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CHEMISTRY (603 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 259)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access  
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 68)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 337)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 16)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 71)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 188)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 243)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Croatica Chemica Acta     Open Access  
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Chromatography     Hybrid Journal  
Current Green Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Microwave Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 64)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover Cellulose
  [SJR: 1.167]   [H-I: 71]   [7 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1572-882X - ISSN (Online) 0969-0239
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Microstructural model in COMSOL packages with simulation to aging behavior
           of paper materials
    • Authors: Fuze Jiang; Jiajia Weng; Minghao Jia; Youdi Yang; Xiaogang Zhang
      Abstract: The moisture-induced degradations during the use of paper are of growing concern for the existing paper materials stored in libraries, archives and museums. Knowing the moisture profiles is therefore a primary step in order to understand paper deterioration and give an assessment of degradation rate of library collections in their preservation. In this paper, the theoretical models based on 2-D scanning electron microscope real image microstructure were established for describing moisture transport in paper sheet in response with external humidity and the moisture diffusion profiles. The acid-catalyzed hydrolysis kinetic in combination with moisture diffusion theory gave the complementary explanation for the time-dependent natural aging process of a paper sheet and book stacks. The differential equations were solved by a numerical approach based on the finite element method implemented in commercial COMSOL Multiphysics. The 2-D simulation results, with a mesh based directly on SEM characterization of microstructure, could show the equilibrium moisture contents and the degradation rates as a function of relative humidity in cellulose pores and cellulose fibers across the transverse section of paper. For the stacks composed of books, the air gaps between the books provided convenient channels for diffusion and transport, accelerating the moisture transport process in the book stacks.
      PubDate: 2018-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1682-x
  • Cyclic tensile properties of the polylactide nanocomposite foams
           containing cellulose nanocrystals
    • Authors: Yaxin Qiu; Qiaolian Lv; Defeng Wu; Wenyuan Xie; Sheng Peng; Ruyue Lan; Hui Xie
      Abstract: Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) filled polylactide (PLA) nanocomposites are of interest because both the filler particles and matrix polymer are biodegradable. Foaming with high pressure inert gas is a promising way to open potential applications of this kind of green nanocomposites as lightweight materials. To establish the structure–property relations of this kind of foams is hence of great significance. In this work, PLA/CNC nanocomposites containing three types of CNC particles, including pristine CNC and acetylated ones with lower and moderate degrees of substitution, were foamed using CO2 as the blowing agent for the studies mentioned above. The results show that the presence of all three kinds of CNC particles has large influence on cellular structure and cell morphology, and as a result, affects final mechanical properties of foams. The tensile cycle tests were then performed as an efficient tool to further figure out clear information on the contributions of reinforcement of filler and altered cell structure to the plasticity and elasticity of foams. The obtained results provide useful information on the optimization of cell structure and mechanical properties of PLA foams using small amounts of CNC particles through controlling their surface properties.
      PubDate: 2018-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1703-9
  • Physical structure variations of bacterial cellulose produced by different
           Komagataeibacter xylinus strains and carbon sources in static and agitated
    • Authors: Pratyawadee Singhsa; Ravin Narain; Hathaikarn Manuspiya
      Abstract: The morphology, crystallinity, crystallite size, and production yield of bacterial cellulose (BC) produced with six different carbon sources (glucose, fructose, lactose, maltitol, sucralose, and xylitol) in static and agitated fermentation conditions by five strains of Komagataeibacter xylinus (KX, TISTR 086, 428, 975, and 1011) which are locally available, were studied. In static condition, the BC pellicle was formed as a membrane sheet at the medium surface exposed to air, while in agitated condition, the spherical or asterisk-like shape BC particles were obtained in the culture media. The XRD and FT-IR analyses found no significant differences in the cellulose crystallinity, crystallite size or polymorphic distribution within the carbon sources. However, changes in crystallinity and mass fraction of the Iα allomorph were observed in BC produced from the different bacterial strains and incubation conditions. The BC samples produced by the same bacterial strain with the varying culture conditions showed the alteration of physical properties more clearly than the BC samples prepared by the opposite situation. These findings suggested that the strains of bacteria and fermentation conditions strongly affected on the physical structures of BC.
