Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 1001 journals)
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    - CHEMISTRY (726 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (726 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
Accounts of Materials Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
ACS Applied Polymer Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ACS Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ACS Macro Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
ACS Materials Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 457)
ACS Photonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Acta Chemica Malaysia     Open Access  
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
Advanced Journal of Chemistry, Section A     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advanced Journal of Chemistry, Section B     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 111)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aggregate     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alchemy : Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alchemy : Jurnal Penelitian Kimia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alotrop     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Analytical Science Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 245)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 356)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio AA – Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access  
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 491)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 220)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Carbohydrate Polymer Technologies and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Carbohydrate Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
Carbon Capture Science & Technology     Open Access  
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Cell Reports Physical Science     Open Access  
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Chem     Hybrid Journal  
Chem Catalysis     Hybrid Journal  
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 88)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Chemical Physics Impact     Full-text available via subscription  
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Chemical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 271)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Chemical Science International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 74)
Chemical Thermodynamics and Thermal Analysis     Open Access  
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry     Open Access  
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 229)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry Africa : A Journal of the Tunisian Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry Education Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 342)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistrySelect     Hybrid Journal  
Chemistry–Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
ChemNanoMat     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Chemosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemPhotoChem     Hybrid Journal  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
ChemPhysMater     Full-text available via subscription  
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chempublish Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemSystemsChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

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Journal Cover
Biochemistry Research International
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.437
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-2247 - ISSN (Online) 2090-2255
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • A Biochemical Analysis of Patients with COVID-19 Infection

    • Abstract: Several studies have demonstrated that age, comorbidities, and abnormalities in different clinical biomarkers can be important to understand disease severity. Although clinical features of COVID-19 have been widely described, the assessment of alterations of the most common biochemical markers that are reported in patients with COVID-19 still has not been well established. Here, we report clinical and blood biochemical indicators of 100 patients with COVID-19. Throat-swab upper respiratory samples were obtained from patients and real-time PCR was used to confirm SARS-CoV-2 infection. Gender, age, and clinical features such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and smoking habits were investigated. Biochemical parameters were categorized and analyzed according to these clinical characteristics. Triglycerides, GPT, and ALP are the biochemical markers that changed the most in the group of hypertension patients. Cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly different (;, respectively) between diabetic and nondiabetic patients with COVID-19. Potassium levels were significantly different () when comparing smokers with nonsmoker patients. Our results suggest several potential biochemical indexes that changed in patients with COVID-19 and whether certain comorbidity and clinical characteristics influence these markers.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Oct 2021 14:35:01 +000
  • Molecular Spectroscopic (FTIR and UV-Vis) and Hyphenated Chromatographic
           (UHPLC-qTOF-MS) Analysis and In Vitro Bioactivities of the Momordica
           balsamina Leaf Extract

    • Abstract: Momordica balsamina (M. balsamina) is a medicinal herb comprising health-promoting secondary metabolites. This study was aimed to profile bioactive compounds in the methanolic extract of M. balsamina leaves using molecular spectroscopic (UV-Vis and FTIR) and hyphenated chromatographic (UHPLC-qTOF-MS) techniques and evaluate the biological (in vitro anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity) activities of the extract. The preliminary phytochemical screening tests revealed the presence of cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and terpenoids. The UV-Vis profile revealed various absorption bands ranging from 200 to 750 nm, indicating the presence of flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannins, terpenoids, carotenoids, chlorophyll, and alkaloids. FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, anthraquinones, and phenolic compounds. A high-resolution and accurate mass spectrometer (LC-QTOF-MS model LC-MS-9030 instrument) was used, and the results confirmed the presence of flavonoid aglycones, such as quercetin, isorhamnetin, and kaempferol, as well as pseudolaroside A and dicaffeoylquinic and feruloyl isocitric acids. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of pseudolaroside A dimer and feruloyl isocitric acid in M. balsamina leaves. In vitro cytotoxicity assay showed that the extract was nontoxic against human colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29 and Caco2), Vero, and RAW 264.7 cells. However, the extract showed anti-inflammatory activity on RAW 264.7 cells. The study confirmed that M. balsamina leaves contain nontoxic secondary metabolites that may play a pivotal role in human health as anti-inflammatory agents.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Sep 2021 10:05:01 +000
  • Baicalein Mediates Mitochondrial Autophagy via miR-30b and the NIX/BNIP3
           Signaling Pathway in Parkinson’s Disease

