for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 866 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (54 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (606 journals)
    - CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (21 journals)
    - ELECTROCHEMISTRY (26 journals)
    - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (42 journals)
    - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (48 journals)
    - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (69 journals)

CHEMISTRY (606 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 270)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access  
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 65)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 240)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 344)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 127)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 17)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 196)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 165)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 252)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Croatica Chemica Acta     Open Access  
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Chromatography     Hybrid Journal  
Current Green Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Microwave Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 68)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover Chemical Engineering Research and Design
  [SJR: 0.873]   [H-I: 65]   [25 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0263-8762 - ISSN (Online) 0263-8762
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Optimization of structured packings using twisted tape inserts
    • Authors: Alexander Olenberg; Wadim Reschetnik; Gunter Kullmer; Eugeny Y. Kenig
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 132
      Author(s): Alexander Olenberg, Wadim Reschetnik, Gunter Kullmer, Eugeny Y. Kenig
      In this work, CFD simulations were applied to numerically investigate performance enhancement potential of corrugated sheet structured packings combined with twisted tape inserts. For different twisted tape configurations, pressure drop and mass transfer coefficients were determined and the optimal configuration was selected to be inserted into structured packings. The new structured packing with integrated twisted tapes was compared with an equivalent conventional packing, and finally first experimental investigations of the optimal configuration were carried out. Based on these investigations, it can be concluded that twisted tape inserts have the potential to increase the overall efficiency of structured packings.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2017.12.036
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2018)
  • Synthesis of carbonated vegetable oils: Investigation of microwave effect
           in a pressurized continuous-flow recycle batch reactor
    • Authors: J.-L. Zheng; P. Tolvanen; B. Taouk; K. Eränen; S. Leveneur; T. Salmi
      Pages: 9 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 132
      Author(s): J.-L. Zheng, P. Tolvanen, B. Taouk, K. Eränen, S. Leveneur, T. Salmi
      With the depletion of fossil resources, it is essential for the chemical industry to find alternative raw materials for polymers. Polyurethanes can be synthesized from vegetable oils and CO2 via an environmentally friendly, non-isocyanate pathway. Carbonation of epoxidized vegetable oil is a key step allowing the feasibility of this method. Because it requires a high temperature, high pressure and long reaction time to achieve complete conversion, microwave technology (MW) is an interesting approach for the intensification of the carbonation process. However, MW-irradiated batch reactor has multiple issues regarding scale-up. A microwave irradiated continuous-flow recycle batch reactor which can operate at high temperature (130°C) and moderate pressure (8bar) was used in the present work. The effect of microwave irradiation on the kinetics of carbonation reaction was studied. A kinetic model was developed to compare quantitatively the performance under microwave and conventional heating (CH). It was found that the activation energy of the carbonation reaction was slightly lower with the use of MW irradiation, where the values for CH and MW are respectively 0.385E+04J/mol and 0.338E+04J/mol.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2017.12.037
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2018)
  • Efficient extraction and enrichment of rare earth from diluent aqueous
           solution by organic hollow sphere
    • Authors: Chuanxu Xiao; Kun Huang; Wenjuan Cao; Tingting Dong; Min Li; Huizhou Liu
      Pages: 19 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 132
      Author(s): Chuanxu Xiao, Kun Huang, Wenjuan Cao, Tingting Dong, Min Li, Huizhou Liu
      Extraction of rare earths from leach aqueous solution by conventional chemical precipitation brings severe amino-nitrogen pollution. In this work, a novel method was developed by organic hollow sphere to extract and enrich Er(III), a model middle-heavy rare earth ion, from diluent aqueous solution. The organic hollow sphere is a core–shell structure, in which the core is composed of gas phase and the shell is a thin layer of organic extractant. The effects of flow rates of gas phase and/or organic extractant on Er(III) extraction rate were investigated. The results demonstrated that the flow rate of gas phase played more important role than that of organic extractant in the extraction rate of Er(III). Accompanied by the achievement of a large volume ratio (1000:1) of aqueous solution to organic extractant, the enrichment ratio (100) of the rare-earth ions could reach a significant level, which is much higher than that by conventional methods. The lower flow rate of organic extractant is more beneficial to Er(III) enrichment. It demonstrates that the newly developed extraction technique in this work is promising, and as a result the development of organic hollow sphere extraction process for the recovery of REs is straightforwardly envisaged.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2018)
  • Relationship between scouring efficiency and overall concentration of
           fluidized granular activated carbon (GAC) in microfiltration
    • Authors: Jingwei Wang; Anthony G. Fane; Jia Wei Chew
      Pages: 28 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 132
      Author(s): Jingwei Wang, Anthony G. Fane, Jia Wei Chew
      The use of liquid–solid fluidization as a means of membrane fouling mitigation has aroused increasing attention especially in membrane bioreactors. Past studies have affirmed a relationship between the fluidized GAC media and fouling trends, and also shed light on the effects of superficial liquid velocity, power requirement, GAC particle diameter and foulant type on the effectiveness of fouling mitigation during microfiltration. In particular, the ratios of the local critical flux to the overall critical flux (J c,local /J c,overall ) were shown to deviate from unity, owing to different expanded bed heights of the fluidized GAC and causes non-uniform fouling across the membrane. Accordingly, this study was aimed at understanding the impact of different overall GAC concentrations, which give different expanded bed heights, on the extent of fouling mitigation. Monodisperse millimeter-sized GAC were used as the fluidized media and the particulate foulants were micrometer-sized polystyrene and bentonite particles. The results indicate that the highest overall concentration was advantageous in terms of enabling (i) higher membrane fouling mitigation at a lower power required per unit permeate (P p ) for the polystyrene foulant but not bentonite foulant; and (ii) more similar J c,local values over the three heights investigated, which implies more uniform fouling mitigation across the membrane. The relative benefits of adjusting overall GAC concentration versus the particle diameter of the GAC media were also critically assessed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2017.12.049
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2018)
  • The rate of biocide leaching from porous renders
    • Authors: Katarzyna Styszko; Krzysztof Kupiec
      Pages: 69 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 132
      Author(s): Katarzyna Styszko, Krzysztof Kupiec
      The leaching of biocides contained in renders occurs through the contact of the surfaces of the renders with water. In the majority of cases such contact occurs during rainfall, and therefore it is intermittent in nature. The work presents a mathematical model of the process of the transfer of mass (biocides) in a porous material (a render). The process consists of two stages which follow each other in a cyclical manner: the leaching stage, in which the surface of the render is wet, and the stage in which the surface of the render is dry. In the latter stage homogenization of the concentrations of the biocides in the render occurs. The coefficients of the diffusion of biocides in renders, which were determined in a previous work, were utilized in the simulation-related calculations, in which the dependencies of the average concentrations of biocides in the render since the time during the leachings performed in the subsequent cycles were determined. The consistence of the results of simulation-based calculations with the results of experimental research that was obtained confirms the correctness of the model that is presented. The biocides which were applied in the research: diuron, cybutryn and isoproturon are applied in practice as supplements to building materials. The purpose of these biocides is to ensure protection against the growth of microorganisms. The biocides which were mentioned constituted a supplement to the acrylic render and to the silicone render.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2017.12.047
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2018)
  • Modelling of the shape effect on the drying shrinkage of wet granular
    • Authors: Montana Rungsiyopas; Thierry Ruiz
      Pages: 295 - 302
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 132
      Author(s): Montana Rungsiyopas, Thierry Ruiz
