Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 928 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (59 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (661 journals)
    - CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (23 journals)
    - ELECTROCHEMISTRY (28 journals)
    - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (45 journals)
    - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (47 journals)
    - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (65 journals)

CHEMISTRY (661 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 201 - 400 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Corrosion Communications     Open Access  
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Croatica Chemica Acta     Open Access  
CrystEngComm     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Protocols in Protein Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Chemical Biology     Open Access  
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Current Research in Green and Sustainable Chemistry     Open Access  
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 115)
Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Dalton Transactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Educação Química en Punto de Vista     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
EDUSAINS     Open Access  
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
Elements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Energetic Materials Frontiers     Open Access  
EnergyChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology     Open Access  
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Science & Technology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Science : Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eurasian Chemico-Technological Journal     Open Access  
European Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
European Journal of Histochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry Reports     Open Access  
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Faraday Discussions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Fine Chemical Technologies / Тонкие химические технологии     Open Access  
FirePhysChem     Open Access  
Fitoterapia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
FlatChem : Chemistry of Flat Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Fluid Phase Equilibria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Microbiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Chemistry : Molecular Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Digestion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Food Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Forensic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Foundations of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Soil Science     Open Access  
Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fullerenes, Nanotubes and Carbon Nanostructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Future Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Gases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gels     Open Access  
Geochemical Transactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Giant     Open Access  
Graphene     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Graphene     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Graphene Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Green Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Green and Sustainable Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Green Chemistry Letters and Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Green Synthesis and Catalysis     Open Access  
GSTF Journal of Chemical Sciences (JChem)     Open Access  
Helvetica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Heritage Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
High Energy Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Chemical Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Chemical Technology (IJCT)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Indian Journal of Chemistry - Section B (IJC-B)     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources (IJNPR)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Chemical Science     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Partially Free  
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
InfoMat     Open Access  
Inorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Inorganic Chemistry Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Inorganic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Inorganica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Instrumentation Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal for Ion Mobility Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Advanced Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Agrochemistry     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Analytical Mass Spectrometry and Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biological Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biological, Physical and Chemical Studies     Open Access  
International Journal of Chemical Kinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Chemistry and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Chemoinformatics and Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Energetic Materials     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Environmental Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Materials and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Molecular Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Nano Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Spray and Combustion Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Thermodynamics and Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Tryptophan Research     Open Access  
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Polymer Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy     Open Access  
Israel Journal of Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
IUCrData     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JACS Au     Open Access  
JBIC Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
JCIS Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JOT Journal für Oberflächentechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
JOT-International Surface Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Adhesion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Al-Qadisiyah for Pure Science     Open Access  
Journal of Amino Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of AOAC International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Solution Chemistry and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Boron     Open Access  
Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Catalyst & Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Chemical Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Chemical Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Chemical Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Cheminformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Chemistry, Environmental Sciences and its Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Chemometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Chromatography A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Journal of Chromatography Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Coating Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Computational Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Coordination Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Education and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Energy Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Flow Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Fluorescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Fluorine Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Fuel Chemistry and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Great Lakes Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Ionic Liquids     Open Access  
Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A: Pure and Applied Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Journal of Materials Chemistry A : Materials for Energy and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Materials Chemistry B : Materials for Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Materials Chemistry C : Materials for Optical, Magnetic and Electronic Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Materials Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mathematical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134)
Journal of Membrane Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Metastable and Nanocrystalline Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Modern Chemistry & Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

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Folia Microbiologica
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.502
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1874-9356 - ISSN (Online) 0015-5632
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Analysis of seed-associated bacteria and fungi on staple crops using the
           cultivation and metagenomic approaches