    • Abstract: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is regarded as a severe neurodegenerative disorder. Baicalein is involved in the treatment of PD. This study explored the mechanism of baicalein in PD. The PD rat model was established using 6-hydroxydopamine. The neurologic score, dopamine (DA) content, apoptotic cells, and neuronal damage were evaluated after rats were treated with baicalein. Autophagy in PD rats was inhibited using 3-methyladenine (3-MA). The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and autophagy-related proteins (LC3, P62) were detected. Next, agomiR-30b was transfected into PD rats. The targeting relation between miR-30b and NIX was predicted and verified. Then, sh-NIX was transfected into PD rats, and the effects of miR-30b and NIX on MMP, LC3, and P62 were assessed. When miR-30b was overexpressed using agomiR-30b, the NIX and BNIP3 levels were detected. Baicalein increased the neurological score and restored DA content, neurons, MMP, and mitochondrial autophagy protein levels. Baicalein inhibited miR-30b expression and miR-30b targeted NIX. miR-30b upregulation or NIX silencing reversed the effect of baicalein on MMP and mitochondrial autophagy. Baicalein upregulated NIX and BNIP3 expressions, while miR-30b overexpression inhibited NIX and BNIP3 expressions. In summary, baicalein mediated mitochondrial autophagy and restored neuronal activity by downregulating miR-30b and activating the NIX/BNIP3 pathway, thus protecting against PD.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Aug 2021 05:20:01 +000
  • Identification of Prognostic Genes in Neuroblastoma in Children by
           Weighted Gene Coexpression Network Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. Neuroblastoma is a malignant neuroendocrine tumor from the sympathetic nervous system, the most common extracranial tumor in children. Identifying potential prognostic markers of neuroblastoma can provide clues for early diagnosis, recurrence, and treatment. Methods. RNA sequence data and clinical features of 147 neuroblastomas were obtained from the TARGET (Therapeutically Applicable Research to Generate Effective Treatments project) database. Application weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) was used to construct a free-scale gene coexpression network, to study the interrelationship between its potential modules and clinical features, and to identify hub genes in the module. We performed Lasso regression and Cox regression analyses to identify the three most important genes and develop a new prognostic model. Data from the GSE85047 cohort verified the predictive accuracy of the prognostic model. Results. 14 coexpression modules were constructed using WGCNA. Brown coexpression modules were found to be significantly associated with disease survival status. Multivariate Cox analysis was performed on genes from univariate Cox regression and Lasso regression analyses using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Finally, we constructed a three-gene prognostic model: risk score = (0.003812659CKB) + (−0.152376975expDST) + (0.032032815expDUT). The prognosis of samples in the high-risk group was significantly poorer than that of samples in the low-risk group (). The risk model was also regarded as an independent predictor of prognosis (HR = 1.632; 95% CI = 1.391–1.934; ).Conclusion. Our study constructed a neuroblastoma coexpressing gene module and identified a prognostic potential risk model for prognosis in neuroblastoma.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Jul 2021 12:35:00 +000