      The objective of this work is to suggest an analytical model that describes the influence of the shape on the drying and shrinkage of a granular matrix. The model was established for the stationary regime of mass transfer, the constant drying flux period, which allows a simply analytical solution of the mass balance. In this specific regime we observe the major part of the shrinkage of a deformable wet granular medium. The model, which integrates explicitly the dependence of the liquid/gas exchange surface by its relation with the product shape, gives the kinetics of average water content, volume deformation, and compactness at the product scale. Several geometries were analyzed: sphere, cylinder, cube, ellipsoid, isosceles tetrahedron, cone torus, and a film. Experimental drying and shrinkage kinetics of two different granular media (kaolin and microcrystalline cellulose) were determined under soft-drying conditions. This confrontation between simulation and experimental data gives the elements of the model validation. It was found that, during the constant drying flux period, the predicted results obtained from the suggested model are found to be in good agreement with the determined kinetics. The model could be used to predict ideal shrinkage and water content evolutions of a medium with a given shape.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.01.038
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2018)
  • Optimization of the synthesis of Ni catalysts via chemical vapor
           deposition by response surface methodology
    • Authors: Christian Schüler; Franziska Betzenbichler; Claudia Drescher; Olaf Hinrichsen
      Pages: 303 - 312
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 132
      Author(s): Christian Schüler, Franziska Betzenbichler, Claudia Drescher, Olaf Hinrichsen
      The effects of synthesis parameters during the preparation of Ni catalysts for the CO2 methanation reaction via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were investigated. For this purpose, a central composite design from the design of experiment approach was conducted to identify and investigate the most significant parameters. A surface response methodology was applied to identify promising synthesis parameter combinations that led to highly dispersed Ni catalysts and to understand the interaction of the synthesis parameters. Finally, the methanation activity of a CVD-prepared catalyst was compared with two different Ni catalysts with the same metal loading but prepared with different methods. The CVD preparation herein presented proved to be a promising method to obtain low-loaded Ni catalysts in CO2 methanation.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.01.015
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2018)
  • Copper-cobalt catalyzed liquid phase hydrogenation of furfural to
           2-methylfuran: An optimization, kinetics and reaction mechanism study
    • Authors: Sanjay Srivastava; G.C. Jadeja; Jigisha Parikh
      Pages: 313 - 324
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 132
      Author(s): Sanjay Srivastava, G.C. Jadeja, Jigisha Parikh
      In the present work, the hydro-conversion of biomass derived furfural (FAL) into fuel additive 2-methylfuran (2-MF) is studied over Cu–Co/Al2O3 catalyst. The influence of various operating parameters such as temperature, pressure, catalyst amount, time and FAL concentration on the conversion of FAL to 2-MF was optimized using well known Taguchi method as statistical tool. According to Taguchi method, under optimum reaction conditions viz. temperature 220°C, pressure 40bar, reaction time 5h, catalyst loading 0.75g, and FAL concentration of 1.75M, maximum 2-MF yield (87%) was obtained. The detailed kinetics of the liquid-phase hydrogenation of FAL to 2-MF in two steps was also studied in the range of temperatures from 200 to 220°C and in the range of pressures from 20 to 40bar. The initial rate of reaction for both conversion of FAL to FOL and FOL to 2-MF varied linearly with hydrogen pressure at various temperature and the catalyst loading, however, effect of reactant substrate behave distinctly. In case of FAL, rate of reaction varied linearly and order of reaction is found to be almost one, whereas, for FOL disappearance, order of reaction found to be almost zero beyond 2.25gmol/L of FOL concentration. The experimental data could also be explained using Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetics. A dual-site mechanism with dissociative adsorption of hydrogen and surface reaction as the rate-controlling step provided the best fit for the experimental data.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.01.031
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2018)
  • Mixing enhancement of a novel C-SAR microfluidic mixer
    • Authors: Kexiang Chen; Hui Lu; Meng Sun; Li Zhu; Yiping Cui
      Pages: 338 - 345
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 132
      Author(s): Kexiang Chen, Hui Lu, Meng Sun, Li Zhu, Yiping Cui
      We proposed a three-inlet planar mixing geometry, named cascaded splitting and recombination (C-SAR). The C-SAR mixer works in a wide range of Reynolds number (34.6–150) with 90% mixing efficiency; the mixing time is as short as sub-milliseconds and sample consumption is as low as a few microliters per second. The asymmetric arranged triangular baffles in the mixing region introduce C-SAR, which transports the central fluid toward channel walls further than symmetric splitting and recombination (S-SAR), resulting in more effective mixing with fluids from side inlets; meanwhile, corner vortices and Dean's vortices are generated when fluids pass through sharp bends formed by triangular baffles or channel edge with high speed, which creates chaotic advection and enhances mixing. Therefore, C-SAR greatly improves mixing efficiency compared with S-SAR. This easily fabricated C-SAR rapid mixer is an attractive tool to study biomacromolecular dynamics.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.01.032
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2018)
  • Effect of inclination angle on the condensation of R134a inside an
           inclined smooth tube
    • Authors: S.M.A. Noori Rahim Abadi; Josua P. Meyer; J. Dirker
      Pages: 346 - 357
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 132
      Author(s): S.M.A. Noori Rahim Abadi, Josua P. Meyer, J. Dirker
      Almost all work on condensation in tubes were conducted for smooth tubes in a horizontal or vertical orientation, and little has been done at other inclination angles. Recent experimental works with condensation at different inclination angles showed that the pressure drops were a function of inclination angle. It was therefore the purpose of this paper to numerically investigate the pressure drop of condensation inside a smooth tube at different inclination angles, and to give additional perspectives and insight to previous experimental works. The case study investigated was a smooth tube with an inner diameter of 8.38mm and a length of 1488mm. The condensing fluid was R134a and the saturation temperature was 40°C. Simulations were conducted at a heat flux of approximately 5kW/m2, at mass fluxes of 100–600kg/m2 s, and the inclination angles were varied from vertical downward to vertical upward. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) multiphase flow formulation was used and ANSYS FLUENT was used as solver of the governing equations. The predicted results showed a good agreement with experimental data. It was found that the effect of inclination angle on pressure drop and void fraction became negligible at high mass fluxes and vapour qualities. The pressure drop increased as the void fraction increased. The pressure drops also increased when the mass fluxes increased. These increases were more significant at high vapour qualities.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.01.044
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2018)
  • Techno-economic assessment of scale-up of bio-flocculant extraction and
           production by using okra as biomass feedstock
    • Authors: Chai Siah Lee; Mei Fong Chong; Eleanor Binner; Rachel Gomes; John Robinson
      Pages: 358 - 369
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 132
      Author(s): Chai Siah Lee, Mei Fong Chong, Eleanor Binner, Rachel Gomes, John Robinson
      This paper reports a techno-economic assessment for industrial scale bio-flocculant production with okra as biomass feedstock. The sludge dewatering ability of the bio-flocculant was evaluated prior to economic analysis. Several optimisation strategies were investigated in order to lower the bio-flocculant production cost. The results showed that continuous mode microwave extraction was more economically beneficial than conventional extraction in batch and continuous modes. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the production cost was significantly affected by annual production and extract yield, and moderately influenced by raw material price. The optimised scheme for bio-flocculant production was continuous mode microwave extraction at 90°C, a residence time of 10minutes, a water loading of 3.5w/w and production rate of 220tonnes per year. The economic assessment showed that the gross margin was positive, return on investment was in the expected range of 20 to 30% and payback time was within 5 years.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.01.050
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2018)
  • Investigation of synergistic effect of nanoparticle and surfactant in
           macro emulsion based EOR application in oil reservoirs
    • Authors: Neetish Kumar Maurya; Ajay Mandal
      Pages: 370 - 384
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 132
      Author(s): Neetish Kumar Maurya, Ajay Mandal
      The present paper deals with the characterization of oil in water (O/W) emulsion stabilized by the synergistic effect of surfactant and nanoparticle for their application in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The emulsions have been formulated using n-decane and paraffin oil, silica nanoparticle and two different surfactants, viz., anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cationic cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The nanoparticle shows a synergetic effect in presence of surfactants which prevents the coalescence of dispersed oil droplets and lowers the interfacial tension (IFT) at the oil-water interface. The stability of emulsions was evaluated by particle size distribution, creaming behaviour, zeta potential and phase behaviour. The viscosity of emulsions remains stable at wide range temperature indicating thermal stability. The viscoelastic study indicates that the emulsions behave as a gel-like structure with a higher value of storage modulus (G′) than loss modulus (G″). The addition of polymer leads to improvement in viscosity and stability of the emulsion, proving its usefulness in the reservoir for recovery of heavy oil.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.01.049
