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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 845 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (595 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 248)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 194)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 221)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 309)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 14)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 181)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 149)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 253)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 61)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contamination     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
Elements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Environmental Science & Technology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Cellulose
  [SJR: 1.167]   [H-I: 71]   [7 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1572-882X - ISSN (Online) 0969-0239
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Changes in the hygroscopic behavior of cellulose due to variations in
           relative humidity
    • Authors: Ville A. Lovikka; Lauri Rautkari; Thaddeus C. Maloney
      Abstract: Details on how cellulosic surfaces change under changing moisture are incomplete and even existing results are occasionally neglected. Unlike sometimes reported, water adsorption is unsuitable for surface area measurements. However, water can be utilized for assessing surface dynamics. Hygroscopic changes of pulp and bacterial cellulose were studied by dehydrating the samples in a low polarity solvent and then introducing them into a moist atmosphere in a dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) apparatus at 0–93% relative humidity (RH). The DVS treatment caused hygroscopicity loss near applied RH maxima, however, the hygroscopicity increased at RH values > 10–20% units lower. Additionally, the hygroscopic changes were partially reversible near the RH maximum. Therefore the hygroscopicity of cellulose could be controlled by tailoring the exposure history of the sample. Hornification reduced these changes. The observations support reported molecular simulations where cellulose was shown to restructure its surface depending on the polarity of its environment.
      PubDate: 2017-11-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1570-9
  • Study of humidity-responsive behavior in chiral nematic cellulose
           nanocrystal films for colorimetric response
    • Authors: Nattinee Bumbudsanpharoke; Wooseok Lee; Uiyoung Chung; Seonghyuk Ko
      Abstract: This study focuses on the preparation and characterization of an iridescent chiral nematic cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) film in relation to their use as a humidity-responsive material. A free-standing film with Bragg reflection was successfully prepared. Thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated gradual thermal transitions with two major weight loss regions, while the crystallinity index obtained from X-ray diffraction method was about 78%, implying the presence of disordered regions. A scanning electron microscope confirmed the orientation of CNCs in a chiral nematic pattern with a pitch in the wavelengths of visible light. A dynamic vapor sorption study showed that water vapor can penetrate into the CNC film, leading to an increase of overall mass of up to 20% at 95% RH. The moisture sorption and desorption rates of the CNC film were faster at higher humidity (80% RH). The exposure of CNC film to elevated humidity was simulated to investigate the effect of humidity on their optical semaphore. As the humidity increased, the complementary color was red-shifted upward by about 60–100 nm, which was observable to the naked eye. This is potentially explained by the swelling of the nanocrystals and the expansion of the interspace between the quasi-nematic layers of the CNCs.
      PubDate: 2017-11-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1571-8
  • Preparation of Eucalyptus pulp by mild condition of low-temperature,
           atmospheric pressure, and short-reaction-time with high-boiling-point
           solvent and pulp properties
    • Authors: Kang-Jae Kim; Sung-Bum Hong; Tae-Jin Eom
      Abstract: Chemical pulp was prepared by the low-temperature, atmospheric pressure, and short reaction time pulping of Eucalyptus wood chips using a high-boiling-point solvent. The pulping conditions and pulp properties were evaluated. After the digestion of the Eucalyptus chips, pulp containing 6% residual lignin was obtained in 59.6% yield. It exhibited a low shive content and a sufficiently pulped appearance. With subsequent digestion at 110 °C for 60 min, the shive content further decreased, and fiber bundles disintegrated by simple mechanical stirring. The fiber length and width of the pulp were 500–577 and 20.1–27.9 μm, respectively, and the fiber roughness was 8.8–16.8 mg/100 m. The degree of crystallization of the pulp proportionally increased with cooking temperature. The brightness of the pulp with ~ 6% residual lignin content was greater than 52% ISO, and the zero-span tensile strength and viscosity gradually increased with pulping time.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1564-7
