Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 1001 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (59 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (726 journals)
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    - ELECTROCHEMISTRY (28 journals)
    - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (45 journals)
    - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (49 journals)
    - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (71 journals)

CHEMISTRY (726 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
Accounts of Materials Research     Hybrid Journal  
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
ACS Applied Polymer Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
ACS Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ACS Macro Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
ACS Materials Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 448)
ACS Photonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Acta Chemica Malaysia     Open Access  
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
Advanced Journal of Chemistry, Section A     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advanced Journal of Chemistry, Section B     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 108)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 50)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aggregate     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alchemy : Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alchemy : Jurnal Penelitian Kimia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alotrop     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Analytical Science Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 235)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 352)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio AA – Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access  
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 483)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 214)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Carbohydrate Polymer Technologies and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Carbohydrate Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Cell Reports Physical Science     Open Access  
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 25)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 88)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Chemical Physics Letters : X     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Chemical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 265)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Chemical Science International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry     Open Access  
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Chemistry & Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 223)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry Africa : A Journal of the Tunisian Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry Education Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 335)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistrySelect     Hybrid Journal  
Chemistry–Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
ChemNanoMat     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Chemosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemPhotoChem     Hybrid Journal  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chempublish Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemSystemsChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

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Journal Cover
Biochemistry Research International
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.437
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-2247 - ISSN (Online) 2090-2255
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Animal Models of Osteochondral Defect for Testing Biomaterials

    • Abstract: The treatment of osteochondral defects (OCD) remains a great challenge in orthopaedics. Tissue engineering holds a good promise for regeneration of OCD. In the light of tissue engineering, it is critical to establish an appropriate animal model to evaluate the degradability, biocompatibility, and interaction of implanted biomaterials with host bone/cartilage tissues for OCD repair in vivo. Currently, model animals that are commonly deployed to create osteochondral lesions range from rats, rabbits, dogs, pigs, goats, and sheep horses to nonhuman primates. It is essential to understand the advantages and disadvantages of each animal model in terms of the accuracy and effectiveness of the experiment. Therefore, this review aims to introduce the common animal models of OCD for testing biomaterials and to discuss their applications in translational research. In addition, we have reviewed surgical protocols for establishing OCD models and biomaterials that promote osteochondral regeneration. For small animals, the non-load-bearing region such as the groove of femoral condyle is commonly chosen for testing degradation, biocompatibility, and interaction of implanted biomaterials with host tissues. For large animals, closer to clinical application, the load-bearing region (medial femoral condyle) is chosen for testing the durability and healing outcome of biomaterials. This review provides an important reference for selecting a suitable animal model for the development of new strategies for osteochondral regeneration.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Jan 2020 13:50:01 +000
       
  • miR-142-5p as a CXCR4-Targeted MicroRNA Attenuates SDF-1-Induced
           Chondrocyte Apoptosis and Cartilage Degradation via Inactivating MAPK
           Signaling Pathway

    • Abstract: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint function disorder with characteristics of chondrocytes reduction and extracellular matrix (ECM) components destruction. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis are essential factors of chondrocyte apoptosis and ECM degeneration. However, very few studies have investigated the correlation between miRNAs and the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in osteoarthritis so far. Here, through miRNAs microarray and bioinformatics analyses, we identified miR-142-5p as a CXCR4-targeted and dramatically downregulated miRNA in cartilage from OA patients, as well as in SDF-1-induced OA chondrocytes in vitro. In SDF-1-treated primary human OA chondrocytes that were transfected with a miR-142-5p mimic or inhibitor, the expression of CXCR4 was found to be inversely correlated with the expression of miR-142-5p. The dual luciferase reporter assay further verified the target relationship between miR-142-5p and CXCR4. Overexpression of miR-142-5p alleviated OA pathology by suppressing chondrocyte apoptosis, even in CXCR4 overexpressed OA chondrocytes. This was associated with decreased cartilage matrix degradation, reduced cartilage inflammation, and inactivated MAPK signaling pathway. Our study suggests that upregulated expression of CXCR4-targeted miR-142-5p can inhibit apoptosis, inflammation, and matrix catabolism and inactivate the MAPK signaling pathway in OA chondrocytes. Our work provides important insight into targeting miR-142-5p and the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in OA therapy.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Jan 2020 07:20:00 +000
       
  • In Vivo Antimalarial Activity of 80% Methanol and Aqueous Bark Extracts of
           Terminalia brownii Fresen. (Combretaceae) against Plasmodium berghei in
           Mice