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      Abstract: Abstract One of the key factors affecting seed quality is microbial communities residing on and in the seeds. In this study, microbial populations of seeds of conventionally and organically produced wheat, barley, and maize were analyzed using two different approaches: the cultivation method and metagenomics. For cultivation, three basic media were used: DG18 (for fungi), and nutrient agar or tryptic soy agar supplemented with cycloheximide or nystatin (for bacteria). Metagenomic sequencing was performed using the Illumina MiSeq platform. A total of 452 bacterial isolates comprising 36 genera and 5 phyla and 90 fungal isolates comprising 10 genera and 3 phyla were obtained from the seed surfaces. Among bacteria, representatives from the genera Bacillus, Pantoea, Paenibacillus, and Curtobacterium predominated, and among fungi, Aspergillus predominated. A total of 142 fungal OTUs and 201 bacterial OTUs were obtained from all the samples. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroides, and Actinobacteria comprised most of the bacterial OTUs, and Ascomycota comprised most of the fungal OTUs. Only 3 fungal OTUs (representatives of Curvibasidium, Venturia, and Dermateaceae) were exclusively present only within seeds and not on the seed surfaces. Barley seeds had the highest microbial load and richness, whereas corn had the lowest. Wheat and barley shared a higher number of OTUs than either of them did with corn with higher overlap between conventionally grown cereals than between organically grown cereals. Some OTUs were farming specific. This study demonstrates that the microbiome of cereal seeds is greatly dependent on the species of the host and is less affected by agricultural practices.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Mucormycosis: risk factors, diagnosis, treatments, and challenges during
           COVID-19 pandemic

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      Abstract: Abstract Mucormycosis is a deadly opportunistic disease caused by a group of fungus named mucormycetes. Fungal spores are normally present in the environment and the immune system of the body prevents them from causing disease in a healthy immunocompetent individual. But when the defense mechanism of the body is compromised such as in the patients of diabetes mellites, neustropenia, organ transplantation recipients, and other immune-compromised states, these fungal spores invade our defense mechanism easily causing a severe systemic infection with approximately 45–80% of case fatality. In the present scenario, during the COVID-19 pandemic, patients are on immunosuppressive drugs, glucocorticoids, thus are at high risk of mucormycosis. Patients with diabetes mellitus are further getting a high chance of infection. Usually, the spores gain entry through our respiratory tract affecting the lungs and paranasal sinuses. Besides, they can also enter through damage into the skin or through the gastrointestinal route. This review article presents the current statistics, the causes of this infection in the human body, and its diagnosis with available recent therapies through recent databases collected from several clinics and agencies. The diagnosis and identification of the infection were made possible through various latest medical techniques such as computed tomography scans, direct microscopic observations, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, serology, molecular assay, and histopathology. Mucormycosis is so uncommon, no randomized controlled treatment studies have been conducted. The newer triazoles, posaconazole (POSA) and isavuconazole (ISAV) (the active component of the prodrug isavuconazonium sulfate) may be beneficial in patients who are refractory to or intolerant of Liposomal Amphotericin B. but due to lack of early diagnosis and aggressive surgical debridement or excision, the mortality rate remains high. In the course of COVID-19 treatments, there must be more vigilance and alertness are required from clinicians to evaluate these invasive fungal infections.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Construction of single, double, or triple mutants within kojic acid
           synthesis genes kojA, kojR, and kojT by the CRISPR/Cas9 tool in
           Aspergillus oryzae

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      Abstract: Abstract Kojic acid is an industrially important secondary metabolite produced by Aspergillus oryzae. The construction of genetic materials for kojic acid related genes is important for understanding the mechanism of kojic acid synthesis in A. oryzae. However, multigene simultaneous knockout mutants for kojic acid synthesis genes remain limited because A. oryzae is multinuclear and good selectable markers are scarce. Here, we firstly successfully obtained single mutants of kojA, kojR, and kojT by our previously constructed CRISPR/Cas9 system in A. oryzae, which demonstrated the feasibility of the targeting sgRNAs for kojA, kojR, and kojT. Then, the AMA1-based genome-editing system for multiplex gene editing was developed in A. oryzae. In the multiplex gene-editing system, two guide RNA expression cassettes were ligated in tandem and driven by two U6 promoters in the AMA1-based autonomously replicating plasmid with the Cas9-expression cassette. Moreover, the multiplex gene-editing technique was applied to target the kojic acid synthesis genes kojA, kojR, and kojT, and the double and triple mutants within kojA, kojR, and kojT were obtained successfully. Additionally, the selectable marker pyrG was knocked out in the single and triple mutants of kojA, kojR, and kojT to obtain the auxotrophic strains, which can facilitate to introduce a target gene into the single and triple mutants of kojA, kojR, and kojT for investigating their relationship. The multiplex gene-editing system and release of these materials provide a foundation for further kojic acid research and utilization.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Metagenomic analysis of intestinal microbiota in wild rats living in urban
           and rural habitats