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2018)
  • Simulation of chemical reaction process in gas-particle CFB downers by
           anisotropic turbulent mass transfer model
    • Authors: Wenbin Li; Kuotsung Yu; Xigang Yuan; Yuanyuan Shao; Jesse Zhu
      Pages: 452 - 459
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 132
      Author(s): Wenbin Li, Kuotsung Yu, Xigang Yuan, Yuanyuan Shao, Jesse Zhu
      A recently developed model, called the Reynolds mass flux (RMF) model is adopted for the simulation of multiphase flow involving chemical reaction in gas-particle CFB downers. The newly deduced Reynolds mass flux equation is utilized for closing the turbulent mass transfer equation, thereby realizing the simulation of anisotropic turbulent mass transfer. The simulations are validated with experimental data in literatures. The results indicate that the turbulent mass diffusion in downers would show significant anisotropic character.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.01.039
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2018)
  • Experimental study on drag reduction performance of mixed polymer and
           surfactant solutions
    • Authors: Dongjie Liu; Qinghui Wang; Jinjia Wei
      Pages: 460 - 469
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 132
      Author(s): Dongjie Liu, Qinghui Wang, Jinjia Wei
      In this work, the mixed aqueous solutions of cationic surfactant – cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride and non-ionic molecular polymer – polyacrylamide were tested to verify the speculation about their intensification possibilities of drag reduction performance. Sodium salicylate (NaSal) was used as the counter-ion salt. Six different combinations of mixed solution concentrations were tested at different temperatures ranging from 25°C to 50°C. Pure surfactant and polymer solutions were tested as control couples. It was found that the curves of mixed solutions could be divided into enhanced drag reduction zone, stable drag reduction zone and destroyed drag reduction zone. Surfactant molecules form micelles round polymer chains. Then the two additives form a kind of reinforced concrete structures, which were more complex and more effective in restrain vortices, leading to the intensification of drag reduction in enhanced zone and stable zone compared to pure surfactant solutions at low temperatures. The addition of polymers also increased drag reduction efficiency in destroyed zone by providing a wider range of Reynolds numbers. In addition, the results indicated that temperatures were more influential than concentrations, raising the temperature to change the structures of solution is more effective than increasing the quantity of structures.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.01.047
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2018)
  • Determination and modelling for solubility of o-aminobenzamide and its
           mixture in subcritical 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane
    • Authors: Jing Zhu; Yubo Wang; Junsu Jin; Liren Qin
      Pages: 470 - 478
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 132
      Author(s): Jing Zhu, Yubo Wang, Junsu Jin, Liren Qin
      The solubility of o-aminobenzamide (o-AB) and its mixture with o-nitrobenzoic acid (o-NBA) in subcritical 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a) was measured at temperatures of 308, 318, 328K and pressure range from 5.0 to 15.0MPa with static method. Then the solubility of o-AB and o-NBA in subcritical R134a binary and ternary system were compared and investigated from the view of solvent density, solvent polarity, and interaction between solvent and solute. In order to evaluate the effect of co-solute on solubility of solute, enhancement factor (EF), separation factor (SF), separation efficiency (SE), and the solubility enhancement coefficient (α) were defined and calculated. In addition, empirical models, including Chrastil, A–L, K–J, S–S, and M–T models applying for binary system, with González, Sovová, M–M–T, and Z–J models applying for ternary system, are used for correlating the experimental solubility. The satisfactory correlated results were obtained with the AARD range from 2.16% to 4.75%.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2017.12.042
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2018)
  • Palladium nanoparticles supported on ceria thin film for capillary
           microreactor application
    • Authors: Abdulkadir Tanimu; Saheed A. Ganiyu; Oki Muraza; Khalid Alhooshani
      Pages: 479 - 491
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 132
      Author(s): Abdulkadir Tanimu, Saheed A. Ganiyu, Oki Muraza, Khalid Alhooshani
      Ceria thin film in capillary microreactor was developed as a catalyst support for palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) by sol–gel approach. The thickness of Pd/CeO2 film deposited in capillary of 250μm internal diameter is 200nm as measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the particle size of Pd NPs as determined by the transmission electron microscope (TEM) images is 4.2nm. The Pd/CeO2 immobilized capillary was tested for hydrogenation of phenylacetylene in a microreactor at temperature range of 30–60°C. Higher selectivity toward ethylbenzene was recorded at higher temperature. The reaction rate of 1.89×10−3 molg−1 s−1 was obtained for 158ppm phenylacetylene hydrogenation at 60°C and 0.50mlmin−1 hydrogen flow rate. The ceria thin film was stable even after 6 days.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.01.040
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2018)
  • Improved process design and optimization of 200kt/a ethylene glycol
           production using coal-based syngas
    • Authors: Renxing Wei; Chenglei Yan; Ao Yang; Weifeng Shen; Jie Li
      Pages: 551 - 563
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 132
      Author(s): Renxing Wei, Chenglei Yan, Ao Yang, Weifeng Shen, Jie Li
      Ethylene glycol (EG) production via coal-based syngas has been demonstrated to be an attractive process with a higher conversion and lower energy consumption. However, few researches are focused on the improved design of the reactors and separation strategies that involved in the syngas-to-EG process (STEP). In this work, the improved design and optimization of key techniques in 200kt/a EG production using syngas are investigated. We propose a new four-stage fixed bed tube-type CO coupling reactor (CCR) and the reaction temperature and product DMO distribution along the pipe are suggested. Then, the recovery of renewable methanol is carried out by the application of three-stage membrane separation configuration (TSMSC) instead of conventional two-column distillation. Furthermore, conventional double columns distillation is replaced by dividing-wall columns (DWCs) in the separation of mixtures DMO-DMC-methanol. The comparisons of energy consumption and total annualized cost (TAC) between the proposed technologies and conventional processes verify the superiority of the implement of TSMSC and DWCs. Eventually, the optimization of key operational parameters of the STEP is achieved with a higher EG yield and a lower energy consumption, which demonstrates that the proposed STEP flowsheet could provide a more effective and economical solution to EG production. The methodology proposed in this work may provide some theoretical guidance to the improved design of reactors and separations alternatives in chemical production processes.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2018)
  • Optimization of the recycle structure of multiple stages molecular
    • Authors: Daniela S. Laoretani; Oscar A. Iribarren
      Pages: 35 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 130
      Author(s): Daniela S. Laoretani, Oscar A. Iribarren
      In cases when the separation achieved by one molecular distillation stage is not sharp enough, it is resorted to multiple stage schemes. This brings the issue of how to recycle the intermediate streams to optimize the process. The present paper proposes to use the source-sink assignment methodology to decide the recycle structure. The counter current scheme is also taken into account because it is usually regarded as the design of choice to recycle streams. The approach was applied to optimize the recycle structure of a two stages process for the separation of free fatty acids from soybean oil deodorizer distillate, to get a concentrate of tocopherols in the residual stream, within specification of acidity. The counter current scheme was also implemented. For this case study the optimal recycle structure gets 10% more product with a profit 0.6% larger than the counter current scheme, even if it has larger operative and investment costs. So, in this particular case, the reward for using a rigorous methodology was not that significant. However, the approach proposed here is systematic and necessarily leads to a structure with a performance greater than or equal to any other, because the superstructure explored includes all of them.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2018)
  • On the effect of the Froude number on the interface area of gravity-driven
           liquid rivulets
    • Authors: D. Sebastia-Saez; S. Gu; L. Könözsy; J.-U. Repke; H. Arellano-García
      Pages: 208 - 218
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 130
      Author(s): D. Sebastia-Saez, S. Gu, L. Könözsy, J.-U. Repke, H. Arellano-García
      The morphology of gravity-driven rivulets affects the mass transfer performance in gas separation processes, hence, the need for an improved knowledge on the hydrodynamics of this flow. It is well established that the interface area of the rivulets is determined by the balance between inertia and surface tension, i.e. the Weber number, which in light of the results presented here, are not the only parameters involved, but also the inclination of the plate has an effect on the balance of forces which determines the amount of gas–liquid interface area. The analysis of the interface area in rivulet flow demands, therefore, a more complete physical explanation for packing design purposes. In this work, we analyse the combined effect of both the inertia and the inclination of the plate in the interface area of liquid rivulets using CFD and the volume-of-fluid interface tracking method. As a result, we propose the use of the Froude number to provide a more complete physical explanation on the interface area formation of gravity-driven liquid rivulets.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2018)
  • Performance of a depth fibrous filter at particulate loading conditions.
