • Highly efficient flame-retardant and soft cotton fabric prepared by a
           novel reactive flame retardant
    • Abstract: The flame resistance of cotton fabric was greatly enhanced by a novel reactive flame retardant with serrated structure, ammonium salt of 1,3-diaminopropane tetra-(methylenephosphonic acid) (ADDTMPA), and the softness of cotton fabric was retained very well. The results showed that cotton fabric modified by 30% ADDTMPA had a LOI value of 41.5%, which remained well after 40 laundering cycles with a LOI value of 26.3%. The treated cotton fabric was not ignited in vertical flammability tests, and the results of cone calorimetry proved that the heat release rates and total heat release of treated cotton fabric decreased substantially. TG analysis showed that the treated cotton fabric had the lower initial decomposition temperature and more residues than control cotton fabric during combustion. TG-IR analysis showed that the treated cotton fabric released much less flammable volatile species than control cotton fabric. FTIR analysis indicated that the flame retardant was reactive in condensed phase and the flame retardant was grafted on cellulose by P–O–C bonds. EDX results showed that a large amount of phosphorus was introduced into the cotton fabric. SEM showed that the modification had little effect on the surface of cotton fibers, and a large amount of residue was maintained after combustion. The treatment by ADDTMPA could produce highly effective flame-retardant and soft cotton fabric. Graphical abstract A novel phosphorus-based, halogen-free and formaldehyde-free flame retardant with serrated structure and reactive groups was synthesized to prepare highly efficient flame-retardant and soft cotton fabric by chemical grafting.
      PubDate: 2019-03-13
  • Phosphorus-nitrogen-silicon-based assembly multilayer coating for the
           preparation of flame retardant and antimicrobial cotton fabric
    • Abstract: A novel silicon- and nitrogen-containing compound, poly[3-(5,5-cyanuricacidpropyl)-siloxane-co-trimethyl ammoniumpropyl siloxane chloride] (PCQS) was synthesized and coated onto cotton fabrics with phytic acid (PA) by layer-by-layer assembly. The treated cotton fabrics were characterized by SEM, FT-IR and EDX. The thermal property, mechanical property, flame retardancy and antibacterial property of the coated cotton fabrics were investigated. The breaking strength of the coated cotton fabrics had a small decline. With the flame retardant effect of PCQS and PA, the coated cotton fabrics obtained excellent flame retardancy with LOI value of 29.8% and char length of 8.1 cm. Furthermore, the LOI value and char length of Cotton-PEI/(PCQS/PA)30-Cl separately reached 28.5% and 7.9 cm and Cotton-PEI/(PCQS/PA)30-Cl also showed high thermal stability with char yield of 34% at 600 °C, whereas pure cotton fabrics only obtained 8% char yield. The Cotton-PEI/(PCQS/PA)30-Cl exhibited effective antimicrobial activity against E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus with 100% bacterial reduction at 106 CFU per square inch inoculated level within 1 min of contact time, respectively. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2019-03-13
  • Pulse-potential electrochemical fabrication of coaxial-nanostructured
           polypyrrole/multiwall carbon nanotubes networks on cotton fabrics as
           stable flexible supercapacitor electrodes with high areal capacitance
    • Abstract: Flexible supercapacitors (FSCs) with a high areal capacitance are essential for future wearable energy-storage devices due to the limitation of available area on the surface of the human body (< 2 m2). To achieve the performance with high areal capacitance, the surface structure of electrodes should be designed carefully. In this paper, a hierarchical composite electrode based on coaxial-nanostructured polypyrrole (PPy) and multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) was electrochemical co-deposited on the surface of the MWCNT-coated cotton fabric (MCF) by a facile pulse potential method. The pulse potential co-deposition conditions-lower potential (EL), the number of cycles (NC) and EL duration time (tL)-played crucial roles in the uniform distribution of MWCNT within PPy/MWCNT composites, thickness of PPy shell and porous morphology. The three-dimension porous networks of PPy/MWCNT/MCF electrodes not only enhanced the efficiency of faradaic redox reactions but also facilitated the accessibility of the electrolyte to electrode surface, accordingly presenting an ultrahigh areal specific capacitance of 5.05 F cm−2 (0.001 V s−1) and unexceptionable cycling stability of 129.20% specific capacitance retention (1000 cycles, 0.02 V s−1). This work provides a new route to develop FSCs electrodes and shows a promising application in wearable energy-storage technology. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2019-03-11
  • Fabrication and characterization of cellulose triacetate porous membranes
           by combined nonsolvent-thermally induced phase separation
    • Abstract: Cellulose triacetate (CTA) porous membranes were firstly prepared by the combined nonsolvent-thermally induced phase separation (N-TIPS) method. Dimethyl sulfone (DMSO2) and polyethylene glycol (PEG400) were respectively chosen as the TIPS solvent and additive of CTA, while water was used as the NIPS nonsolvent. Their Hansen solubility parameters were analyzed to understand the solution thermodynamics. Detailed investigation was applied on the effects of the polymer concentration, the coagulation bath temperature and the coagulation bath composition on the CTA porous membranes. It is found that both NIPS and TIPS effects simultaneously exist and compete with each other, and further affect the membrane morphology and performance. The NIPS effect can be promoted by lowering the CTA concentration or elevating the coagulation bath temperature, resulting in figure-like macropores and porous top surface. The obtained CTA porous membranes show a water flux as high as 2002.9 ± 55.2 L/m2h. On the contrary, the TIPS effect becomes the dominant factor, and leads to the symmetric sponge-like pores, which facilitate to enhance the mechanical properties. Besides, CTA porous membranes present large surface pore size as well as low fraction of figure-like macropores as increasing the DMSO2 content in the coagulation bath. These CTA porous membranes with excellent water permeability and mechanical strength are promising candidates for microfiltration or the porous substrates of thin film composite membranes. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2019-03-11
  • Preparation of highly hazy transparent cellulose film from dissolving pulp
    • Abstract: Recently, cellulose films or nanopapers have aroused great attention due to their potential for utilization in photoelectric materials. In this study, transparent cellulose films were prepared from TEMPO-oxidized cellulose fibers by the casting method after they were ultrasonicated to improve the light transmittance and haze. It was found that powerful ultrasonication initiated severe cellulose fiber flattening, fibrillation, and breakage. Therefore, films with compact structures and smooth surfaces could be prepared, resulting in high transparency and tensile strength. However, excessive ultrasonic treatment caused transmittance haze loss. By controlling the ultrasonic power within the range of 180–360 W, transparent films (transmittance of ~ 90%) with 51–76% haze were obtained. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2019-03-11
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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