      PubDate: 2018-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1699-1
  • Synthesis of nanoencapsulated Glauber’s salt using PMMA shell and its
           application on cotton for thermoregulating effect
    • Authors: Kashif Iqbal; Danmei Sun
      Abstract: Phase change materials (PCM) are capable of storing thermal energy and can be used in smart textiles providing thermoregulating effect. Different PCM stores different amount of energy at certain temperature and then release the stored energy in the form of latent heat. This research reports the synthesis of nanocapsules containing Glauber’s salt as a core PCM and its characterisation using differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. The cotton fabric was treated with synthesized nanoencapsulated Glauber’s salt via pad-dry-cure process and was characterized using DSC and SEM in comparison with commercial microcapsules. The synthesized capsules of Glauber’s salt were found in the range of nano scale around 500 nm on average. The DSC results indicated that the nanoencapsulated Glauber’s salt showed better results after they applied on fabric and does not wash off easily. The novel nanocapsules developed and reported in this article will establish a better understanding of PCM to use in different field of material science. This research will effectively exploit the potential use of encapsulated Glauber’s salt in the field of material science such as smart cellulosic textiles.
      PubDate: 2018-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1692-8
  • Cellulose nanocrystal deposition onto regenerated cellulose fibres: effect
           on moisture absorption and fibre–matrix adhesion
    • Authors: Abdelghani Hajlane; Roberts Joffe; Hamid Kaddami
      Abstract: The effect of treatment of regenerated cellulose fibres by cellulose nanocrystals on the moisture absorption of the fibres as well as on fibre–epoxy resin adhesion has been investigated. Nanocrystals were deposited on the fibres using γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) as coupling agent. Water absorption tests performed on fibres showed that, at 64% relative humidity, treatment by the coupling agent decreased the water uptake by a factor of two compared with untreated fibres, whereas deposition of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on fibres treated with MPS (FMMPS) did not further increase the water absorption despite the hydrophilic character of the CNC. This result was confirmed by monitoring fibre swelling using contact angle measurements. Indeed, it was found that FMMPS presented the same contact angle with glycerol before and after CNC deposition, being higher than that obtained for untreated fibres. The tensile strength and stiffness of fibres were not affected by moisture after either treatment, but nanocrystal deposition enhanced the fibre–epoxy resin adhesion, as revealed by results of pull-out tests performed on fibre bundles at 64% relative humidity.
      PubDate: 2018-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1680-z
  • Protoporphyrin IX conjugated bacterial cellulose via diamide spacer arms
           with specific antibacterial photodynamic inactivation against Escherichia
    • Authors: Jiancheng Dong; Reza A. Ghiladi; Qingqing Wang; Yibing Cai; Qufu Wei
      Abstract: Herein, protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) was covalently grafted onto a bacterial cellulose (BC) surface via three diamine spacer arms with different chain lengths. The obtained materials were characterized by spectroscopic (infrared, Raman, UV–Vis diffuse reflectance, electron paramagnetic and fluorescence) and physical (elemental, gravimetric) methods. Antibacterial efficacy was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and the PPIX supported BC surface exhibited specific antibacterial photodynamic inactivation against E. coli. The 1,2-bis(2-aminoethoxy)ethane aminated BC immobilized the maximal amount of PPIX, and the resulting photosensitive surface achieved a 99.999% (1st cycle) inactivation efficiency against E. coli, but relatively low efficiency against S. aureus. A mechanism of Gram negative bacterial inactivation was proposed as the positively charged PPIX-conjugated BC surface coupled with sufficient 1O2 generation. Though the reusability of the as-fabricated materials needs to be further enhanced, this work provides a potent strategy for efficient photodynamic inactivation against Gram negative bacteria using neutral photosensitizers.