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      Abstract: Abstract Mammals have a symbiotic relationship with various microorganisms called microbiota throughout their lives. These microorganisms are known to affect the host’s physiology, health, and even mental balance. The development of the gut microbiota is regulated by a complex interaction between host and environmental factors, including diet and lifestyle. Herein, it is aimed to elucidate the differences in the gut microbiota of rats living in urban and rural habitats. The taxonomic changes in the gut microbiota of wild rats belonging to Rattus rattus species caught from urban and rural areas of Western Anatolian (Bilecik province) were examined comparatively by 16S rRNA next-generation sequencing technique. Laboratory rats were used as reference animals. The alpha diversities were found lower in the rural rats with respect to the urban rats, whereas the highest alpha diversity was calculated for laboratory rats. The lower Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratios (F/B ratio) were accounted for both rural and laboratory rats compared with urban rats. The Proteobacteria to Actinobacteria ratio (P/A ratio) was lower for rural rats, but higher for laboratory rats, compared with urban rats. The heatmap analyses of taxonomic units in the microbiota of each group demonstrated distinct patterns at the species and genus levels. The study provided metagenomic data on the gut microbiota of rats residing in urban and rural habitats, offering a different perspective on future environmental biomonitoring studies.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Influence of culture conditions on co-aggregation of probiotic yeast
           Saccharomyces boulardii with Candida spp. and their auto-aggregation

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      Abstract: Abstract Systemic infections caused by pathogenic Candida species pose a significant threat to public health in the past decades due to increasing resistance to existing antifungal drugs. Given this scenario, probiotics have been suggested as an alternative approach for managing Candida infections. Hence, the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii co-aggregate with Candida spp. as well as to determine their auto-aggregation ability in dependence on temperature (28 °C, 37 °C, 42 °C) and pH (4.5, 7.0, 8.5) after 5 h and 24 h. Our results revealed that the aggregation of tested yeasts was lower in the first 5 h but increased significantly after 24 h. All strains were able to auto-aggregate in different degrees ranging from 47.46 to 95.95% assessed at 24 h of incubation. Among them the highest auto-aggregation values had C. albicans and C. krusei strains followed by probiotic strain S. boulardii, while the less were observed in C. glabrata strains. In addition, co-aggregation between probiotic and Candida strains was strain-specific. It was evident that S. boulardii significantly inhibited the aggregation of C. albicans ATCC 10261, C. krusei ATCC 6258, and C. glabrata ZIM 2369. However, in C. glabrata ZIM 2382, the aggregation was even enhanced. Temperature and pH also affected the ability to aggregate in a different way only after 5 h of incubation, with the highest cell aggregation evidenced at temperature 37 °C in most cases and pH 4.5. These findings may be of importance when trying to establish probiotic use against pathogenic Candida species.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Isolation and identification of multi-trait plant growth–promoting
           rhizobacteria from coastal sand dune plant species of Pohang beach