           Description of temporary and local phenomena with structure development
    • Authors: Ewa Sztuk-Sikorska; Jakub M. Gac; Leon Gradon
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Ewa Sztuk-Sikorska, Jakub M. Gac, Leon Gradon
      Optimization of a depth filter structure requires information about the filter's performance during its loading with particles. In this paper a macroscopic model of filtration process was proposed. It was based on the description of the loading process of three different gradient fibrous filters produced in the melt-blown technology process. Due to the contamination deposition on fibers, a new method of determination of the filter porosity transition, was suggested. It was based on growth of the deposit mass accumulated in individual filter layers, which was defined upon the electron microscope scanning images, the clearance of layer samples, and the overall increase of the filter mass. Local phenomena, i.e. the agglomerate structure, its spatial distribution and resuspension, were exposed through a two-stage character of the process. The empirical correlations obtained for deposition kinetics and pressure drop development are helpful in filter design. By knowing the desired contamination removal, fiber diameter and porosity can be verified mathematically, so that the filter will work the most efficiently. The proposed description of the structural loading of the multilayer filter is simple and reliable. Further research on biotic and abiotic particle transport mechanisms should be performed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.02.020
  • Local Hydrodynamics Investigation within a Dynamic Filtration Unit under
           Laminar Flow
    • Authors: X. Xie; N. Dietrich; L. Fillaudeau; C. Le Men; P. Schmitz; A. Liné
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): X. Xie, N. Dietrich, L. Fillaudeau, C. Le Men, P. Schmitz, A. Liné
      A dynamic filtration module, called a Rotating and Vibrating Filtration (R.V.F.) module, was designed and dedicated to the treatment of highly viscous fluid, such as fermentation broth or liquid food. To this end, an experimental study was undertaken, using a laminar flow regime with a viscous Newtonian model fluid in a dynamic filtration module in order to quantify the effect of local hydrodynamics on filtration. Instantaneous velocity fields can be measured and analyzed within an R.V.F. by using Particle Image Velocimetry (P.I.V.). In this study, we applied P.I.V. to study the laminar local hydrodynamics in 3 different slices within the 3mm gap between the membrane and the impeller and 3 vertical slices at different radial positions, with rotation speeds from 0 to 10Hz. Radial and vertical profiles of tangential velocity were then plotted. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (P.O.D.) was applied to the P.I.V. data to discriminate between mean flow and fluctuating velocities induced by the periodic motion of the impeller. Thus, viscous shear stress profiles were deduced in terms of both mean shear stress profile and root mean squared (r.m.s.) fluctuating shear stress profile; wall values were then deduced. With this approach, we were able to quantify the distribution of viscous shear stress at the wall (membrane), in terms of mean value and r.m.s. contribution. Dynamic filtration efficiency was thus enlightened by local hydrodynamics.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.02.018
  • An energy transport based evolving rheology in high-shear rotor-stator
    • Authors: Umair Ahmed; Vipin Michael; Ruozhou Hou; Thomas Mothersdale; Robert Prosser; Adam Kowalski; Peter Martin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Umair Ahmed, Vipin Michael, Ruozhou Hou, Thomas Mothersdale, Robert Prosser, Adam Kowalski, Peter Martin
      Rotor-Stator mixers such as the inline Silverson are widely used by the process industry. Existing literature on experimental and computational investigations of these devices focus on characterising the power draw and turbulent mixing of Newtonian fluids and non-Newtonian fluids such as emulsions. The current knowledge on the performance of these mixers in blending and mixing fluids with an underlying complex structure is limited. Modelling and simulation of such structured liquids has traditionally been challenging due to the complexity of the constitutive governing equations which are to be solved for the prediction of rheology. In this paper a novel approach to model evolving rheology is proposed. This approach incorporates important physical phenomenon such as the strain rate history effects in the generalised Newtonian fluid model. The new approach is used to model mixing in a pilot scale inline Silverson mixer via Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. A sliding mesh algorithm coupled to eddy viscosity turbulence closure is used. Experiments have been performed with the inline Silverson mixer placed in a recirculation loop for two different rotor speeds, and rheological measurements have been performed on the samples taken at the outlet of the mixer. Computational results are compared with the viscosity measurements and it is found that the model predictions for the evolution of viscosity are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.02.019
  • Preparation and Characteristics of a Multifunctional Dust Suppressant with
           Agglomeration and Wettability Performance Used in Coal Mine
    • Authors: Gang Zhou; Yunlong Ma; Tao Fan; Gang Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Gang Zhou, Yunlong Ma, Tao Fan, Gang Wang
      The present study uses sodium alginate as the base, and conducts chemical modification through the grafting copolymerization technique so as to prepare an agglomeration-based dust suppressant with decent liquidity and wettability. Specifically, caprolactam and acrylic acid are selected as the grafting monomers. Single factor experiments are conducted to determine the optimal conditions, i.e., reaction temperature being 60°C; the optimal mass ratio of sodium alginate to caprolactam being 1:4; the mass ratio of sodium alginate to acrylic acid being 1:2.67; the amount of initiator being 0.8 mol% of monomer; and the amount of cross-linking agent being 0.25 mol% of monomer. Each step of reaction takes 1hour. FTIR and XRD are employed to analyze the reaction process and the functional groups associated with the product. The sedimentation experiment and contact angle measurement are conducted to test the wetting characteristics of the product. In accordance with the results of the contact angle measurement, 0.1% of amphiprotic surfactant BS-12 is added to the final product so as to further optimize the product's wetting effect on coal dust. Furthermore, an ultra-depth microscope and a scanning microscope are utilized to conduct microscopic analysis over the product, with the practical performance of the product tested as well.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.02.021
  • Modeling and multi-objective optimization of vacuum membrane distillation
           for enhancement of water productivity and thermal efficiency in
    • Authors: Dongjian Cheng; Na Li; Jianhua Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Dongjian Cheng, Na Li, Jianhua Zhang
      Water productivity and thermal efficiency in membrane distillation (MD) have been the main research targets for the aims of commercial application in desalination. The comprehensive understanding of the influence of module configuration parameters, operating conditions and their interaction on MD performance is the key for MD commercialization. In this paper, the multi-objective modeling and optimization in the vacuum membrane distillation were performed by response surface methodology and desirability function approach. A series of PVDF hollow fiber modules of different scale were used to provide the essential data and to verify the modeling program. The multi-objectives including water permeate flux (J), water productivity per unit volume of module (Pv ), gained output ratio (GOR), and a comprehensive index (Dm ) assessing the desired MD performances were predicted and experimentally verified. The influence of operating parameters (temperature, velocity, and concentration of feed) and membrane module parameters (membrane packing density and length-diameter ratio of module) and their binary interactions on the multi-objectives were investigated. It is found that among the investigated factors, feed inlet temperature and its interaction effect with module parameters play dominant roles on MD performance. Under the multi-objective optimum conditions, 4.85×103 kg/(m3•h) of Pv and 0.91 of GOR were achieved within the investigated range. Water productivity and thermal efficiency can be simultaneously enhanced by optimizing operating and module conditions with the approach developed in this study.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.02.017
  • Removal of Catalyst Particles from Fluid Catalytic Cracking Slurry Oil by
           the simultaneous addition of a flocculants and a weighting agent
    • Authors: Xianni Song; Dong Liu; Bin Lou; Zhiheng Li; Aijun Guo; Dongming Zhang; Luhai Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Xianni Song, Dong Liu, Bin Lou, Zhiheng Li, Aijun Guo, Dongming Zhang, Luhai Wang
