Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 928 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (59 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (661 journals)
    - CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (23 journals)
    - ELECTROCHEMISTRY (28 journals)
    - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (45 journals)
    - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (47 journals)
    - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (65 journals)

CHEMISTRY (661 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 201 - 400 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Corrosion Communications     Open Access  
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Croatica Chemica Acta     Open Access  
CrystEngComm     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Protocols in Protein Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Chemical Biology     Open Access  
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Current Research in Green and Sustainable Chemistry     Open Access  
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 116)
Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Dalton Transactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Educação Química en Punto de Vista     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
EDUSAINS     Open Access  
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
Elements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Energetic Materials Frontiers     Open Access  
EnergyChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology     Open Access  
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Science & Technology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Science : Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eurasian Chemico-Technological Journal     Open Access  
European Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
European Journal of Histochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry Reports     Open Access  
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Faraday Discussions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Fine Chemical Technologies / Тонкие химические технологии     Open Access  
FirePhysChem     Open Access  
Fitoterapia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
FlatChem : Chemistry of Flat Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Fluid Phase Equilibria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Microbiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Chemistry : Molecular Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Digestion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Food Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Forensic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Foundations of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Soil Science     Open Access  
Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fullerenes, Nanotubes and Carbon Nanostructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Future Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Gases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gels     Open Access  
Geochemical Transactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Giant     Open Access  
Graphene     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Graphene     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Graphene Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Green Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Green and Sustainable Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Green Chemistry Letters and Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Green Synthesis and Catalysis     Open Access  
GSTF Journal of Chemical Sciences (JChem)     Open Access  
Helvetica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Heritage Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
High Energy Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Chemical Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Chemical Technology (IJCT)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Indian Journal of Chemistry - Section B (IJC-B)     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources (IJNPR)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Chemical Science     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Partially Free  
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
InfoMat     Open Access  
Inorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Inorganic Chemistry Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Inorganic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Inorganica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Instrumentation Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal for Ion Mobility Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Advanced Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Agrochemistry     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Analytical Mass Spectrometry and Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biological Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biological, Physical and Chemical Studies     Open Access  
International Journal of Chemical Kinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Chemistry and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Chemoinformatics and Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Energetic Materials     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Environmental Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Materials and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Molecular Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Nano Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Spray and Combustion Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Thermodynamics and Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Tryptophan Research     Open Access  
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Polymer Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy     Open Access  
Israel Journal of Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
IUCrData     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JACS Au     Open Access  
JBIC Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
JCIS Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JOT Journal für Oberflächentechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
JOT-International Surface Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Adhesion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Al-Qadisiyah for Pure Science     Open Access  
Journal of Amino Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of AOAC International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Solution Chemistry and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Boron     Open Access  
Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Catalyst & Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Chemical Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Chemical Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Chemical Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Cheminformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Chemistry, Environmental Sciences and its Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Chemometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Chromatography A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Journal of Chromatography Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Coating Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Computational Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Coordination Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Education and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Energy Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Flow Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Fluorescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Fluorine Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Fuel Chemistry and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Great Lakes Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Ionic Liquids     Open Access  
Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A: Pure and Applied Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Journal of Materials Chemistry A : Materials for Energy and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Materials Chemistry B : Materials for Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Materials Chemistry C : Materials for Optical, Magnetic and Electronic Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Materials Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mathematical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 136)
Journal of Membrane Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Metastable and Nanocrystalline Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Modern Chemistry & Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

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Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.323
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-8865 - ISSN (Online) 2090-8873
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [339 journals]
  • Recent Advances and Perspectives on the Sources and Detection of
           Antibiotics in Aquatic Environments

    • Abstract: Water quality and safety are vital to the ecological environment, social development, and ecological susceptibility. The extensive use and continuous discharge of antibiotics have caused serious water pollution; antibiotics are widely found in freshwater, drinking water, and reservoirs; and this pollution has become a common phenomenon and challenge in global water ecosystems, as water polluted by antibiotics poses serious risks to human health and the ecological environment. Therefore, the antibiotic content in water should be identified, monitored, and eliminated. Nevertheless, there is no single method that can detect all different types of antibiotics, so various techniques are often combined to produce reliable results. This review summarizes the sources of antibiotic pollution in water, covering three main aspects: (1) wastewater discharges from domestic sewage, (2) medical wastewater, and (3) animal physiology and aquaculture. The existing analytical techniques, including extraction techniques, conventional detection methods, and biosensors, are reviewed. The electrochemical biosensors have become a research hotspot in recent years because of their rapid detection, high efficiency, and portability, and the use of nanoparticles contributes to these outstanding qualities. Additionally, the comprehensive quality evaluation of various detection methods, including the linear detection range, detection limit (LOD), and recovery rate, is discussed, and the future of this research field is also prospected.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 May 2022 17:20:01 +000
       
  • Study on the Spectrum-Effect Correlation of Anti-Inflammatory Active
           Extract of Sauropus spatulifolius Beille

    • Abstract: Sauropus spatulifolius Beille (S. spatulifolius) is a commonly used medicine of the Bourau and Yao nationalities. However, the composition of S. spatulifolius is complex, and simple chemical fingerprints cannot accurately evaluate the relationship between its composition and efficacy. In this study, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used to establish the fingerprint of the ethyl acetate extract of S. spatulifolius. Based on the evaluation of the similarity of chromatographic fingerprints of traditional Chinese medicine, combined with cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA), the common peaks of fingerprints were evaluated. The anti-inflammatory effect data were extracted through the dimethylbenzene-induced ear-swelling model in mice. The gray relational analysis (GRA) combined with partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to study the spectrum-effect correlation of S. spatulifolius. As a result, the HPLC fingerprint of the ethyl acetate extract of S. spatulifolius was established, and 18 common peaks were identified. Except for S6, the other similarities are all above 0.915. The reference substance control method was used to identify two absorption peaks, namely, protocatechuic acid and caffeic acid. The cluster analysis results showed that 10 samples from different origins were grouped into four categories, which was consistent with the PCA results. Ethyl acetate extract of 10 batches of S. spatulifolius could significantly inhibit the ear swelling of mice (). Through GRA, the order of the contribution of each chemical component to the anti-inflammatory efficacy was obtained. The results of PLSR showed that the VIP values of peaks 3, 4, and 12 were greater than 1 and were positively correlated with anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, the HPLC fingerprint of the ethyl acetate extract of S. spatulifolius was established. Through the study of the spectrum-effect correlation, the anti-inflammatory active substance of the ethyl acetate extract of S. spatulifolius was obtained. The anti-inflammatory effect of S. spatulifolius was the result of the joint action of multiple ingredients. This research helps to quickly and accurately discover the active ingredient groups of traditional Chinese medicine and provides new ideas and methods for studying the effective substances of traditional Chinese medicine.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 May 2022 07:20:02 +000
       