  • Antimicrobial wound dressing film utilizing cellulose nanocrystal as drug
           delivery system for curcumin
    • Authors: Woei Yenn Tong; Ahmad Yassin Kamari bin Abdullah; Nur Amiera Syuhada binti Rozman; Muhamad Izul Aimin bin Wahid; Md. Sohrab Hossain; Leong Chean Ring; Yusriah Lazim; Wen-Nee Tan
      Abstract: Diabetic patients with foot ulcer showed 150-fold increased risk of amputation, which is primarily caused by microbial infection. Silver ions are commonly incorporated into wound dressing to enhance the antimicrobial property. However, concerns have been expressed about the development of bacterial resistance to heavy metals. In this study, we evaluate the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of cellulose nanocrystal film to be used as antimicrobial drug delivery system in a diabetic wound dressing. Cellulose nanocrystals were successfully isolated from medical grade cotton fibers. We observe needle-like cellulose nanocrystals with an average length of 159 nm under transmission electron microscope. The developed film with curcumin shows a uniform yellow color, with a thickness of 0.4 mm. The film obtained is soft and flexible, based on the mechanical characterization study of the film. For the curcumin release test, the release reaches plateau condition at 36 h with a total release of 98.9% from the cellulose nanocrystal film. No burst release effect was detected during the test period. The film exhibited significant inhibitory activity on 3 Gram positive bacteria, 2 Gram negative bacteria and 1 yeast. On Hohenstein challenge test, all test microorganisms showed significant growth reduction, with the treatment of curcumin loaded film. 5 of 6 test microorganisms showed 99% of growth reduction relative to growth control. We also notice that the antimicrobial activity of the film sustained even after 15 washes. In the in vivo study using diabetic rat models, a significant reduction of wound size was observed from Day 7 with the topical application of curcumin loaded film. At the end of the study, the lesion was covered by epithelial tissue and the hair started to grow from the skin. A bacterial growth reduction of 99.99% was observed from the skin sample excised from the animal models. The histological examination of skin sample also showed that curcumin loaded film significantly improved the regeneration of hair follicles and sebaceous glands of the skin. Our results indicate that the curcumin load cellulose nanocrystal films can be used for diabetic wound healing applications.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1562-9
  • Toward high-performance fibrillated cellulose-based air filter via
           constructing spider-web-like structure with the aid of TBA during
           freeze-drying process
    • Authors: Zhaoqing Lu; Zhiping Su; Shunxi Song; Yongsheng Zhao; Shanshan Ma; Meiyun Zhang
      Abstract: In consideration of the healthcare issues caused by Particulate Matter (PM) pollution, developing high-performance air-filter materials especially aiming at filtering PM2.5 has attracted great attention. In this work, we fabricated a novel air filter with spider-web-like structure based on renewable and biodegradable fibrillated cellulose fibers, and demonstrated an effective strategy for network structure regulation during freeze-drying process. The results showed that the air filter with spider-web-like structure, whose filtration efficiency for model PM particles with the diameter of 300 nm could exceed 99%, was obtained from a fibrillated cellulose fiber/water/Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) mixture by freeze-drying. The role of TBA in the construction of spider-web-like structure was mainly due to the following two aspects: (1) TBA molecules could promote the separation of microfibrils which acted as the cobwebs in spider-web-like structure. (2) The presence of TBA resulted in air filter transformed from lamellar porous architecture into spider-web-like structure by changing the morphologies and growth kinetics of ice-crystals. Herein, this work paves a way to fabricate high-performance air filters based on renewable materials and the pore-formation mechanism can provide a guide for structure regulation in porous materials.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1561-x
  • Comparison and validation of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic
           methods for monitoring secondary cell wall cellulose from cotton fibers
    • Authors: Hee Jin Kim; Yongliang Liu; Alfred D. French; Christopher M. Lee; Seong H. Kim