      PubDate: 2018-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1697-3
  • Ethyl cellulose, cellulose acetate and carboxymethyl cellulose
           microstructures prepared using electrohydrodynamics and green solvents
    • Authors: M. Crabbe-Mann; D. Tsaoulidis; M. Parhizkar; M. Edirisinghe
      Abstract: Cellulose derivatives are an attractive sustainable material used frequently in biomaterials, however their solubility in safe, green solvents is not widely exploited. In this work three cellulose derivatives; ethyl cellulose, cellulose acetate and carboxymethyl cellulose were subjected to electrohydrodynamic processing. All were processed with safe, environmentally friendly solvents; ethanol, acetone and water. Ethyl cellulose was electrospun and an interesting transitional region was identified. The morphological changes from particles with tails to thick fibres were charted from 17 to 25 wt% solutions. The concentration and solvent composition of cellulose acetate (CA) solutions were then changed; increasing the concentration also increased fibre size. At 10 wt% CA, with acetone only, fibres with heavy beading were produced. In an attempt to incorporate water in the binary solvent system to reduce the acetone content, 80:20 acetone/water solvent system was used. It was noted that for the same concentration of CA (10 wt%), the beading was reduced. Finally, carboxymethyl cellulose was electrospun with poly(ethylene oxide), with the molecular weight and polymer compositions changed and the morphology observed.
      PubDate: 2018-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1673-y
  • Construction of novel cellulose/chitosan composite hydrogels and films and
           their applications
    • Authors: Meng He; Hao Chen; Xinjiang Zhang; Chengshuang Wang; Cheng Xu; Yuting Xue; Jinshan Wang; Panghu Zhou; Qingxin Zhao
      Abstract: In the present study, novel cellulose and chitosan composite hydrogels and films were constructed by directly dissolving cellulose and chitosan in alkali/urea aqueous solutions followed by a facile blending method and a mild coagulation process in an ethyl acetate gaseous phase. The structure and properties of the cellulose/chitosan composite materials were characterized by Field emission scanning electron microscopy, FTIR, wide angle X-ray diffraction, mechanical test and antibacterial experiment etc. The results indicated that there is strong hydrogen bonding interaction between cellulose and chitosan. The composite hydrogels exhibited homogeneous porous structure and the resultant films exhibited relative high light transmittance, indicating good miscibility between cellulose and chitosan due to their structure similarity. The mechanical strength increased with the cellulose content for the composite films, while the equilibrium swelling ratio, antibacterial activity and biocompatibility increased with the chitosan content. Facial mask shaped composite hydrogels with heavy metal ion adsorbability could be prepared facilely by using glass molds. Thus, the composite materials showed potential applications in the facial mask, antimicrobial packaging and water treatment fields.
      PubDate: 2018-02-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1683-9
  • Extraction of cellulose nanofibrils from amylase-treated cassava bagasse
           using high-pressure homogenization
    • Authors: Panee Panyasiri; Naiyasit Yingkamhaeng; Nga Tien Lam; Prakit Sukyai
      Abstract: Cassava bagasse (CB) is one of the largest yielding agricultural residues in Thailand. Thus, utilization of CB in cellulose extraction with amylase-assisted pretreatment was carried out in this research. Amylase pretreatment was used for starch removal, followed by bleaching with sodium chloride. Subsequently, cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) were prepared using high-pressure homogenization. The chemical composition of the fibers at different stages showed an increase in the α-cellulose content from 19.27 ± 0.36 to 50.45 ± 0.46%. In contrast, the starch content clearly decreased from 61.60 ± 0.38 to 7.20 ± 0.42%. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated a smooth surface on the bleached fibers due to the removal of non-cellulosic compounds. Atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the diameter of the CNFs was in the range 15–30 nm after high-pressure homogenization at 15,000 psi for 30 passages. Moreover, the crystallinity and thermal stability were evaluated using X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. The crystallinity of the CNFs was 63.40 ± 0.48%; whereas the temperature of maximum decomposition of the CNFs was 325 °C. Therefore, the CNFs prepared from amylase-treated CB using high-pressure homogenization could be applied as a reinforced matrix in material research.