  • Current-Volt Biosensing “Cystatin C” on Carbon Nanowired
           Interdigitated Electrode Surface: A Clinical Marker Analysis for Bulged
           Aorta

    • Abstract: A carbon nanowire-modified surface with interdigitated electrode (IDE) sensing system was introduced to identify abdominal aortic aneurysm biomarker “papain,” also known as cysteine protease, used as the capture probe to identify Cystatin C. Papain was immobilized through the covalent integration of amine group on papain and the carboxyl group with carbon nanowire. This papain-modified electrode surface was utilized to detect the different concentrations of Cystatin C (100 pg/mL to 3.2 ng/mL). The interaction between papain and Cystatin C was monitored using a picoammeter, and the response curves were compared. With increasing Cystatin C concentrations, the total current levels were gradually increased with a linear range from 200 pg/mL to 3.2 ng/mL, and the current differences were plotted and the detection limit of Cystatin C was calculated as 200 pg/mL. The averaging of three independent experiments (n = 3) was made with 3δ estimation, and the determination coefficient was y = 1.8477 × 0.7303 and R2 = 0.9878. Furthermore, control experiments with creatinine and gliadin failed to bind the immobilized papain, indicating the specific detection of Cystatin C.
      PubDate: Mon, 23 May 2022 04:20:00 +000
       
  • Study of Saponin Components after Biotransformation of Dioscorea nipponica
           by Endophytic Fungi C39

    • Abstract: This study conducted the solid fermentation process of Dioscorea nipponica using endophytic fungi C39 to determine the changes in the diosgenin concentration. The results revealed that endophytic fungi C39 could effectively biotransform the saponin components in D. nipponica. Moreover, the maximum increase in the diosgenin concentration reached 62.67% in 15 days of solid fermentation. MTT assay results demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of the fermentation drugs on four types of cancer cells (liver cancer cells (HepG2), stomach cancer cells (BGC823), cervical cancer cells (HeLa), and lung cancer cells (A549)) were better than those of the crude drugs obtained from D. nipponica. The chemical composition of the samples obtained before and after the biotransformation of D. nipponica was analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. A total of 32 compounds were identified, 21 of which have been reported in Dioscorea saponins and the ChemSpider database and 11 compounds were identified for the first time in D. nipponica. The biotransformation process was inferred based on the variation trend of saponins, which included transformation pathways pertaining to glycolytic metabolism, ring closure reaction, dehydrogenation, and carbonylation. The cumulative findings provide the basis for the rapid qualitative analysis of the saponin components of D. nipponica before and after biotransformation. The 11 metabolites obtained from biotransformation are potential active ingredients obtained from D. nipponica, which can be used to further identify pharmacodynamically active substances.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 May 2022 11:05:03 +000
       
  • Carbon Material Hybrid Construction on an Aptasensor for Monitoring
           Surgical Tumors

    • Abstract: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a glycoprotein, one of the common tumor biomarkers, found at low levels in body fluids. Generally, overexpression of CEA is found in various cancers, including ovarian, breast, lung, colorectal, gastric, and pancreatic cancers. Since CEA is an important tumor biomarker, the quantification of CEA is helpful for diagnosing cancer, monitoring tumor progression, and the follow-up treatment. This research develops a highly sensitive sandwich aptasensor for CEA identification on an interdigitated electrode sensor. Carbon-based material was used to attach a higher anti-CEA capture aptamer onto the sensor surface through a chemical linker, and then, CEA was quantified by the aptamer. Furthermore, CEA-spiked serum was tested by using the immobilized aptamer, which was found to not affect the target validation. The limit of detection for CEA in PBS and serum is calculated from a linear regression graph to be 0.5 ng/mL with R2 values of 0.9593 and 0.9657, respectively, over a linear range from 0.5 to 500 ng/mL. This CEA quantification by the aptasensor can help diagnose various surgical tumors and monitor their progression.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 May 2022 08:50:00 +000
       
  • Detection of Falsified Antimalarial Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine and
           Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine Drugs Using a Low-Cost Handheld
           Near-Infrared Spectrometer

    • Abstract: Falsified drugs are of serious concern to public health worldwide, particularly for developing countries where quality control of drugs is inefficient. In law enforcement against such fake medicines, there is a need to develop reliable, fast, and inexpensive screening methods. In this work, the ability of an innovative low-cost handheld near-infrared spectrometer to identify falsifications among two antimalarial fixed dose combination tablets, dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, has been investigated. Analyzed samples were collected in Burkina Faso mainly in rural transborder areas that could be infiltrated by illicit drugs. A principal component analysis was applied on the acquired near-infrared spectra to identify trends, similarities, and differences between collected samples. This allowed to detect some samples of dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine which seemed to be falsified. These suspicious samples were semiquantitatively analyzed by thin-layer chromatography using Minalab® kits. Obtained results allowed to confirm the falsifications since the suspected samples did not contain any of the expected active pharmaceutical ingredients. The capacity of the low-cost near-infrared device to identify specifically a brand name of dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine or sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine has been also studied using soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) in the classical and data driven versions. The built models allowed a clear brand identification with 100% of both sensitivity and specificity in the studied cases. All these results demonstrate the potential of these low-cost near-infrared spectrometers to be used as first line screening tools, particularly in resource limited laboratories, for the detection of falsified antimalarial drugs.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 May 2022 05:50:01 +000
       