      Abstract: The amount of secondary cell wall (SCW) cellulose in the fiber affects the quality and commercial value of cotton. Accurate assessments of SCW cellulose are essential for improving cotton fibers. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy enables distinguishing SCW from other cell wall components in a rapid and non-invasive way. Thus it has been used for monitoring SCW development in model plants. Recently, several FT-IR methods have been proposed for monitoring cotton fiber development. However, they are rarely utilized for assessing SCW cellulose from cotton fiber due to limited validation with various cotton species grown in different conditions. Thus, we compared and validated three FT-IR methods including two previously proposed methods analyzing entire spectra or specific bands as well as a new method analyzing FT-IR spectral regions corresponding to cellulose with various cotton fibers grown in planta and in vitro. Comparisons of the FT-IR methods with reference methods showed that the two FT-IR methods analyzing the entire spectra or cellulose regions by principal component analysis monitored SCW qualitatively, whereas the FT-IR method analyzing specific bands (708, 730, and 800 cm−1) by a simple algorithm allowed the monitoring of SCW cellulose levels quantitatively. The quantitative FT-IR method is a potential substitute for lengthy and laborious chemical assays for monitoring SCW cellulose levels from cotton fibers, and it can be used for a better understanding of cotton fiber SCW development and as a part of the quality assessment tools used to guide choices for improving fiber quality.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1547-8
  • Lessons learned from the treatment of organosolv pulp with ligninolytic
           enzymes and chemical delignification agents
    • Authors: María García-Torreiro; Thelmo A. Lú-Chau; Beatriz Gullón; María Teresa Moreira; Juan M. Lema; Gemma Eibes
      Abstract: Although organosolv pretreatment allows extensive delignification of beech wood, the residual lignin present in the pulp may hinder the subsequent hydrolysis of the cellulose into fermentable sugars. With the purpose of increasing sugar production from cellulose hydrolysis, enzymatic and chemical oxidation stages were applied to the pulp previously to a stage of enzymatic hydrolysis with cellulases. Neither lignin content was reduced, nor sugar yield was improved after the versatile peroxidase treatment. On the other hand, laccase oxidation caused an increase in total lignin and kappa number and did not influence digestibility. Similarly, the chemical oxidation with H2O2 had also a negligible impact on the sugar yield. Only a significant removal of the lignin content in fibers was attained after ethanol wash, also confirmed by FT-IR analysis, which allowed increasing cellulose digestibility by 8.4%, and reducing the phenol content of the hydrolysate by 45.5%. Although the improvement of cellulose digestibility was lower than expected, this work provides valuable lessons for practical use on the opportunities of organosolv pulp.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1573-6
  • Cellulose nanofibres as biomaterial for nano-reinforcement of
           poly[styrene-(ethylene- co -butylene)-styrene] triblock copolymer
    • Abstract: Cellulose nanofibres (CNFs) obtained from waste mango wood scrap were used for the preparation of nanocomposites with SEBS (poly[styrene-(ethylene-co-butylene)-styrene]) and SEBS-g-MA (SEBS-maleic anhydride grafted). Results revealed the incompatibility of CNFs with unmodified SEBS due to the lack of interaction between polar and nonpolar groups. The polar maleic anhydride groups in SEBS-g-MA (mSEBS) demonstrated a strong interfacial interaction with CNFs showing a compatible association. Nanocomposite films with very minute loading of CNFs [0.005 phr (parts per hundred resin)] resulted in a substantial increment in Young’s modulus (98% increment) and tensile strength (70% improvement) as compared to neat mSEBS film along with increment in elongation at break. The nanocomposite films showed the integration of CNFs as an interwoven thread-like structure in the polymer matrix at 0.001 phr. Polymer coated continuous foam/porous network microstructure was observed at 0.005 phr loading.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1567-4
  • Preparation and characterization of ethylenediamine modified glycidyl
           methacrylate-grafted nonwoven cotton fabric adsorbent
    • Authors: Serdar Korpayev; Cengiz Kavaklı; Şeyda Çolak; Pınar Akkaş Kavaklı
      Abstract: In this study, plasma-initiated graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto nonwoven cotton fabric (NCF) and its modification with ethylenediamine (EDA) was performed. To determine the optimum conditions for plasma treatment, a comprehensive analysis of different parameters such as plasma power, applied pressure, applied plasma gas, and exposure time were conducted using both air- and Ar-plasma. The concentration of radicals generated on the NCF surface after plasma treatment was examined using ESR spectroscopy. The effects of plasma pretreatment conditions, namely GMA concentration, grafting temperature, and grafting time were investigated. Plasma treated NCF has been grafted with GMA (GMA-g-NCF) was functionalized with ethylenediamine (EDA-GMA-g-NCF) to develop an efficient arsenic adsorbent. NCF, GMA-g-NCF and EDA-GMA-g-NCF samples were characterized by using FTIR, SEM, EDX, XPS, elemental analysis, TGA, and contact angle.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1558-5