    • Abstract: Background. Despite a substantial scientific progress over the past two decades, malaria continues to be a worldwide burden. Evergrowing resistance towards the currently available antimalarial drugs is a challenge to combat malaria. Medicinal plants are a promising source of new drugs to tackle this problem. Thus, the present study aimed at evaluating the antiplasmodial activity of Terminalia brownii in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Methods. A 4-day suppressive test was employed to evaluate the antimalarial effect of 80% methanol and aqueous bark extracts of T. brownii against P. berghei in Swiss albino mice. Results. The in vivo acute toxicity test indicated that both extracts of T. brownii did not cause mortality. The 4-day early infection test revealed that the 80% methanol and aqueous extracts exhibited a significant inhibition of parasitemia compared to negative control. The maximum level of chemosuppression (60.2%) was exhibited at 400 mg/kg dose of 80% methanol extract. Moreover, the 80% methanol extract showed a significant attenuation of anemia associated with infection in a dose-dependent manner. The aqueous extract, on the other hand, exhibited a percent inhibition of 51.1% at the highest dose (400 mg/kg/day). Conclusion. The present study indicated that hydromethanolic and aqueous bark extracts of T. brownii possess a promising antimalarial activity, with higher effect exhibited by the hydromethanolic extract.
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Jan 2020 02:05:00 +000
       
  • Protein Binding Characteristics of the Principal Green Tea Catechins: A
           QCM Study Comparing Crude Extract to Pure EGCG

    • Abstract: Label-free detection methods such as the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) are well suited to the analysis of molecular interactions in complex mixtures such as crude botanical extracts. In the present study, the binding characteristics of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and crude green tea extract solutions to bovine serum albumin (BSA) have been investigated. The adsorbed mass levels onto BSA-functionalized surfaces were measured at various solution concentrations. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to model the adsorption data. The Langmuir isotherm better described the adsorption behavior with correlations of 0.68 and 0.70 for the EGCG and the crude extract solutions, respectively. The better fit of the Langmuir model indicates that adsorption occurs homogeneously and that aggregation is negligible. The mass saturation is estimated to be 58% higher for the crude green tea solution as compared to the pure EGCG solution (7.9 ng/cm2 for green tea and 5 ng/cm2 for EGCG). The increased adsorption for the crude extract indicates that the additional tea chemical constituents are binding to alternate sites on the protein molecule and that competitive binding is a nondominant effect. However, a reduced adsorption rate for the crude extract was also observed, indicating some presence of competitive mechanisms. The results demonstrate the utility of the QCM for the analysis of protein binding in crude mixtures as well as pure compounds.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Oct 2019 08:05:05 +000
       
  • Phytochemical, Antimicrobial, and Antioxidant Profiles of Duranta erecta
           L. Parts

    • Abstract: The use of plant-based medicine is popular amongst individuals and communities in developing countries. Duranta erecta has been used in Africa and Asia to treat a wide range of diseases. This study evaluated the phytochemical profile and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of D. erecta to ascertain its health benefits in traditional medicine. Phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial effect of the hydroethanolic extract of D. erecta leaves (DRL), unripe fruits (DRU), and ripe fruits (DRR) were investigated by standard methods. Elemental analyses were carried out by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) on the raw sample and extract. FTIR and UV-VIS spectroscopy were used to identify functional groups. Extracts were screened for their possible antioxidant activities by three tests. The total phenolic and total tannin contents were evaluated by using the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid content was determined by the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay method. The antioxidant activities were evaluated using the DPPH scavenging activity. The results of phytochemical screening showed the presence of triterpenoids, sterols, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, and tannins. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of alcohols, phenols, alkanes, aldehydes, ketones, aromatics, aliphatic amines, aromatic amines, amides, carboxylic acids, esters, nitro compounds, alkynes, primary and secondary amines, and alkyl halides. Iron, zinc, and copper were also detected. Total phenolic and tannin contents ranged from 2.20 ± 0.15 to 14.54 ± 0.29 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g and 3.55 ± 0.07 to 13.82 ± 0.04 mg GAE/100 g, respectively. Total flavonoid content varied from 41.76 ± 0.96 to 343.49 ± 3.45 μg quercetin equivalent (QE)/100 g. The highest DPPH scavenging activity was recorded in the methanolic fraction of the leaves. The antimicrobial assay of the extract or fractions recorded no activity against the test organisms. The outcome of this study affirmed that D. erecta contains phytochemicals and bioactive compounds that could be of health benefit.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Oct 2019 09:05:10 +000
       
  • The Binding Affinity of Small Molecules with Yam Tyrosinase (Catechol
           Oxidase): A Biophysical Study

