Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 928 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (59 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (661 journals)
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    - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (45 journals)
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    - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (65 journals)

CHEMISTRY (661 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
Accounts of Materials Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
ACS Applied Polymer Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ACS Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
ACS Environmental Au     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
ACS Macro Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
ACS Materials Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 223)
ACS Photonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Acta Chemica Malaysia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
Advanced Journal of Chemistry, Section A     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Journal of Chemistry, Section B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 131)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Sample Preparation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aggregate     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alchemy : Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alchemy : Jurnal Penelitian Kimia     Open Access  
Alfarama Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alotrop     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Analytical Science Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 275)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio AA – Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 248)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Carbohydrate Polymer Technologies and Applications     Open Access  
Carbohydrate Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Carbon Capture Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Carbon Trends     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Cell Reports Physical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Chem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chem Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Chemical Physics Impact     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 212)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Chemical Science International Journal     Open Access  
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 75)
Chemical Thermodynamics and Thermal Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry     Open Access  
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry Africa : A Journal of the Tunisian Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry Education Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 186)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chemistry World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access  
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistrySelect     Hybrid Journal  
Chemistry–Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
ChemNanoMat     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Chemosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemPhotoChem     Hybrid Journal  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ChemPhysMater     Full-text available via subscription  
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chempublish Journal     Open Access  
ChemSystemsChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciencia     Open Access  
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Communications Materials     Open Access  
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

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Journal Cover
Biochemistry Research International
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.437
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-2247 - ISSN (Online) 2090-2255
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [339 journals]
  • Comparison of the Nutritional Status of Swiss Albino Mice Fed on Either a
           Purified or Cereal-Based Diet for 15 weeks

    • Abstract: Background. Laboratory animals are commonly fed on cereal-based diets (CBDs) whose nutrient composition is unknown and may confound the metabolic response to study interventions. Purified diets such as AIN-93M are therefore recommended, as their nutrient composition is known. However, few studies have evaluated their use as adequate control diets. The aim of this study was to compare the nutrition status of Swiss albino mice fed on either CBD or AIN-93M for 15 weeks. Methods. Twenty Swiss albino mice aged 6–8 weeks and weighing 21.7 g ± 0.6 were fed on either CBD or AIN-93M diet for 15 weeks. Their nutritional status was evaluated using anthropometric and hematological indices, serum glucose, total protein, albumin, and total cholesterol to select an appropriate normal control diet. Results. The CBD had low-calorie content (2.57 kcal/g) and protein (11 ± 3.8 g/100 g) compared to AIN-93M (3.8 kcal/g and 14 g/100 g, respectively). The BMI of male mice fed on CBD and AIN-93M diets was significantly higher ( and , respectively) compared to that of females fed on similar diets. Animals in the CBD group had lower hemoglobin (15.1–16.9 g/dl) compared to those in the AIN-93M group (18.1–20.8 g/dl). Serum albumin levels were higher in both male and female mice fed on AIN-93M compared to those fed on CBD. Females in the AIN-93M group had higher cholesterol than those in the CBD group. Conclusion. The AIN-93 diet of caloric value 3.85 kcal/g (total protein 14 g, total fat 4 g of soy bean oil, fibre 5 g, and total carbohydrate 42 g per 100 g) can be safely used as a normal control diet in long-term research studies using Swiss albino mice.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 May 2023 03:05:00 +000
  • A Computational Study on Selected Alkaloids as SARS-CoV-2 Inhibitors: PASS
           Prediction, Molecular Docking, ADMET Analysis, DFT, and Molecular Dynamics

    • Abstract: Despite treatments and vaccinations, it remains difficult to develop naturally occurring COVID-19 inhibitors. Here, our main objective is to find potential lead compounds from the retrieved alkaloids with antiviral and other biological properties that selectively target the main SARS-CoV-2 protease (Mpro), which is required for viral replication. In this work, 252 alkaloids were aligned using Lipinski’s rule of five and their antiviral activity was then assessed. The prediction of activity spectrum of substances (PASS) data was used to confirm the antiviral activities of 112 alkaloids. Finally, 50 alkaloids were docked with Mpro. Furthermore, assessments of molecular electrostatic potential surface (MEPS), density functional theory (DFT), and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) were performed, and a few of them appeared to have potential as candidates for oral administration. Molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) with a time step of up to 100 ns were used to confirm that the three docked complexes were more stable. It was found that the most prevalent and active binding sites that limit Mpro’sactivity are PHE294, ARG298, and GLN110. All retrieved data were compared to conventional antivirals, fumarostelline, strychnidin-10-one (L-1), 2,3-dimethoxy-brucin (L-7), and alkaloid ND-305B (L-16) and were proposed as enhanced SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors. Finally, with additional clinical or necessary study, it may be able to use these indicated natural alkaloids or their analogs as potential therapeutic candidates.
      PubDate: Wed, 03 May 2023 03:20:01 +000
  • MicroRNA-Based Markers of Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Buccal
           Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Systems Biology Approach