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      Abstract: Abstract Rhizobacteria are root-associated bacteria that influence plant growth by various direct and indirect mechanisms. In quest of efficient plant growth–promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) with multiple plant growth–promoting traits, a total of 52 rhizobacterial isolates were isolated from the rhizospheric soil collected at Pohang beach, Republic of Korea. The bacterial isolates were evaluated in vitro for their plant growth–promoting traits like production of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), siderophore, and phosphate solubilization activities. More than 28% of the isolates revealed all of the multi-trait plant growth–promoting activities, whereas 11.54% exhibited robust results for producing IAA, ACC deaminase, siderophore, and phosphate solubilization activities. Similarly, 36% isolates were capable for the production of IAA, siderophore, and ACC deaminase, while 32% revealed phosphate solubilization and siderophore production. The isolates with prominent multi-trait plant growth–promoting activities were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and matched to Pseudomonas koreensis-(S4T10), Pseudomonas fluorescens-(S3B1), Serratia fonticola-(S1T1), Sphingobacterium multivorum-(S1B1), Brevundimonas vesicularis-(S1T13), and Arthrobacter sp.-(S2T9) with 99–100% similarity. Our results confirm that further evaluation of these PGPR (exhibiting multi-traits for plant growth promotion) is required on crop plants to reveal their pragmatic role under normal and abiotic stress conditions and add into the consortium of biofertilizers for sustainable agriculture.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Current status and applications of genus Geobacillus in the production of
           industrially important products—a review

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      Abstract: Abstract The genus Geobacillus is one of the most important genera which mainly comprises gram-positive thermophilic bacterial strains including obligate aerobes, denitrifiers and facultative anaerobes having capability of endospore formation as well. The genus Geobacillus is widely distributed in nature and mostly abundant in extreme locations such as cool soils, hot springs, hydrothermal vents, marine trenches, hay composts and dairy plants. Due to plasticity towards environmental adaptation, the Geobacillus sp. shows remarkable genome diversification and acquired many beneficial properties, which facilitates their exploitation for many biotechnological applications. Many thermophiles are of biotechnological importance and having considerable interest in commercial applications for the production of industrially important products. Recently, due to catabolic versatility especially in the degradation of hemicellulose and starch containing agricultural waste and rapid growth rates, these microorganisms show potential for the production of biofuels, thermostable enzymes and bioremediation. This review mainly summarizes the status of Geobacillus sp. including its notable properties, biotechnological studies and its potential application in the production of industrially important products.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Characterization of novel L-asparaginases having clinically safe profiles
           from bacteria inhabiting the hemolymph of the crab, Scylla serrata
           (Forskål, 1775)

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      Abstract: Abstract L-asparaginase (ASNase) is the principal chemotherapeutic agent against different blood cancers. The risks associated with current clinical preparations demand screening for novel ASNases. Accordingly, the study was conducted to shortlist ASNases having clinically safer profiles from a novel niche, namely, microbes in the gut and hemolymph of apparently healthy Scylla serrata. A four-step strategic approach incorporating the essential requirements for clinically safer profiles was followed. The initial step through plate assay showed five (9.61%) potential ASNase producers. The relative prevalence of ASNase producers was higher in hemolymph (13.33%) than gut (4.5%). The positive isolates were identified as Priestia aryabhattai, Priestia megaterium, Bacillus altitudinis, Shewanella decolorationis, and Chryseomicrobium amylolyticum. Quantitative profiles revealed high ASNase production (114.29 to 287.36 U/mL) without any optimization, with an added advantage of the extracellular production. The second step for substrate specificity studies revealed the absence of L-glutaminase and urease activities in ASNases from C. amylolyticum and P. megaterium, the most desirable properties for safe clinical applications. This is the first report of glutaminase and urease-free ASNase from these two bacteria. The third step ensured type II nature of selected ASNases, the targeted form in clinical applications. The fourth step confirmed the activity and stability in human physiological conditions. Altogether, the results revealed two potential ASNases with clinically compatible profiles.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Evaluation of inhibitory and probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria
           isolated from vaginal microflora

