Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 928 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (661 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 601 - 735 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
Scientific Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 85)
Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Sensors and Actuators Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Separation & Purification Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Separation Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Separations     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Silicon Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Small Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Small Science     Open Access  
Small Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Smart Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
SmartMat     Open Access  
Soft     Open Access  
Soft Nanoscience Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Solar RRL     Hybrid Journal  
Solid State Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Solid State Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
SPE Polymers     Open Access  
Spectral Analysis Review     Open Access  
Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Starch / Staerke     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Steel Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Structural Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Substantia     Open Access  
Supramolecular Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Supramolecular Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Surface and Coatings Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Surface Science Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Surfaces     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Surfaces and Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Chemical Processes     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Synfacts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Synlett     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Synthesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Talanta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Talanta Open     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tecnología Química     Open Access  
Telematics and Informatics Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tenside Surfactants Detergents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tetrahedron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80)
Tetrahedron Chem     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tetrahedron Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
The All Results Journals : Chem     Open Access  
The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The Enzymes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The Protein Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Theoretical and Experimental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Theoretical Chemistry Accounts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Thermochimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Tip Revista Especializada en Ciencias Quimico-Biologicas     Open Access  
Topics in Current Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Toxicology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Toxicology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Transition Metal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Trends in Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Turkish Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Open Access  
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Universal Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Vietnam Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Western Undergraduate Research Journal : Health and Natural Sciences     Open Access  
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Computational Molecular Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
World Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
X-Ray Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)

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Toxicology International
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.324
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 5  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0971-6580 - ISSN (Online) 0976-5131
Published by Informatics Publishing Limited Homepage  [20 journals]
  • Potential Protective Role of Curcumin on the Toxic Effect of Food Azo Dye
           Tartrazine on the Brain of Young Albino Rats

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      Authors: Nemaallah Mohamed Hosieny; Mona El-Demerdash Ibrahim, Samah M. Ahmed, Mohammad Zayed Mohammad Hassan
      Abstract: The use of coloring agents in food industry has dramatically increased. Children are the main consumers of colored food products and beverages and are more vulnerable to the effects of synthetic colorants. Curcumin, an active constituent of turmeric plant, has been the subject of extensive studies assessing its antioxidant properties. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective potentials of curcumin against neurotoxicity induced by the synthetic food colorant; tartrazine. Thirty-six young male albino rats were divided into six groups; negative control (Group I), distilled water (Group II), corn oil (Group III), curcumin (Group IV), tartrazine (Group V) and tartrazine+curcumin (Group VI). At the end of the study, the rats were subjected to biochemical, histological and immunohistochemical staining for GFAP. Our results showed that tartrazine induced a significant decrease in GSH, serotonin and GABA levels and a significant increase in MDA levels in the brain as compared to control groups. Tartrazine induced apoptosis, vacuolations, congestion and cellular infiltration in the brain tissue. An immunohistochemistry study showed astrogliosis with increased expression of GFAP. Curcumin ameliorated all these effects. In conclusion, tartrazine is neurotoxic. Increased brain oxidative stress and cellular damage are contributing factors. Curcumin can prevent tartrazine-induced neurotoxicity.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 May 2022 15:09:00 +000
       
  • Adverse Effect of Azo Food Colourants: A Toxicological Aspect

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      Authors: Pronit Biswas; Devasish Bose, Rajesh Singh Yadav
      Abstract: Food colourants are important food additives which not only enhance the appearance of food, but also appetite and hold a very significant position in the food industry. These can be obtained from natural and synthetic sources, but synthetic sources are more popular, efficient and potential in its functional terms. Although food colourants don’t have any nutritional value, but their quantity and quality present in food materials imparts serious health risks. Earlier, studies reported that azo food colourants are injudiciously used in the food products and also developed suitable analytical methods for their detection in food materials. Further, evidences from various literatures suggested that food colourants which contains azo dyes are the causal factors for neurotoxicity, carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, hypersensitivity and therefore not safe for the human consumption. The present review article has been aimed to evaluate the toxicological profile of azo food colourants and associated adverse health impact. The findings of the study will add insightful facts to the literature and help the regulatory agencies to revisit and improve their toxicity testing procedures and exercise greater caution regarding continued approval of these dyes, and in the future approve only welltested and, safe dyes.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 May 2022 15:09:00 +000
       
  • Environmental Fate, Exposure and Toxicity of New Emerging Pollutant:
           Tetrabromobisphenol A.