  • Coronavirus Disease 2019-Related Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in
           Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. This study aimed to describe the clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, treatment, and outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019-related multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children to provide a reference for clinical practice. Methods. We employed a literature search of databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Johns Hopkins University for articles on COVID-19-related multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children published between April 1, 2020, and January 15, 2021. High-quality articles were selected for analysis on the basis of their quality standard scores. Using R3.6.3 software, meta-analyses of random- or fixed-effects models were used to determine the prevalence of comorbidities. Subgroup analysis was also performed to determine heterogeneity. Results. A total of 57 articles (2,290 pediatric patients) were included in the study. Clinical Manifestations. :ncidences of fever, gastrointestinal symptoms, respiratory symptoms, and musculoskeletal symptoms (myalgias or arthralgias) were 99.91% (95% CI: 99.67–100%), 82.72% (95% CI: 78.19–86.81%), 53.02% (45.28–60.68%), and 14.16% (95% CI: 8.4–21.12%), respectively. The incidences of rash, conjunctival injection, lymphadenopathy, dry cracked lips, neurologic symptoms (headache, altered mental status, or confusion), swollen hands and feet, typical Kawasaki disease, and atypical Kawasaki disease were 59.34% (95% CI: 54.73–63.87%), 55.23% (95% CI: 50.22–60.19%), 27.07% (95% CI: 19.87–34.93%), 46.37% (95% CI: 39.97–52.83%), 28.87% (95% CI: 22.76–35.40%), 28.75% (95% CI: 21.46–36.64%), 17.32% (95% CI: 15.44–19.29%), and 36.19% (95% CI: 21.90–51.86%), respectively. The incidences of coronary artery dilation, aneurysm, pericardial effusion, myocarditis, myocardial dysfunction, high troponin, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide were 17.83%, 6.85%, 20.97%, 35.97%, 56.32%, 76.34%, and 86.65%, respectively. The incidences of reduced lymphocytes, thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, elevated C-reactive protein, ferritin, LDH, interleukin-6, PCT, and FIB were 61.51%, 26.42%, 77.92%, 98.5%, 86.79%, 80.59%, 89.30%, 85.10%, and 87.01%, respectively. PICU Hospitalization Rate and Mortality. The incidences of PICU hospitalization or with shock were 72.79% and 55.68%, respectively. The mortality rate was 1.00%. Conclusion and Relevance. PICU hospitalization and shock rates of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with COVID-19 were high, and its cumulative multiorgans and inflammatory indicators are increased, but if treated in time, the mortality rate was low.
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Jul 2021 11:35:00 +000
  • Modulatory Effect of Probiotics on Proinflammatory Cytokine Levels in
           Acrylamide-Treated Rats