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      Abstract: Abstract Lactic acid bacteria (LABs) are known to secrete species-specific secondary metabolites that could be utilized as novel therapeutics against multi-drug resistant pathogens. This study aimed to investigate the antagonistic and probiotic properties of LABs isolated from the vaginal ecosystem of healthy women and to assess the stability of their antagonistic metabolites. Among 43 strains isolated from healthy women, eight LAB strains exhibited detectable BLISs (bacteriocin-like substances) producing ability against E. faecalis (JH-86), S. aureus (JH-68), Streptococcus sp. (JH-80), and E. coli (JH-101), with zone of inhibition (ZI) ranging from 9.00 to 20.33 mm and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) from 62.5 to 500 μL/mL, respectively. The partially purified compounds extracted from cell free supernatant (CFS) displayed an increase in antagonistic activity based on ZI, 9.67–30.17 mm and MICs, 3.91–15.63 mg/mL, respectively. In a time-kill study, both crude and partially purified compounds of Limosilactobacillus reuteri (MT180537), Pediococcus pentosaceus (MT176555), Limosilactobacillus pontis (MW362838), and Levilactobacillus brevis (MW362790) exhibited significant bactericidal action against E. faecalis (MW051601), the most frequent etiological agent of aerobic vaginitis (AV). The active secondary metabolites from L. reuteri (MT180537), P. pentosaceus (MT176555), and L. pontis (MW362838) were protein in nature and remained stable under different physicochemical conditions. Regarding probiotic properties, the strains presented probiotic characteristics, i.e., good acid, bile salt tolerance, aggregation properties, and biofilm formation. The strains were susceptible to most of the commonly used antibiotics and had no hemolytic activity. In conclusion, antagonistic compounds or BLIS produced by L. reuteri (MT180537) could be investigated further for preparation of ointments to treat AV.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Purification and characterization of anti-phytopathogenic fungi
           angucyclinone from soil-derived Streptomyces cellulosae

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      Abstract: Abstract Actinomycete strain YIM PH20352, isolated from the rhizosphere soil sample of Panax notoginseng collected in WenShang, Yunnan Province, China, exhibited antifungal activity against some phytopathogenic fungi. The structures of bioactive molecules, isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation broth of the strain, were identified as rabelomycin (1) and dehydrorabelomycin (2) based on extensive spectroscopic analyses. Compound 1 exhibited antifungal activity against four tested root-rot pathogens of the Panax notoginseng including Plectosphaerella cucumerina, Alternaria panax, Fusarium oxysporum, and Fusarium solani with the MIC values at 32, 64, 128, and 128 μg/mL, respectively. Compound 2 exhibited antifungal activity against F. oxysporum, P. cucumerina, F. solani, and A. panax with the MIC values at 64, 64, 128, and 128 μg/mL, respectively. Based on the phylogenetic analyses, the closest phylogenetic relative of strain YIM PH20352 is Streptomyces cellulosae NBRC 13027 T (AB184265) (99.88%), so strain YIM PH20352 was identified as Streptomyces cellulosae. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of rabelomycin and rabelomycin-type antibiotics from Streptomyces cellulosae and their antifungal activity against root-rot pathogens of the Panax notoginseng.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Use of DNA nanosensors based on upconverting nanoparticles for detection
           of Nosema bombycis by fluorescence resonance energy transfer

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      Abstract: Abstract In this study, NaYF4:20%Yb, 2%Er upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) were synthesized by solvothermal method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and upconversion fluorescence spectrometry. The results showed that the UCNP particles present good dispersion and uniform spherical shape with a size of 29 ~ 42 nm. Hydroxyl UCNPs were converted to hydrophilic carboxylic acid–functionalized ones by ligand exchange, and the streptavidin was attached on the surface of carboxylic acid–functionalized UCNPs via amide bond. The DNA nanosensors based on UCNPs with DNA probes have been successfully developed. Only the genomic DNA of Nosema bombycis can be specifically detected by the DNA nanosensors when the DNA of Bombyx mori and its pathogens was used as target DNA. When the DNA nanosensors were used to detect the DNA of N. bombycis, a broad emission peak signal appeared at 580 nm. There is linear relationship between the signal intensity and DNA concentration of N. bombycis, I580/I545 (R2 = 0.820) and I545/I654 (R2 = 0.901). The detectable minimum concentration of genomic DNA of N. bombycis was 100 ng/μL while the tested concentrations of N. bombycis genomic DNA were 3000 ng/μL, 1500 ng/μL, 1000 ng/μL, 500 ng/μL, 250 ng/μL, and 100 ng/μL, respectively. The whole detection process for target DNA takes less than 60 min.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Evaluation of the antifungal activity of α, β, and δ-damascone and
           inclusion complexes in β-cyclodextrin against Candida spp