    • Abstract: Objective. Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) and buccal squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) are the first and second leading causes of oral cancer, respectively. OTSCC and BSCC are associated with poor prognosis in patients with oral cancer. Thus, we aimed to indicate signaling pathways, Gene Ontology terms, and prognostic markers mediating the malignant transformation of the normal oral tissue to OTSCC and BSCC. Methods. The dataset GSE168227 was downloaded and reanalyzed from the GEO database. Orthogonal partial least square (OPLS) analysis identified common differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) in OTSCC and BSCC compared to their adjacent normal mucosa. Next, validated targets of DEMs were identified using the TarBase web server. With the use of the STRING database, a protein interaction map (PIM) was created. Using the Cytoscape program, hub genes and clusters within the PIM were shown. Next, gene-set enrichment analysis was carried out using the g:Profiler tool. Using the GEPIA2 web tool, analyses of gene expression and survival analysis were also performed. Results. Two DEMs, including has-miR-136 and has-miR-377, were common in OTSCC and BSCC ( value  1). A total of 976 targets were indicated for common DEMs. PIM included 96 hubs, and the upregulation of EIF2S1, CAV1, RAN, ANXA5, CYCS, CFL1, MYC, HSP90AA1, PKM, and HSPA5 was significantly associated with a poor prognosis in the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), while NTRK2, HNRNPH1, DDX17, and WDR82 overexpression was significantly linked to favorable prognosis in the patients with HNSCC. “Clathrin-mediated endocytosis” was considerably dysregulated in OTSCC and BSCC. Conclusion. The present study suggests that has-miR-136 and has-miR-377 are underexpressed in OTSCC and BSCC than in normal oral mucosa. Moreover, EIF2S1, CAV1, RAN, ANXA5, CYCS, CFL1, MYC, HSP90AA1, PKM, HSPA5, NTRK2, HNRNPH1, DDX17, and WDR82 demonstrated prognostic markers in HNSCC. These findings may benefit the prognosis and management of individuals with OTSCC/BSCC. However, additional experimental verification is required.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Apr 2023 16:05:01 +000
  • Screening of Antimicrobial Properties and Bioactive Compounds of Pleurotus
           Ostreatus Extracts against Staphylococcus Aureus, Escherichia coli, and
           Neisseria Gonorrhoeae

    • Abstract: In recent years, the potential of pathogenic bacteria to acquire resistance to a variety of antimicrobial drugs has developed significantly due to the indiscriminate exposure of a number of antibiotic compounds. The purpose of this study is to determine the antibacterial capabilities and activities of crude Pleurotus ostreatus extracts against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (ATCC 49926), and nine multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. All of these isolates exhibited sensitivity to azithromycin and ceftriaxone, while the majority of antibiotic resistance was seen against penicillin G, sulphonamide, and ciprofloxacin. Fifty percent of the isolates exhibited absolute resistance to both sulphonamide and ciprofloxacin, whereas 40% of the isolates displayed absolute resistance to penicillin G. The antibacterial activity of P. ostreatus extracts examined in this investigation varied within the same species of microorganisms. Extract B and D, extracted in the presence of 20% wheat bran bagasse and 20% maize flour bagasse, respectively, had exceptional antibacterial activity against all target isolates examined. We observed the lowest concentration of antibacterial agent required to inhibit the target bacteria to be between 1 × 10−3 mg/ml and 1 × 10−6 mg/ml with an estimated probability of 0.30769, a lower 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.126807, an upper 95% CI of 0.576307, an estimated probability of 0.15385, a lower 95% CI of 0.043258, and an upper 95% CI, respectively. The MBC of 1 × 10−3 mg/ml was seen to eliminate 31% of the target bacteria. This dose was the most inhibitive. The antibacterial activity of all the extracts examined in the current study exhibited some degree of efficacy against both clinical isolates and standard strains. However, the majority of clinically isolated bacteria exhibited greater resistance to the extracts.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Apr 2023 07:05:00 +000
  • Chemical Characterization, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Antibiofilm
           Activities of Essential Oils of Plumeria alba (Forget-Me-Not)

    • Abstract: Essential oils are known to possess many biological properties such as antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Plumeria alba flowers are used in traditional remedies for diarrhea, cough, fever, and asthma treatment. This work evaluated the chemical composition and the biological activities of essential oils obtained from the flowers and leaves of Plumeria alba. The essential oils were extracted using the Clevenger-type apparatus and characterized using GC-MS. In the flower essential oil, a total of 17 compounds were identified, with linalool (23.91%), α-terpineol (10.97%), geraniol (10.47%), and phenyl ethyl alcohol (8.65%) being abundant. In the leaf essential oil, a total of 24 compounds were identified, with benzofuran, 2,3-di, hydro-(3.24%), and muurolol (1.40%) being present. Antioxidant activities were assessed using hydrogen peroxide scavenging, phosphomolybdenum, and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging assays. Antimicrobial activities were assessed through a microdilution assay. The essential oil showed antimicrobial activity against test microorganisms with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 25.0 to 50.0 mg/mL. Biofilm inhibition ranged from 27.14 ± 1.0 to 58.99 ± 0.6 mg/mL. The essential oil exhibited total antioxidant capacities which ranged from 17.5 μg/g AAE to 83 μg/g AAE in the phosphomolybdenum assay. The IC50 values in the DPPH and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assays for both flowers and leaves ranged from 18.66 μg/mL to 38.28 μg/mL. Both essential oils also displayed good antibiofilm activities, with the concentration required for half-maximal inhibition of biofilm formation being ∼60 mg/mL for both oils. This study shows that essential oils of Plumeria alba possess good antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and could be used as a source of natural antioxidants and antimicrobial agents.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Feb 2023 08:20:01 +000
  • Tropomyosin Isoform Diversity in the Cynomolgus Monkey Heart and Skeletal
           Muscles Compared to Human Tissues