  • Erythrocyte Storage Lesion Improvements Mediated by Naringin Screened from
           Vegetable/Fruit Juice Using Cell Extract and HPLC-MS

    • Abstract: In blood banking, storage at 4°C for weeks is known to cause damages to erythrocytes, called storage lesions that may later cause transfusion-related adverse events. In previous experiments, we found that vegetable/fruit juices can effectively reduce the storage lesion. Currently, we attempt to analyze the potential bioactive components and test whether the compounds can improve the storage lesions of erythrocytes. Equal portions in wet weight of 20 fresh vegetables and fruits were blended with phosphate buffered solution (PBS), and clear solutions were produced as additive to the packed erythrocytes from consented blood donors at 1 : 10 ratio (ml : gram). The blood samples were stored for 35 days at 4°C, and the supernatants were performed high liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis at 0 days, 14 days, and 35 days. The blood bags supplemented with identified bioactive components were stored in a refrigerator for 35 days, and the morphology, complete blood count (CBC), phosphatidylserine (PS) extroversion, hemolysis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured at the end of storage. Five potential bioactive components from vegetable/fruit juices contributed to the improvements of storage lesion. One of the compounds was unequivocally identified as naringin, and two were tentatively assigned as vitexin 6″-O-malonyl 2″-O-xyloside and luteolin 7-(6″-malonyl neohesperidoside). Naringin alleviated the storage lesion of red blood cells (RBCs) by reducing ROS levels and living cell extraction with HPLC-MS is a simple, reliable, and effective method for screening potential bioactive components.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Apr 2022 15:50:01 +000
       
  • Photoreduction of CO2 to CH4 over Efficient Z-Scheme -Fe2O3/g-C3N4
           Composites

    • Abstract: A series of composite γ-Fe2O3/g-C3N4 (denoted as xFeCN with x equal 5, 10, 15, and 20 of γ-Fe2O3 percentage in weight) was prepared by calcination and precipitation-impregnation methods. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) characterizations indicated the successful synthesis of Z-scheme FeCN composites. A red shift of the light absorption region was revealed by UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS). In addition, photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) spectra showed an interface interaction of two phases Fe2O3 and g-C3N4 in the synthesized composites that improved the charge transfer capacity. The photocatalytic activity of these materials was studied in the photoreduction of CO2 with H2O as the reductant in the gaseous phase. The composites exhibited excellent photoactivity compared to undoped g-C3N4. The CH4 production rate over 10FeCN and 15FeCN composites (2.8 × 10−2 and 2.9 × 10−2 μmol h−1 g−1, respectively) was ca. 7 times higher than that over pristine g-C3N4 (0.4 × 10−2 μmol h−1 g−1). This outstanding photocatalytic property of these composites was explained by the light absorption expansion and the prevention of photogenerated electron-hole pairs recombination due to its Z-scheme structure.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Apr 2022 15:35:03 +000
       
  • The Alkaline Resistance of Waterborne Acrylic Polymer/SiO2 Nanocomposite
           Coatings

    • Abstract: This study presents a study on the influence of nano-SiO2 on the alkaline resistance of waterborne acrylic coating using some analysis methods such as FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy, combined with FE-SEM analysis and monitoring weight and adhesion changes during exposure to the saturated Ca(OH)2 alkaline environment. The obtained results indicated that the alkaline resistance of acrylic coating enhanced appreciably when adding 2.5 wt% of nano-SiO2. Under the impact of the saturated Ca(OH)2 solution for 20 days of immersion, nanocomposite coating containing 2.5 wt.% of nano-SiO2 was only decreased by 3.6% of the weight and 15.4% of the adhesion, while the neat acrylic coating (without nano-SiO2) seriously reduced 25.4% of the weight and 39.1% of the adhesion.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Apr 2022 14:50:02 +000
       
  • Development and Validation of a Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
           Assay for Determination of Cromolyn Sodium in Skin Permeation Studies

    • Abstract: Cromolyn sodium (CS) is a mast cell stabilizer administered to treat allergic diseases. A topical system would sustain its delivery and may be designed for treatment of atopic dermatitis. Established HPLC protocols for detection of CS are time consuming and intensive, indicating the need for a more streamlined method. This study aimed at developing and validating a sensitive and selective LC-MS method for quantifying CS in skin permeation studies that was less time and resource demanding. The optimized method involved an isocratic mobile phase (10 mM NH4HCO3, pH 8.0, 90% and ACN, 10%) at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. Detection involved direct MS/MS channels with m/z 467.0255 (precursor) and m/z 379.0517 (fragment) using argon as the collision gas. CS calibrants were prepared in PBS, pH 7.4, and methanol for validation (0.1–2.5 μg/mL). To ensure no skin interference, dermatomed porcine skin was mounted on Franz diffusion cells that were analyzed after 24 h. The skin layers were also separated, extracted in methanol, and analyzed using the developed method. Retention time was 1.9 min and 4.1 min in methanol and buffer, respectively. No interfering peaks were observed from the receptor and skin extracts, and linearity was established between 0.1 and 2.5 μg/mL. Interday and intraday accuracy and precision were within the acceptable limit of ±20% at the LLOQ and ±15% at other concentrations. Overall, the simplified, validated method showed sensitivity in detecting CS in skin without interference and was applied to demonstrate quantification of drug in skin following 4% cromolyn sodium gel exposure.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Apr 2022 10:20:01 +000
       