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      Abstract: Abstract Due to the increase in fungal resistance to existing drugs, a need exists to search for new antifungals. This study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of α, β, and δ-damascone and inclusion complexes with β-cyclodextrin against different Candida spp. The inclusion complex of β-damascone was prepared by the co-evaporation method using three molar proportions (1:1; 2:1; 3:1 (βDA-βCD)) and analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Standard Candida albicans (CA INCQS 40,006), Candida krusei (CK INCQS 40,095), and Candida tropicalis (CT INCQS 40,042) strains were used to evaluate antifungal activity. The substances were tested individually or in association with fluconazole (FCZ). The IC50 and cell viability curve constructions were performed using the microdilution method. The minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) was determined by the subculture method in a solid medium. The α, β, and δ-DA isolated or in combination with fluconazole (FCZ) showed significant antifungal activity. β-damascone showed effective complexation in the three molar proportions assayed; however, none of the inclusion complexes was demonstrated clinically significant effects against the fungal tested. Then, all compounds have shown promising antifungal activities; however, in vivo assays are necessary to have therapeutical application in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • A highly efficient stratagem for protoplast isolation and genetic
           transformation in filamentous fungus Colletotrichum falcatum

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      Abstract: Abstract Red rot of sugarcane caused by the hemi-biotrophic fungal pathogen, Colletotrichum falcatum, is a major threat to sugarcane cultivation in many tropical countries such as India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan. With the accumulating information on pathogenicity determinants, namely, effectors and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of C. falcatum, it is of paramount importance to decipher the functional role of these molecular players that may ultimately decide upon the outcome of sugarcane-C. falcatum interaction. Since C. falcatum is a multinucleated filamentous fungus, the conventional Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method could not be effectively utilized for targeted manipulation of genomic DNA. Hence, we developed a highly efficient protoplast-based transformation method for the virulent pathotype of C. falcatum — Cf671, which involves isolation of protoplast, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated transformation, and regeneration of transformed protoplasts into hyphal colonies. In this study, germinating conidiospores of Cf671 were treated with different enzyme-osmoticum combinations, out of which 20 mg/mL lysing enzyme with 5 mg/mL β-glucanase in an osmoticum of 1.2 mol/L MgSO4 yielded maximum number of viable protoplasts. The resultant protoplasts were transformed with pAsp shuttle vector. Transformed protoplasts were regenerated into hyphal colonies under hygromycin selection and observed for GFP fluorescence. This protocol resulted in a transformation efficiency of > 130 transformants per μg of plasmid DNA. This method of transformation is rapid, simple, and more efficient for gene knockout, site-directed mutagenesis, ectopic expression, and other genetic functional characterization experiments in C. falcatum, even with large vectors (> 10 kb) and can also be applied for other filamentous fungi.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Biofilm formation potential of Bacillus toyonensis and Pseudomonas
           aeruginosa on the stainless steel test surfaces in a model dairy batch
           system

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      Abstract: Abstract Bacillus toyonensis (a Gram-positive bacterium) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a Gram-negative bacterium) isolated from the different surfaces of a dairy plant in our previous study were selected as the test bacteria for the present study. These two test bacteria were investigated in terms of their attachment on the stainless steel test surfaces in a model dairy batch system. After incubation at 5 °C and 20 °C for 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h, stainless steel plates were examined using cultural counts, profilometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and fluorescent microscopy. Also, the test plates were subjected to a cleaning/disinfection procedure used in the dairy plant. Tests were employed before and after the cleaning/disinfection procedures. Cell wall characteristics and holding temperature were found to be significant for the attachment of the test bacteria to stainless steel test surfaces. In the study, the effect of the holding temperature varied depending on the type and characteristics of the bacteria. The adhesion ability of P. aeruginosa was higher than that of B. toyonensis. Increases in the holding temperature may increase the adhesion ability of the bacteria. Milk growth medium was found to be more successful in preventing the attachment ability of P. aeruginosa compared to B. toyonensis. This indicates that the chemical characteristic of the contact material may affect adhesion. The adhered bacterial cells were entirely removed by means of the cleaning/disinfection treatment. Therefore, the adhesion of bacterial cells could be explained as “initial phase of biofilm formation.” It can be concluded that the microorganism cell adhesion on the surface is followed by biofilm formation, and this situation lasts for many years. These results reveal the importance of controlling biofilm formation in dairy plants from the beginning.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • The role of microbiota in colorectal cancer

