Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 928 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (59 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (661 journals)
    - CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (23 journals)
    - ELECTROCHEMISTRY (28 journals)
    - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (45 journals)
    - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (47 journals)
    - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (65 journals)

CHEMISTRY (661 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
Accounts of Materials Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
ACS Applied Polymer Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ACS Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
ACS Environmental Au     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
ACS Macro Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ACS Materials Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 187)
ACS Photonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Acta Chemica Malaysia     Open Access  
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Advanced Journal of Chemistry, Section A     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Journal of Chemistry, Section B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 111)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Sample Preparation     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aggregate     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alchemy : Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alchemy : Jurnal Penelitian Kimia     Open Access  
Alotrop     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Analytical Science Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 144)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 236)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio AA – Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Carbohydrate Polymer Technologies and Applications     Open Access  
Carbohydrate Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Carbon Capture Science & Technology     Open Access  
Carbon Trends     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cell Reports Physical Science     Open Access  
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Chem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chem Catalysis     Hybrid Journal  
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Chemical Physics Impact     Full-text available via subscription  
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 178)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
Chemical Science International Journal     Open Access  
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 75)
Chemical Thermodynamics and Thermal Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry     Open Access  
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Chemistry Africa : A Journal of the Tunisian Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry Education Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chemistry World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access  
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistrySelect     Hybrid Journal  
Chemistry–Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
ChemNanoMat     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Chemosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemPhotoChem     Hybrid Journal  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ChemPhysMater     Full-text available via subscription  
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chempublish Journal     Open Access  
ChemSystemsChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciencia     Open Access  
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Communications Materials     Open Access  
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Comptes Rendus : Chimie     Open Access  
Comptes Rendus : Physique     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

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Journal Cover
BioChip Journal
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.412
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1976-0280 - ISSN (Online) 2092-7843
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • High-Performance Graphene FET Integrated Front-End Amplifier Using
           Pseudo-resistor Technique for Neuro-prosthetic Diagnosis

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      Abstract: Abstract A complex analysis of spike monitoring in neuro-prosthetic diagnosis demands a high-speed sub-nanoscale transistors with an advanced device technologies. This work reports the high performance of Graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) based front-end amplifier (FEA) design for the neuro-prosthetic application. The 9 nm Graphene FET device is optimized by characterization of transconductance and drain current towards high sensitivity and small factor. The proposed GFET-based FEA with pseudo-resistor technique demonstrates very high-input impedance in Tera-ohms that nullify the input leakage current. Here, gain-bandwidth product and noise optimization of GFET FEA enhances the overall gain with negligible noise. The proposed design operates at low voltage, further reduces the power consumption, and achieves less chip area in sub-nano size so it could be more suitable for implantable devices. The GFET-based FEA architecture achieves an action potential spike of 1.4 µV while the local field potentials spike of 1.8 mV. The proposed architecture is implemented in Advanced Design System using the design kit of the GFET process. Power consumption of 3.14 µW is observed with a supply voltage of 0.9 V. The simulated and experimental results of the proposed design achieve an input impedance of 2 TΩ with excellent noise performance over a wideband of 13.85 MHz. The proposed work demonstrates better neural activity sensing when compared to the state-of-the-artwork, which could be highly beneficial for future neuroscientists.
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
       
  • Alteration of Inertial Focusing Positions in Triangular Channels Using
           Flexible PDMS Microfluidics

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      Abstract: Abstract Inertial focusing offers passive manipulation techniques of cells or microparticles with extremely high throughput. We devised a 3D-curved triangular channel using a flexible, thin PDMS microfluidic device to control inertial focusing positions. The flexible PDMS channel is coiled to form 3D spiral channels, which can provide a convenient route to control the structural parameters including 3D curvature and curving direction. We investigated the changes in focusing positions of the 3D spiral channels depending on Re, De, particle size, and the curving direction. The Dean flows induced by 3D curvature alter the focusing positions of the straight triangular channel, which is solely determined by inertial lift forces. We found the Dean drag force not only resulted in shifting of the focusing positions but also unstabilized some of the focusing positions and changed the number of focusing positions at specific configurations. These changes in the inertial focusing positions can lead to applications, such as single-cell analysis and rare cell separation. We demonstrated that the inertial focusing position in the 3D curved triangular channel could be easily tuned to achieve single-stream focusing and size-based separations of micro particles and cells.
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
       