  • Enhanced Electrochemical Sensor for Electrocatalytic Glucose Analysis in
           Orange Juices and Milk by the Integration of the Electron-Withdrawing
           Substituents on Graphene/Glassy Carbon Electrode

    • Abstract: In this work, a novel electrochemical sensor was developed by electron-withdrawing substituent modification of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-(4-fluorobenzoyl)-5-pyrazolone on a graphene-modified glassy carbon electrode (HPMpFP-graphene/GCE) for glucose detection. The results of characterizations using a scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed the successful fabrication of HPMpFP-graphene nanocomposite, which served as an electroactive probe for glucose detection. The electron transfer ability of HPMpFBP-graphene/GCE has been successfully revealed using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results. The good electrochemical performance was shown by well-defined peak currents of square wave voltammetry under various parameters, including pH, HPMpFP and graphene composition, and scan rate effect. A high electrochemically evaluated surface area using chronoamperometry suggested that the present glucose detection response was intensified. The chronoamperometry results at a work potential of 0.4 V presented a wide linear range of 1 × 103–90 µM and 88–1 µM with 0.74 µM (S/N = 3) as the detection limit. An acceptable recovery has been revealed in the real sample analysis. The electrochemical sensing behaviour of the composite indicates that it may be a promising candidate for a glucose sensor and it significantly extends the range of applications in the electrochemical field.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Apr 2022 18:20:01 +000
       
  • Development and Validation of Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography
           Coupled with Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry Method for Quantitative
           Determination of Ten Active Compounds in Ge-Gen-Jiao-Tai-Wan

    • Abstract: A rapid, accurate, and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of 10 main components, namely puerarin, daidzin, coptisine, epiberberine, jatrorrhizine, berberine, palmatine, coumarin, daidzein, and cinnamic acid in Ge-Gen-Jiao-Tai-Wan, was developed based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Analysis was performed on an Agilent 1290 Infinity II series UHPLC system, equipped with a Waters ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 column (100 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm) by using (A) 0.1% acetic acid and (B) methanol as mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.3 mL/min, and the injection volume was 1 μL. Mass spectrometry was operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode using an Agilent 6460 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an AJS-ESI ion source. Agilent Mass Hunter Work Station Software was employed for data acquisition and processing. All calibration curves showed excellent linear regressions (R2 > 0.9992). The precision, repeatability, and stability of the ten compounds were below 4.56% in terms of relative standard deviation. The average extraction recovery ranged from 96.53% to 102.69% with a relative standard deviation of 1.14–3.78% for all samples. This study potently contributes to the quantitative evaluation of Ge-Gen-Jiao-Tai-Wan, thereby providing a scientific basis for further studies and clinical application of Ge-Gen-Jiao-Tai-Wan.
      PubDate: Sun, 10 Apr 2022 01:20:01 +000
       
  • A Simple and Sensitive HPLC-MS/MS Assay for the Quantitation of
           Blonanserin and N-Desethyl Blonanserin in Rat Plasma and Its Application
           to Pharmacokinetic Study

    • Abstract: A high-performance liquid chromatographic method coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the analysis of blonanserin and its active metabolite, N-desethyl blonanserin, in rat plasma has been developed and validated. The biological samples were treated by simple direct protein precipitation before separation on an Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column (4.6 × 100 mm, 3.5 μm) with a column temperature of 35°C at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The mobile phase A is a mixture of methanol and water (75 : 25, v/v, 5 mM ammonium formate), and the mobile phase B is acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid. The ratio of mobile phase A to mobile phase B is 15 : 85. Electrospray ionization (ESI) multiple reaction monitoring modes are used for detection, which are m/z 368.10 ⟶ 296.90 (blonanserin), m/z 340.15 ⟶ 297.05(N-desethyl blonanserin), and m/z 348.15⟶ 302.05 (N-desethyl blonanserin-d8). The linear response range was 0.1–100.0 ng/mL for blonanserin and N-desethyl blonanserin. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), calibration curves, carryover, and matrix effects were sufficiently accurate and precise according to the National Medical Products Administration (NMPA) guidelines for bioanalytical method validation. This analytical method was successfully applied in a blonanserin-poloxamer thermosensitive gel pharmacokinetic study in rats.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Apr 2022 07:20:01 +000
       
  • Determination of Glyphosate, Glufosinate, and Their Major Metabolites in
           Tea Infusions by Dual-Channel Capillary Electrophoresis following
           Solid-Phase Extraction

    • Abstract: In this study, two analytical procedures were developed and validated using dual-channel capillary electrophoresis-coupled contactless conductivity detection (CE-C4D) followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) for simultaneous determination of glyphosate (GLYP), glufosinate (GLUF), and their two major metabolites, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and 3-(methylphosphinico) propionic acid (MPPA), respectively, in a popular beverage such as tea infusions. GLYP, GLUF, and AMPA were analyzed in the first channel using background electrolyte (BGE) of 1 mM histidine (His) adjusted to pH 2.75 by acetic acid (Ace). In contrast, MPPA was quantified in the second channel with a BGE of 30 mM His adjusted to pH 6.7 by 3-(N-morpholino) propanesulfonic acid (MOPS) and 10 µM of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). In addition, the samples of tea infusions were treated using SPE with 10 mL of 0.5 mM HCl in methanol as eluent. At the optimized conditions, the method detection limit (MDL) of GLYP, GLUF, AMPA, and MPPA is 0.80, 1.56, 0.56, and 0.54 μg/l, respectively. The methods were then applied to analyze four target compounds in 16 samples of tea infusions. GLYP was found in two infusion samples of oolong tea with concentrations ranging from 5.34 to 10.74 µg/L, and GLUF was recognized in three samples of green tea infusion in the range of 45.1–53.9 µg/L.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Apr 2022 10:50:02 +000
       