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      Abstract: Cancer is one of the most important causes of death throughout the world, and the mortality rate is increasing significantly due to the aging of the population. One of the most common types of cancer is colorectal cancer (CRC). Human microbial ecosystems use metabolism to make important impacts on the body physiology. An intensive literature review was made to investigate the correlations between human gut microbiota and the incidence of CRC. The results of these studies show that there are differences in the composition of microbiota between CRC patients and normal people and the microorganisms in CRC patients are very different from healthy individuals. Therefore, changes in the microbiome can be used as a biomarker for the early detection of CRC. On the other hand, the intestinal flora is may be act as a powerful weapon against CRC in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
       
  • Phenotypic variability, race profiling and molecular diversity analysis of
           Indian populations of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis causing lentil wilt
           

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      Abstract: Wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis; Fol) is one of the major diseases of lentil worldwide. Two hundred and thirty-five isolates of the pathogen collected from 8 states of India showed substantial variations in morphological characters such as colony texture and pattern, pigmentation and growth rate. The isolates were grouped as slow (47 isolates), medium (118 isolates) and fast (70 isolates) growing. The macroconidia and microconidia (3.0–77.5 × 1.3–8.8 µm for macroconidia and 1.8–22.5 × 0.8–8.0 µm for microconidia for length × width) were variable in size and considering the morphological features, the populations were grouped into 12 categories. Seventy representative isolates based on their morphological variability and place of origin were selected for further study. A set of 10 differential genotypes was identified for virulence analysis and based on virulence patterns on these 10 genotypes, 70 Fol isolates were grouped into 7 races. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), universal rice primers (URPs), inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) were used for genetic diversity analysis. URPs, ISSR and SRAP markers gave 100% polymorphism while RAPD gave 98.9% polymorphism. The isolates were grouped into seven clusters at genetic similarities ranging from 21 to 80% using unweighted paired group method with arithmetic average analysis. The major clusters include the populations from northern and central regions of India in distinct groups. All these three markers proved suitable for diversity analysis, but their combined use was better to resolve the area specific grouping of the isolates. The sequences of rDNA ITS and TEF-1α genes of the representative isolates were analysed. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS region grouped the isolates into two major clades representing various races. In TEF-1α analysis, the isolates were grouped into two major clades with 28 isolates into one clade and 4 remaining isolates in another clade. The molecular groups partially correspond to the lentil growing regions of the isolates and races of the pathogen.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
       
  • Lignocellulosics in plant cell wall and their potential biological
           degradation

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      Abstract: Abstract Lignocellulosic materials are composed of three main structural polymers: hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. Cellulose is a long chain molecule of glucose requiring a small number of enzymes for degradation due to its simple structure while lignin is a complex polymer of phenylpropane making its biochemical decomposition difficult. Under anaerobic conditions, lignocellulose breakdown is much easier and more rapid than aerobic conditions. Various studies have been carried out to estimate the rate of degradation of lignocellulosic materials. Microorganisms play a key role in the degradation of lignocellulosic materials because they produce a variety of hydrolytic enzymes including cellulase, proteases, xylanases, lipases, laccase, and phosphatases during the degradation of lignocellulosic materials. Based on the body of literature, microorganismal activity can provide useful information about the process of organic matter decomposition.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
       