      In this study, catalyst particles (the main component is Al2O3-SiO2) were removed from the fluid catalytic cracking slurry oil by adding a polyacrylamide flocculants (1200μg/g) and a ammonium citrate aqueous solution weighting agent (10% by weight of the slurry oil) at 95°C, and then settled for 18hours. The ash content which determined by the muffle stove was considered as a criteria for measuring the efficiency of sedimentation. The size and distribution of the catalyst particles, before and after sedimentation, were analyzed using a laser particle size analyzer and a light transmission microscope. The results showed that the removal efficiency could reach 95.12% when both the flocculants and weighting agent were added. However, either the flocculants or weighting agent applied individually could only obtain inferior removal efficiencies of 87.04% or 68.76%, respectively. It would be attributed to the synergistic effect between the two agents. Moreover, it was also found that the flocs were rapidly formed from original catalyst particles and the flocculants firstly. Then the weighting agent provided assistance for the sedimentation of the flocs, of which the process was identified as the control step. The sedimentation process established in the experiment might play a role in the industrial removal of catalyst particles from slurry oil in the future.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.02.016
  • Maximizing the Sustainability Net Present Value of Renewable Energy Supply
    • Authors: Žan Zore; Lidija Čuček; David Širovnik; Zorka Novak Pintarič; Zdravko Kravanja
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Žan Zore, Lidija Čuček, David Širovnik, Zorka Novak Pintarič, Zdravko Kravanja
      This study presents an extension of a recently proposed concept and metric by the authors named “Sustainability profit” to “Sustainability net present value” for the purpose of synthesizing more sustainable large-scale energy supply networks. The concept and metric are based on a composite sustainability measurement considering economic, environmental and social pillars and expressed in monetary terms from a wider macro-economic perspective that combines both the governmental and the industrial view. By using the proposed metric, it is possible to obtain answers regarding the advisability of a particular investment in terms of sustainability. The concept is illustrated by two examples: i) a smaller case study presenting an electricity supply network consuming fossil and/or renewable energy sources, and ii) a larger-scale renewable energy supply network considering biomass, waste, solar, wind and geothermal energies on an EU continental scale. Solutions obtained to problems regarding maximizing Sustainability net present value occur at the trade-off between economic profitability, environmental (un)burdening, and new jobs created, considering the time value of the money involved.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.01.035
  • An Iterative LMI Approach for H∞ Synthesis of Multivariable PI/PD
           Controllers for Stable and Unstable Processes
    • Authors: Farshad Merrikh-Bayat
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Farshad Merrikh-Bayat
      An iterative Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) approach for designing Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) PI/PD controller for stable/unstable multivariable processes is proposed in this paper. For this purpose, the matrix gains of controller are calculated such that the closed-loop system be stable, and simultaneously, the infinity norm of the weighted sensitivity function is minimized. This problem is mathematically formulated using the well-known Bounded Real Lemma (BRL). The matrix inequality of the BRL is nonlinear because of multiplication of the variable of Lyapunov equation and gains of controller. To remove this nonlinearity, first a solution to the Lyapunov LMI is calculated using some necessary-type LMIs developed for this purpose. Then, this solution is substituted in the BRL to arrive at an LMI whose solution determines the gains of a stabilizing MIMO PI/PD controller which also minimizes the infinity norm of the weighted sensitivity function. If the resulting controller was not satisfactory, one can use the proposed iterative algorithm to improve its performance. The proposed method is used for tuning MIMO PI/PD for four stable/unstable MIMO processes.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.02.012
  • Chitosan crosslinked with genipin as supporting matrix for biodegradation
           of synthetic dyes: laccase immobilization and characterization
    • Authors: Hong-Fei Ma; Ge Meng; Bao-Kai Cui; Jing Si; Yu-Cheng Dai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Hong-Fei Ma, Ge Meng, Bao-Kai Cui, Jing Si, Yu-Cheng Dai
      Being energy-saving and environmentally friendly, laccases could be introduced as green catalysts for industrial applications. A highly stable and efficient biocatalyst for degrading synthetic dyes was designed by entrapping a purified laccase from the white rot fungus Trametes pubescens within chitosan beads grafted by the cross-linker genipin. Maximum immobilization was obtained with 0.10% (v/v) genipin and 4.0 U mL-1 of enzyme solution after activation and contact for 14h and 6h, respectively. Improved pH, thermal, and storage stabilities of the immobilized laccase were obtained when compared with the free counterpart. The chitosan laccase system exhibited a residual activity of >55% after 11 cycles, demonstrating better durability than the free laccase, which reflected the suitability of genipin as a cross-linker for laccase immobilization. The activity loss of free laccase after 30 days of storage at 4°C was 84.43%, whereas the chitosan laccase system had a loss of 42.86% during the same period. The immobilized laccase alone more efficiently decolorized structurally different synthetic dyes without requiring oxidizing mediators to function in its biodegradation capability. These findings are indicative that the stability and biodegradation capability of fungal laccase can be enhanced by entrapping the enzyme within genipin-activated chitosan beads.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.02.008
  • Experimental analysis of inter- and intra-batch variation of granule
           porosity, stiffness and dissolution rate
    • Authors: David Smrčka; Veronika Lesáková; Jiří Dohnal; Zdeněk Grof; František Štěpánek
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): David Smrčka, Veronika Lesáková, Jiří Dohnal, Zdeněk Grof, František Štěpánek
      Using a pharmaceutical formulation, granule batches were produced at a range of granulator volumes from 0.5 L to 400 L and process conditions, characterised by the Froude number in the range from Fr=0.26 to Fr=1.63. The mean values and the standard deviations of granule porosity, granule stiffness and granule dissolution rate evaluated from each batch using the 400-1000μm sieve fraction were compared in order to establish structure-property correlations. Both granule stiffness and granule dissolution rate were found linearly correlated with the Froude number. A significant intra-batch variability of all investigated granule properties was observed. The relative standard deviation of granule stiffness also increased linearly with the Froude number. Coupled experiments relating the microstructure of granules with their individual compression and dissolution curves were carried out for the first time. A surprising diversity of intra-batch granule structures and their associated dissolution rates was found in batches produced at both low and high Froude numbers, highlighting the importance of avoiding granule segregation in downstream unit operations in order to maintain consistent drug release profiles from the investigated formulation.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.02.014
  • Optimisation of mixing performance of helical ribbon mixers for high
           throughput applications using computational fluid dynamics
    • Authors: O. Mihailova; T. Mothersdale; T. Rodgers; Z. Ren; S. Watson; V. Lister; A. Kowalski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): O. Mihailova, T. Mothersdale, T. Rodgers, Z. Ren, S. Watson, V. Lister, A. Kowalski
      The work presented focuses on the optimisation in a 1L vessel using an anchor with a helical ribbon design using CFD and a learning algorithm, optimised by minimisation of the torque output of the mixer and the homogeneity of the mixture in the vessel after a defined mixing time. The results were successfully validated experimentally using Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) and direct torque measurements. The study determined that the height of the mixer is a key factor in the performance of the mixer, with other significant factors present, but with a lower impact. For the case of torque, all design features of the mixer which increase the size, i.e. surface area acting against motion, were found to be significant in increasing the modelled torque response. The Auger screw was found to have no significant impact on either mixing and torque response. The results illustrate the capability of optimisation algorithms to achieve results comparable to those achieved experimentally, while assessing a significantly larger number of design options and optimising for several performance indicators simultaneously.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.01.053
  • Model Predictive Control (MPC) Strategies for PEM Fuel Cell Systems - A
           Comparative Experimental Demonstration
    • Authors: Chrysovalantou Ziogou; Spyros Voutetakis; Michael C. Georgiadis; Simira Papadopoulou
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Chrysovalantou Ziogou, Spyros Voutetakis, Michael C. Georgiadis, Simira Papadopoulou