  • Home-Made Membraneless Vaporization Gas-Liquid Separator for Colorimetric
           Determination of Ethanol in Alcoholic Beverages

    • Abstract: This work utilized the simplicity of a so-called membraneless vaporization (MBL-VP) unit as a gas separator for the colorimetric determination of ethanol in alcoholic beverages. A beverage sample with a volume of 1 mL was directly injected into a small container which was hung from a lid inside a closed 40 mL reused glass bottle without pretreatment such as distillation. An acidified potassium dichromate (Cr2O72−) acceptor solution, preadded to the glass bottle, was reduced to Chromium (III) ion by the diffusion of vaporized ethanol from the sample. After 5 min, the absorbing solution was collected for colorimetric detection at 590 nm. The unit manually quantifies ethanol in the range 1.0–90% (v/v) with satisfactory interday precision but without matrix effect (recovery 89−109%). The method was validated with the conventional distillation/pycnometer method which showed no significant difference of ethanol contents between those two methods and the declared values of 12 alcoholic beverages, indicating sufficient accuracy. Analyses of alcoholic beverages using this method were successful with benefits of simplicity, cheapness, and less energy consumption.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 10:05:02 +000
       
  • Preparation and Photocatalytic Characterization of Modified Nano
           

    • Abstract: Antibiotics like rifampicin are often persistent in the environment. When entering the water, it causes antimicrobial resistance that affects the ecosystem and accumulates in the aquatic organisms and affects human health through the food chain. In this study, titanium dioxide was doped with neodymium (0.01 to 0.8%) using the sol-gel hydrothermal method. TiO2/Nd was then coated on rice husk ash to produce a modified TiO2/Nd/rice husk ash material containing 0.36% (w/w) Nd. The structural characteristics and photocatalytic properties of the materials were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, forbidden zone energy, and specific surface area. The TiO2/Nd material exhibited a higher photocatalytic decomposition capacity than TiO2 and depended on the Nd content. The rifampicin removal efficiency of TiO2/Nd materials with 0.36 to 0.80% Nd contents was approximately 40% higher than that of TiO2/Nd containing 0.01 to 0.28% Nd. A new photocatalytic TiO2/Nd/rice husk ash material was developed to decompose rifampicin. The rifampicin-degrading efficiency of TiO2/Nd and TiO2/Nd/rice husk ash material reached approximately 86 and 75%, respectively, within 90 min under sunlight. Although a lower efficiency was obtained, the TiO2/Nd/rice husk ash material was selected to degrade rifampicin residue in water via the photocatalytic process (under sunlight) because of its advantages such as requirement of a small amount and easy recovery. In the rifampicin removal process, k values were found to match the zero- and first-order kinetics. In particular, for TiO2/Nd and TiO2/Nd/rice husk ash under solar irradiation, R2 values reached approximately 0.98. These results have been previously published as a preprint.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Mar 2022 08:20:01 +000
       
  • Insights into the Aroma Profile of Sauce-Flavor Baijiu by GC-IMS Combined
           with Multivariate Statistical Analysis

    • Abstract: Aroma is among the principal quality indicators for evaluating Baijiu. The aroma profiles of sauce-flavor Baijiu produced by 10 different manufacturers were determined by GC-IMS. The results showed that GC-IMS could effectively separate the volatile compounds in Baijiu, and a total of 80 consensus volatile compounds were rapidly detected from all samples, among which 29 volatile compounds were identified, including 5 alcohols, 14 esters, 2 acids, 2 ketones, 5 aldehydes, and 1 furan. According to the differences in aroma profile found by multivariate statistical analysis, these sauce-flavor Baijiu produced by 10 different manufacturers can be further divided into three types. The relative odor activity value of the identified volatile compounds indicated that seven volatile compounds contributed most to the aroma of sauce-flavor Baijiu in order of aroma contribution rate, and they were ethyl hexanoate, ethyl pentanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl octanoate (also known as octanoic acid ethyl ester), ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, ethyl butanoate, and ethyl isobutyrate. Correspondingly, the main aromas of these sauce-flavor Baijiu produced by 10 different manufacturers were sweet, fruity, alcoholic, etheral, cognac, rummy, and winey. On the one hand, this study proved that GC-IMS is well adapted to the detection of characteristic volatile aroma compounds and trace compounds in Baijiu, which is of positive significance for improving the aroma fingerprint and database of sauce-flavor Baijiu. On the other hand, it also enriched our knowledge of Baijiu and provided references for the evaluation and regulation of the flavor quality of sauce-flavor Baijiu.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Mar 2022 14:20:01 +000
       
  • Quantification of Myoinositol in Serum by Electrochemical Detection with
           an Unmodified Screen-Printed Carbon Electrode

    • Abstract: Simple, rapid, and accurate detection of myoinositol (MI) concentration in blood is crucial in diagnosing polycystic ovary syndrome, neurological disorders, and cancer. A novel electrochemical detection (IED) method was established to quantify MI in human serum using a disposable unmodified screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) for the first time. MI was detected indirectly by the reaction product of myoinositol dehydrogenase (IDH) and cofactor β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). Good linear calibration curves were obtained at the concentration range from 5.0 μM to 500.0 μM (R2 = 0.9981) with the lower limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of 1.0 μM and 2.5 μM, respectively. Recoveries were calculated at three spiked concentrations, and the values were between 90.3 and 106%, with relative standard deviation values of 3.2–6.2% for intraday precision and 7.1–9.0% for interday precision. The SPCE-electrochemical biosensor is simple, accurate, and without modification, showing great potential for point-of-care testing (POCT) of serum MI in clinical samples.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Mar 2022 12:50:01 +000
       
  • Comparative Pharmacokinetic Study of Three Major Bioactive Components in
           the Normal and Different Courses of Liver-Stagnation and Spleen-Deficiency
           Syndrome Depressive Rats after Intragastric Administration of
           Zhi-Zi-Hou-Po Decoction