  • Surface Functionalization and Bonding of Chemically Inert Parylene
           Microfluidics Using Parylene-A Adhesive Layer

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      Abstract: Abstract Parylene microfluidic systems have been utilized for applications requiring properties such as high chemical resistance, high internal pressure, high mechanical strength, and small heat loss. However, they have not been widely used compared to PDMS microfluidics because the device fabrication is relatively complex and surface functionalization is difficult. In this work, we introduce a simple and economic fabrication method for parylene microfluidic devices by molding and bonding using thin-film parylene A as an adhesive layer. The amine functional group from parylene A leverages as a covalent bonding source in between two parylene layers while providing the capability of functionalization of the internal surface of parylene microfluidic channel that is highly resistant to harsh chemicals at the same time. This new approach demonstrates the ability of high bonding strength (~ 4 Mpa) and eliminates the use of an additional adhesive polymer layer, which often fails to provide sufficient chemical resistance.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Nanoplasmonic Sensor Chip Readable in a Conventional Plate Reader

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      Abstract: Abstract In this report, we present a straightforward method for bridging a nanoplasmonic sensor with a conventional plate reader. By attaching lithographically prepared plasmonic nanostructures to a commercially available microwell strip, which has a perforated bottom, we could measure highly sensitive optical signals of plasmonic nanostructures using a conventional plate reader. The absorbance measurements and electromagnetic simulations show that a proper alignment between light polarization and the plasmonic nanostructure improves the sensing performance, which can be achieved with a linear polarizing film. Furthermore, the multiplexed detection capability of the proposed nanoplasmonic sensor chip was successfully demonstrated by monitoring four different enzyme–substrate reactions. These results illustrate the potential of the proposed nanoplasmonic sensor chip, which can combine advanced nanoplasmonic sensors with the well-developed microwell plate reader.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
       
  • Single-Particle Study: Refractive Index Sensitivity of Localized Surface
           Plasmon Resonance Inflection Points in Mesoporous Silica-Coated Gold
           Nanorods

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      Abstract: Gold nanorods coated with a mesoporous silica shell (AuNRs@mSiO2, core@shell) have been in the employment for various bioapplications, including drug delivery and photothermal cancer therapy. Nevertheless, limited studies have been conducted on AuNRs@mSiO2 for their biosensing applications that use a refractive index (RI)-based localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). In this study, the LSPR detection sensitivity of individual AuNRs@mSiO2 with two distinctive core sizes, but the same aspect ratio of 3, was presented at LSPR inflection points (IFs) according to RI variations of the surrounding environment. The RI sensitivity at the homogeneous LSPR IF located on the low-energy side was higher than the wavelength shifts in the conventional LSPR maximum peak. Moreover, single AuNRs@mSiO2 having a smaller core size exhibited better RI sensitivity at the IFs of LSPR. Thus, we presented a better understanding of the RI-based detection sensitivity in single AuNRs@mSiO2 at LSPR IFs for developing LSPR biosensors. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
       
  • Detection and Real-Time Monitoring of LDL-Cholesterol by Redox-Free
           Impedimetric Biosensors

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      Abstract: Abstract In this work, non-faradaic impedimetric biosensor was developed for the direct detection of low-density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol). Unlike other electrochemical techniques, non-faradaic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) does not require the use of redox probes which denatures targeted biomarkers. Furthermore, no reference electrode is required for detection which is commercially viable. The biosensor reported here consists of LDL-antibodies attached to interdigitated gold electrodes via standard chemical functionalization. The biosensor demonstrated a sensitivity and limit of detection (LoD) of 70 nF/log(ng/mL) and 120 pg/mL, respectively, where the LoD is well below the recommended LDL level in blood. The biosensor also demonstrated good selectivity toward LDL. Thereafter we utilized, for the first time, the non-faradaic impedimetric biosensor for the continuous monitoring of LDL in phosphate buffer saline (PBS). The biosensor showed rapid responses to LDL injections. Such an approach is essential for the development of low-cost and scalable wearable biosensors for the direct real-time monitoring of chronic diseases and hence allows early medical interventions in cases where sudden increases in LDL or other biomarkers are deadly.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
       