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      Authors: Prince Sharma; Khushboo Sharma, Mandeep Singh, Pooja Chadha
      Abstract: Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs) are being utilized to reduce the flammability of plastics, textiles, and electronics. They differ in their chemical properties and structures, and it is conventional that these distinctions alter their biological interactions as well as toxicity. Tetra-Bromo-Bis-Phenol A (TBBPA) is a pervasive environmental contaminant that is seen in both abiotic and biotic matrices. This review discusses the occurrence, distribution, and fate of TBBPA from source to the environment. Recent studies have raised worry over the potentially harmful implications of TBBPA exposure in humans and wildlife, prompting its characterization under group 2A “Probably carcinogenic to humans” by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Worldwide there are no present confinements on its production and usage. On the other hand, very little information is accessible with respect to its toxicity to humans and aquatic animals. More research is required to characterize human exposure to TBBPA in and around production facilities, as well as in e-waste recycling regions. So as to safeguard the environment and human health, detailed investigations are urgently needed, especially on tracking the exposure pathways which may affect the workers and local residents around the exposure sites.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 May 2022 15:09:00 +000
       
  • Influence of Vitamin D on Ethanol Induced Retinal Changes in Experimental
           Rats

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      Authors: Deekshitha Arunachalam; Ashwin R. Rai, Rajalakshmi Rai, Teresa Joy, Shyamala Nayak
      Abstract: Retina is a neurosensory tissue of ocular system having highly unique lipids which are susceptible to free radical injuries. Chronic ethanol consumption can initiate a wide range of disorders in the CNS and also alteration in the visual system via oxidative pathway. Our study was designed to evaluate the role of vitamin D, a well-known antioxidant and neuroprotective steroid hormone, in the maintenance of ocular health in ethanol induced toxicity. In our present study 4 months old Wistar rats were exposed to ethanol, daily for 6 weeks, while another set of rats received ethanol daily, along with vitamin D for the same duration. A control group consisting of normal rats without any treatment was also included in this experiment. After 6 weeks, Total Anti-Oxidant (TAO) level of eyeball and retinal thickness was measured and statistically analyzed. We observed significantly decreased total antioxidant level in whole eye homogenate in ethanol administered rats which was associated with morphometric changes in the retina. Whereas, vitamin D treated rats showed near to normal retinal morphology as well as TAO level suggesting that vitamin D has the potential to reverse retinal damages caused by ethanol toxicity induced by long term consumption of it.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 May 2022 15:09:00 +000
       
  • Toxicological Assessment of Methanolic Fruit Extract of Zanthoxylum
           acanthopodium DC. in Swiss Albino Mice: Acute and Sub-acute Toxicity Study
           

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      Authors: Armanki Shylla; Dondor Pathaw, Bishnupada Roy
      Abstract: Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC. is widely used in traditional plant-based medical practices in India, with different parts of this plant used to treat a variety of ailments. Though this has been a time-tested practice, the side effects and other implications that the plant may have should not be overlooked. This study evaluated the toxicity of the methanolic fruit extract of Z. acanthopodium in Swiss albino mice by conducting acute and sub-acute toxicity tests using hematological, biochemical, ultrastructural analysis, sperm abnormality, and genotoxicity as parameters. For the acute toxicity test, mice were treated with a single dose of 5000 mg extract/kg bw of mice. While for sub-acute toxicity test, doses of 200, 500, and 1000 mg of the extract/kg bw were administered to the mice. Furthermore, a satellite group of the respective control group and the highest dose group were employed to observe the post-treatment effect that the plant may have. The acute toxicity test resulted in a significant reduction of the mean body weight gain in treated mice, but, no signs of morbidity and mortality were recorded. Sub-acute toxicity test revealed a negative effect of the plant extract on the blood and biochemical parameters. Light and electron microscopic examination of the liver and kidney showed the damaging effects of the extract on the tissues and the cellular structures. In addition, the extract induced sperm abnormalities with a significant reduction of sperm count and sperm viability, and caused an increase in the percentage of abnormally shaped sperms. The extract treatment also resulted in an increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations as well as cell death.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 May 2022 15:09:00 +000
       
  • Cleistopholis patens Extracts Attenuate Inflammatory Cytokine and
           Oxidative Stress Status in Complete Freund’s Adjuvant-induced Rheumatoid
           Arthritis in Wistar Albino Rats