    • Abstract: Old world monkeys separated from the great apes, including the ancestor of humans, about 25 million years ago, but most of the genes in humans and various nonhuman primates are quite similar even though their anatomical appearances are quite different. Like other mammals, primates have four tropomyosin genes (TPM1, TPM2, TPM3, and TPM4) each of which generates a multitude of TPM isoforms via alternative splicing. Only TPM1 produces two sarcomeric isoforms (TPM1α and TPM1κ), and TPM2, TPM3, and TPM4 each generate one sarcomeric isoform. We have cloned and sequenced TPM1α, TPM1κ, TPM2α, TPM3α, and TPM4α with RNA from cynomolgus (Cyn) monkey hearts and skeletal muscle. We believe this is the first report of directly cloning and sequencing of these monkey transcripts. In the Cyn monkey heart, the rank order of TPM isoform expression is TPM1α > TPM2α > TPM1κ > TPM3α > TPM4α. In the Cyn monkey skeletal muscle, the rank order of expression is TPM1α > TPM2α > TPM3α > TPM1κ > TPM4α. The major differences in the human heart are the increased expression of TPM1κ, although TPM1α is still the dominant transcript. In the Cyn monkey heart, the only sarcomeric TPM isoform at the protein level is TPM1α. This is in contrast to human hearts where TPM1α is the major sarcomeric isoform but a lower quantity of TPM1κ, TPM2α, and TPM3α is also detected at the protein level. These differences of tropomyosin and/or other cardiac protein expression in human and Cyn monkey hearts may reflect the differences in physiological activities in daily life.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Jan 2023 07:35:02 +000
  • In Vitro Experimental Assessment of Ethanolic Extract of Moringa oleifera
           Leaves as an α-Amylase and α-Lipase Inhibitor

    • Abstract: Background and Objectives. Moringa oleifera has been scientifically reported to have effects on diabetes and obesity. An explanatory mechanism on how the plant exerts its enzyme inhibitory activities are yet to be detailed. This study was aimed at carrying out an in vitro assessment of ethanolic extracts (AEEs) of M. oleifera leaves for their antioxidant, antidiabetic, and antiobesity activities. Methods. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant activity, α-amylase, and α-lipase inhibitory assessment were carried out on Moringa oleifera extract. Results. The result of the phytochemical screening revealed the presence of total phenolic, flavonoid, tannin, and alkaloid contents of values 0.070 ± 0.005 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, 0.180 ± 0.020 mg rutin equivalent/g, 0.042 ± 0.001 mg tannic equivalent/g, and 12.17 ± 0.001%, respectively, while the total protein analysis was 0.475 ± 0.001 mg bovine serum albumin equivalent/g. Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) values were 0.534 ± 0.001 mg gallic acid equivalent/g and 0.022 ± 0.00008 mg rutin equivalent/g, respectively. Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis (ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)), and nitric oxide (NO) assays showed the extract to have a strong free radical scavenging activity. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of the lipase and amylase activities of the extract are 1.0877 mg/mL and 0.1802 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion. However, α-lipase and α-amylase inhibiting activity of M. oleifera could be related to the phytochemicals in the extract. This research validates the ethnobotanical use of M. oleifera leaves as an effective plant-based therapeutic agent for diabetes and obesity.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Dec 2022 05:20:01 +000
  • Extraction, Profiling, and Characterization of Phytosterols and
           Triterpenoids from Pili (Canarium ovatum Engl.) Pulp Oil Exhibiting
           Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties

    • Abstract: Pili (Canarium ovatum Engl.), an indigenous tree found in the Philippines, is highly regarded for its fruit due to its high economic value. During processing, the pulp is often discarded as waste but contains considerable amounts of oil and bioactive minor lipid components. The present study explored the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of saponified diethyl ether extract of pili pulp oil and related this activity to the nature of compounds present in the extract through GCMS. The extract indicated the elution of 18 major compounds which are mostly cyclic triterpenic (α-and β-amyrin, lupenone, and β-amyrone) and phytosterol (β-sitosterol, brassicasterol, and stigmasterol) class of compounds. Characterization of the bioactivity of the extract showed high antioxidant activities measured by DPPH radical scavenging (EC50: 74.45 ± 1.29 μg/mL) and lipid peroxidation inhibition (EC50: 3.02 ± 0.06 μg/mL) activities that were comparable with that of α-tocopherol. Moreover, an observed bactericidal activity was demonstrated by the extract against E. coli and S. typhi with MIC values of 40 and 35 μg/mL, respectively. The observed bioactivity of the pili pulp oil extract can be attributed to these compounds which may provide desirable health benefits.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Dec 2022 07:35:01 +000
  • A Combined Study on Optimization, In Silico Modeling, and Genetic
           Modification of Large Scale Microbial Cellulase Production

