Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 928 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (661 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 201 - 400 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Corrosion Communications     Open Access  
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Croatica Chemica Acta     Open Access  
CrystEngComm     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Protocols in Protein Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Chemical Biology     Open Access  
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Current Research in Green and Sustainable Chemistry     Open Access  
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 117)
Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Dalton Transactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Educação Química en Punto de Vista     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
EDUSAINS     Open Access  
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
Elements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Energetic Materials Frontiers     Open Access  
EnergyChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology     Open Access  
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Science & Technology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Environmental Science : Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eurasian Chemico-Technological Journal     Open Access  
European Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
European Journal of Histochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry Reports     Open Access  
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Faraday Discussions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Fine Chemical Technologies / Тонкие химические технологии     Open Access  
FirePhysChem     Open Access  
Fitoterapia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
FlatChem : Chemistry of Flat Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Fluid Phase Equilibria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Microbiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Chemistry : Molecular Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Digestion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Food Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Forensic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Foundations of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Soil Science     Open Access  
Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fullerenes, Nanotubes and Carbon Nanostructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Future Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Gases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gels     Open Access  
Geochemical Transactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Giant     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Graphene     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Graphene     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Graphene Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Green Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Green and Sustainable Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Green Chemistry Letters and Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Green Synthesis and Catalysis     Open Access  
GSTF Journal of Chemical Sciences (JChem)     Open Access  
Helvetica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Heritage Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
High Energy Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Chemical Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Chemical Technology (IJCT)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Indian Journal of Chemistry - Section B (IJC-B)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources (IJNPR)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Chemical Science     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Partially Free  
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
InfoMat     Open Access  
Inorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Inorganic Chemistry Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Inorganic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Inorganica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Instrumentation Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal for Ion Mobility Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Advanced Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Agrochemistry     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Analytical Mass Spectrometry and Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biological Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biological, Physical and Chemical Studies     Open Access  
International Journal of Chemical Kinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Chemistry and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Chemoinformatics and Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Energetic Materials     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Environmental Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Materials and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Molecular Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Nano Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Spray and Combustion Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Thermodynamics and Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Tryptophan Research     Open Access  
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Polymer Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy     Open Access  
Israel Journal of Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
IUCrData     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JACS Au     Open Access  
JBIC Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
JCIS Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JOT Journal für Oberflächentechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
JOT-International Surface Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Adhesion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Al-Qadisiyah for Pure Science     Open Access  
Journal of Amino Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of AOAC International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Solution Chemistry and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Boron     Open Access  
Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Catalyst & Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Chemical Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Chemical Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Chemical Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Cheminformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Chemistry, Environmental Sciences and its Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Chemometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Chromatography A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Journal of Chromatography Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Coating Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Computational Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Coordination Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Education and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Energy Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Flow Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fluorescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Fluorine Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Fuel Chemistry and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Great Lakes Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Ionic Liquids     Open Access  
Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A: Pure and Applied Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Materials Chemistry A : Materials for Energy and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Materials Chemistry B : Materials for Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Materials Chemistry C : Materials for Optical, Magnetic and Electronic Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Materials Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mathematical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134)
Journal of Membrane Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Metastable and Nanocrystalline Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Modern Chemistry & Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover
International Journal of Tryptophan Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.149
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1178-6469
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Behavioral, Hormonal, and Serotonergic Responses to Different Restricted
           Feeding Schedules in Rats

    • Authors: Raheel Saeed, Khalid Mahmood, Sadia Basharat Ali, Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem
      Abstract: International Journal of Tryptophan Research, Volume 15, Issue , January-December 2022.
      To determine the effect of long-term restricted feeding schedules on behavior, serotonergic responses, and neuro-endocrine functions, metabolism of serotonin (5-HT) in the striatum, expression of serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) auto-receptor in the raphe nuclei and circulating levels of leptin and corticosterone were determined in female Wistar rats kept on excessive food restriction schedule. Due to a role of dietary deficiency of tryptophan (Trp) in influencing serotonergic neurotransmission, circulating levels of Trp were also determined. Estimations were done in 2 different restricted feeding models: time-restricted feeding (TRF) and diet restricted (DR). TRF animals were given access to food ad libitum only for 2 hours/day. The DR animals were given a small calculated amount of food each day. We found that chronic food restriction for 5 weeks cause a significant decrease in the body weight and produced hyperactivity in both, TRF and DR animals. Levels of Trp were declined in circulation and in the striatum. Similarly, the levels of 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were decreased in the striatum. Also, the expression of 5-HT1A auto-receptor was declined in the raphe nuclei. These changes in 5-HT metabolism and 5-HT1A auto-receptor expression were more profound in DR animals as compare to TRF animals. Similarly, hypoleptinemia and increased corticosterone found in both models was higher in DR animals. Effect of dietary deficiency of Trp in the modulation of striatal 5-HT metabolism and its consequences on circulating leptin and corticosterone are discussed.
      Citation: International Journal of Tryptophan Research
      PubDate: 2022-06-21T06:47:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786469221104729
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2022)
       