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      Authors: Chinyere Aloke; Udu A. Ibiam, Orji U. Obasi, Nwogo A. Obasi, Chuks O. Edeogu, Patrick M. Aja, Chinedum U. Emelike, Patience N. Ogbu, Joseph C. Mordi
      Abstract: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease. Accumulating evidences show that natural products use for RA treatment is gaining importance in the medical world due to negative effects associated with orthodox medicines. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potency of Stem Bark of Cleistopholis Patens (SBCP) on Chicken Type II collagen in Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) induced RA in rats. Experimental rats were divided into nine groups (n= 15). RA was established in the rats by a single intradermal injection of 0.1ml Chicken Type II collagen in CFA through the left hind paw. The serum concentrations of Interinterleukin- 1 beta (IL-1'), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-'), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were evaluated. Unlike the untreated arthritic group, the test groups (4-9) orally administered with graded doses (400, 600 and 800 mg/kg) of SBCP extracts for twenty-one days showed significant reduction (P < 0.05) in concentrations of IL-1', IL-6, TNF-', MDA and NO while the activities of SOD and CAT increased significantly (P < 0.05) when compared to the negative control. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of SBCP extracts were comparable to that of the reference drug, indomethacin. This study indicates that SBCP ethanol and aqueous extracts could suppress proinflammatory cytokines and reduce oxidative stress in rheumatoid arthritic rats.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 May 2022 15:09:00 +000
       
  • The Toxicity of Imidacloprid on Early Embryonic Stages and Growth Rate of
           Hatchlings of Common Carp, Cyprinus carpio

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      Authors: Jitender Kumar Bhardwaj; Harkrishan Kamboj, Anil K. Tyor
      Abstract: In the present investigation, the toxicity of imidacloprid was tested on the embryos (fertilized eggs) and hatchlings of Cyprinus carpio in terms of mortality (%), hatching success (%) and abnormal/malformed hatchling along with their growth performance in toxicant medium. Reported data from acute toxicity tests of imidacloprid was statistically analyzed by Probit Analysis Method and 48 h (hour) LC50 was reported as 78 ppm for embryos of C. carpio. Three sublethal doses of imidacloprid i.e., 7.8 ppm (T1), 15.6 ppm (T2) and 23.4 ppm (T2), were selected for further experimentation along with control. The findings revealed that mortality of exposed eggs (%) was significantly (p<0.05) increased in dose dependent manner as a result hatching rate (%) was decreased as compared to control. Similarly, per cent of abnormal hatchling was also increased significantly (p<0.05) with increase in pesticide concentration. Various types of abnormalities has been reported in different body regions such as whole length curved body, stunted growth, hatchling with single eye, malformed head, flexure in the tail and deformed yolk sac etc. Growth rate was observed as length gain in centimeter (cm), weight gain in grams (g) and growth per cent gain in body weight of hatchling, which was also found to be declined significantly (p<0.05) with increase in pesticide concentration. The findings of the present investigation suggest that imidacloprid has significant effect on the early developmental stages, induces malformations and also decline the growth rate of hatchlings.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 May 2022 15:09:00 +000
       
  • Prospective Role of Calcium Supplementation in Prevention of Fluorosis: A
           Study in Some North Indian Villages

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      Authors: Apurva K. Srivastava; Asha Mathur, Subhash Yadav
      Abstract: More than a hundred million people from almost twenty-five countries, including India, are affected by fluorosis. An assessment of fluoride in water, a prospective study of dental fluorosis and the role of calcium in preventing or ameliorating dental fluorosis through a long-term community study in endemic high fluoride area in Northern India was done. Water survey from different areas was done to identify high fluoride area in Unnao district of Uttar Pradesh, India. House to house survey of a population of almost 5000 people was done. Biochemical tests were performed in 50 dental fluorotic and 50 non-fluorotic randomized subjects. Clinical and biochemical status was recorded after six months of calcium supplementation. Our results have shown that 28.64% population had dental fluorosis (total fluorosis: 43%), the highest in 13-15 years age group. After six months of calcium supplementation, 44% of cases showed reversal of dental fluorosis, whereas in 40% of them disease did not progress further. An increase in serum calcium and a significant decrease in urinary fluoride was observed post supplementation. In this first large-scale prospective community study of its kind, it is demonstrated that long-term administration of calcium can reverse dental fluorosis especially in children with early grades of fluorosis. Calcium may protect tooth against damage from high fluoride intake and reduces dental fluorosis. With the increase in the prevalence of dental fluorosis, calcium can prove a cheap and effective method for the prevention and treatment of dental fluorosis.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 May 2022 15:09:00 +000
       
  • Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on Histomorphometric changes of
           Hippocampus against Fluoride Toxicity in Wistar Rats