    • Abstract: The aims of this study are to investigate the effect of acrylamide on the level of proinflammatory cytokines in the blood of acrylamide-treated rats and to find the modulatory impact of probiotics on those cytokines. Thirty-two rats were divided into four groups: rats which received 20 mg acrylamide, acrylamide with 20 mg probiotics, acrylamide with 200 mg probiotics, and standard water and food (groups 1–4, respectively). The serum levels of cytokines were measured on days 0, 15, and 30. Group 1 showed an increased serum level of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α after 15 days, and they decreased in day 30. Serum IL-6 level was significantly decreased on days 15 and 30 in rats in group 2 compared to the controls. TNF-α and IL-1β levels were not statistically different after treated with probiotics. The exposure of rats to acrylamide led to increased systemic inflammation as evidenced by higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and probiotics can modulate this inflammation.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jul 2021 06:05:01 +000
  • Simultaneous Determination of 78 Compounds of Rhodiola rosea Extract by
           Supercritical CO2-Extraction and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS Spectrometry

    • Abstract: The plant Rhodiola rosea L. of family Crassulaceae was extracted using the supercritical CO2-extraction method. Several experimental conditions were investigated in the pressure range of 200–500 bar, with the used volume of cosolvent ethanol in the amount of 1% in the liquid phase at a temperature in the range of 31–70°C. The most effective extraction conditions are pressure 350 bar and temperature 60°C. The extracts were analyzed by HPLC with MS/MS identification. 78 target analytes were isolated from Rhodiola rosea (Russia) using a series of column chromatography and mass spectrometry experiments. The results of the analysis showed a spectrum of the main active ingredients Rh. rosea: salidroside, rhodiolosides (B and C), rhodiosin, luteolin, catechin, quercetin, quercitrin, herbacetin, sacranoside A, vimalin, and others. In addition to the reported metabolites, 29 metabolites were newly annotated in Rh. rosea. There were flavonols: dihydroquercetin, acacetin, mearnsetin, and taxifolin-O-pentoside; flavones: apigenin-O-hexoside derivative, tricetin trimethyl ether 7-O-hexosyl-hexoside, tricin 7-O-glucoronyl-O-hexoside, tricin O-pentoside, and tricin-O-dihexoside; flavanones: eriodictyol-7-O-glucoside; flavan-3-ols: gallocatechin, hydroxycinnamic acid caffeoylmalic acid, and di-O-caffeoylquinic acid; coumarins: esculetin; esculin: fraxin; and lignans: hinokinin, pinoresinol, L-ascorbic acid, glucaric acid, palmitic acid, and linolenic acid. The results of supercritical CO2-extraction from roots and rhizomes of Rh. rosea, in particular, indicate that the extract contained all biologically active components of the plant, as well as inert mixtures of extracted compositions.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jul 2021 11:50:00 +000
  • Antimalarial, Antioxidant, and Toxicological Evaluation of Extracts of
           Celtis africana, Grosseria vignei, Physalis micrantha, and Stachytarpheta

    • Abstract: In many parts of the world, malaria undoubtedly poses a serious threat to health care systems. Malaria treatment has increasingly become complicated, primarily due to the emergence of widespread resistance of the malaria parasites to cheap and affordable malaria therapeutics. The use of herbal remedies to treat various ailments, including malaria and malaria-like ailments in Ghana is common. We herein report on the antiplasmodial and antioxidant activities as well as toxicological evaluation of four medicinal plants (Celtis africana, Grosseria vignei, Physalis micrantha, and Stachytarpheta angustifolia) commonly used to treat malaria in Ghana. Following Soxhlet extraction of plant samples in ethanol, extracts were screened against Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 strain) in an in vitro antiplasmodial assay. The phosphomolybdenum and DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl) assays were used to evaluate antioxidant activities while toxicity assessment was carried out in mice using the acute toxicity test and kidney and liver function tests. Extracts from Celtis africana and Physalis micrantha were very active towards the parasites with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50’s) of 29.1 and 3.5 µg/mL, respectively. Extracts of Grosseria vignei and Stachytarpheta angustifolia were inactive, having IC50 values greater than 50 µg/mL. All extracts exhibited excellent total antioxidant capacities (>800 mg/g AAE) and good DPPH radical scavenging potential (IC50 range of 300–900 µg/mL). The median lethal dose (LD50) of all extracts in the toxicological evaluation was greater than 2000 mg/kg and there was no effect of extracts on the levels and activities of key biomarkers of liver and kidney function. The activities of these plants obtained in this study partly give credence to their folkloric use in herbal medicines and suggest that they could provide promising lead compounds for malaria drug discovery programs.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Jun 2021 10:50:02 +000
  • Recent Advances in Enzymes for the Bioremediation of Pollutants