  • Polymer-Based Delivery of Peptide Drugs to Treat Diabetes: Normalizing
           Hyperglycemia and Preventing Diabetic Complications

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      Abstract: Abstract Diabetes is a serious metabolic disease in which chronic hyperglycemia results in diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications from progressive vascular damage and dysfunction. Diabetes is life-threating and disabling, and is associated with costly complications and reduced life expectancy. Therefore, developing therapies for the treatment of diabetes is urgent and a significant challenge. Several peptides, including insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1, proinsulin C-peptide, and apelin, effectively normalize hyperglycemia and prevent hyperglycemia-induced diabetic complications, which are essential for the treatment of diabetes. However, a key limitation of peptide drugs for the clinical use is their short half-life. In this review, we describe the pathophysiological mechanisms and treatments of diabetic vascular complications. In addition, we discuss modification of peptide drugs by various approaches involving polymers to extend their blood circulating times and the use of the modified peptides in experimental and clinical studies.
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
       
  • Graphene Oxide-Mediated Fluorometric Aptasensor for Okadaic Acid Detection

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      Abstract: Abstract Okadaic acid (OA), which is one of the representative diarrhetic shellfish poisonings, is a prevalent food-poisoning toxin in the world. As OA consumption induces various digestive diseases, a strict monitoring tool for OA is highly required. In this study, we demonstrate the development of an aptamer-based fluorometric OA sensor. First, the affinity of the aptamer towards OA was confirmed through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and it was then utilized to develop the fluorometric sensor. The verified OA-specific aptamer was modified with 5-carboxyfluorescein (FAM) as a fluorophore, and graphene oxide (GO) was adopted as the quencher. By virtue of the quenching phenomena between FAM and GO, the developed sensor revealed a low detection limit of 6.35 ppb. Also, this sensor represented a high response to OA compared to other types of marine toxins, such as saxitoxin, domoic acid, and tetrodotoxin.
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
       
  • Recent Trends in Biosensors Based on Electrochemical and Optical
           Techniques for Cyanobacterial Neurotoxin Detection

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      Abstract: Abstract Cyanobacteria that cause algal blooms are distributed worldwide and have been reported for a long time. Further, cyanobacterial growth is increasingly spreading because of anthropogenic eutrophication; this results in increasing damages by the production of a neurotoxin called cyanotoxin. Neurotoxins have adverse effects in humans, including disrupting signal transmission between neurons and muscles in various ways resulting in paralysis and death within minutes. To detect neurotoxins, analytical techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are being implemented, but have limitations as they are difficult to measure quickly in the field and are difficult to miniaturize. Introduction of biosensors for toxin detection provides a new direction as applying bioreceptors such as aptamers, antibodies, and nanomaterials can be used to create various sensors, without the limitations of conventional detection methods. In this review, we discuss the continued development of neurotoxin biosensors that are based on electrochemistry and optics.
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13206-022-00054-3
       
  • A New Quantum Dot-Based Lateral Flow Immunoassay for the Rapid Detection
           of Influenza Viruses

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      Abstract: Abstract Rapid and accurate diagnosis of influenza is crucial to contain influenza virus outbreaks. In clinical settings, lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are widely used for rapid influenza antigen detection. The choice of label plays an important role in determining the sensitivity of the LFIA. Quantum dots are one of the most promising fluorescent reporters. Here, we evaluated a novel quantum dot-based assay, QuantumPACK Easy Influenza A + B (QuantumPACK Easy; BioSquare Inc., Korea). A total of 394 nasopharyngeal swab samples, including 94 influenza A virus-positive, 98 influenza B virus-positive, 175 influenza A and B virus-negative, and 27 other respiratory pathogen-positive samples, were collected. Samples were tested with QuantumPACK Easy, Allplex RP real-time RT-PCR assay (Allplex RP; Seegene, Korea), and Sofia Influenza A + B FIA (Sofia; Quidel, CA, USA). The sensitivity and specificity of QuantumPACK Easy was analyzed using the Allplex RP assay. The agreement between QuantumPACK Easy and Sofia assays was also analyzed. The sensitivity of QuantumPACK Easy for influenza A and B was 80.9% and 83.7%, respectively. The specificity of QuantumPACK Easy was 100%. Cross-reactivity with other respiratory pathogens was not observed. Total agreement between QuantumPACK Easy and Sofia was 89.6% (kappa 0.783). The sensitivity of the Sofia assay was 66.0% for influenza A virus and 61.2% for influenza B virus. QuantumPACK Easy had acceptable performance, with better sensitivity than a commercially available antigen detection assay, possibly due to the characteristics of the quantum dot.
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s13206-022-00053-4
       