      The aim of this work is to demonstrate the response of advanced Model-based Predictive Control (MPC) strategies for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel cell (PEMFC) systems. PEMFC are considered as an interesting alternative to conventional power generation and can be used in a wide range of stationary and mobile applications. An integrated and modular computer-aided Energy Management Framework (EMF) is developed and deployed online to an industrial automation system for monitoring and operation of a PEMFC testing unit at CERTH/CPERI. The operation objectives are to deliver the demanded power while operating at a safe region, avoiding starvation, and concurrently minimize the fuel consumption at stable temperature conditions. A dynamic model is utilized and different MPC strategies are online deployed (Nonlinear MPC, multiparametric MPC and explicit Nonlinear MPC). The response of the MPC strategies is assessed through a set of comparative experimental studies, illustrating that the control objectives are achieved and the fuel cell system operates economically and at a stable environment regardless of the varying operating conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.01.024
  • Numerical study on the heat transfer enhancement and fatigue life by
           flow-induced vibration
    • Authors: Derong Duan; Peiqi Ge; Wenbo Bi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Derong Duan, Peiqi Ge, Wenbo Bi
      In order to analyze the heat transfer enhancement and fatigue life by flow-induced vibration comprehensively, this study investigated the shell-side flow in planar elastic tube bundle heat exchanger based on a two-way fluid structure interaction using the finite volume approach and finite element method combined with a dynamic mesh scheme. This numerical approach was verified by comparing with the Zhukauskas's empirical correlation and the published experimental results. Comprehensive analysis was conducted in fatigue life and heat transfer combined with the effect of tube wall thickness, tube pitch and vibrational Reynolds number. Results indicate that the vibration amplitude is considered to depend more strongly on structural parameters because the average fluctuation 81.85% and 19.55% occur in vibration amplitude and frequency. Vibrational Reynolds number, a combination of amplitude and frequency, dominates the heat transfer enhancement resulting in the minimum heat transfer coefficient ratio 1.08 and the maximum heat transfer coefficient ratio 1.29. It is deduced that the heat transfer enhancement is obtained in the premise of satisfying the fatigue strength of tube bundle in the appropriate vibrational Reynolds number range 147-780 for the planar elastic tube bundle studied in the present paper.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.02.010
  • Study of particle inertia effects on drag force of finite sized particles
           in settling process
    • Authors: Ali Abbas Zaidi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Ali Abbas Zaidi
      The average drag force acting on free settling particles is calculated by particles resolved direct numerical simulation. The main aim is to study and explain the effects of particle inertia on drag force in free settling particles for different solid volume fractions and Reynolds number. Immersed boundary method (IBM) is used for particle fluid interactions and discrete element method (DEM) is used for particle-particle interactions. The particle inertia is varied by changing the density ratio of particles to fluid and keeping the particle diameter constant. In simulations, particle to fluid density ratios equal to 2, 250, 1000 and 2500 are used. For each density ratio, Reynolds number and solid volume fraction are varied from 0.1 to 400 and 0.005 to 0.2 respectively. It is observed that the drag force acting on particles with larger inertia or particles with longer response times is similar to that of fixed particles. As the particle inertia decreases or particles with smaller response times, the drag force on free settling particles increases from the fixed arrangement of particles. The only exceptions are the settling of particles in dilute suspensions and for Reynolds number more than 200 in which the drag force becomes smaller than the drag force for fixed arrangement of particles. It is observed that this behavior of settling particles is either due to the formation of particle microstructures or velocity fluctuations. At the end of paper, an improved drag correlation is proposed which can be capable of accurately calculating the drag force in Eulerian-Eulerian and Eulerian-Lagrangian simulations for particles with different densities.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.02.013
  • Experimental and numerical flow analysis and design optimization of a fume
           hood using the CFD method
    • Authors: Sławomir Pietrowicz; Piotr Kolasiński
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Sławomir Pietrowicz, Piotr Kolasiński
      The experimental and numerical analysis of the standard fume hood features in order to determine the nature of the flow phenomena within the working chamber are presented and studied in the paper. The experiments were carried out for three characteristic heights of the vertical sliding sash, i.e., the lowest (closed), working and the highest (fully opened) heights. The air flow parameters such as: mass flow rate, local distribution of velocity at the exhaust plenum and inlet and pressure drop were measured and analyzed. Assuming isothermal, incompressible and turbulence flow of the air treated as ideal gas, the numerical model based on the continuity and momentum equations was proposed and solved using the Finite Volume Method (FVM). The numerical model was validated against the obtained experimental results. The goal of the numerical simulations was to investigate the flow structure and condition inside the fume hood for different heights of a vertical sliding sash. The obtained numerical results indicated the intensified air recirculation zones within the fume hood chamber and showed the complicated nature of the flow. The conclusions and fume hood design guidelines aimed at reducing the size of the recirculation zones and thus reducing the noise and power needed to drive the exhaust fan were determined. On the basis of the performed calculations four modifications of the fume hood design were proposed and numerically analyzed. Finally, the reduction of the recirculation zones therefore a decrease of pressure drop by 30.5 % was achieved.
      Graphical abstract image Highlights

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.02.011
  • On Integration of Feedback Control and Safety Systems: Analyzing Two
           Chemical Process Applications
    • Authors: Zhihao Zhang; Zhe Wu; Helen Durand; Fahad Albalawi; Panagiotis D. Christofides
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Zhihao Zhang, Zhe Wu, Helen Durand, Fahad Albalawi, Panagiotis D. Christofides
      This work focuses on two case studies and attempts to elucidate the dynamic interaction between feedback control and safety systems in the context of both model-based and classical control systems. In the first case study, the interaction of a model predictive control (MPC) system with a safety system is studied in the context of the methyl isocyanate (MIC) hydrolysis reaction in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) to avoid thermal runaway. We develop a fixed action for the MPC to take when the safety system is activated due to significant feed disturbances that lead to thermal runaway conditions. In the second case study, we focus on a high-pressure flash drum separator for which the temperature, level, and pressure can be regulated using proportional-integral (PI) controllers. Using an large-scale dynamic process simulator, we demonstrate that modifying the tuning parameters of one of these PI controllers based on the safety system being on or off leads to improved closed-loop performance compared to the case in which the tuning parameters of the PI controller remain the same regardless of the state of the safety system.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.02.009
  • Design of hydrogen transmission pipeline networks with hydraulics
    • Authors: Alexandra C. Weber; Lazaros G. Papageorgiou
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Alexandra C. Weber, Lazaros G. Papageorgiou
      In order to enable a more sustainable transport sector in the future, a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model is developed with the aim of designing a pipeline network for hydrogen transmission. The objective of the optimisation is the minimisation of the network cost while taking hydraulics into consideration. Relevant features, i.e., maximum flow rate and facility location problem are included. Furthermore, the objective of pipeline safety is investigated based on an index-based risk assessment by Kim et al. (2011). To examine the capabilities of the developed model, a case study on Germany is conducted for several scenarios. The optimised networks are discussed and compared. A Pareto frontier is computed in order to study the trade-off between network cost and safety.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.01.022
  • Hydrodynamic characterisation of dual-impeller submerged membrane
           bioreactor relevant to single-use bioreactor options
    • Authors: Serafim D. Vlaev; Iren Tsibranska; Daniela Dzhonova-Atanasova
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Serafim D. Vlaev, Iren Tsibranska, Daniela Dzhonova-Atanasova