    • Abstract: Yam tyrosinase has become an economically essential enzyme due to its ease of purification and abundant availability of yam tubers. However, an efficient biochemical and biophysical characterization of yam tyrosinase has not been reported. In the present study, the interaction of yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius) tyrosinase was studied with molecules such as crocin (Crocus sativus), hydroquinone, and kojic acid. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR), fluorescence spectroscopy, and circular dichroism techniques were employed to determine the binding affinities and the changes in secondary and tertiary structures of yam tyrosinase in the presence of four relevant small molecules. Hydroquinone and crocin exhibited very low binding affinities of 0.24 M and 0.0017 M. Due to their apparent weak interactions, competition experiments were used to determine more precisely the binding affinities. Structure-function interrelationships can be correlated in great detail by this study, and the results can be compared with other available tyrosinases.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Oct 2019 09:05:00 +000
       
  • Chemical Composition, Total Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Activities
           of the Essential Oils of the Leaves and Fruit Pulp of Annona muricata L.
           (Soursop) from Ghana

    • Abstract: Annona muricata, also called soursop, is widespread in many tropical countries, and various parts of the plant have been shown to possess very good pharmacological properties. This work evaluated the chemical composition and antioxidant activities of essential oils obtained from the fruit pulp and leaves of soursop. Essential oils were obtained via hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Antioxidant potential was evaluated via the phosphomolybdenum, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assays. In the leaf essential oil, a total of 31 compounds were identified with δ-cadinene (22.58%) and α-muurolene (10.64%) being the most abundant. Thirty-two compounds were identified in the fruit pulp essential oil with Ç-sitosterol (19.82%) and 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl) ethyl ester (13.48%) being present in high amounts. Both essential oils showed very good total antioxidant capacities (49.03 gAAE/100 g and 50.88 gAAE/100 g for fruit pulp and leaf essential oils, respectively). The IC50 values from the DPPH assay were 244.8 ± 3.2 μg/mL for leaf essential oil and 512 ± 5.1 μg/mL for the fruit pulp essential oil. At 1 mg/mL, hydrogen peroxide scavenged was below 50% for both leaf and fruit pulp essential oils, indicating moderate activity. These results suggest possible application of the essential oils of Annona muricata in food preservation and processing.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Sep 2019 07:05:22 +000
       
  • Synthesis of Surfactants Derived from 2-Mercaptobenzimidazole and Study of
           Their Acute Toxicity and Analgesic and Psychotropic Activities

    • Abstract: The aim of the present study is to synthesize cationic salts from a relatively toxic compound named 2-mercaptobenzimidazole and to evaluate some of their pharmacological properties. The acute toxicity of these salts is evaluated according to OECD 423 Guidelines at the doses of 300 and 2000 mg/kg; their peripheral analgesic effect is studied using the Koster test at the therapeutic dose of 200 mg/kg and their sedative action is evaluated using Traction, Chimney, Hole-board, and Rotarod tests at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. All synthesized molecules show no acute toxicity according to OECD Code 423 guidelines at doses ranging from 300 to 2000 mg/kg and do not cause any obesity or anorexia. Also, the results of the Koster test show that the studied compounds have an average analgesic effect at the dose of 200 mg/kg compared to acetylsalicylic acid. In addition, the elaborated compounds have shown a moderate sedative effect at the dose of 400 mg/kg, in comparison to 2-mercaptobenzimidazole (400 mg/kg) and Bromazepam (20 mg/kg). These compounds have no cataleptic and hypnotic effects on the central nervous system at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. These results argue in favor of a possible integration of the most active salts tested in the pharmaceutical industry owing to their analgesic and sedative effects.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Jul 2019 13:05:02 +000
       
  • Integrated Analysis of Oncogenic Networks in Colorectal Cancer Identifies
           GUCA2A as a Molecular Marker

    • Abstract: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common and deadly malignancies in the world. In China, the morbidity rate of CRC has increased during the period 2000 to 2011. Biomarker detection for early CRC diagnosis can effectively reduce the mortality of patients with CRC. To explore the underlying mechanisms of effective biomarkers and identify more of them, we performed weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) on a GSE68468 dataset generated from 378 CRC tissue samples. We screened the gene set (module), which was significantly associated with CRC histology, and analyzed the hub genes. The key genes were identified by obtaining six colorectal raw data (i.e., GSE25070, GSE44076, GSE44861, GSE21510, GSE9348, and GSE21815) from the GEO database (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo). The robust differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in all six datasets were calculated and obtained using the library “RobustRankAggreg” package in R 3.5.1. An integrated analysis of CRC based on the top 50 downregulated DEGs and hub genes in the red module from WGCNA was conducted, and the intersecting genes were screened. The Kaplan–Meier plot was further analyzed, and the genes associated with CRC prognosis based on patients from the TCGA database were determined. Finally, we validated the candidate gene in our clinical CRC specimens. We postulated that the candidate genes screened from the database and verified by our clinical pathological data may contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis and may serve as potential biomarkers for CRC diagnosis and treatment.
      PubDate: Sun, 28 Jul 2019 08:05:04 +000
       