      PubDate: 2018-02-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1686-6
  • Continuous roll-to-roll fabrication of transparent cellulose nanocrystal
           (CNC) coatings with controlled anisotropy
    • Authors: Reaz A. Chowdhury; Caitlyn Clarkson; Jeffrey Youngblood
      Abstract: Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) can impart desirable barrier properties in film packaging applications; however, commercial production of these materials is inhibited by the absence of a large-scale manufacturing process for producing CNC coatings. To fill this knowledge gap, a potential large-scale manufacturing process, roll-to-roll gravure printing, for cellulose nanocrystal coating on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate has been described in this work. Processing parameters which control the coating structure and properties were examined. For a given gravure roll, gravure speed, substrate speed, and ink viscosity were determined to be the most important parameters that control the liquid transfer from the ink bath to the substrate, which determined the coating thickness (2–6 µm). After successful fabrication, CNC coating adhesion was investigated with a crosshatch adhesion test. The adhesive strength of the CNC coating was correlated with coating thickness, and the maximum coating strength was observed for the lowest coating thickness. Coatings were characterized using atomic force microscopy and UV–Vis spectroscopy. Finally, the crystalline domain arrangement of coatings was determined for coatings made from three different CNC concentrations, and the effect of viscosity on CNC alignment was explained by variation of shear rate, which was controlled by the micro-gravure rotation.
      PubDate: 2018-02-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1688-4
  • Functionalization of cellulose fiber by in situ growth of zeolitic
           imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) nanocrystals for preparing a
           cellulose-based air filter with gas adsorption ability
    • Authors: Zhiping Su; Meiyun Zhang; Zhaoqing Lu; Shunxi Song; Yongsheng Zhao; Yang Hao
      Abstract: The particulate matters (PMs) and toxic gases in air have resulted in serious impacts on public health. The development of “green” air filtering materials for isolating these pollutants is of vital importance. Here, we prepared a multi-functional cellulose-based air filter (CFs@ZIF-8 filter) by in situ growth of ZIF-8 nanocrystals on the surface of cellulose fibers. The incorporation of ZIF-8 nanocrystals increased the specific surface area of filter, strengthened the interactions between filter and PMs, and provided abundant cavities and gas adsorption sites for filter. The filtration efficiency of CFs@ZIF-8 filter for PM0.3 could reach to an ultrahigh level of 99.9%. The gas (nitrogen) adsorption capacity of CFs@ZIF-8 filter was 200 times higher than that of original cellulose-based filter (CFs-filter). The contributions of ZIF-8 on these surpassing properties of CFs@ZIF-8 filter were deeply analyzed. This study provided an effective strategy for developing “green” and multi-functional cellulose-based air filter.
      PubDate: 2018-02-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1696-4
  • Effect of the nano-fibrillation of bamboo pulp on the thermal, structural,
           mechanical and physical properties of nanocomposites based on
           starch/poly(vinyl alcohol) blend
    • Authors: Mario Guimarães Junior; Fábio Gomes Teixeira; Gustavo Henrique Denzin Tonoli
      Abstract: The current work aimed to evaluate the influence of adding bamboo cellulose nanofibrils on the performance of poly(vinyl alcohol)—PVA and modified cassava starch—FMM blend nanocomposites. Nanofibrils were produced after 5 and 30 passes through the mechanical defibrillator. Blends formed from PVA and FMM in an 80/20 ratio were used for casting preparation of the nanocomposites reinforced with 6.5% of nanofibrils. Atomic force microscopy showed the deconstruction of the fiber wall with release of the cellulose nanofibrils. A higher degree of nano-fibrillation occurred after 30 passes. The interaction between the polymers and the reinforcement after 30 passes was verified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electronic microscopy. The higher nano-fibrillation promoted higher homogeneity, cohesion and more compact structure, thus promoting the formation of larger well-defined crystals, which acted as nucleating agents in the matrix, as demonstrated by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractrometry. It led to improvements of the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites, conferring them great potential for applications in the plastic film industries.