    • Abstract: To reveal the pharmacokinetic process of narirutin, naringin, and honokiol in normal and different courses of liver-stagnation and spleen-deficiency syndrome depressive rats after intragastric administration of Zhi-Zi-Hou-Po decoction (ZZHPD), a rapid ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was proposed in this study. Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rat was employed as the depression model. Acetonitrile solution containing 0.1% acetic acid and methyl alcohol-water (50 : 50, ) was chosen as the protein precipitant and redissolve solution severally; a Shim-pack GISS C18 column coupled with 0.1% aqueous acetic acid-acetonitrile in gradient elution was employed to separate the mixed constituents in plasma. The WinNonLin software (version 6.1) was chosen as the analytical tool for the pharmacokinetic parameters. The results indicated that compared with rats in the control group, the sucrose preference, scores in the open-field test, and the concentration of 5-HT in plasma of rats in CUMS and CUMS + ZZHPD treatment groups were lower, while the immobility time in the forced swimming test of rats in these two groups was longer, which implied that the depression model was successful. These behavioral and biochemical indexes of rats above in the CUMS + ZZHPD treatment group were improved after oral administration of ZZHPD, which indicated that the antidepressant effect of ZZHPD was definite. The UHPLC-MS/MS method was stabilized, sensitive, and exclusive, and the extraction recovery and matrix effect of three analytes were all above 89%. The Tmax, AUC, and Cmax of three ingredients in CUMS-induced depression rats were significantly larger than control rats, while these pharmacokinetic parameters in CUMS + ZZHPD treatment rats were decreased significantly compared with CUMS-induced depression rats, which may relate with the changes in physiological function of the gastrointestinal tract and liver in CUMS-induced liver-stagnation and spleen-deficiency syndrome depressive rats. This study provided important information for the clinical rational use of ZZHPD in antidepressant treatment.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Mar 2022 13:20:01 +000
       
  • Photocatalytic Activity of Ti-SBA-15/C3N4 for Degradation of
           2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid in Water under Visible Light

    • Abstract: In the present study, the photocatalytic activity of Ti-SBA-15/C3N4 catalysts was investigated to degrade 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) herbicides in water under visible light irradiation. The catalysts were synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method and characterized by various analytical techniques, including SAXS, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, Zeta potential, PL, FT-IR, XRF, TGA, and UV-DRS. Our study indicated that the 2.5Ti-SBA-15/C3N4 had higher efficiency in the degradation of 2,4-D than Ti-SBA-15 and C3N4. The decomposition of 2,4-D reached 60% under 180 minutes of visible light irradiation at room temperature on 2.5Ti-SBA-15/C3N4. Moreover, the degradation of 2,4-D on Ti-SBA-15/C3N4 was pseudo-first-order kinetics with the highest rate constant (0.00484 min−1), which was much higher than that obtained for other photocatalysts reported recently. Furthermore, the catalyst can be reused at least two times for photodegradation of 2,4-D solution under visible light irradiation within a slight decrease in catalytic activity.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Mar 2022 15:35:04 +000
       
  • A Reasonable Evaluation of Chuanxiong Rhizoma Processing with Wine through
           Comparative Pharmacokinetic Study of Bioactive Components: Dominant Effect
           on Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model Rats

    • Abstract: According to the ancient documents and Chinese herbal medicine processing experience, Chuanxiong Rhizoma was usually processed with yellow rice wine to improve efficacy. However, the relevant mechanisms are still unclear so far. In this study, a validated ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was used to compare the pharmacokinetics of four representative components in middle cerebral artery occlusion rats after oral administration of raw and wine-processed Chuanxiong Rhizoma. The neurobehavioral scores and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining were employed to evaluate the model. Biological samples were prepared by protein precipitation with methanol. All analytes were separated on an ACQUITY BEH C18 column through gradient elution using acetonitrile and 0.01% of formic acid as mobile phase, and the flow rate was 0.3 mL/min. The results showed that the maximum plasma concentrations, the area values under the concentration-time curves of senkyunolide A, and ferulic acid in wine-processed Chuanxiong Rhizoma were all higher than in raw Chuanxiong Rhizoma, which were completely opposite to our previous studies in normal rats. Compared with normal rats, the theory that wine processing could enhance the efficacy of Chuanxiong Rhizoma may be better reflected in model rats.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Mar 2022 12:35:01 +000
       
  • Quantitation of Diclofenac, Tolbutamide, and Warfarin as Typical CYP2C9
           Substrates in Rat Plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and Its Application to Evaluate
           Linderane-Mediated Herb-Drug Interactions

    • Abstract: Linderane (LDR), the main active and distinctive component of L. aggregate, is a mechanism-based inactivator of CYP2C9 in vitro, indicating the occurrence of herb-drug interactions. However, little is known about the changes of the pharmacokinetic properties of the common clinical drugs as CYP2C9 substrates after coadministration with LDR. In this study, a selective and rapid ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) method for the determination of diclofenac, tolbutamide, and warfarin as CYP2C9 substrates in rat plasma has been developed. Chlorzoxazone was employed as an internal standard (IS), and protein precipitation was used for sample preparation. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a UPLC BEH-C18 (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.7 µm) with 0.1% (v:v) formic acid in water (A) and acetonitrile (B) as the mobile phase with gradient elution. The total run time was only 3.8 min. MS analysis was performed under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with electron spray ionization (ESI) operated in the negative mode. The bioanalytical method was validated, and the selectivity, carryover effects, linearity, precision, accuracy, matrix effect, extraction recovery, and stability were acceptable. The validated method was then successfully applied for evaluating the potential pharmacokinetic interactions when LDR was used along with diclofenac, tolbutamide, and warfarin, respectively. Results showed that the Cmax of diclofenac in the treated group was 1287.82 ± 454.16 μg/L, which was about 5-fold of that in the control group . The Cmax of tolbutamide in the treated group was 60.70 ± 10.70 mg/L, which was significantly decreased by about 25% when compared with the control group . The Vd of warfarin in the treated group was obviously increased, which was about 1.4-fold of that in the control group .
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Mar 2022 03:05:00 +000
       