    • Abstract: Cellulase is a biocatalyst that hydrolyzes cellulosic biomass and is considered a major group of industrial enzymes for its applications. Extensive work has been done on microbial cellulase but fungi are considered a novel strain for their maximum cellulase production. Production cost and novel microbial strains are major challenges for its improvement where cheap agro wastes can be essential sources of cellulose as substrates. The researcher searches for more cellulolytic microbes from natural sources but the production level of isolated strains is comparatively low. So genetic modification or mutation can be employed for large-scale cellulase production before optimization. After genetic modification than in silico molecular modeling can be evaluated for substrate molecule’s binding affinity. In this review, we focus not only on the conventional methods of cellulase production but also on modern biotechnological approaches applied to cellulase production by a sequential study on common cellulase-producing microbes, modified microbes, culture media, carbon sources, substrate pretreatment process, and the importance of optimum pH and temperature on fermentation. In this review, we also compare different cellulase activity determination methods. As a result, this review provides insights into the interrelationship between the characteristics of optimizing different culture conditions, genetic modification, and in silico enzyme modeling for the production of cellulase enzymes, which may aid in the advancement of large-scale integrated enzyme manufacturing of substrate-specific enzymes.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Dec 2022 05:20:00 +000
  • Physicochemical Characterization of Dembi Reservoir Water for Suitability
           of Fish Production, Southwest Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Reservoir water physicochemical characteristics provide important information about water suitability for fish production. Accordingly, the study aimed to characterize the physicochemical characteristics of Dembi reservoir water for sustainable fish production. The study was conducted in Dembi reservoir during the dry season. Water samples were collected in triplicate from selected 10 sampling sites of the reservoir water using manually prepared water sampler made from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tube. The depth integrated sampling technique was employed to take water samples for all physicochemical characteristics analysis. From the selected 14 physicochemical characteristics, four (temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen) were tested onsite using a multisystem HQ4d electronic meter (probe), whereas the rest 10 water quality characteristics were tested in the laboratory. The result showed that the current average depth of the dam was 5.6 ± 1.61 m. The overall mean values of the water quality characteristics at different sites of the reservoir were as follows: turbidity (26.4 ± 0.44 FTU), total hardness (22.2 ± 0.51 mgL−1), NO3 (5.4 ± 0.48 mgL−1), NO2 (0.3 ± 0.11 mgL−1), NH4 (2.1 ± 0.06 mgL−1), PO4−3 (1.7 ± 0.27 mgL−1), total alkalinity (52.5 ± 0.91 mgL−1), and BOD5 (2.7 ± 0.24 mgL−1). There was a significant difference () in all physicochemical characteristics among 10 sampling sites of the reservoir water. The recorded values of all physicochemical characteristics, except NO2, NH4, and PO4−3, were found within the recommended standard limit for fish production. The change in reservoir water depth and increase in nutrients shows the presence of sediment siltation and nutrient enrichment. Therefore, proper watershed management practices and waste management should be carried out for sustainable water quality maintenance and fish production.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Dec 2022 08:05:01 +000
  • Hypoxia-Induced miR-210 Promotes Endothelial Cell Permeability and
           Angiogenesis via Exosomes in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    • Abstract: Background. Exosomes have been proven to play important diagnostic, regulatory, or communication roles in tumorigenesis, tumor progression, or metastasis; in recent studies, lots of molecules, including miRNAs, were found to be aberrantly expressed in tumor exosomes and were correlated with tumor development. However, studies about the expression, relationship, or control mechanisms of miRNAs in exosomes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are scarce and urgently needed. The aim of this article was to identify and investigate abnormally expressed miRNAs in PDAC exosomes in vivo and in vitro. Methods. Microarray studies were used to detect aberrantly expressed miRNAs in PDAC exosomes, and miR-210 expression in cells or exosomes was further analyzed by qRT-PCR. Bioinformatics analyses, dual-luciferase assays, WB, and other assays were utilized to explore the miRNA molecular mechanisms. The living cell coculture model and immunofluorescence analysis were employed to image the communication between PDAC cells and endothelial cells. Other biological experiments in the study include a real-time intravital imaging system, EdU, transwell, xenograft models, and so on. Results. miR-210 is significantly expressed in PDAC exosomes and malignant cells. High miR-210 significantly facilitated tumor angiogenesis, cell invasion, and proliferation in PDAC cells. Further mechanistic detection revealed that miR-210 negatively regulated EFNA3 expression and participated in the PI3K/AKT/VEGFA or Wnt/Β-catenin/RHOA pathways, thus promoting tumor angiogenesis and cellular permeability. PDAC cells promote endothelial angiogenesis or permeability via miR-210 transmission by tumor exosomes. Exosomal miR-210 promotes PDAC progression in vivo. Further detection of PDAC plasma exosomal miR-210 suggests that exosomal miR-210 expression was high and significantly associated with vascular invasion and TNM stage and was an independent risk factor for PDAC overall survival. Conclusions. PDAC cell-secreted exosomes could promote angiogenesis and cellular permeability of neighboring endothelial angiogenesis or permeability via miR-210 transmission. Exosomal miR-210 may play important roles in tumor biology and may be a useful prognostic marker in PDAC.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Nov 2022 05:20:01 +000
  • Shexiang Baoxin Pills Could Alleviate Isoproterenol-Induced Heart Failure
           Probably through its Inhibition of CaV1.2 Calcium Channel Currents

    • Abstract: Heart failure (HF) affects millions of patients in the world. Shexiang Baoxin Pills (SXB) are extensively applied to treat coronary artery diseases and HF in Chinese hospitals. However, there are still no explanations for why SXB protects against HF. To assess the protective role, we created the HF model in rats by isoproterenol (ISO) subcutaneous injection, 85 milligrams per kilogram body weight for seven days. Four groups were implemented: CON (control), ISO (HF disease group), CAP (captopril, positive drug treatment), and SXB groups. Echocardiography was used to evaluate rats’ HF in vivo. The human CaV1.2 (hCaV1.2) channel currents were detected in tsA-201 cells by patch clamp technique. Five different concentrations of SXB (5, 10, 30, 50, and 100 mg/L) were chosen in this study. The results showed that SXB increased cardiac systolic function and inhibited rats’ cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis induced by ISO. Subsequently, it was found that SXB was inhibited by the peak amplitudes of hCaV1.2 channel current (). The SXB half inhibitory dosage was 9.09 mg/L. The steady-state activation curve was 22.8 mV depolarization shifted; while the inactivation curve and the recovery from inactivation were not affected significantly. In conclusion, these results indicated that SXB inhibited ISO-induced HF in rats and inhibited the hCaV1.2 channel current. The present study paved the way for SXB to protect itself from HF.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Nov 2022 02:05:01 +000
  • Nutritional Health Perspective of Natto: A Critical Review