  • Tryptophan and Biogenic Amines in the Differentiation and Quality of Honey

    • Authors: Cristine Vanz Borges, Aline Nunes, Vladimir Eliodoro Costa, Ricardo de Oliveira Orsi, Leticia Silva Pereira Basilio, Gean Charles Monteiro, Marcelo Maraschin, Giuseppina Pace Pereira Lima
      Abstract: International Journal of Tryptophan Research, Volume 15, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Honey is a natural product with beneficial properties to health and has different characteristics depending on the region of production and collection, flowering, and climate. The presence of precursor amino acids of- and biogenic amines can be important in metabolomic studies of differentiation and quality of honey. We analyzed 65 honeys from 11 distinct regions of the State of Santa Catarina (Brazil) as to the profile of amino acids and biogenic amines by HPLC. The highest L-tryptophan (Trp), 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-OH-Trp), and tryptamine (Tryp) levels were detected in Cfb climate and harvested in 2019. Although we have found high content of serotonin, dopamine, and L-dopa in Cfb climate, the highest values occurred in honey produced during the summer 2018 and at altitudes above 900 m. Results indicate that the amino acids and biogenic amine levels in honeys are good indicators of origin. These data warrant further investigation on the honey as source of amino acids precursor of serotonin, melatonin, and dopamine, what can guide the choice of food as source of neurotransmitters.
      Citation: International Journal of Tryptophan Research
      PubDate: 2022-05-27T05:29:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786469221102098
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2022)
       
  • Plasma Kynurenine: A Promising Marker for the Assessment of Renal
           Functions

    • Authors: Fatimah Brekdar, Muhammed Imad Khayat, Afraa Zrieki
      Abstract: International Journal of Tryptophan Research, Volume 15, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide issue due to the high prevalence and the serious complications, including death. Kidney functions are routinely evaluated by measuring creatinine levels, which are influenced by many factors (age, sex, diet, race, and body mass). Kynurenine is the first stable metabolite in the kynurenine pathway, which is activated in the course of CKD. Kynurenine levels in plasma can be correlated to kidney functions in CKD patients. We investigated the relationship between kynurenine levels and kidney functions indicators, and the influence of some variables (sex, age, and preexisting hypertension or diabetes) on its levels in CKD patients.Material And Methods:The study included 66 CKD patients in stages 3 to 5 seen at Tishreen University Hospital, and 22 subjects served as control. Kynurenine levels were measured by using a kynurenine ELISA kit (IDK® immundiagnostik).Results:Kynurenine levels were significantly increased with the increase in CKD stage (P 
      Citation: International Journal of Tryptophan Research
      PubDate: 2022-05-26T07:22:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786469221102093
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2022)
       
  • The Kynurenine Pathway and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Inflammation as a
           Common Denominator

    • Authors: Filip Jovanovic, Aboorva Sudhakar, Nebojsa Nick Knezevic
      Abstract: International Journal of Tryptophan Research, Volume 15, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex metabolic disorder commonly seen in females of reproductive age. The pathophysiology of PCOS is multifactorial and includes dysfunction in ovarian steroidogenesis and folliculogenesis, impaired gonadotropin levels, insulin resistance, gut microbiota imbalance, genetic predisposition, and lifestyle preferences. Low-grade inflammatory conditions such as obesity and impaired glucose tolerance are common metabolic disturbances in women with PCOS. A growing body of literature suggests strong evidence rendering PCOS in close proximity with chronic inflammation as documented by high levels of serum white blood cells, C-reactive protein, and various proinflammatory cytokines seen in this condition. Inflammation seems to be the most common metabolic denominator between the kynurenine pathway and PCOS. The association of tryptophan and kynurenine pathway has already been well documented in mood disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, chronic pain conditions, and different inflammatory states. In this manuscript, we describe the influence of sex steroid hormones on different enzymes of the KP; inflammatory nature of PCOS and CRP as a marker of IDO/TDO activity; and the effects of altered gut flora in women with PCOS. This review provides a novel view of the available evidence of tryptophan and downstream metabolites in PCOS in the context of underlying inflammation.
      Citation: International Journal of Tryptophan Research
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T08:45:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786469221099214
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2022)
       