    • Abstract: Nowadays, pollution of the environment is a huge problem for humans and other organisms’ health. Conventional methods of pollutant removal like membrane filtration or ion exchange are not efficient enough to lower the number of pollutants to standard levels. Biological methods, because of their higher efficiency and biocompatibility, are preferred for the remediation of pollutants. These cost-effective and environment-friendly methods of reducing pollutants are called bioremediation. In bioremediation methods, enzymes play the most crucial role. Enzymes can remedy different types of organic and inorganic pollutants, including PAHs, azo dyes, polymers, organocyanides, lead, chromium, and mercury. Different enzymes isolated from various species have been used for the bioremediation of pollutants. Discovering new enzymes and new subtypes with specific physicochemical characteristics would be a promising way to find more efficient and cost-effective tools for the remediation of pollutants.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Jun 2021 07:35:03 +000
  • Antibiofilm Activity of Extract and a Compound Isolated from Triumfetta
           welwitschii against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    • Abstract: Triumfetta welwitschii has been used as a traditional medicine in Africa. It is documented as a rich source of phytochemicals with antibacterial activities. To further explore the antibacterial potential of these phytochemical components, the phytochemical profile of the dichloromethane: methanol leaf extract from T. welwitschii was investigated using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Compounds were isolated from the extract using column chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. Compound B1 was isolated from the fraction eluted by 90 hexane:10 ethyl acetate using column chromatography. The antibacterial activity of B1 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was evaluated in vitro using the broth microdilution method and the iodonitrotetrazolium (INT) colorimetric assay. The antibiofilm activities of the extract and B1 against P. aeruginosa were determined by quantifying the biofilms using crystal violet. The effect of the extract and B1 on capsular polysaccharide and extracellular DNA content of biofilm formed by P. aeruginosa was determined using phenol-sulphuric acid and propidium iodide, respectively. A total of 28 peaks were detected and identified using UPLC-MS/MS. The three most abundant phytochemicals identified were catechin, umbelliferone, and a luteolin derivative. B1 showed antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value of 25 μg/ml. Only 38% and 6% of the biofilms were formed in the presence of the extract and B1, respectively. The extract and B1 reduced the capsular polysaccharide content in biofilms formed in P. aeruginosa by 40% and 65%, respectively. The extract and B1 significantly reduced the extracellular DNA content of biofilms by 29% and 72%, respectively. The results of this study provide evidence of the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of B1 and leaf extracts from T. welwitschii. Future work should identify the chemical structure of B1 using nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Jun 2021 10:35:01 +000
  • Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Essential Oils of
           Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don (African Star Apple)

    • Abstract: The volatile compounds of the fruit and leaf essential oils of the African star fruit, Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don, were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in this study. The antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and antioxidant activities of the essential oils were also investigated. Thirty-five and thirty-four compounds, representing 97.84% and 97.87%, were identified in the leaf and fruit essential oils, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of the oils was evaluated in vitro against eight pathogens using the broth microdilution method. The fruit essential oil exhibited broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity in the antimicrobial susceptibility test, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 0.195 to 6.250 mg/mL, while the leaf essential oils showed antimicrobial activity with MICs in the range of 6.875–13.750 mg/mL. The antibiofilm activity was assessed via the crystal violet staining assay, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the model organism. The concentrations of the leaf and fruit essential oil required for half-maximal inhibition of biofilm formation (BIC50) were 6.97 ± 0.56 and 4.78 ± 0.21 mg/mL, respectively. In evaluating antioxidant activity, the total antioxidant capacity obtained from the phosphomolybdenum assay was 104.8 ± 2.4 and 101.6 ± 0.8 μg/g AAE for leaf and fruit essential oils, respectively. The IC50 values obtained from the hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation assays were 301.8 ± 0.7 and 669.2 ± 2.1 μg/mL, 1048.0 ± 0.3 and 1454.0 ± 0.3 μg/mL, and 460.1 ± 2.7 and 457.4 ± 0.3 μg/mL for both leaf and fruit essential oils, respectively. The results obtained in this study suggest that the leaf and fruit essential oil of Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don could find potential use in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries as preservative and pharmaceutical agents.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Jun 2021 08:50:01 +000
  • Salt Used for the National School Nutrition Program (NSNP) in Rural
           Schools of Limpopo Province, South Africa, has Adequate Levels of Iodine