    • Abstract: Natto, a traditional soy food fermented by Bacillus subtilis, is made by steaming or cooking soaked soybean seeds, inoculating them with the bacteria, and then letting them sit for an incubation period. Natto soya has grown popular because of its nutritional importance and health advantages. As a result, farmers have more opportunities, thanks to the natto soybean market. For the natto soybean market to remain stable and grow, improved soybean cultivars with enhanced natto quality traits are essential. Natto’s high-quality attributes are influenced by the bacteria strain, processing parameters, and soybean variety. Natto has a specific flavor and aroma with a slimy, sticky consistency. Natto possesses various therapeutic potentials and contains a range of essential nutrients and bioactive compounds, i.e., nattokinase, soybean isoflavone, γ-polyglutamic acid, vitamin K2, and biogenic amines. Bacterial species, processing conditions, and cultivars of soybean determine the quality characteristics of natto. Natto food is higher in menaquinone-7 and contains 100 times more menaquinone-7 than most cheeses. The present review highlights the production technology, microbiology, nutritional composition, and therapeutic potentials of natto.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 Oct 2022 08:20:01 +000
  • Clinical Identification of Hypovitaminosis D among Elderly Attending
           Primary Care Centre in Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Background. A large proportion of elderly people suffer from hypovitaminosis D, and depending on the severity of the condition, they develop complications that are detrimental to their health. Objective. To determine the consistency between the results of the vitamin D level in the blood compared to the result with the score of a simple questionnaire (Physician Vitamin D Status Predictor - VDSP) for elderly patients. Subjects and methods. This is a cross-sectional study conducted during the period between October 2018 and November 2019 in 3 primary health care centres (PHCCs) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The subjects for this study were patients aged 60 or older. Data were collected in two phases: a questionnaire approach as the first phase, while the second phase involved blood testing for vitamin D levels. The validated questionnaire used in this study was the Physician`s Vitamin D Status Predictor (VDSP). Results. The study included 335 participants who ranged between 60 and 107 years old with a mean age of 68.2 years and standard deviation (SD) of 7.3 years. Females represented 66.9% of the total participants. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 60.8%; among them, 7.2% were categorized as severe deficiency, whereas the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 29.9%. The outcomes of VDSP survey were not directly associated with serum 25(OH)D levels in elderly people, except for the number of medications. In addition, vitamin D supplementation was associated with serum 25(OH)D levels among those patients. Conclusion. Vitamin D supplementation was significantly associated with serum 25(OH)D levels. Moreover, this study showed a significant association between serum 25(OH)D levels and the number of medications taken by the participants.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Oct 2022 18:05:02 +000
  • Gallic and Hesperidin Ameliorate Electrolyte Imbalances in AlCl3-Induced
           Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    • Abstract: Nephrotoxicity is usually characterized by inefficiency of the kidney, thereby causing disruptions to electrolyte balance and blood acidity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of hesperidin and gallic acid on serum electrolytes and ion pumps in Wistar rats subjected to aluminum chloride (AlCl3)-induced nephrotoxicity. Thirty Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups of five animals apiece. Group one served as the negative control and received distilled water while the study lasted. Animals in groups 2–4 received 100 mg/kg/day AlCl3 throughout the study. Animals in groups 3 and 4 were also administered 100 mg/kg/day gallic acid and 100 mg/kg/day hesperidin, respectively. Groups 5 and 6 were treated with 100 mg/kg/day gallic acid only and 100 mg/kg/day hesperidin only, respectively. Treatments were administered orally via gavage for 28 days with distilled water as the vehicle. Animals were sacrificed after which levels of potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, chloride, and bicarbonate ions were evaluated in the serum, while activities of Na+/K+ and Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPases were determined in kidney homogenate. Results showed that AlCl3 significantly () inhibited activities of Na+/K+ and Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPases in addition to increasing serum levels of potassium, calcium, phosphate, and chloride, with concomitant decrease in serum levels of magnesium and bicarbonate. However, coadministration of AlCl3 with either gallic acid or hesperidin ameliorated all the disruptions caused by AlCl3. It could be concluded that gallic acid and hesperidin could be relevant in managing electrolyte imbalances and acidosis occasioned by kidney dysfunction.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Oct 2022 10:35:03 +000
  • Effect of Green Synthesized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Using Spinach Extract
           on Triton X-100-Induced Atherosclerosis in Rats

    • Abstract: The effect of iron oxide nanoparticles (FeONPs) synthesized using Spinacia oleracea leaf extract on Triton X-100-induced atherosclerosis in white Wistar rats was determined. FeONPs were characterized to determine their size, structure, composition, and shape. In vitro antioxidant activity of FeONPs against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) was determined. Atherosclerosis was induced by intraperitoneal administration of 5% Triton X-100 (100 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days. Group 1 received standard rat chow and water. Group 2 received 100 mg/kg body weight of Triton X-100 and a standard diet. Group 3 received 100 mg/kg body weight of Triton X-100 followed by 20 mg/kg body weight of atorvastatin for 21 days. Groups 4, 5, and 6 received 100 mg/kg body weight Triton X-100 was followed by variable concentrations of 100, 300, and 500 µg/kg body weight FeONPs, respectively, for 21 days. Blood samples were analyzed for lipid, liver, antioxidant, and cardiovascular markers. Histopathology of the heart was also examined. Characterization revealed the amorphous nature, functional groups, and clustered topography of FeONPs. An upregulated antioxidant activity of FeONPs was observed in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of Triton X-100 showed elevated levels of lipid biomarkers except for high-density lipoprotein (HDL), which decreased in group 2 in comparison to group 1. Liver, antioxidant, and cardiovascular biomarkers all significantly increased. The structural alteration was observed in the heart tissue following histopathology examination. Administration of FeONPs significantly decreased all biomarkers and increased the level of HDL. Also, tissue architecture was restored. Our findings demonstrated that FeONPs were effective in ameliorating Triton X-100-induced atherosclerosis in rats.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 Oct 2022 14:50:00 +000
  • The Association between Vitamin D Hypovitaminosis and Cardiovascular
           Disease Risk in Saudi Diabetic Patients Type II