  • Mechanisms contributing to mechanical property changes in composites of
           polypropylene reinforced with spray-dried cellulose nanofibrils
    • Authors: Lu Wang; Alec W. Roach; Douglas J. Gardner; Yousoo Han
      Abstract: This study revealed the effects of spray-dried cellulose nanofibril (SDCNF) addition (3,10 and 30 wt%) and maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP) coupling agent (2 wt%) on the mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP). Results indicated that the elastic moduli of the PP composites increased as the SDCNF content increased above 10 wt%. The addition of MAPP into the SDCNF/PP composites did not improve the elastic moduli. Flexural strength of PP was improved when the SDCNF content increased above 10 wt%, while the tensile strength of PP decreased as the SDCNF content increased. The addition of MAPP into the SDCNF/PP composites increased the strength of the composites when the SDCNF content was above 10 wt%. Without the addition of MAPP, the composite’s impact strength did not exhibit a significant increase among the pure PP and SDCNF/PP composites. No significant differences in crystallinity or crystal forms were found in the pure PP and PP/MAPP/SDCNF composites. The spherulitic size of PP was reduced after adding SDCNF into the PP.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1556-7
  • A green Pickering emulsion stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals via RAFT
    • Authors: Beifang Liu; Dongcheng Yang; Hong Man; Yongquan Liu; Hou Chen; Hui Xu; Wenxiang Wang; Liangjiu Bai
      Abstract: As environmental-friendly and renewable materials, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), has great potential for replacing the poisonous chemicals. Herein, we investigate a green Pickering emulsion stabilized of CNCs by using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The preparation of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) with controlled molecular weights and low M w/M n values were successfully synthesized by the Pickering emulsion. Moreover, the well-defined PMMA can be obtained in Pickering emulsion with “green” CNCs as a sole emulsifier and the used CNCs are easy to recycle and reuse.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1559-4
  • Enhanced swelling and multiple-responsive properties of gelatin/sodium
           alginate hydrogels by the addition of carboxymethyl cellulose isolated
           from pineapple peel
    • Authors: Hongjie Dai; Shiyi Ou; Yue Huang; Zhijun Liu; Huihua Huang
      Abstract: Natural polymers hydrogels were prepared by solution blending of gelatin, sodium alginate and carboxymethyl cellulose isolated from pineapple peel, and cross-linking with CaCl2 and glutaraldehyde solutions. The prepared hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscope. The swelling behaviors and responsiveness to pH, salt and electric field were also investigated. The swelling dynamic mechanism of hydrogels agreed well with the Fickian diffusion and Schott’s pseudo second order models. The addition of carboxymethyl cellulose enhanced the swelling ability of the hydrogels in the selected mediums and sensitivities to pH, salt and electric field. The electric response of the hydrogels showed pH-dependent, ionic strength-dependent and electric voltage-dependent. This multiple-responsive characteristic of the prepared hydrogels was conducive to application as potential biomaterials such as microsensors, actuators, artificial muscles and drug delivery systems.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1557-6
  • Modification of cellulose thin films with lysine moieties: a promising
           approach to achieve antifouling performance
    • Authors: Thomas Elschner; Matej Bračič; Tamilselvan Mohan; Rupert Kargl; Karin Stana Kleinschek
      Abstract: Thin films of trimethylsilyl cellulose are obtained by spin coating and regenerated to cellulose. The surface is activated with N,N′-carbonyldiimidazole and aminolysis with lysine is carried out in aqueous solution to yield a cellulose lysine carbamate film. The surface is analytically characterized by ATR-IR spectroscopy, zetapotential measurements, contact angle measurements, and atomic force microscopy. The amount of functional groups is determined by pH potentiometric titration as well as the ninhydrin test and is in the range of 25 pmolcm−2. Adsorption of bovine serum albumine (BSA) and fibrinogen on the cellulose film and the cellulose lysine carbamate surface is studied at different pH values by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The adsorption of BSA is significantly reduced by modification with lysine. At physiological pH value (7.4) the adsorption of fibrinogen is even six times lower (1.0 mgm−2) compared to the pure cellulose surface. Thus, cellulose thin films with lysine moieties are promising candidates for hemo-compatible antifouling surfaces in the field of blood contacting devices.