    • Abstract: Background. Salt iodisation is considered the most effective long-term public health intervention for achieving optimal iodine nutrition. Effective salt iodisation is a prerequisite for the sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency disorders. The aim of this study was to determine iodine concentration of salt used for the National School Nutrition Program (NSNP). Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 359 food handlers from Vhembe and Mopani districts of Limpopo Province, South Africa. The questionnaire was administered to solicit data on demographic information, general questions on salt fortification, and iodine nutrition knowledge. After the interviews, two tablespoons of salt used for the NSNP food preparation was collected from 318 schools in small zip-lock plastic bags. The salt samples were coded and stored at room temperature and protected from light and moisture until the time of analysis. Salt iodine concentrations were determined at the North-West University (NWU) in Potchefstroom by means of the iCheck test method. Results. The median iodine concentration of both Mopani (31.65 ppm) and Vhembe (32.56 ppm) districts signified adequate iodine levels. Of 318 salt samples, 113 (71%) samples in Mopani and 104 (65%) in Vhembe had an iodine concentration of 15–64 ppm. A few (6%) food handlers in Mopani and almost half (45.9%) in Vhembe could correctly identify iodated salt as the main source of iodine. Almost half of the food handlers (%) in Mopani and 36.5% in Vhembe did not know which part of body needs iodine for functioning. Conclusion. More than 20 years after the implementation of the USI program, the result of the study shows that the international goal of 90% coverage is still far from being realised.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Jun 2021 10:35:02 +000
  • The Effect of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Watercress on the Levels of
           Protein Carbonyl, Inflammatory Markers, and Vitamin E in Chronic
           Hemodialysis Patients

    • Abstract: Introduction. Chronic kidney disorder is a main public health concern. Inflammatory processes and oxidative stress are common in end-stage renal disease patients. We aimed to evaluate the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of watercress (WC) on the inflammatory cytokines and protein carbonyl (PCO) contents in chronic hemodialysis patients. Methods. This was a double-blind randomized clinical trial performed on 46 hemodialysis patients. The participants were randomly divided into two groups: intervention group (500 mg hydroalcoholic extract of WC every day for 4 weeks) and control group (500 mg of white flour every night for 4 weeks). The blood samples were taken to determine the levels of vitamin E, PCO, and inflammatory cytokines at baseline and the end of treatment. Results. Forty-five patients completed the study (22 patients in the intervention group and 23 patients in the control group). There was a significant reduction in the PCO level (20.33 ± 4.40 vs. 15.06 ± 6.41, ) in the intervention group; also, this change was statistically significant relative to the control group. Furthermore, there were significant reductions in hs-CRP (8953.30 ± 5588.06 vs. 7249.86 ± 5091.62, ) and IL-6 (60.10 (55.99, 73.10) vs. 55.21 (53.39, 60.48), ) in the intervention group, but these changes were not significant in comparison with the control group. Conclusion. We conclude that the hydroalcoholic extract of WC reduced the PCO content in hemodialysis patients via inhibition of protein oxidation. Although WC administration had caused a significant reduction in IL-6 and CRP levels, these differences were not statistically significant relative to the control group. Further research is needed to identify the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of WC in hemodialysis patients.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 May 2021 08:50:01 +000
  • Isolation, Extraction, Purification, and Molecular Characterization for
           Thermostable α-Amylase from Locally Isolated Bacillus Species in Sudan

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to isolate some soil bacteria strain that produced α-amylase and subsequent extraction and purification. One hundred soil samples were collected from different geographical areas in Khartoum State such as north Omdurman, Toti Island, and Soba. Samples were analyzed for starch hydrolyzing bacteria. Among several bacteria isolated, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis were identified as active α-amylase producers. Both bacteria showed a large zone of clearance of 20 mm when grown on starch-agar plates. The identity was conducted using biochemical characterization and confirmed by sequencing their 16S-rDNA. The constitutive nature of amylase was proved by amplification of the amylase gene from the genome of B. licheniformis. The α-amylase activity from the spent medium of B. cereus and B. licheniformis was optimized at pH 8.0 and temperature of 45°C and 65°C, respectively. The α-amylase produced by both bacteria is alkalophilic and thermophilic. The experiments confirmed that B. licheniformis can be a good source of amylase for industrial applications in Sudan.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 May 2021 09:50:04 +000
  • The Effect of SP/NK1R on the Expression and Activity of Catalase and
           Superoxide Dismutase in Glioblastoma Cancer Cells