      The flow characteristics e.g. velocity and velocity gradients in a conventional stirred sMBR with in-line tubular membrane module for integrated production and recovery of value-added material, are studied. Considering a hybrid vessel, the flow characteristics are conflicting parameters, viz. high shear is required for membrane walls and low shear required for microbial cells. Attempt is made to find a range of parameters that are balanced against known critical values. The task is resolved by numerical solution of a theoretical model of dual flat-blade impeller Biostat® 5 L (T =0.16 m, D =6.6cm) equipped with tubular membrane module (L =23cm, d =12mm) operating in non-Newtonian biofluid (flow index range, 0.34< n <0.78). CFD for gas-liquid cross-flow (e.g. Eu-Eu model) at Re∼103-2.104 and mesh 106 cells is employed. In a study aimed at sMBR bulk and near-wall flow properties, the effect of gas flow at various tip velocity (1-2.5 m/s), sparging intensity (8-16 m/s) and rheology on shear is revealed. In a range of specific input power 102-5.103 W/m3, the bulk shear rate varied in the range 20-60 s−1 and mean wall shear varied between 600 s−1 and 3000 s−1. Wall shear stress non-uniformity in the range 1-30N/m2 is registered. The gas phase is found to reduce wall shear, but to increase shear uniformity. In view of preserving cells’ viability, zonal shear rates of the vessel bulk and sparger openings were determined. Relating the data to similar results in single-use vessels, a correlation reported previously for bulk average shear rate γ ˙ versus input power [ γ ˙ = C ( P / V R ) 1 / 3 ] is confirmed. A range of balanced bulk and wall shear relevant to hybrid operation is determined. In view of the reported scalability of the conventional MBR design and reusable bioreactors, the data could be used for extrapolation.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.02.004
  • Scale-up and viscosity effects on gas-liquid mass transfer rates in
           unbaffled stirred tanks
    • Authors: Libor Labík; Radim Petricek; Tomáš Moucha; Alberto Brucato; Giuseppe Caputo; Franco Grisafi; Francesca Scargiali
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Libor Labík, Radim Petricek, Tomáš Moucha, Alberto Brucato, Giuseppe Caputo, Franco Grisafi, Francesca Scargiali
      The interest in the process industry on unbaffled stirred tanks has greatly expanded in the last years because they may bring about significant advantages in a number of applications, including biochemical, food and pharmaceutical processes where the presence of baffles is undesirable for several reasons. Despite their application potential, unbaffled vessels still lack fundamental information, due to the fact that only recently their capabilities have started being dug out. The lack of information on scale up effects is possibly the main reason hindering practical applications. In this work the influence of vessel size and liquid viscosity on the mass transfer performance in unbaffled stirred vessels, is investigated. As regards the first issue (scale-up) quite surprisingly results show that comparable mass transfer coefficients may be obtained in larger vessels, for a given power input per unit volume, with typical k L a values up to 2·10-3 s-1 in ungassed conditions and of 2 10-2 s-1 in gassed conditions. This is opposite to expectations based on the fact that the exchange surface in subcritical conditions only grows with D 2 while volume grows with D 3. Notably, the same result is obtained at an increased liquid viscosity (a feature often exhibited by biological cultivation broths) and confirms that unbaffled stirred tanks should be regarded as a strong candidate for industrial applications. Finally, also at the larger scale, in the super-critical regime unbaffled tanks are found to provide a performance comparable with that of standard (baffled & sparged) stirred tanks, hence resulting in a viable alternative to baffled tanks for all gas-liquid processes and bio-processes.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.01.051
  • Biodiesel Production from Date Seed Oil (Phoenix dactylifera L) via Egg
           Shell Derived Heterogeneous Catalyst
    • Authors: Muhammad Farooq; Anita Ramli; Abdul Naeem; Sohail ahmad; Muhammad Ghayas Ul Islam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Muhammad Farooq, Anita Ramli, Abdul Naeem, Sohail ahmad, Muhammad Ghayas Ul Islam
      This work explains the preparation of an efficient catalyst from waste chicken egg shells for exploring environment-friendly and cost-effective biodiesel production process for socio-economic growth. XRD, BET, TGA, and TPD-CO2 analysis were employed to evaluate the physicochemical properties of the prepared catalysts. The catalytic performance of the synthesized catalysts was tested in biodiesel production via transesterification from date seed oil under different reaction conditions. It was found that catalyst prepared at 900 oC exhibited excellent transesterification activity and provided maximum yield of fatty acid methyl esters up to 93.5% under optimal reaction conditions, i.e. reaction time of 1.5h, methanol-oil molar ratio of 12:1, and catalyst amount of 5wt.%. In addition, the catalyst exhibited substantial stability and reusability during biodiesel conversion.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.02.002
  • Mass transfer study of water deoxygenation in a rotor-stator reactor based
           on principal component regression method
    • Authors: Zemeng Zhao; Jiexin Wang; Baochang Sun; Moses Arowo; Lei Shao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Zemeng Zhao, Jiexin Wang, Baochang Sun, Moses Arowo, Lei Shao
      This study investigated mass transfer characteristics in a rotor-stator reactor (RSR) in terms of the overall volumetric mass-transfer coefficient (K x a) using nitrogen stripping (N2-H2O-O2) and nitrogen stripping coupled with vacuum degassing (vacuum-N2-H2O-O2) processes. Principal component regression (PCR) method was used to establish a mass transfer model, and the number of principal components (PCs) was examined by three different techniques including cumulative percent variance (CPV), average eigenvalue (AE), and cross validation (CV). The prediction performance of the PCR model was compared to that of the multiple linear regression (MLR) model. Results reveal that the number of PCs determined by CV based on the predicted residual error sum of squares can be used to determine the optimal number of PCs to express the relationship between various modelling variables and K x a. The values of K x a predicted by the PCR and MLR models in the N2-H2O-O2 system were in agreement with the experimental values with deviations within 15% while those in the vacuum-N2-H2O-O2 system generally agreed with the experimental values with deviations within 15% and 30%, respectively. These results indicate that the PCR method is best suited for mass transfer modelling in an RSR.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.02.007
  • Linking continuous and recycle emulsification kinetics for in-line mixers
    • Authors: Sergio Carrillo De Hert; Thomas L. Rodgers
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Sergio Carrillo De Hert, Thomas L. Rodgers
      In-line high-shear mixers can be used for continuous or batch dispersion operations depending on how the pipework is arranged. In our previous work (Carrillo De Hert and Rodgers, 2017a) we performed a transient mass balance to establish the link in-between these two arrangements; however this model was limited to the estimation of the mode of dispersed phases yielding simple monomodal drop size distributions. In this investigation we expanded the previous model to account for the shape of the whole drop size distribution. The new model was tested by performing experiments under different processing conditions and using two highly viscous dispersed phases which yield bimodal drop size distributions. The results for the continuous arrangement experiments were fit using two log-normal functions and the results for the recycle arrangement by implementing the log-normal function in the previously published mass balance. The new model was capable of predicting the d ¯ 32 for different emulsification times with a mean absolute error of 12.32%. The model presented here was developed for liquid blends, however the same approach could be used for milling or de-agglomeration operations.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.02.003
  • Comparative analysis on flocculation performance in unbaffled square
           stirred tanks with different height-to-width ratios: Experimental and CFD
    • Authors: Weipeng He; Lianpeng Xue; Beata Gorczyca; Jun Nan; Zhou Shi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Weipeng He, Lianpeng Xue, Beata Gorczyca, Jun Nan, Zhou Shi