  • Cryptolepine, the Main Alkaloid of the Antimalarial Cryptolepis
           sanguinolenta (Lindl.) Schlechter, Induces Malformations in Zebrafish
           Embryos

    • Abstract: Background. Previous studies on cryptolepine, the antimalarial and cytotoxic alkaloid of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, showed that it preferentially accumulates in rapidly proliferating cells and melanin-containing tissues. Subsequently, we demonstrated that cryptolepine was toxic to murine embryos in vivo but no signs of teratogenicity. in vivo developmental studies can be confounded by maternal effects. Here, we hypothesized that cryptolepine-induced embryo toxicity occurs at least partly through direct inhibition of embryogenesis rather than indirectly through the induction of maternal toxicity. Aim. To determine the effects of cryptolepine on developing zebrafish embryos ex vivo. Methods. Healthy synchronized zebrafish eggs were treated with cryptolepine (10−1 − 5 × 102 μM), benzyl penicillin (6 − 6 × 102 μM), or mercury chloride (3.7 × 10−1 − 3.7 × 101 nM) from 6 to 72 hours postfertilization. Developing embryos were assessed at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours under microscope for lethality, hatching rate, and malformation. Results. LC50 for cryptolepine in the study was found to be 260 ± 0.174 μM. Cryptolepine induced dose- and time-dependent mortality from the 24 to 96 hours postfertilization. Lower cryptolepine concentration (
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Jul 2019 10:05:26 +000
       
  • Phytochemical Screening of Essential Oils and Antibacterial Activity and
           Antioxidant Properties of Barringtonia asiatica (L) Leaf Extract

    • Abstract: Objective. To ascertain the essential oil phytochemicals of the leaf and to test for the antibacterial and antioxidant properties of dichloromethane crude extract of Barringtonia asiatica leaf. Methods. The phytochemical screening of essential oils, extraction by hydrodistillation using the Clevenger apparatus, and analysis performed by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Antibacterial activity and the inhibition rate (mm) were determined using the agar disc method against four bacterial strains using tetracycline as positive control. The antioxidant potential of dichloromethane crude extract was investigated spectrophotometrically using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. Results. The essential oil properties were reasonable with major phytochemicals like uncineol 30.9%, eicosane 27.4%, eicosane 21.6%, and 4-propyl-guaiacol 14.05%. The antibacterial activity of the dichloromethane crude extract showed broad-spectrum activity against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella pneumoniae with inhibition value ranges between 2.50 ± 0.10 mm and 5.00 ± 0.06 mm. The dichloromethane crude extract exhibited strong antioxidant activities when compared to the standard. Conclusions. These results suggest that the leaves of Barringtonia asiatica is composed of essential compound as well as antibacterial and antioxidant properties from the crude extract; these are possible due to the presence of some bioactive compounds in the crude extract. The species also showed a reasonable amount of natural products in the essential oils from the hydrodistillation which can as well be used in the cosmetics and food industries.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Feb 2019 07:05:32 +000
       
  • Impact of Alkaline Pretreatment to Enhance Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs)
           Production from Rice Husk

    • Abstract: This study explores the use of alkaline pretreatments to improve the hydrolyzation of rice husks to produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The study investigated the effects of reagent concentration and pretreatment time on protein, carbohydrates, and dissolved chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) dissolution after the pretreatment. The optimum alkaline pretreatment conditions were 0.30 g NaOH (g VS)−1, with a reaction time of 48 h. The experimental results show that when comparing the total VFA (TVFA) yields from the alkaline-pretreated risk husk with those from the untreated rice husk, over 14 d and 2 d, the maximum value reached 1237.7 and 716.0 mg·L−1 with acetic acid and propionic acid and with acetic acid and butyric acid, respectively. After the alkaline pretreatment, TVFAs increased by 72.9%; VFA accumulation grew over time. The study found that alkaline pretreatment can improve VFA yields from rice husks and transform butyric acid fermentation into propionic acid fermentation. The study results can provide guidelines to support the comprehensive utilization of rice husk and waste treatment.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Jan 2019 14:05:06 +000
       
 
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