  • Alterations in Tryptophan Metabolism Affect Vascular Functions: Connected
           to Ageing Population Vulnerability to COVID-19 Infection'

    • Authors: Arehally M Mahalakshmi, Shasthara Paneyala, Bipul Ray, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Mona Dehhaghi, Benjamin Heng, Gilles J Guillemin, Saravana Babu Chidambaram
      Abstract: International Journal of Tryptophan Research, Volume 15, Issue , January-December 2022.

      Citation: International Journal of Tryptophan Research
      PubDate: 2022-03-14T09:03:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786469221083946
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2022)
       
  • Loss of Indoleamine-2,3-Dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) in Knockout Mice Does Not
           Affect the Development of Skin Lesions in the Imiquimod-Induced Mouse
           Model of Psoriasis

    • Authors: Vivek Choudhary, Etsubdenk Ajebo, Rawipan Uaratanawong, Shinjini C Spaulding, Sarah Hossack, Xunsheng Chen, Jianrui Xu, Mrunal Choudhary, Debra L Irsik, Carlos M Isales, Wendy B Bollag
      Abstract: International Journal of Tryptophan Research, Volume 15, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) degrades the essential amino acid tryptophan resulting in tryptophan depletion and the accumulation of catabolites such as kynurenine. The expression/activity of IDO in various cells, including macrophages and dendritic cells, results in an inhibition of T-cell responses in a number of situations, such as toward allogeneic fetuses and tissue grafts. Psoriasis is an immune-mediated skin disease involving T cells; kynureninase and its generation of catabolites downstream of IDO are reported to play an important role in this disease. We hypothesized that mice lacking the IDO1 gene would exhibit a hyperactive immune response and an exacerbation of skin lesions in the imiquimod-induced mouse model of psoriasis. Littermate wild-type and IDO1-knockout mice were treated with imiquimod for 5 days, and the severity of psoriasiform skin lesions assessed using the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI), ear edema measured using a digital caliper, and thickness of the epidermis determined by histology. Expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and tryptophan-metabolizing enzymes was monitored using quantitative RT-PCR. Imiquimod increased ear edema, PASI scores, and epidermal thickness in both WT and IDO1 knockout mice; however, there were no differences observed between the 2 genotypes. There were also no differences in imiquimod’s induction of skin inflammatory mediators, indicating no effect of IDO1 gene loss in this psoriasis model. Although these data suggest a lack of involvement of IDO1 in psoriatic skin inflammation, other possible mechanisms, such as compensatory changes in other pathways and the involvement of the IDO2 isoform, must also be considered.
      Citation: International Journal of Tryptophan Research
      PubDate: 2022-02-28T01:17:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786469221078191
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2022)
       
  • Intestinal Dysbiosis, the Tryptophan Pathway and Nonalcoholic
           Steatohepatitis

    • Authors: Jiezhong Chen, Luis Vitetta, Jeremy D Henson, Sean Hall
      Abstract: International Journal of Tryptophan Research, Volume 15, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progresses from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH), which may then progress to the development of cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. NASH is characterized by both steatosis and inflammation. Control of inflammation in NASH is a key step for the prevention of disease progression to severe sequalae. Intestinal dysbiosis has been recognized to be an important causal factor in the pathogenesis of NASH, involving both the accumulation of lipids and aggravation of inflammation. The effects of gut dysbiosis are mediated by adverse shifts of various intestinal commensal bacterial genera and their associated metabolites such as butyrate, tryptophan, and bile acids. In this review, we focus on the roles of tryptophan and its metabolites in NASH in association with intestinal dysbiosis and discuss possible therapeutic implications.
      Citation: International Journal of Tryptophan Research
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T05:24:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786469211070533
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2022)
       
  • Kynurenine and Anthranilic Acid in the Peritoneum Correlate With the Stage
           of Gastric Cancer Disease