      PubDate: 2018-02-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1691-9
  • Cellulose films from the aqueous DMSO/TBAH-system
    • Authors: Jing Cao; Wei Wei; Guangjun Gou; Man Jiang; Yuhu Cui; Shengli Zhang; Yong Wang; Zuowan Zhou
      Abstract: Regulation of pore defects is the critical technique for obtaining good performance of the cellulosic films. In this work, we have proved that the introduction of dimethyl sulfoxide into the new aqueous solvent system of tetrabutylammonium hydroxide can remarkably promote the dissolving capability of the natural cellulose. It is interesting to found that a suitable gelation during the aging process in preparing the cellulose films is very benefit for the mechanical performance of the prepared material. The relationship among process, structure and performance of the cellulose films has been researched. WAXD and FT-IR analysis have revealed the composition of cellulose II and IVII. The formed cellulose IVII with the structural characteristic of gel-like during the aging (gelation) process can serve as the uniform framework for heterogeneous regeneration of cellulose II, with which a cellulose films of network-like, good homogeneity and defect-free can be prepared. And synchronous enhancements of the tensile strength by 75% (from 78 to 137 MPa) and the elongation at break by 155% (from 4.63 to 11.80%) have been realized. The initial investigation in this work provides a sustainable approach to developing a facile process for high-performance materials from the natural cellulose.
      PubDate: 2018-02-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1639-5
  • A study on the transmission haze and mechanical properties of highly
           transparent paper with different fiber species
    • Authors: Panpan Zhou; Penghui Zhu; Gang Chen; Yu Liu; Yudi Kuang; Yingyao Liu; Zhiqiang Fang
      Abstract: Transparent paper with high transmission haze has garnered great attention due to its potential applications in light management of optoelectronics as a bulk optical material. Herein, we investigated the transmission haze and mechanical properties of transparent paper with different fiber species. The morphological dimensions of cellulose fibers (Northwood, Eucalyptus wood, Manila hemp) before and after 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) treatment were investigated in detail. The effect of fiber morphology and preparation methods on transmission haze and mechanical properties (tensile strength, Young’s modulus, bursting strength) of the resultant paper was then analyzed. The results showed that transparent paper with TEMPO-treated northern fibers possessed highest optical transmittance and transmission haze, as well as strongest mechanical strength compared to two other transparent paper. Furthermore, transparent paper prepared by solution casting exhibited higher mechanical strength, but lower transmission haze compared to paper prepared by vacuum filtration. It’s worth noting that sub-micro and nanofiber partially contributed to the transparency and mechanical properties of the resulting transparent paper. This work sheds light on the preparation of highly transparent and strong paper with excellent light scattering behavior for manipulating light behavior of optoelectronics as a bulk optical material.
      PubDate: 2018-02-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1663-0
  • Microemulsion phase formation at oil–cellulose microcrystal
           suspension interfaces
    • Authors: Ranjani Kannaiyan; Jingyi Wang; Ian D. Gates
      Abstract: The use of cellulose microcrystal suspensions has two advantages for displacement of viscous oil from porous media—first, it viscosifies the aqueous phase thus improving the mobility ratio and second, it reduces the interfacial tension between the phases leading to improved capillary number. Here we examine oil displacement both macroscopically and microscopically to understand the interface between oil and cellulose microcrystal and in particular, the formation of stable microemulsions at the interface. The results show that microcrystal suspensions improve the displacement of oil from porous media over that of water alone and the reason for this is the formation of a viscous microcrystal microemulsion phase that forms at the interface. This high viscosity phase improves the mobility ratio of the system locally at the interface raising the efficiency of oil displacement.