    • Abstract: We evaluated the prevalence and association of Vitamin D deficiency with glycemic control and CVD risk in T2DM patients. Serum 25 (OH)D3, lipid profile, glucose panel, HbA1c, serum insulin, and HOMA-IR were assessed in 93 T2DM patients and 69 controls. 10 years and lifetime ASCVD risk scores were calculated. The levels of 25(OH)D3 were significantly low in T2DM patients compared to the control. T2DM patients with hypovitaminosis D displayed significantly increased FBG, insulin, and HOMA-IR compared to normovitaminosis. Their lifetime and 10-year ASCVD risk scores were significantly higher regardless of vitamin D deficiency levels (;) in comparison to patients with sufficient levels of vitamin D. Among patients, the lifetime and 10 years of ASCVD risk showed a significant negative correlation with serum 25(OH)D3 and HDLc (; 0.018) (), respectively, and significant positive correlation with T2DM duration, serum insulin, and HOMA-IR (; 0.0001) (; 0.001) (; 0.001), respectively. The 10-year ASCVD risk exhibited a significant positive correlation with FBG () and HbA1c (). T2DM duration was a predictor of vitamin D deficiency among T2DM patients (β = 0.22; CI = 0.002–0.04). There is a considerable association between lifetime and 10 years of ASCVD risk with hypovitaminosis D in T2DM, regardless of the deficiency levels which could be predicted by the diabetes duration.
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Sep 2022 04:35:01 +000
  • Essential Guide to Manuscript Writing for Academic Dummies: An
           Editor’s Perspective

    • Abstract: Writing an effective manuscript is one of the pivotal steps in the successful closure of the research project, and getting it published in a peer-reviewed and indexed journal adds to the academic profile of a researcher. Writing and publishing a scientific paper is a tough task that researchers and academicians must endure in staying relevant in the field. Success in translating the benchworks into the scientific content, which is effectively communicated within the scientific field, is used in evaluating the researcher in the current academic world. Writing is a highly time-consuming and skill-oriented process that requires familiarity with the numerous publishing steps, formatting rules, and ethical guidelines currently in vogue in the publishing industry. In this review, we have attempted to include the essential information that novice authors in their early careers need to possess, to be able to write a decent first scientific manuscript ready for submission in the journal of choice. This review is unique in providing essential guidance in a simple point-wise manner in conjunction with easy-to-understand illustrations to familiarize novice researchers with the anatomy of a basic scientific manuscript.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Sep 2022 10:35:01 +000
  • Impact of Highly Saturated versus Unsaturated Fat Intake on Carbohydrate
           Metabolism and Vascular Reactivity in Rat

    • Abstract: Palm olein (PO) and lard are considered harmful to health because of their highly saturated fatty acid content. On the contrary, olive oil (OO) with its high level of polyunsaturated fatty acids is considered healthier. This study aims to evaluate the effects of high consumption of these oils on carbohydrate metabolism and vascular function. Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks with different high fat diets (HFD) containing 30% of each oil. Systemic glycemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia were assessed by routine methods or by ELISA. GLUT4 muscular expression and hepatic and muscular Akt phosphorylation were analyzed by western blot. Vascular function was evaluated, ex vivo, on aortic rings and on the variations of isometric tensions. The results show that fasting blood glucose was increased with PO and OO diets and decreased with lard. Compared to control diet, this increase was significant only with PO diet. The area under the curve of IPGTT was increased in all HFD groups. Compared to control diet, this increase was significant only with PO. In contrast, stimulation of the pathway with insulin showed a significant decrease in Akt phosphorylation in all HFD compared to control diet. KCl and phenylephrine induced strong, dose-dependent vasoconstriction of rat aortas in all groups, but KCl EC50 values were increased with lard and OO diets. The inhibitory effect of tempol was absent in PO and lard and attenuated in OO. Vascular insulin sensitivity was decreased in all HFD groups. This decreased sensitivity of insulin was more important with PO and lard when compared to OO diet. In conclusion, the results of this study clearly show that high consumption of palm olein, olive oil, and lard can compromise glucose tolerance and thus insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, palm olein and lard have a more deleterious effect than olive oil on the contractile function of the aorta. Excessive consumption of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids is harmful to health, regardless of their vegetable or animal origin.
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Aug 2022 03:05:00 +000
  • Protein Quality Evaluation of Some Commonly Consumed Bird Egg Varieties
           Using Amino Acid Scores

    • Abstract: Objective. Food proteins provide amino acids (AAs) and serve as building blocks of all vital organs, muscles, hormones, and biological fluids such as blood. Eggs are known as a good source of protein. This study compared the protein quality of bird eggs (raw and boiled), using their AA scores since some individuals consume raw eggs for various reasons. Research Methods. Eggs studied were exotic chicken, local chicken, turkey, quail, and guinea fowl eggs. The eggs were shelled and their contents (boiled and raw) lyophilized. The standard AOAC method (Kjeldahl) was used to determine protein content, while the amino acid composition was measured using an AA analyzer. The total AA scores were calculated based on the whole hen’s egg AA profiles. Statistical significance was accepted at .Results. The Guinea fowl egg had the highest total amino acid score (TAAS) of 0.92. The other scores ranged as follows: 0.82 (quail)>0.81 (turkey)>0.75 (exotic chicken), and the lowest score was 0.65 (local chicken). The least scores were phenylalanine: 0.34 (exotic chicken), phenylalanine and serine: 0.36 (local chicken), leucine and aspartic acid: 0.41 (turkey), methionine: 0.31 (quail), and glutamic acid: 0.33 (guinea fowl). Also, guinea fowl egg had the highest total essential amino acid (TEAA) (49.6 g/100 g protein), i.e., % TEAA (55.1%), while exotic chicken egg had the lowest (41.1%), but the highest % NEAA (58.9%). Conclusion. Guinea fowl eggs had the highest EAA and TAA content. Its consumption should particularly be encouraged for children as this can significantly reduce the risk of protein-energy malnutrition and prevent protein deficiencies.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Jul 2022 10:50:01 +000
  • Chemical Composition and Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Stem
           Bark Essential Oil and Extracts of Solanecio gigas