  • Quality Evaluation of Pulsatilla chinensis Total Saponin Extracts via
           Quantitative Analysis of Multicomponents by Single Marker Method Combined
           with Systematic Quantified Fingerprint Method

    • Abstract: Chinese medicine extracts are complex in composition. The combination of the quantitative analysis of multicomponents by single marker (QAMS) and the systematic quantified fingerprint method (SQFM) can be used for better quantitative analysis. The contents of Pulsatilla saponin D, Pulsatilla saponin A, Pulsatilla saponin F, and oleanolic acid 3-o-β-d-pyranoglucosyl-(1⟶4)-β-d-pyranoglucosyl-(1⟶3)-α-l-pyridine rhamnosyl-(1⟶2)-α-l-pyranosine arabinoside (B9) were determined by HPLC and QAMS. The methodological verification was carried out. The relative correction factor (RCF) was calculated, and the reproducibility of the RCF was investigated. The experimental results of the external standard method (ESM) and the QAMS were compared. Meanwhile, the fingerprint of the extract of Pulsatilla chinensis total saponins was established and the quality of the extract was evaluated by SQFM and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The results showed that there was no significant difference between the QAMS and ESM. QAMS could be used for the rapid determination of various saponins in the extract of Pulsatilla chinensis. SQFM and HCA could objectively and comprehensively reflect the overall quality difference of total saponin extract of Pulsatilla chinensis. Therefore, QAMS and SQFM could provide a more convenient and effective selection for the quality evaluation of total saponin extract from this plant.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Mar 2022 15:50:01 +000
       
  • Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation of Chemical Constituents from
           Shuanghuanglian Injection Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    • Abstract: By employing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), we implemented a chemical research on Shuanghuanglian injection (SHLI) and identified 17 components, including eight primary metabolites and nine secondary metabolites. Guided by the approach of network pharmacology, the potential activities were briefly predicted for seven primary metabolites except for formic acid, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidation, and cardiovascular protection. The focused primary metabolites were quantified by a proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) method, which was verified with good linearity and satisfactory precision, repeatability, stability, and accuracy (except for myo-inositol with mean recovery at 135.78%). Based on the successfully established method, seven primary metabolites were effectively quantified with a slight fluctuation in 20 batches of SHLIs. The average total content of these compounds was 6.85 mg/mL, accounting for 24.84% in total solid of SHLI. This research provides an alternative method for analysis of primary metabolites and contributes to the quality control of SHLI.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Mar 2022 04:35:01 +000
       
  • Semiconducting Carbon Nanotube-Based Nanodevices for Monitoring the
           Effects of Chlorphenamine on the Activities of Intracellular Ca2+ Stores

    • Abstract: We report a flexible and noninvasive method based on field-effect transistors hybridizing semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes for monitoring the effects of histamine on Ca2+ release from the intracellular stores of a nonexcitable cell. These nanodevices allowed us to evaluate the real-time electrophysiological activities of HeLa cells under the stimulation of histamine via the recording of the conductance changes of the devices. These changes resulted from the binding of histamine to its receptor type 1 on the HeLa cell membrane. Moreover, the effects of chlorphenamine, an antihistamine, on the electrophysiological activities of a single HeLa cell were also evaluated, indicating that the pretreatment of the cell with chlorpheniramine decreased intracellular Ca2+ release. Significantly, we only utilized a single nanodevice to perform the measurements for multiple cells pretreated with various concentrations of chlorphenamine. This enabled the statistically meaningful analysis of drug effects on cells without errors from device variations. Obtained results indicated the novel advantages of our method such as real-time monitoring and quantitative capability. Our devices, therefore, can be efficient tools for biomedical applications such as electrophysiology research and drug screening.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Mar 2022 15:50:01 +000
       
  • Quality Evaluation of Decoction Pieces of Gardeniae Fructus Based on
           Qualitative Analysis of the HPLC Fingerprint and Triple-Q-TOF-MS/MS
           Combined with Quantitative Analysis of 12 Representative Components

    • Abstract: In this study, quality evaluation (QE) of 40 batches of decoction pieces of Gardeniae Fructus (GF) produced by different manufacturers of herbal pieces was performed by qualitative analysis of the HPLC fingerprint and ultra-fast liquid chromatography (UFLC)-triple-Q-TOF-MS/MS combined with quantitative analysis of multiple components, which we established previously for QE of traditional medicine. First, HPLC fingerprints of 40 samples were determined, and the common peaks in the reference fingerprint were assigned. Second, the components of the common peaks in the HPLC fingerprints were identified by UFLC-triple-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Finally, the contents of the components confirmed by reference substances were measured. The results showed that there were 28 common peaks in the HPLC fingerprints of 40 samples. The components of these 28 common peaks were identified as 13 iridoids, 4 crocins, 7 monocyclic monoterpenoids, 3 organic acids, and 1 flavonoid. Of these, a total of 12 components, including 7 iridoids of geniposide, shanzhiside, geniposidic acid, deacetyl asperulosidic acid methyl ester, gardenoside, scandoside methyl ester, and genipin gentiobioside, 2 crocins such as crocin I and crocin II, 1 monocyclic monoterpenoid of jasminoside B, 1 organic acid of chlorogenic acid, and 1 flavonoid of rutin, were unambiguously identified by comparison with reference substances. There were certain differences in the contents of these 12 components among 40 samples. The geniposide content ranged from 37.917 to 72.216 mg/g, and the total content of the 7 iridoids ranged from 59.931 to 94.314 mg/g.
      PubDate: Sat, 26 Feb 2022 18:35:02 +000
       