      PubDate: 2018-02-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1679-5
  • Lead removal from water using carboxycellulose nanofibers prepared by
           nitro-oxidation method
    • Authors: Priyanka R. Sharma; Aurnov Chattopadhyay; Chengbo Zhan; Sunil K. Sharma; Lihong Geng; Benjamin S. Hsiao
      Abstract: Carboxycellulose nanofibers were extracted from untreated jute using a simple nitro-oxidation method based on nitric acid/sodium nitrite. The characteristics of nitro-oxidized carboxycellulose nanofibers (NOCNF) with low crystallinity (35%), high carboxylate content (1.15 mmol/g) and high surface charge (− 70 mV) made them an excellent substrate for Pb(II) ion removal from water. For example, a low concentration of NOCNF suspension (0.23 wt%) could remove a wide range of Pb(II) ions ranging from 50 to 5000 ppm in a short time-interval (< 5 min) at room temperature and pH ~ 7, where the adsorption efficiency of NOCNF was found to be 2270 mg/g based on the Langmuir isotherm analysis. The high removal efficiency of NOCNF was due to the combined effects of adsorption (dominated at Pb(II) concentration ≤ 1000 ppm) and mineralization of lead hydroxide (Pb(OH)2) crystals at high Pb(II) concentration (> 1000 ppm). Evidence of nanoscale lead hydroxide crystallization, induced by the lead(II)-NOCNF aggregated scaffold, was confirmed by FTIR, UV–visible spectroscopy, SEM/EDS, WAXD and TEM measurements.
      PubDate: 2018-02-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1659-9
  • Structure development in the condensed state of cellulose fiber
           regenerated from alkali complex solution
    • Authors: Yanping Yang; Yue Zhang; Yuxi Lang; Muhuo Yu
      Abstract: Regenerated cellulose fibers were successfully wet-spun from a cellulose/NaOH/thiourea/urea aqueous solution by an efficient extrusion dissolution method. The structure changes of these regenerated cellulose fibers that occurred during wet spinning process had been investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscope, carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C-NMR), attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy and the corresponding two-dimensional spectroscopy, wide-angle-X-ray-diffraction, small-angle-X-ray scattering (SAXS), tensile testing, and thermogravimetric analysis. Results revealed that higher crystallinity and orientation were obtained because of the improved post-processing, while the annealed fiber exhibited lower crystallinity and orientation, owing to a disruption of some oriented crystallites and heat shrinkage during hot air drawing process. SAXS results indicated that the microvoid in the cellulose fibers were smaller with the spinning process, and the pore structure had a more significant impact on the mechanical properties of the regenerated cellulose fibers. Moreover, an increased tensile strength (2.40 cN/dtex) and elongation at break (8.20%) in dry state were obtained in regenerated cellulose fibers due to heat treatment process. Therefore, the structure development contributed toward the improvement of the tensile strength, modulus and thermal stability of the regenerated cellulose fibers during spinning process. On the other hand, a simple, environmentally friendly pathway was proposed for cellulose regeneration, which could significantly affect the cellulose regeneration in current industries.