    • Abstract: Herbal medication developed from natural resources has to have antibacterial and antioxidant effects. The aim of this research is to look at the chemical makeup of Solanecio gigas (S. gigas) stem bark essential oil (EO), as well as the effectiveness of EO and extracts (chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol) against human pathogenic bacteria and their antioxidant activity. The GC-MS analysis identified 23 components, accounting for 98.7% of the total oil containing Methylene chloride (49.2%), sabinene (10.5%), 1-nonene (11.3%), Terpinen-4-ol (6.9%), Camphene (4.3%), γ-terpinene (3.6%), α-phellandrene (2.9%) β-myrcene (2.6%), 1,2,5-Oxadiazol-3-carboxamide, 4,4′-azobis-2,2′-dioxide (2.4%), α-terpinene (1.9%), 1-Octanamine, N-methyl- (1.9%), ρ-cymene (1.6%) as major components. The antibacterial efficacy of the EO and extracts (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/ml) was demonstrated by the inhibitory zones (8.5 ± 0.47–23.3 ± 0.36 and 7.2 ± 0.25–22.0 ± 0.45 mm), respectively. The MIC values of the extracts and the EO were 120–150 and 240 to
      PubDate: Sat, 09 Jul 2022 07:50:03 +000
  • The Effect of Supplementing Mushroom Growing Substrates on the Bioactive
           Compounds, Antimicrobial Activity, and Antioxidant Activity of Pleurotus

    • Abstract: Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom contains important bioactive compounds and has several biological activities; however, mushroom growing substrates have major influence on chemical and functional characteristics of the mushroom. Hence, the study aimed to evaluate the influence of supplementing mushroom growing substrates with wheat bran (WB) towards yield/productivity, bioactive compounds, and antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of P. ostreatus. The mushroom was cultivated on sugarcane substrates supplemented with increasing levels of WB (0%–20%). The mushroom extracts were screened for bioactive compounds using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Antimicrobial activity was carried out using microplate assay, while antioxidant potential was investigated using reducing power assay. The addition of supplements on mushroom growing substrates had an influence on mushroom yield; hence, higher supplementation (18% and 20%) produced higher yield. The GC-MS revealed several bioactive compounds with known activity, such as vitamin E, phenol, fatty acids, and terpenoids. Concentration-dependent antioxidant activity was observed; hence, extracts at higher concentrations gave significantly higher reducing power. The P. ostreatus extract had antimicrobial activity against all the tested organisms, with S. aureus showing high susceptibility to most of the extracts. However, mushrooms grown on bagasse substrates supplemented with 14% (0.02 mg/ml) and 20% WB (0.08 mg/ml) proved to have better antimicrobial activity on Escherichia coli. The difference in susceptibility demonstrates that substrates type and composition could have an influence on bioactive compounds found within mushrooms, also influencing medicinal properties of edible mushroom. Thus, supplementing mushroom growing substrates not only improve yield, but also can contribute to bioactive compounds with medicinal potential.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Jun 2022 08:50:01 +000
  • Screening of Aqueous Extract of Persea americana Seeds for
           Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors

    • Abstract: Activity of α-glucosidase enzyme in the gastrointestinal tract has been implicated in postprandial hyperglycaemia. If not properly controlled, postprandial hyperglycaemia might progress to diabetes mellitus, a metabolic syndrome. Diabetes is associated with many complications such as retinopathy, heart attack, nephropathy, neuropathy, stroke, and lower limb amputation. Antidiabetic medications presently in use have little effect on postprandial glycaemic excursion and hence do not bring down the blood glucose level to baseline. This study extracted, fractionated, and screened the aqueous extract of Persea americana seeds for hypoglycaemic potential. Inhibitory effects of the fractions and subfractions of the extract on α-glucosidase activity were investigated. The most active subfraction was subjected to Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis to elucidate the active components. The active subfraction showed a significant inhibition () on α-glucosidase. The subfraction competitively inhibits α-glucosidase (with IC50 = 09.48 ± 0.58 μg/mL), though less potent than the standard drug, acarbose (IC50 = 06.45 ± 0.47 μg/mL). FTIR analysis of the subfraction showed the presence of carbonyl group, hydroxy group, carboxyl group, double bonds, methylene, and methyl groups. GC-MS analysis suggests the presence of cis-11,14-eicosadienoic acid, catechin, and chlorogenic acid as the active components. In conclusion, the components obtained from this study can be synthesised in the laboratory to further confirm their hypoglycaemic activity. The most active subfraction can be explored further to confirm its inhibitory activity against the enzyme and to determine its extent in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in vivo.
      PubDate: Sat, 14 May 2022 16:50:05 +000
  • miR-21 Regulates Immune Balance Mediated by Th17/Treg in Peripheral Blood
           of Septic Rats during the Early Phase through Apoptosis Pathway

    • Abstract: Objective. To study the mechanism by which miR-21 regulates the differentiation and function of Th17/Treg cells in sepsis. Methods. A rat model with sepsis was made by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Then, some of the septic rats were transfected with miR-21 mimic or inhibitor by liposome. At 48 hours, lymphocytes and plasma from septic rats were isolated for further experimental detection. The expression of miR-21 in lymphocytes was detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR); the differentiation of Th17/Treg cells was counted by flow cytometry; lymphocyte apoptosis was observed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The caspase-3/9 proteins were tested by Western blot; IL-10 and IL-17 were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results. Compared with the sepsis group (SP group), the Th17 cells increased significantly, the Treg cells decreased significantly, the apoptosis rate of lymphocytes decreased significantly, the mRNA and proteins of caspase-3/9 decreased significantly, the IL-17 decreased, and the IL-10 increased in the sepsis group transfected with miR-21 (SP + miR-21 mimic group). After transfection of miR-21 inhibitor, the results were almost opposite to those of SP + miR-21 mimic group. Conclusions. The differentiation and function of Th17/Treg cells were regulated by miR-21 in sepsis through caspase pathway.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Apr 2022 07:35:01 +000
  • Updates on Prevalence and Trend Status of Visceral Leishmaniasis at Two
           Health Facilities in Amhara Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia: A
           Retrospective Study