    • Abstract: Introduction. Glioblastoma is the most malignant brain tumor with different therapeutic protocols, including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Substance P (SP), a peptide released by sensory nerves, increases cellular excitability by activating the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) in several human tumor cells. Aprepitant is a potent and long-lasting NK1R antagonist, considered a new agent for inhibiting proliferation and induction of apoptosis in malignant cells. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the SP/NK1R system on the expression and activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the glioblastoma U87 cancer cell line. Methods. Cytotoxicity was measured by the resazurin test, 24 hours after treatment, with increasing aprepitant concentrations. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also measured 24 hours after treatment with SP and aprepitant. Enzymes activity of catalase and SOD was measured using the corresponding assay kits. Real-time PCR also measured their expression. Results. Aprepitant significantly reduced the viability of U87 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. ROS production was significantly reduced, and the activity of catalase and SOD increased after treatment with aprepitant. The expression of catalase and SOD enzymes also increased significantly in the presence of aprepitant. Conclusion. The present study showed that aprepitant inhibited SP’s oxidizing effects via inducing the antioxidant effects of catalase and SOD in the U87 cell line. Therefore, this drug might be introduced as a potential candidate for controlling glioblastoma cancer in animal models and clinical trials.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Apr 2021 10:20:01 +000
  • Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activities of Eight Plant Essential
           Oils from Morocco against Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Different
           Turkey Organs

    • Abstract: The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical composition of eight plant essential oils and evaluate their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli strains isolated from different turkey organs. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. All essential oil yielded high in a range between 2.2 and 3.12%. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed that the major constituents of Thymus vulgaris, Ocimum basilicum, Artemisia herba-alba, and Syzygium aromaticum oils were thymol (41.39%), linalool (37.16%), camphor (63.69%), and eugenol (80.83%), respectively. Results of the E. coli sensitivity evaluated by the standard antimicrobial sensitivity method varied depending on the organ of isolation. Similarly, the essential oils antimicrobial activity determined by the disc diffusion method varied all along within the organs of isolation. T. vulgaris essential oil showed the highest effective antibacterial activity against E. coli isolated from the throat with an inhibition zone diameter value of up to 23.33 mm. However, all the essential oils showed antibacterial activity and the MIC and MBC values were in the range of 1/3000 to 1/100 (v/v) and the ratios MBC/MIC were equal to 1. In conclusion, this study showed that the essential oils could be promising alternatives to overcome E. coli multiresistance in turkey.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Mar 2021 11:20:01 +000
  • A Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter Clinical Study Comparing the
           Efficacy and Safety of a Drug Combination of
           Lopinavir/Ritonavir-Azithromycin, Lopinavir/Ritonavir-Doxycycline, and
           Azithromycin-Hydroxychloroquine for Patients Diagnosed with Mild to
           Moderate COVID-19 Infections