      PubDate: 2018-02-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1649-y
  • Utilization of pineapple peel for production of nanocellulose and film
    • Authors: Hongjie Dai; Shiyi Ou; Yue Huang; Huihua Huang
      Abstract: Pineapple peel is a renewable agricultural residue available in abundance whose multipurpose utilization deserves more attention. The present study aimed at the isolation of nanocellulose from pineapple peel and evaluation on its reinforcement capability for gellan gum film. The results from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated the progressive removal of non-cellulosic components and the non-destruction of cellulose structure following bleaching and alkali treatments. Atomic force microscopy image of the nanocellulose displayed a needle-like structure with averages of 15 ± 5 nm in diameter and 189 ± 23 nm in length. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that the obtained fibres after bleaching and alkali treatments showed higher thermal stability than the untreated pineapple peel. Although showing an earlier initial degradation temperature, the obtained nanocellulose remained the maximum residue after being heated to 500 °C. The rheological results indicated that the viscosities of the nanocellulose/gellan gum solutions increased slightly with the increase of nanocellulose content. The prepared films were characterized by FTIR, SEM, XRD, TGA, light transmittance and mechanical properties. The introduction of nanocellulose decreased light transmittance values but enhanced the thermal stability of gellan gum film. Compared with the neat gellan gum film, the 4% nanocellulose loaded gellan gum film showed 48.21% improvement in tensile strength.
      PubDate: 2018-02-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1671-0
  • A modified single-constant Kubelka–Munk model for color prediction
           of pre-colored fiber blends
    • Authors: Chun-ao Wei; Xiaoxia Wan; Junfeng Li
      Abstract: The goal of this work is to propose a modified single-constant Kubelka–Munk model for color prediction of pre-colored fiber blends. The original single-constant Kubelka–Munk model follows the Duncan’s additivity theorem, assuming that the optical coefficients of individual components in a turbid media are linear to their respective proportions. However, the linear assumption is invalid for the media of fiber blends due to the interactions between primary fibers, causing inaccurate color prediction of the model. Aiming at improving the accuracy, the single-constant Kubelka–Munk model was modified by employing a new additivity formula. The new additivity formula was established to achieve good linearity of the optical coefficients by modeling interactions between primary fibers as configurations. Cotton fibers blending samples were prepared to assess the color prediction accuracy. The average color difference of the proposed model was 0.91 CIEDE2000 unit, which was significantly better than that of the original model (~ 5.48). The results indicate the proposed model is much more suitable for color prediction of pre-colored fiber blends.
      PubDate: 2018-02-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1669-7
  • Flexible spray coating process for smooth nanocellulose film production
    • Authors: Kirubanandan Shanmugam; Hamid Doosthosseini; Swambabu Varanasi; Gil Garnier; Warren Batchelor
      Abstract: A novel rapid method for high throughput production of smooth nanocellulose (NC) films by spray coating was communicated recently. In this method, we employed spray coating to produce wet films on stainless steel plates moving on a conveyor, forming free-standing films with interesting structural, mechanical and surface properties upon drying. In this research, we investigate the range of mechanical and physical properties of nanocellulose films prepared by spraying. Furthermore, a comparison with NC films prepared via conventional vacuum filtration was conducted to evaluate the suitability of this method as an alternative film preparation process. One set of experiments was completed where the solids concentration of the suspension was fixed at 1.5 wt% and the conveyor velocity was varied, while two series of experiments were completed where the solids concentration of the suspension was varied and the conveyor speed was fixed at either 0.32 or 1.05 cm/s. By varying speed and solids concentration, spray-coating was found to allow efficient production of films with basis weights ranging from 38 to 187 g/m2, with film thicknesses ranging from 58.4 to 243.2 μm, respectively. There was a universal linear relationship between the thickness and basis weight, independent of the process conditions. The optical uniformity of film was also noticeably dependent on the spraying process. The optical uniformity index of films, relative to vacuum filtered films, increased with conveyor speed at 1.5 wt% solids concentration and was independent of solids concentration at low speed. Forming at the higher speed of 1.05 cm/s produced a maximum in optical uniformity in the range 1.5–1.75%, with these films being more uniform than conventional films produced through vacuum filtration. The most uniform films produced by spraying also had a similar tensile index to films made via vacuum filtration. With an understanding of these parameters and effects, we demonstrate this method to be a more time efficient alternative method to produce uniform films where the properties can be tailored to the required application.
      PubDate: 2018-02-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1677-7
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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