    • Abstract: Ethiopia is one of the countries accounted for over 90% of annual visceral leishmaniasis incidence. Despite this, yet there are no active and passive surveillance activities in the Amhara Region that will give up-to-date information about the disease status at the health facility levels. Therefore, this study aimed to report up-to-date information about visceral leishmaniasis and its trend status at two health facilities and the surrounding areas. A retrospective study from October 2017 to May 2021 was conducted by reviewing patient records at Metema and Addis Zemen Hospitals. Data on Sex, age, occupation, residence, month, year, and rK39 test results were collected using a questionnaire and were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. The chi-square test was used to see the association between variables. p 
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Apr 2022 14:35:03 +000
  • Bioassay-Guided Fractionation, ESI-MS Scan, Phytochemical Screening, and
           Antiplasmodial Activity of Afzelia africana

    • Abstract: Background. Afzelia africana is a plant species with reported numerous medicinal potentials and secondary metabolites. Various parts of the plant have been applied for the treatment of hernia, rheumatism, pain, lumbago, malaria, etc. The study seeks to evaluate the phytochemical constituents, antiplasmodial, and ESI-MS scan of bioassay-guided fractions from the methanol extract of the bark of the plant. Aims. The main aim of the study was to carry out bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude methanol extract of Afzelia africana in order to isolate fractions and to evaluate their antiplasmodial activities and ESI-MS fingerprints. Methods. The methods employed include column chromatographic fractionation, phytochemical screening, antiplasmodial activity (malaria SYBER green assay (MSF)), and ESI-MS profile (full ESI-MS scan). Results. The column chromatographic fractionation and phytochemical screening of the plant led to the separation of the following four fractions: 1 (flavonoids, phenolics, glycosides, terpenoids, and steroids), 2 (alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, phenolics, glycosides, terpenoids, and steroids), 3 (anthraquinones, flavonoids, phenolics, glycosides, terpenoids, and steroids), and 4 (alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, glycosides, terpenoids, and steroids). The antiplasmodial activities of the fractions were tested against the 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum with reported stronger activities for 1 (IC50: 0.097 ± 0.034 μg/mL) and 3 (IC50: 1.43 ± 0.072 μg/mL), and weaker activities for 2 (IC50: >100 μg/mL) and 4 (IC50: 37.09 ± 6.14 μg/mL). The full ESI-MS fingerprint of fractions 1, 2, 3, and 4 revealed the presence of 14, 24, 34, and 37 major molecular ions or compounds in each fraction, respectively.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Apr 2022 08:05:01 +000
  • Bacterial Metabolomics: Sample Preparation Methods

    • Abstract: Metabolomics is a comprehensive analysis of metabolites existing in biological systems. As one of the important “omics” tools, the approach has been widely employed in various fields in helping to better understand the complex cellular metabolic states and changes. Bacterial metabolomics has gained a significant interest as bacteria serve to provide a better subject or model at systems level. The approach in metabolomics is categorized into untargeted and targeted which serves different paradigms of interest. Nevertheless, the bottleneck in metabolomics has been the sample or metabolite preparation method. A custom-made method and design for a particular species or strain of bacteria might be necessary as most studies generally refer to other bacteria or even yeast and fungi that may lead to unreliable analysis. The paramount aspect of metabolomics design comprises sample harvesting, quenching, and metabolite extraction procedures. Depending on the type of samples and research objective, each step must be at optimal conditions which are significantly important in determining the final output. To date, there are no standardized nor single designated protocols that have been established for a specific bacteria strain for untargeted and targeted approaches. In this paper, the existing and current developments of sample preparation methods of bacterial metabolomics used in both approaches are reviewed. The review also highlights previous literature of optimized conditions used to propose the most ideal methods for metabolite preparation, particularly for bacterial cells. Advantages and limitations of methods are discussed for future improvement of bacterial metabolomics.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Apr 2022 10:35:01 +000
  • Annotating Spike Protein Polymorphic Amino Acids of Variants of
           SARS-CoV-2, Including Omicron

    • Abstract: The prolonged global spread and community transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to the emergence of variants and brought questions regarding disease severity and vaccine effectiveness. We conducted simple bioinformatics on the spike gene of a representative of each variant. The data show that a number of polymorphic amino acids are located mostly on the amino-terminal side of the S1/S2 cleavage site. The Omicron variant diverges from the others, with the highest number of amino acid substitutions, including the receptor-binding site (RBS), epitopes, S1/S2 cleavage site, fusion peptide, and heptad repeat 1. The current sharp global increase in the frequency of the Omicron genome constitutes evidence of its high community transmissibility. In conclusion, the proposed guideline could give an immediate insight of the probable biological nature of any variant of SARS-Cov-2. As the Omicron diverged the farthest from the original pandemic strain, Wuhan-Hu-1, we expect different epidemiological and clinical patterns of Omicron cases. On vaccine efficacy, slight changes in some epitopes while others are conserved should not lead to a significant reduction in the effectiveness of an approved vaccine.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Apr 2022 13:35:03 +000
  • Synthesis of Benzimidazole-Sulfonyl Derivatives and Their Biological

    • Abstract: Currently, the synthesis of new compounds with potential bioactivities has become a central issue in the drug discovery arena. Among these new compounds, benzimidazole-sulfonyl scaffolds have vital applications in the fields of pharmaceuticals industries. Benzimidazole and sulfonyl compounds have remarkable biological activities, such as antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, carbonic anhydrase inhibitory, and α-amylase inhibitory activities. Furthermore, recent literature mentions the synthesis and bioactivities of some benzimidazole-sulfonyl hybrids. In this review, we focus on reviewing the synthesis of these hybrid scaffolds and their various types of biological activities of the compounds.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Apr 2022 10:05:01 +000
  • Retracted: Exploring Drug Targets in Isoprenoid Biosynthetic Pathway for
           Plasmodium falciparum

    • PubDate: Tue, 15 Mar 2022 10:50:01 +000
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