  • A Novel Analysis Method for Simultaneous Determination of 31 Pesticides by
           High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Ginseng
           

    • Abstract: Ginseng is a perennial herb with a long growth cycle and is known to easily accumulate pesticides during its growth process, seriously threatening people's health. Therefore, to ensure safe consumption, it is necessary to detect and monitor pesticide residues in ginseng. In this study, a novel analysis method was established for simultaneous determination of 31 pesticides in ginseng by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ginseng samples were extracted using acetonitrile, cleaned up by primary secondary amine (PSA) solid-phase extraction column eluted with acetonitrile-toluene, and then detected in multiple reaction mode (MRM). The calibration curves of target compounds were linear in the range of 0.005–1.0 mg/L, with correlation coefficients greater than 0.9921. The limits of detection of all the pesticides in ginseng were between 4.4×10−5 and 1.6 × 10−2 mg/kg. For fresh ginseng, the average recoveries ranged from 72.1 to 111.6%, and the relative standard deviations were 1.3–12.2%. For dry ginseng, the average recoveries were 74.3–108.3%, and the relative standard deviations were 0.9–14.9%. The residual concentrations of some pesticides in real samples were greater than the maximum residue limit (MRL) for European Union (EU). The method established here is rapid and simple with high sensitivity and good reproducibility, which is sensitive in the residue analysis of many pesticides in ginseng.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Feb 2022 13:50:02 +000
       
  • Rapid Identification of Characteristic Chemical Constituents of Panax
           ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, and Panax japonicus Using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS

    • Abstract: Saponins are the main active components in Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. (PG), Panax quinquefolius L. (PQ), and Panax japonicus C. A. Mey. (PJ), which belong to the genus Panax in the Araliaceae family. Because the chemical components in the three species are similar, they are often mixed and misused in functional foods and pharmaceuticals applications. Therefore, it is urgent to establish a method to quickly distinguish among PG, PQ, and PJ. Ultraperformance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) was combined with data postprocessing to identify the main characteristic fragments (CFs) and the related neutral losses (NLs) of protopanaxadiol (PPD), protopanaxatriol (PPT), oleanolic acid (OLE), and ocotillol- (OCO-) type saponins. By comparing the mass spectral data, it was possible to rapidly classify and identify saponins in PG, PQ, and PJ. A total of twenty-three chemical components were identified in the PG samples, twenty-three components were identified in the PQ samples, and twenty-seven components were identified in the PJ samples. Among them, OCO-type saponins were characteristic of PQ and PJ. Ginsenoside Rf, which was absent from PQ, allowed for differentiation between PQ and PJ. The CFs and NLs in the mass spectra of the characteristic components of PG, PQ, and PJ allowed for the rapid classification and identification of these species. Additionally, these results provide technical support for the quality evaluation of Chinese herbal medicine and for constructing a scientific regulatory system.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Feb 2022 17:35:00 +000
       
  • Adsorptive Removal of Azo Dye New Coccine Using High-Performance
           Adsorbent-Based Polycation-Modified Nano-Alpha Alumina Particles

    • Abstract: The azo dyes new coccine (NCC) were successfully removed through the adsorption onto PVBTAC-modified α-Al2O3 particles. The optimal conditions of both the surface modification by PVBTAC adsorption and the NCC adsorption were thoroughly investigated. Formerly, polycations PVBTAC were adsorbed onto the nanosized α-Al2O3 particles at 8, NaCl 100 mM, with a contact time of 2 h, and initial concentration of 1000 ppm to modify the α-Al2O3 surface. Latterly, the NCC adsorptive removal was conducted at 8, NaCl 10 mM, α-Al2O3 adsorbent dosage of 3 mg mL−1, and a contact time of 45 min. Interestingly, the optimal of 8 potentially applies to treat real wastewater as the environmental range is often about 7–8. High removal efficiency and adsorption capacity of the NCC azo dyes were, respectively, found to be approximately 95% and 3.17 mg g−1 with an initial NCC concentration of 10 ppm. The NCC adsorption on the modified α-Al2O3 particles was well fitted with a Freundlich model isotherm. A pseudo-second kinetic was more suitable for the NCC adsorption on the PVBTAC-modified α-Al2O3 surface than a pseudo-first kinetic. The NCC adsorptive removal kinetic was also affirmed by the FT-IR spectra, based especially on the changes of functional group stretch vibrations of −SO3− group in the NCC molecules and −N+(CH3)3 group in the PVBTAC molecules. The high reusability of the α-Al2O3 particles was proved to be higher than 50% after four generation times.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Feb 2022 13:20:00 +000
       
  • Advanced Solid-Phase Microextraction Techniques and Related Automation: A
           Review of Commercially Available Technologies

    • Abstract: The solid-phase microextraction (SPME), invented by Pawliszyn in 1989, today has a renewed and growing use and interest in the scientific community with fourteen techniques currently available on the market. The miniaturization of traditional sample preparation devices fulfills the new request of an environmental friendly analytical chemistry. The recent upswing of these solid-phase microextraction technologies has brought new availability and range of robotic automation. The microextraction solutions propose today on the market can cover a wide variety of analytical fields and applications. This review reports on the state-of-the-art innovative solid-phase microextraction techniques, especially those used for chromatographic separation and mass-spectrometric detection, given the recent improvements in availability and range of automation techniques. The progressively implemented solid-phase microextraction techniques and related automated commercially available devices are classified and described to offer a valuable tool to summarize their potential combinations to face all the laboratories requirements in terms of analytical applications, robustness, sensitivity, and throughput.
      PubDate: Fri, 04 Feb 2022 14:50:00 +000
       
 
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Heriot-Watt University
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