      The effect of liquid-level height (H) on floc growth during flocculation has been investigated in unbaffled square stirred tanks with a fixed bottom width (D). Firstly, flocculation tests were performed by using an in-situ recognition system for floc morphology to evaluate flocculation performance within each tank at three typical shear rates of G ave =10, 30 and 70 s-1. Then, turbulent flow fields generated under all flocculation-test conditions were predicted by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations, followed by a detailed discussion based on experimental and numerical data. It was found that stirred tanks with different H values (characterized by H-to-D ratio) caused distinct turbulent flow fields at the same shear rates examined, reflected by different turbulent intensities in the impeller zone and different non-uniform nature of turbulence in the overall flocculating system. Accordingly, the evolution of floc size and structure was greatly affected due to various aggregation and breakage kinetics. Moreover, the effect of H-to-D ratio on floc growth appeared to be related to the predominant growth mechanism(s), i.e., for the shear rates of G ave =10 and 30 s-1, little or no significant breakage occurred and more significant non-uniformity of turbulence generated in the stirred tank with a higher H-to-D ratio led to increasingly pronounced behavior of restructuring, forming aggregates with more compact structure caused by primary-particle rearrangement, whereas at G ave =70 s-1, breakage dominated over aggregation and resultant aggregates became smaller and more compact with increasing H-to-D ratios, possibly due to the irreversibility of floc breakage. Therefore, an appropriate liquid-level height of tank should be designed to enhance floc formation and subsequent particle removal efficiency. The combined means of flocculation tests and CFD simulations may provide useful insights for optimizing the design and operation of stirred-tank reactors for flocculation.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.01.055
  • Separation of hexavalent chromium from industrial effluent through liquid
           membrane using environmentally benign solvent: A study of
           experimentaloptimization through response surface methodology
    • Authors: Supriyo Kumar Mondal; Prabirkumar Saha
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Supriyo Kumar Mondal, Prabirkumar Saha
      The primary goal of this work is to explore the possibility of using environmentally benign solvent in a liquid membrane setup in order to separate hexavalent chromium from industrial effluent and perform experimental optimization of its parameters for maximum performance. Vegetable oils have been used for this purpose as they have the capability of extracting heavy metals and they are well known for their biodegradability too. Additionally an extractant n-methyl-n,n,n,trioctylammonium chloride (a.k.a. aliquat 336) has been used to enhance the efficiency of separation as it showed very good carrier property for transport of Cr(VI). Di-sodium ethylene-di-amine-tetra-acetic acid (or Na2-EDTA) was selected as stripping agent for its affinity towards metal. The efficiency is affected by various physico-chemical parameters which have been optimized for best transport of solute. An initial two-phase study followed by elaborate three-phase bulk liquid membrane study were confirmed by critically more industry-friendly supported liquid membrane study. The prime physico-chemical parameters affecting the system performance were identified for experimental optimization through response surface methodology using central composite design rule. A regression model along with analysis of variance evaluates whether the chosen parameters were of good agreement with experimental results.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.02.001
  • Bio-inspired Dechlorination of Poly vinyl chloride
    • Authors: Ritu Singh; Deepak Pant
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Ritu Singh, Deepak Pant
      Production of PVC through petroleum may involve chlorine as an element for the activity on microscopic (i.e., atomic or molecular) level and the same mechanism may involve for its dechlorination. Oxychlorination assisted pyrolysis is an important reaction towards the synthesis of PVC and the reverse reaction is possible for its degradation. Ethylene carbonate (EC) with hydroxyethyl carbamate (ED) supports the microbial susceptibility of PVC. EC with ED can be synthesized through an inexpensive route of using ethylene glycol (EG) with urea. pseudomonas sp. and aspergillus sp. are found to be responsible microbe for the resultant dechlorination. This approach provides a novel hybrid combination for PVC dechlorination and proposes EC- ED combination as a new green bio-inspiring reagent.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.01.043
  • Particle de-agglomeration with an in-line rotor-stator mixer at different
           solids loadings and viscosities
    • Authors: Gustavo A. Padron; N. Gül Özcan-Taşkın
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Gustavo A. Padron, N. Gül Özcan-Taşkın
      Rotor-stator mixers are commonly used in energy intensive processes but there is relatively little published information on which to base process design. This study investigated the de-agglomeration of nanoparticle clusters in a liquid to determine the effects of solids loading (up to 15%wt) and continuous phase viscosity (up to 100mPas) on the mechanisms and kinetics of breakup and dispersion fineness in an in-line rotor-stator. A Silverson 150/250MS rotor-stator was used in the recirculation loop of a stirred tank. It was shown that the power number values previously obtained at Reynolds numbers greater than 200,000 are constant at Reynolds numbers as low as 2400. It was found that the breakup kinetics were not significantly affected by the solids loading, within the range covered in this study. On the other hand, when the viscosity of the continuous phase was increased, the de-agglomeration became slower even though the solids concentration was low (1%wt) and the flow through the rotor-stator was still turbulent. This indicates that it is the flow conditions around the particle and not the bulk rheology of the dispersion that determines the kinetics of the de-agglomeration process. Breakup mechanism was found to be erosion and the dispersion fineness was determined by the size of aggregates.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.01.041
  • Fabrication and investigation of PEBAX/Fe-BTC, a high permeable and CO2
           selective mixed matrix membrane
    • Authors: Fatereh Dorosti; Asghar Alizadehdakhel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Fatereh Dorosti, Asghar Alizadehdakhel
      Mixed matrix membranes comprising commercial poly (ether-block-amid) or PEBAX® (1657) as continues phase and Fe-BTC metal organic framework as disperse phase are fabricated via phase inversion method. To investigate membrane structure various analysis including SEM, TGA, DLS and FTIR are performed. CO2 and CH4 permeability and Selectivity are measured for all membranes at 25° C and different pressures from 3 to 25bar. Moreover, mixed gas tests are implemented for 10/90 CO2/CH4 mixture. Cross section SEM images showed proper particles distribution and good interaction between polymer and particles. The replacement of various bounds in FTIR test confirmed the good compatibility of Fe-BTC with polymer matrix too. TGA results showed acceptable thermal resistance of all membranes. Membranes permeability increased with increase in particles loading percent due to high porosity of particles and also high adsorption capacity especially for CO2 molecules. The highest CO2 permeability was belong to PEBAX /Fe-BTC 40wt.% membrane which was 425.4 Barrer. Mixed matrix membranes showed selectivity enhancement too. However, PEBAX/Fe-BTC 20wt.% membrane had the best selectivity of 22.19, in membrane with higher loading percent particles agglomeration made interfacial voids which caused selectivity decrement specially in 40wt.% loading percent. All membranes showed permeability and selectivity growth till 7bar pressures however, selectivity decreased due to plasticization effect at higher pressures of 15 and 25bar. Membrane with 25wt.% loading percent showed 50% and 9% increase in CO2 permeability and selectivity at 7bar compare to base pressure of 3bar.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.01.029
  • Breakup of nanoparticle clusters using Microfluidizer M110-P
    • Authors: Emmanuela Gavi; Dominik Kubicki; Gustavo A. Padron; N. Gül Özcan-Taşkın
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Emmanuela Gavi, Dominik Kubicki, Gustavo A. Padron, N. Gül Özcan-Taşkın
      A commercial design, bench scale microfluidic processor, Microfluidics M110-P, was used to study the deagglomeration of clusters of nanosized silica particles. Breakup kinetics, mechanisms and the smallest attainable size were determined over a range of particle concentrations of up to 17% wt. in water and liquid viscosities of up to 0.09Pas at 1% wt. particle concentration. The device was found to be effective in achieving complete breakup of agglomerates into submicron size aggregates of around 150nm over the range covered. A single pass was sufficient to achieve this at a low particle concentration and liquid viscosity. As the particle concentration or continuous phase viscosity was increased, either a higher number of passes or a higher power input (for the same number of passes) was required to obtain a dispersion with a size distribution in the submicron range. Breakup took place through erosion resulting in a dispersion of a given mean diameter range regardless of the operating condition. This is in line with results obtained using rotor-stators. Breakup kinetics compared on the basis of energy density indicated that whilst Microfluidizer M110-P and an in-line rotor-stator equipped with the emulsor screen are of similar performance at a viscosity of 0.01Pas, fines volume fraction achieved with the Microfluidizer was much higher at a viscosity of 0.09Pas.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.01.011
  • Inside Front Cover
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 130

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:28:11Z
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-