    • Authors: Katarzyna Gęca, Karol Rawicz-Pruszyński, Radosław Mlak, Ilona Sadok, Wojciech P Polkowski, Magdalena Staniszewska
      Abstract: International Journal of Tryptophan Research, Volume 15, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:This study aimed to assess the importance of selected kynurenines measured in peritoneal fluid, lavage washings, and blood serum in patients with advanced gastric cancer (GC) based on the clinical and pathological staging of TNM for a more precise evaluation of the stage of the disease.Methods:Data were collected from a prospectively maintained database of all patients operated on advanced GC between July 2018 and August 2020. In total, 98 patients were eligible for the analysis according to the REMARK guidelines.Results:Among the various kynurenines analyzed in this study, we found that the median concentration of anthranilic acid (AA) in the peritoneal lavage washings was significantly higher in patients with positive nodes (pN1-3) compared to those with negative nodes (pN0) (P = 0.0100). Based on the ROC analysis, AA showed diagnostic utility in the differentiation of the pN staging (P = 0.0047). Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between AA in peritoneal fluid with stage pN (P = 0.0116) and a positive correlation between AA in peritoneal lavage washings with stage cT (P = 0.0101). We found that the median concentration of kynurenine (Kyn) in peritoneal lavage washings was significantly higher in patients with cM1 compared to cM0 patients (P = 0.0047). Based on the ROC analysis, Kyn showed diagnostic utility in cM staging differentiation (P 
      Citation: International Journal of Tryptophan Research
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T06:08:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786469211065620
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2022)
       
  • Association Between Tryptophan Metabolites, Physical Performance, and
           Frailty in Older Persons

    • Authors: Ahmed Al Saedi, Sharron Chow, Sara Vogrin, Gilles J Guillemin, Gustavo Duque
      Abstract: International Journal of Tryptophan Research, Volume 15, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Frailty is defined as a syndrome of physiological decline in late life, characterized by marked vulnerability to adverse health outcomes. A robust biomarker for frailty is still lacking. Tryptophan (TRP) metabolism through the kynurenine pathway (KP) plays essential roles in aging, the musculoskeletal system, and physical performance. In this study, we quantified 7 KP metabolites, including kynurenine (KYN), kynurenine acid (KYNA), quinolinic acid (QUIN), picolinic acid (PIC), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA), and anthranilic acid (AA) using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the serum of 85 participants (median age 75; 65% female; 28 non-frail, 29 pre-frail, and 28 frail) at the Nepean Osteoporosis and Frailty (NOF) Study. We looked at the association between TRP metabolites and physical performance, sarcopenia, and frailty. After adjusting for age and sex, our results showed that KYN and KYN/TRP were associated with higher interleukin (IL)-6 levels (r = .324 and r = .390, respectively). KYNA and its ratios to other products (mainly KYNA/KYN, KYNA/QUIN, and KYNA/PIC) were associated with a lower likelihood of frailty by Fried’s criteria (OR 0.93 [0.88, 0.98], P = .009) and Rockwood index (r = −.241, P = .028) as well as a lower likelihood of sarcopenia (OR 0.88 [0.78, 1.00], P = .049). QUIN and QUIN/KYN showed an association with increased IL-6 (r = .293 and .204 respectively), higher likelihood of frailty (OR 1.02 [1.00, 1.04], P = .029 and OR 6.43 [2.23, 18.51], P = .001 respectively) and lower physical function (r = −.205 and r = −.292). In conclusion, different TRP metabolites have various associations with physical performance, frailty, and sarcopenia. Defining the underlying mechanisms may permit the development and validation of new biomarkers and therapeutics for frailty and musculoskeletal conditions targeting specific metabolites of the TRP catabolic pathway.
      Citation: International Journal of Tryptophan Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-31T11:26:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786469211069951
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2022)
       
  • Activation of the Kynurenine Pathway and Production of Inflammatory
           Cytokines by Astrocytes and Microglia Infected With Neospora caninum