  • A Microfluidic Stretch System Upregulates Resistance Exercise-Related
           Pathway

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      Abstract: Abstract Exercise plays a critical role in maintaining and improving the quantity and quality of skeletal muscle. Resistance exercise is especially important improves muscle strength and increase muscle mass. The recent realization of the importance of animal welfare worldwide has emphasized the need for replacing animal experiments with in vitro cell experiments, thereby necessitating the development of a three-dimensional cellular model. Consequently, by applying the existing microfluidic stretch system, this study was conducted to develop a motion-mimicking system that can perform both morphological analysis through immunofluorescence staining and molecular analysis, such as western blotting and quantitative PCR. The system promoted the fusion of C2C12 myoblasts and increased the myotube diameter. In addition, the stretching system enhanced protein synthesis via the AKT–mTOR–p-70 S6K1 pathway and increased expression of Pgc-1α4, Gpr56, Igf1, Igf2, Nr4a3, Col1a2, Col3a1, and Col4a1, which are known to be induced by resistance exercise. Moreover, the levels of MHC2B—a glycolytic muscle fiber—were increased by stretching, whereas the levels of MHC1—an oxidative muscle fiber—did not vary. In conclusion, our stretching system mimics resistance exercise more closely than endurance exercise and would facilitate morphological and molecular mechanism analyses of changes induced by exercise.
      PubDate: 2022-03-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13206-022-00051-6
       
  • Advances in Nanoparticles for Effective Delivery of RNA Therapeutics

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      Abstract: Abstract RNA therapeutics, including messenger RNA (mRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA), are genetic materials that mediate the translation of genetic direction from genes to induce or inhibit specific protein production. Although the interest in RNA therapeutics is rising globally, the absence of an effective delivery system is an obstacle to the clinical application of RNA therapeutics. Additionally, immunogenicity, short duration of protein expression, unwanted enzymatic degradation, and insufficient cellular uptake could limit the therapeutic efficacy of RNA therapeutics. In this regard, novel platforms based on nanoparticles are crucial for delivering RNAs to the targeted site to increase efficiency without toxicity. In this review, the most recent status of nanoparticles as RNA delivery vectors, with a focus on polymeric nanoparticles, peptide-derived nanoparticles, inorganic nanoparticles, and hybrid nanoparticles, is discussed. These nanoparticular platforms can be utilized for safe and effective RNA delivery to augment therapeutic effects. Ultimately, RNA therapeutics encapsulated in nanoparticle-based carriers will be used to treat many diseases and save lives.
      PubDate: 2022-03-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13206-022-00052-5
       
  • Thermal-Corrosion-Free Electrode-Integrated Cell Chip for Promotion of
           Electrically Stimulated Neurite Outgrowth

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      Abstract: Abstract In neural tissue engineering, the use of electrical stimulation has been proposed to cure patients with damaged nervous systems. Electrical stimulation can promote nerve cell differentiation and regeneration. Due to certain properties of electrode materials, including thermal problems and corrosion, the wide application of electrical stimulation has been hindered. Here, we fabricated an electro-spun, nano-porous, membrane-based, electrode-embedded cell chip capable of electrical stimulation of cells. To provide conductivity on an electro-spun nano-porous membrane, a 1.0 µm-thick layer of Au was deposited by electron beam evaporation. The electrode had a length and height of 4 and 0.025 cm, respectively, and was fixed to the inner walls of transparent polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) cell chip channels. For 5 days, when 1 kHz of electrical stimulation was given at 50 and 100 mVpp, the promotion of neurite outgrowth of neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells was significantly exhibited, while no thermal problems or corrosions were detected in the electrodes. Furthermore, at 100 mVpp of electrical stimulation, not only neurite outgrowth but also secondary branch induction was observed. We believe that the newly proposed cell chip can be applied to the study of neuronal differentiation and regeneration with stable and controllable electrical stimulation.
      PubDate: 2022-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13206-022-00049-0
       