    • Abstract: Background. At the present time, COVID-19 vaccines are at the testing stage, and an effective treatment for COVID-19 incorporating appropriate safety measures remains the most significant obstacle to be overcome. A strategic countermeasure is, therefore, urgently required. Aim. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a combination of lopinavir/ritonavir-azithromycin, lopinavir/ritonavir-doxycycline, and azithromycin-hydroxychloroquine used to treat patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 infections. Setting and Design. This study was conducted at four different clinical study sites in Indonesia. The subjects gave informed consent for their participation and were confirmed as being COVID-19-positive by means of an RT-PCR test. The present study constituted a randomized, double-blind, and multicenter clinical study of patients diagnosed with mild to moderate COVID-19 infection. Materials and Methods. Six treatment groups participated in this study: a Control group administered with a 500 mg dose of azithromycin; Group A which received a 200/50 mg dose of lopinavir/ritonavir and 500 mg of azithromycin; Group B treated with a 200/50 mg dose of lopinavir/ritonavir and 200 mg of doxycycline; Group C administered with 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine and 500 mg of azithromycin; Group D which received a 400/100 mg dose of lopinavir/ritonavir and 500 mg of azithromycin; and Group E treated with a 400/100 mg dose of lopinavir/ritonavir and 200 mg of doxycycline. Results. 754 subjects participated in this study: 694 patients (92.4%) who presented mild symptoms and 57 patients (7.6%) classified as suffering from a moderate case of COVID-19. On the third day after treatment, 91.7%–99.2% of the subjects in Groups A–E were confirmed negative by a PCR swab test compared to 26.9% in the Control group. Observation of all groups which experienced a significant decrease in virus load between day 1 and day 7 was undertaken. Other markers, such as CRP and IL-6, were significantly lower in all treatment groups ( and ) than in the Control group. Furthermore, IL-10 and TNF-α levels were significantly elevated in all treatment groups (). The administration of azithromycin to the Control group increased CRP and IL-6 levels, while reduced IL-10 and TNF-α on day 7 () compared with day 1. Decreases in ALT and AST levels were observed in all groups (). There was an increase in creatinine in the serum level of the Control, C, D, and E groups (), whereas the BUN level was elevated in all groups ().Conclusions. The study findings suggest that the administration of lopinavir/ritonavir-doxycycline, lopinavir/ritonavir-azithromycin, and azithromycin-hydroxychloroquine as a dual drug combination produced a significantly rapid PCR conversion rate to negative in three-day treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 cases. Further studies should involve observation of older patients with severe clinical symptoms in order to collate significant amounts of demographic data.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Feb 2021 14:35:01 +000
  • Diverse Effect of Vitamin C and N-Acetylcysteine on Aluminum-Induced

    • Abstract: Purpose. The role of oxidative stress in Aluminum (Al)-induced apoptotic effects has been investigated and suicidal death of erythrocytes, eryptosis, is characterized by cell shrinkage and phosphatidylserine externalization (PSE) at the surface of the erythrocyte cell membrane. Eryptosis is stimulated by an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and reactive oxygen species (ROS). This ex vivo study was conducted to evaluate the effect of well-known antioxidants including vitamin C (vit C) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), against Al-induced hemolysis and eryptosis. Methods. Isolated erythrocytes from the healthy volunteers were partitioned into various groups (6 replicates/group) and treated by various concentrations of Al (3–100 µM) in the presence and absence of vit C (0.6 mM) and NAC (1 mM). After 24 hours of treatment, hemolysis was determined from hemoglobin levels in the supernatant. Flowcytometric methods were applied to measure PSE, cell shrinkage, Ca2+ content, and ROS abundance using annexin V-binding, forward scatter, Fluo3-fluorescence, and DCFDA dependent fluorescence, respectively. Reduced glutathione (GSH) was measured by the ELISA method. Results. The results showed that a 24 hours’ exposure of the erythrocytes to Al (10–100 µM) significantly increased hemolysis in a dose and Ca2+dependent manner. Al also dramatically decreased forward scatter. The percentage of PSE cells, Fluo3-fluorescence, and DCFDA fluorescence were increased by Al. Furthermore, cotreatment with NAC inhibited the effect of Al on hemolysis, eryptosis, and ROS production. Vit C decreased Al-induced ROS production. However, increased Al-induced eryptosis. There were no significant changes in glutathione after the ALCL3 treatment. Conclusions. Al-induced eryptosis and hemolysis through triggering oxidative stress, while NAC could diverse this effect. In contrast, vit C might intensify Al-induced eryptosis at particular doses through a less known mechanism.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Jan 2021 07:50:01 +000
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Heriot-Watt University
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