    • Authors: Deivison Silva Argolo, Julita Maria Pereira Borges, Luciana dos Santos Freitas, Gizelle Alves Pina, Maria Socorro Grangeiro, Victor Diógenes Amaral da Silva, Alexandre Moraes Pinheiro, Rodrigo Souza Conceição, Alexsandro Branco, Gilles Guillemin, Silvia Lima Costa, Maria de Fátima Dias Costa
      Abstract: International Journal of Tryptophan Research, Volume 15, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In the central nervous system, astrocytes and microglia contribute to homeostasis, regulating the immune response to infectious agents. Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan that infects different animal species and it is encysted in their nervous tissue while triggering an immune response modulated by glia. This study aimed to evaluate the infection of primary cultures of rat glial cells by N. caninum through the catabolites of tryptophan, the expression of inflammatory mediators and the integrity of neural tissue. Infection with this coccidium resulted in morphological and functional changes, particularly astrogliosis and microgliosis, and increased the expression of the inflammatory mediators TNF, IL1β, IL-10, and arginase, as well as mRNA for CCL5 and CCL2, molecules involved in the CNS chemotaxis. The infection with N. caninum in glial cells also triggered the activation of the tryptophan pathway, characterized by increased kynurenine 2,3 monooxygenase (KMO) mRNA expression, and by the production of the excitotoxin quinolinic acid (QUIN). Moreover, glia-neuron co-cultures, when exposed to the secretome derived from N. caninum infected glial cells, presented greater neurons distribution and formation of neurite extensions, associated to morphological changes in astrocytes compatible with neuro-preservation. Considering that the tryptophan catabolism is associated to immune response, these findings suggest that glial activation in N. caninum infection should be responsible for modulating the inflammatory status in an attempt to restore the nervous system homeostasis, since excessive inflammatory response can cause irreversible damage to tissue preservation.
      Citation: International Journal of Tryptophan Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-31T06:41:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786469211069946
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2022)
       
  • Differential Effect of Non-Purified and Semi-Purified Standard Diets on
           Kynurenine and Peripheral Metabolites in Male C57BL/6J Mice

    • Authors: Yuhei Yajima, Alato Okuno, Isamu Nakamura, Teruo Miyazaki, Akira Honda, Atsushi Toyoda
      Abstract: International Journal of Tryptophan Research, Volume 15, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The kynurenine (Kyn) pathway plays crucial roles in several inflammation-induced disorders such as depression. In this study, we measured Kyn and other related molecules in the blood plasma, brain, and urine of male C57BL/6J mice (B6) fed non-purified (MF) and semi-purified (AIN-93G and AIN-93M) standard rodent diets. Mice fed MF had increased plasma Kyn levels compared with those on AIN93-based diets, as well as decreased hippocampal Kyn levels compared with those fed AIN-93G. Previous studies showed that branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) suppress peripheral blood Kyn transportation to the brain, but plasma BCAA levels were not significantly different between the diet groups in our study. Urine metabolome analysis revealed that feed ingredients affected the excretion of many metabolites, and MF-fed mice had elevated excretion of kynurenic and quinolinic acids, pivotal metabolites in the Kyn pathway. Collectively, the level of critical metabolites in the Kyn pathway in the central and peripheral tissues was strongly affected by feed ingredients. Therefore, feed selection is a critical factor to ensure the reproducibility of experimental data in studies involving rodent models.
      Citation: International Journal of Tryptophan Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-04T09:44:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786469211066285
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2022)
       
  • Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase-1 Expression is Changed During Bladder Cancer
           Cell Invasion

    • Authors: Hellen Joyce Sousa Pereira Santos, Luiz Henrique Gomes Matheus, Aline Silva, Stephanie Vanin Dalmazzo, Andressa Assunção Santos, Letícia Rafaela Alves Rubens Santos, Diego Mota Souza, Sabrina Thalita Reis, Ivan Pereira Nascimento, Humberto Dellê
      Abstract: International Journal of Tryptophan Research, Volume 15, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The severity of the bladder carcinoma (BC) is directly linked to cell invasion and metastasis. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1) is an INF-γ-induced immunomodulating enzyme that has been linked to the cancer cell invasiveness. Because IDO1 is variable among the tumors, we analyzed its expression in the BC invasion using BC mice models and cell culture. MB49 cells were orthotopically or ectopically inoculated in C57Bl6 mice to evaluate IDO1 by immunohistochemistry. For in vitro experiments, expression of IDO1 and INF-γ was evaluated in grade-1 (RT4) and in grade-3 (T24) BC cell lines. Invading and non-invading T24 cells were separated using the Matrigel/Transwell system, of which total RNA was extracted immediately or after 2 weeks of subculture. Finally, IDO1 was silenced in T24 cells to verify its role on cell invasiveness. In both animal models, IDO1 was differentially expressed between non-invading and invading cells. In cell culture, T24 cells expressed more IDO1 than RT4 cells, independently of the INF-γ expression. IDO1 was differentially expressed between non-invading and invading T24 cells, a difference that was lost by long-time subculture. IDO1 silencing resulted in diminished cell invasiveness. In conclusion, IDO1 expression is changed during bladder carcinoma invasion, playing an important role in this process.
      Citation: International Journal of Tryptophan Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-04T09:41:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786469211065612
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2022)
       
 
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