      PubDate: 2017-11-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1538-9
  • Self-healing and injectable polysaccharide hydrogels with tunable
           mechanical properties
    • Authors: Hongchen Liu; Chaojing Li; Bijia Wang; Xiaofeng Sui; Lu Wang; Xiaolin Yan; Hong Xu; Linping Zhang; Yi Zhong; Zhiping Mao
      Abstract: An injectable polysaccharide hydrogel based on cellulose acetoacetate (CAA), hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCS), and amino-modified cellulose nanocrystals (CNC-NH2) was prepared under physiological conditions. CNC-NH2 acted as both physical and chemical cross-linker. The effects of CNC-NH2 loading on the mechanical properties, internal morphology and gelation time were investigated; the maximum storage modulus was observed for a gel containing 0.80 wt% of CNC-NH2. The structure and properties of the polysaccharide hydrogel were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and rheology testing. The polysaccharide hydrogel exhibited pH- responsive properties and excellent stability under physiological conditions. The hydrogel also exhibited self-healing behavior under acidic conditions via enamine bond exchange. In addition, CCK-8 cytotoxicity study with fibroblast L929 cells demonstrates good biocompatibility of CNCs reinforced hydrogels.
      PubDate: 2017-11-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1546-9
  • A reactive flame retardant ammonium salt of
           diethylenetriaminepenta(methylene-phosphonic acid) for enhancing flame
           retardancy of cotton fabrics
    • Authors: Dandan Zheng; Jianfeng Zhou; Yao Wang; Fengxiu Zhang; Guangxian Zhang
      Abstract: In this study, a novel flame retardant (FR) for cotton fabrics was synthesized, namely, ammonium salt of diethylenetriaminepenta(methylene-phosphonic acid) (ADTPMPA), using diethylenetriaminepenta(methylene-phosphonic acid) (DTPMPA) and urea, and its structure was comfirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and 31P NMR. The ADTPMPA reacted with the –OH groups of cellulose macro molecules to form P–O–C covalent bonds. LOIs of cotton fabrics finished with 70 and 90 g/L ADTPMPA reached to 40.0 and 41.5% respectively; after 40 laundering cycles, their LOIs were 26.5 and 26.7% respectively. The treated cotton fabrics still kept soft. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed –P–O–C bonds between ADTPMPA and cellulose, and X-ray diffraction revealed the formation of cellulose II structures in the finishing process. SEM suggested that ADTPMPA molecule permeates the inner space of the cotton fibers. TG result indicated that the treated cotton fibers retain more residue than the original fibers. Cone calorimetry test result showed that the treated cotton fabric had lower PHRR and THR than that of original cotton fabric. The results suggested that the ADTPMPA treated cotton fabrics had condense phase flame retardant mechanism.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1543-z
  • Preparation and characterization of magnetic Fe 3 O 4 –chitosan
           nanoparticles for cellulase immobilization
    • Authors: Yan Lin; Xi Liu; Zhaohui Xing; Yong Geng; Jeffrey Wilson; Deyi Wu; Hainan Kong
      Abstract: Cellulase immobilization is an important issue for cellulose hydrolysis in bioethanol production. In this study, Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized using a coprecipitation method and were coated with chitosan. Glutaraldehyde was used as cross-linking reagent for cellulase immobilization. The morphology, structure, and related physical and chemical properties of the supports were studied by X-ray diffraction, a physical property measurement system, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Transmission electron microscopy. Response surface methodology was used to determine the optimal cellulase loading efficiency (LE) and standard recovery ratio (RR). The verification tests show the immobilized particles had an LE of 99.6% and an RR value of 68.5%. It was found that immobilized cellulase had a wider range of adaptability to hydrolysis pH and temperature when compared with free cellulase. Five hydrolysis experiments demonstrated effective hydrolysis using immobilized cellulase while maintaining on average 80% of the free cellulase’s activity.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1520-6
  • Precipitation assay meets low wettability on paper: a simple approach for
           fabricating patterned paper sensors
    • Authors: Rong Cao; Xue Zhang; Weirui Tan; Wei Shen