  • Customized Multilayered Tissue-on-a-Chip (MToC) to Simulate Bacillus
           Calmette–Guérin (BCG) Immunotherapy for Bladder Cancer Treatment

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      Abstract: Abstract As an advanced cell culture platform, the organ-on-a-chip has been in the spotlight recently owing to its ability to maintain the physiological characteristics of cells in vitro. Therefore, several disease models have been developed using the organ-on-a-chip technology, and the organ specific three-dimensional (3D) structure and various mechanical/chemical stimuli built into the chip enable efficient development of drugs, medical devices, and biomaterials, as well as realization of patient-specific precise medicine. This study introduces a novel chip-based non-muscle invasive bladder cancer model, multilayered tissue-on-a-chip (MToC), which was created using 3D bio-printing technology, micro-milling, and soft lithography based polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) casting. All types of cells, T24, MRC-5, and HUVEC, were successfully co-cultured in the MToC. Using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), the flow phenomena occurring in MToC were analyzed. Further, we attempted Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG)-induced migration of THP-1, and the viability reduction of bladder cancer cells and the THP-1 migration were observed. Although follow-up studies are needed to precisely mimic the immune response, this partial phenomenon of the immune response suggests the potential of this device as a surrogate experimental tool for BCG immunotherapy in future.
      PubDate: 2022-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13206-022-00047-2
       
  • Nano-biomarker-Based Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for Selective
           Diagnosis of Gallbladder and Liver Injury

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      Abstract: Abstract During living donor liver transplantation, a number of blood vessels and bile ducts are anastomosed while the liver and gallbladder are resected in the donor and recipient. Early detection and treatment of complications after surgery by evaluating the function of blood vessels and the biliary tract is crucial. A biosensing chip that can monitor patient health status from the bile excreted during the recovery process has been developed using a surface-enhanced Raman sensing chip. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy signals of bile obtained from normal bile duct ligation and gallbladder damage mouse models using a cautery device were identified and analyzed. The surface-enhanced Raman chip with a nanometer-level porous structure can selectively separate the nanometer biomarkers and measure the Raman signal. Through the detection of nanometer biomarkers in the bile and comparative analysis of histopathology, the Raman signal in the damaged gallbladder was compared with that caused by liver damage due to bile duct ligation, showing that it becomes a biosensing chip for monitoring recovery.
      PubDate: 2022-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s13206-022-00045-4
       
  • SF-qPCR: Strand Displacement-Based Fast Quantitative Polymerase Chain
           Reaction

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      Abstract: Abstract Nucleic acid testing (NAT) is important for the identification and quantification of specific nucleic acid targets, both DNA and RNA, in life sciences and clinical diagnostics. Nucleic acid amplification can be a time-consuming step in NAT using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a simple method to reduce the amplification time while maintaining the PCR system. The three-step process of a general qPCR was reduced to a two-step process. The annealing/extension temperatures were increased to minimize the differences between the denaturation temperature and the annealing/extension temperatures. Subsequently, the time for each of these steps was reduced and, finally, the denaturation temperature was lowered. Taq polymerase was replaced with SD polymerase because it has strand displacement activity and is efficient in amplifying partial dsDNA at lower denaturation temperatures. In the two-step qPCR of genomic DNA using SD polymerase, the final conditions included an initial denaturation at 92 °C for 2 min, and 1 s at each cycling step with a denaturation temperature of 87 °C and an annealing/extension temperature of 72 °C. Amplification of the nucleocapsid (N) gene of SARS-CoV-2 RNA virus was evaluated at a template concentration as low as 10 copies. This method, named SF-qPCR (strand displacement-based fast quantitative polymerase chain reaction), can stably detect less than 10 copies of DNA and RNA within 25–40 min. This new protocol allows for sensitive and rapid detection of important DNA and RNA targets in clinical diagnosis.
      PubDate: 2022-01-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s13206-021-00044-x
       