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      Authors: Sugavasi Raju; Gudemalla Kanchanalatha
      Abstract: Prolonged ingestion of fluoride leads to the pathogenesis known as fluorosis. Fluoride exposure leads to neuro degenerative changes such as reduction in the neuronal cell size and number. Exposure to fluoride showed neurodegenerative changes like shrunken neurons, increased in folding of the nuclear membrane, mitochondrial alterations, and dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae and clusters of vesicles near the Golgi bodies. Present study is to explore the histomorphometric changes of the hippocampus of fluoride induced brain and treated with Ginkgo biloba Extract (GBE). Thirty number (30) adult male Wistar rats were randomly separated into 5 Groups (n=6). Group1 (Control) supplemented with water, 2 to 5 Groups were supplemented with 100ppm of sodium fluoride for 30 days, while the Groups 3, 4, and 5 were Ginkgo biloba extract treated at 50mg/ kg, 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg body weight for 15 days, after sodium fluoride treatment, results showed that, 200mg/kg GBE provided effective and complete protection against fluoride toxicity. From the present study concluded that 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg GBE was significantly attenuated the fluoride induced toxicity in a dose depending manner. Present histomorphometrical study showed delayed neuronal death in the CA1 and CA3 regions of hippocampus of fluoride group that was significantly attenuated by GBE (50,100 and 200 mg/kg) in a dose dependant manner.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 May 2022 15:09:00 +000
       
  • Carbosulfan Induced Reproductive Toxicity in Male Albino Rats (Rattus
           norvegicus) and Protective effect of Cissus quadrangularis

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      Authors: Lokeshkumar Prakash; Muniswamy David
      Abstract: Carbosulfan is the most commonly used carbamate insecticide in the agriculture industry and is known to cause diverse toxicological effects on non-target organisms. Farmers are more susceptible to accidental consumption of insecticides owing to their unscientific use and ease of access. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate reproductive toxicity induced by carbosulfan and its amelioration using traditional Cissus quadrangularis plant extract. The rats were divided into six groups; (E1) control treated with 1% DMSO/kg bw, (E2) plant extract alone (1000 mg/kg bw), (E3) low dose of carbosulfan (3.4 mg/kg bw), (E4) high dose of carbosulfan (6.37 mg/kg bw), (E5) low dose (3.4 mg/kg bw) and (E6) high dose (6.37 mg/kg bw) carbosulfan co-treatment with Cissus quadrangularis extract (1000 mg/kg bw) for 60 days. The reproductive parameters including histology of testes, sperm count, motility, morphology, and hormonal assay (FSH, T, LH) were performed. Carbosulfan treated groups (E3 & E4) were manifested histopathological alterations including tubular degeneration, disorganisation of cells, vacuolisation, and sloughing of germ cells into the tubular lumen. The hormonal level, sperm count, and motility were significantly decreased and the sperm abnormality rate was increased in the E4 group compared to the control group. The groups (E5 & E6) co-treated with plant extract were significantly recovered compared to insecticide-treated groups (E3 & E4). The histological and hormonal changes were attributed to the reprotoxic effects of the insecticide. However, co-treatment of plant extract significantly recovered the toxic effects caused by low concentration (E5) than the high concentration (E6) of carbosulfan.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 May 2022 15:09:00 +000
       
  • Toxicological Sequelae of Pesticide Combinations Exposure in Buffalo
           Mesenchymal Stem Cells under In Vitro

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      Authors: H. Singh; M. K. Lonare, M. Sharma, R. Udheya, S. Singla, V. K. Dumka
      Abstract: The presence of one or more pesticides in a variety of mediums is responsible for their indirect toxicological events leading to cell senescence. In the present investigation, the endeavor was made to see the effect of pesticides Car- Benda-Zim (CBZ) and IMIdacloprid (IMI) alone and in combination with bone marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (bMSCs) of buffalo origin. Isolated and cultured bMSCs were exposed to CBZ and IMI alone and in combinations at lower doses. Cells were observed for alterations in cell morphology, oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and cellular senescence. bMSCs characterized for stem cell surface markers and found to be positive for AP, CD73 and OCT4. bMSCs exposed to IC25, IC12.5 and IC6.25 CBZ and IMI alone and combinations of IC12.5 and IC6.25 of CBZ and IMI. Results revealed significant reduction (p'0.05) in cell viability noticed on microscopic examination along with loss of normal cell morphology and increased in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) positive cells, cells with loss of ''m and number of senescent cells in CBZ and IMI treated groups. Lower dose combination groups showed elevated effects when compared with higher dose alone treated groups and control groups. Present findings suggest that CBZ and IMI induced cytotoxicity in bMSCs mediated via ROS production, altered ''m leading to the cell damage and predisposing senescence process. Moreover, the co-existence of CBZ and IMI in a medium has a considerably more toxic effect than their individual effect.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 May 2022 15:08:59 +000
       
 
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