  • Assessment of antibacterial and anti-biofilm effects of zinc ferrite
           nanoparticles against Klebsiella pneumoniae

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      Abstract: Abstract In response to the emergence of drug resistance and limited therapeutic options, researchers are in action to look for more effective and sustainable antimicrobial practices. Over few years, novel nanoparticles are proving to be potent and promising for effectively dealing with ever- evolving microbial pathogens and diseases. In the present investigation, antibacterial and anti-biofilm efficiencies of zinc ferrite nanoparticles (ZnFe2O4 NPs) are explored against opportunistic pathogens Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae). Results of the present study demonstrate that the ZnFe2O4 NPs endow an excellent antibacterial efficiency with a maximum zone of inhibition i.e.16 mm. The reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced bacterial damage is caused by the ZnFe2O4 NPs. Subsequently, intracellular cytoplasmic leakage of sugar and protein confirms their ability to disturb the membrane integrity of bacteria. This study also demonstrates the prominent efficiency of ZnFe2O4 NPs in an anti-biofilm study by inhibiting biofilm formation up to 81.76% and reducing mature biofilm up to 56.22% at 75 μg/mL the minimum inhibitory concentration value. Therapeutic possibilities of the ZnFe2O4 NPs in antimicrobial applications are discussed which are helpful to overcome the challenges associated with biofilm infectivity.
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
       
  • Prolonged acetogenic phase and biological succession during anaerobic
           digestion using swine manure

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      Abstract: Abstract In recent years, global warming and the limitation of fossil fuels have been causing the governments of different countries to think about the search for more sustainable fuel sources. Biomethane (CH4) has gained increasing attention in recent years as an alternative option for a sustainable source of energy. Biogas is generated during the anaerobic digestion of organic materials by the metabolism of complex microbial communities in the substrates that make up this digestion. The microbial community evaluation using 16S rDNA metabarcoding in a bench covered pond bioreactor using swine effluent revealed the dominant bacteria belonging to Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes phyla. The methanogenic group was represented by the Euryarchaeota phylum. It was possible to observe that the relative frequency of the methanogenic archaea community decreased with the anaerobic digestion, indicating a biological succession stage. On the other hand, there was a predominant acetogenic diversity in this final stage. These data showed stabilization of biomethane production, although the microbial community of methanogens has drastically reduced in the late process.
      PubDate: 2022-04-23
       
  • Evaluation of endoglucanase and xylanase production by Aspergillus tamarii
           cultivated in agro-industrial lignocellulosic biomasses

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      Abstract: Abstract To better understand the production of enzymes of industrial interest from microorganisms with biotechnological potential using lignocellulosic biomass, we evaluated the production of endoglucanase and xylanase from Aspergillus tamarii. CAZymes domains were evaluated in the genome, and a screening of the enzymatic potential of A. tamarii in various agricultural biomasses was done. The enzymatic profile could be associated with the biomass complexity, with increased biomass recalcitrance yielding higher activity. A time-course profile defined 48 h of cultivation as the best period for cultivating A. tamarii in sugarcane bagasse reached 12.05 IU/mg for endoglucanase and 74.86 IU/mg for xylanase. Using 0.1% (w/v) tryptone as the only nitrogen source and 12 µmol/L CuSO4 addition had an overall positive effect on the enzymatic activity and protein production. A 22 factorial central composite design was used then to investigate the simultaneous influence of tryptone and CuSO4 on enzyme activity. Tryptone strongly affected enzymatic activity, decreasing endoglucanase activity but increasing xylanase activity. CuSO4 supplementation was advantageous for endoglucanases, increasing their activity, and it had a negative effect on xylanases. But overall, the experimental design increased the enzymatic activity of all biomasses used. For the clean cotton residue, the experimental design was able to reach the highest enzyme activity for endoglucanase and xylanase, with 1.195 IU/mL and 6.353 IU/mL, respectively. More experimental studies are required to investigate how the biomass induction effect impacts enzyme production.
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
       
 
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