  • Hyperspectral Imaging for Clinical Applications

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      Abstract: Abstract Measuring morphological and biochemical features of tissue is crucial for disease diagnosis and surgical guidance, providing clinically significant information related to pathophysiology. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) techniques obtain both spatial and spectral features of tissue without labeling molecules such as fluorescent dyes, which provides rich information for improved disease diagnosis and treatment. Recent advances in HSI systems have demonstrated its potential for clinical applications, especially in disease diagnosis and image-guided surgery. This review summarizes the basic principle of HSI and optical systems, deep-learning-based image analysis, and clinical applications of HSI to provide insight into this rapidly growing field of research. In addition, the challenges facing the clinical implementation of HSI techniques are discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13206-021-00041-0
       
  • DNA–Gold Nanoparticle Conjugates for Intracellular miRNA Detection Using
           Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

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      Abstract: Abstract Intracellular detection of micro RNAs (miRNAs) expression is very important for cancer therapy because the expression of miRNA can regulate the chemoresistance in cancer cells. Several analysis techniques based on fluorescence have been developed for intracellular detection of miRNA, but based on those techniques it was hard to detect the low expression level of miRNA. In this study, a highly sensitive detection method of intracellular miRNA expression at the single-cell level was reported based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using conjugated nanoparticles. Each miRNA-detectable Raman active nanoparticle (mi-RAN) consisted of gold nanoparticles (AuNP), Raman reporter, and single-stranded DNA complementary to target miRNA (miR-200c). After the internalization of mi-RANs to different subtypes of breast cancer cells, SK-BR-3 and MCF-7, SERS intensity of Raman reporter on nanoparticles were enhanced by intracellular hybridization of nanoparticles with miR-200c. According to the detection results of SERS, the expression level of miR-200c in SK-BR-3 cells was 5 times higher than that in MCF-7 cells, which was confirmed by the result of gene analysis. Moreover, treatment of mi-RAN on cancer cells was enhance chemoresistance with consumption of miR-200c. The proposed mi-RAN technique can be applied to in situ intracellular analysis platform for other miRNAs expression at the single-cell level. Moreover, mi-RAN can provide a tool to confirm the therapeutic efficacy of cancer treatment by regulating the activity of chemoresistance-related miRNA.
      PubDate: 2022-01-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13206-021-00042-z
       
  • Recent Advances in Microfluidic-Based Microphysiological Systems

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      Abstract: Abstract Microphysiological systems are in vitro tissue and organ models that present unique opportunities across different disciplines, such as biology, medicine, and engineering. These systems are preferred over two-dimensional simplistic cell cultures and animal models with poor translatability. Microphysiological systems can facilitate the understanding of human physiology and pathophysiology by recapitulating specific organ structures and functions. Recent advances in microphysiological systems employ microfluidic technologies to gain deeper insights into more complex in vivo physiological phenomena and mechanisms. More specifically, microfluidic technologies allow the development of more realistic physiological conditions. This review highlights recent advances in microfluidic-based microphysiological systems and comprehensively discusses the relationship between the design and operation of microfluidic systems for mimicking physiological microenvironments. Moreover, several representative examples and their potential biological applications are described and explained in detail. Finally, the review concludes with current perspectives, limitations, and prospects for further improving the microfluidic-based microphysiological systems.
      PubDate: 2021-12-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s13206-021-00043-y
       
  • A Petri-Dish with Micromolded Pattern as a Coordinate Indicator for
           Live-Cell Time Lapse Microscopy

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      Abstract: Abstract Determining the position of cells in a microscope image is essential in investigating cell behaviors such as migration and differentiation. When observing cells over a time period over many ROIs (region of interests), it is difficult to reposition the sample and find the same cell once the FOV (field of view) is changed. This study describes a novel approach to obtain accurate position data in live-cell time-lapse imaging and large-area stitched images using a Petri-dish with embedded microstructures and a simple microscope. We integrated a braille-like pattern underneath the Petri-dish, a coordinate indicator for microscope image registration to simplify imaging of multiple ROIs at different time points without expensive equipment such as motorized stages or enclosed cell culture incubators. In this study, we micromolded microscopic structures with sizes between 5–10 μm spaced closely (~ 40 μm) in non-repeating pattern underneath the petri-dish. Image processing technique was used to determine the position and rotation of the petri-dish with respect to the microscope FOV. Using this methods, we demonstrated successful imaging of time-lapse images for cell differentiation and migration. Large area patterned cell cultures were imaged over several days and the images were stitched without a motorized microscope.
      PubDate: 2021-12-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s13206-021-00039-8
       
 
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