      Abstract: The development of paper-based analytical platforms has brought a requirement on easily creating patterned paper sensors. This article describes a facile method of fabricating patterned paper sensors using a combination of wettability-controlled paper and the precipitation assays between analytes and sensing elements. Different from common fabrication processes in which patterned channels are defined by creating hydrophobic barriers, herein the direct deposition of the patterns of sensing elements onto paper is performed by simple writing and stamping. Without hydrophobic treatment, the patterned sensing components can remain in place on the paper substrate whose wettability is tuned via bovine serum albumin (BSA) modification. After exposure to the analytes, the precipitates of sensing reactions are not delocalized, giving a simple and successful patterned signal readout. The results of typical colorimetric assays show that slow capillary flow and insoluble products together on paper provide an extremely easy route for fabricating multifunctional patterned paper sensors.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1551-z
  • Chemical crosslinking reinforced flexible cellulose nanofiber-supported
    • Authors: Huan Cheng; Yingzhan Li; Bijia Wang; Zhiping Mao; Hong Xu; Linping Zhang; Yi Zhong; Xiaofeng Sui
      Abstract: A robust and flexible cellulose nanofiber (CNF)-supported cryogel was prepared by chemical crosslinking method using γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and branched polyethylenimine (PEI). FT-IR, elemental analysis, EDS and solid state 13C NMR analysis revealed that the PEI had been successfully modified on cellulose via reacting with GPTMS. The obtained flexible cryogel displayed a three-dimensional structure composed of thin sheet. The maximal shape recovery of the CNF-supported cryogel from a 50% compression strain was up to 93% of its original thickness. The cryogel contained abundant amino groups and proved to be efficient in removing Cu2+ from solution with a maximum Cu2+ uptake of 138 mg/g. The adsorption kinetics curve fitted the pseudo-second-order model and the equilibrium absorption capacity fitted the Langmuir model. Moreover, adsorption capacity of the cryogel was up to 75% after four adsorption–desorption cycles (15 days).
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1548-7
  • Water resistant nanopapers prepared by lactic acid modified cellulose
    • Authors: Jatin Sethi; Muhammad Farooq; Sunanda Sain; Mohini Sain; Juho Antti Sirviö; Mirja Illikainen; Kristiina Oksman
      Abstract: The current work reports a novel, completely water based approach to prepare the water resistant modified cellulose nanopapers. Lactic acid in aqueous medium was attached on cellulose nanofibers surface with the aid of ultra-sonication and later oligomerized (polymerized) by compression molding under high temperature and pressure, to obtain the modified nanopapers with enhanced mechanical properties. The modified nanopapers showed an increase of 32% in the elastic modulus and 30% in the yield strength over reference nanopapers. Additionally, the modified nanopaper was hydrophobic in nature and had superior storage modulus under moist conditions. The storage modulus of wet modified nanopaper was three times (2.4 GPa) compared to the reference nanopapers (0.8 GPa) after 1 h immersion in water. Finally, the thermal stability of the modified nanopaper was also higher than reference nanopaper. The material reported is 100% bio-based.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1540-2
  • Cellulose nanofibers/silk fibroin nanohybrid sponges with highly ordered
           and multi-scale hierarchical honeycomb structure
    • Authors: Kezheng Gao; Yaqing Guo; Qingyuan Niu; Lifeng Han; Linsen Zhang; Yong Zhang; Lizhen Wang
      Abstract: Highly ordered cellulose nanofibers/silk fibroin nanohybrid (CSN) honeycomb materials with multi-scale hierarchical architectures are successfully prepared from CSN hydrogel precursors using unidirectional freeze-drying technique. Cellulose nanofibers have an outstanding highly ordered honeycomb structure-directing function in composite hydrogel. However, silk fibroin does not have such function. Therefore, the properties of the CSN sponges can be effectively adjusted by simple changing the ratio of cellulose nanofibers to silk fibroin. When the content of silk fibroin reaches 50%, the CSN-50 sponge exhibits a nearly perfect highly ordered honeycomb structure with multi-scale hierarchical architectures. And the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller specific surface area is about 120 m2 g−1.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1545-x
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