Subjects -> PHYSICS (Total: 857 journals)
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ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM (10 journals)

Showing 1 - 10 of 10 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Electromagnetics     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Letters on Electromagnetic Compatibility Practice and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Bioelectromagnetism     Open Access  
International Journal of Electromagnetics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Electroceramics     Hybrid Journal  
Magnetochemistry     Open Access  
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IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.703
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 30  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0018-9375
Published by IEEE Homepage  [228 journals]
  • IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Society Information

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      Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility Information for Authors

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      Abstract: These instructions give guidelines for preparing papers for this publication. Presents information for authors publishing in this journal.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Institutional Listings

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      Abstract: Presents a listing of institutions relevant for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • 2022 Index IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility Vol. 64

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      Pages: 1 - 45
      Abstract: Presents the 2022 author/subject index for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Editorial Introduction to the Special Issue on Electrostatic Discharge and
           Immunity—From IC to System

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      Authors: Ming-Dou Ker;David Pommerenke;
      Pages: 1783 - 1784
      Abstract: The papers in this special issue focus on scientific contributions in the field of electrostatic discharge (ESD) and immunity—from integrated circuits (ICs) to system. ESD can damage or disrupt electronic systems. With continued scaling of ICs, a combined approach of IC and system forms the best path for understanding and ensuring robustness. This relates to the IC itself: input/output (I/O) structures, power distribution network (PDN), interfaces between IP blocks, as well as the interaction of external protection devices with internal ESD protection structures during system level stress. To effectively protect the ICs fabricated in the advanced nanoscale CMOS processes, the turn-on speed of ESD protection devices must be enhanced to quickly discharge ESD current before the internal circuits are damaged by ESD stresses. Not only component level ESD events, the system level ESD test specified in the IEC 61000-4-2 standard has been used to verify ESD immunity of the microelectronics products. During system level ESD testing, the ESD problems relates to soft failures. So far, only few models for soft failures have been reported. It becomes visible that well designed hard failure protection can also reduce the likelihood of soft failures as most of the current is diverted from the IC and will not disturb the PDN of the IC. ESD robustness in the system level and component level are both important to meet the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) regulations and/or standards in the industry.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Latch-Up Prevention With Autodetector Circuit to Stop Latch-Up Occurrence
           in CMOS-Integrated Circuits

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      Authors: Zi-Hong Jiang;Ming-Dou Ker;
      Pages: 1785 - 1792
      Abstract: Due to the parasitic silicon-controlled-rectifier structure, latch-up issues have been an inherent problem with bulk CMOS ICs. In this work, a novel design of an autodetector circuit to stop latch-up occurrence for latch-up prevention was proposed and successfully verified in a 0.18-μm 1.8/3.3-V CMOS technology. By adding a hole/electron detector between the input/output (I/O) pads and internal circuitry, it is used to detect the latch-up trigger current injected toward internal circuits. When an abnormal current is injected from the I/O pads to the internal circuits, this event can be detected by the proposed autodetector circuit.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • ESD-Event Detector for ESD Control Applications in Semiconductor
           Manufacturing Factories

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      Authors: I-Hsuan Wu;Ming-Dou Ker;
      Pages: 1793 - 1801
      Abstract: An electrostatic discharge (ESD)-event detector has been designed and fabricated in a single chip to detect and alarm the ESD events in semiconductor or integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing environments. The experiment measured results showed that the peak-to-peak voltage of the detected signal during an ESD event has a strong correlation with its ESD-stress voltage level. The proposed ESD-event detector can determine a detected signal to be an ESD pulse if its signal amplitude is higher than the settable threshold and its duration time is under 500 ns. The ESD-event detector circuit, including a 450 MHz logarithmic amplifier, a comparator, and a time discriminator, has been implemented in a single chip with a total silicon area of only 693 × 563 μ${mathbf{m}}^2$ and fabricated by 0.18-μm CMOS process. The detector can detect high-frequency transient signals up to 450 MHz, which has been successfully verified in the field tests by detecting the signals generated from the ESD generators, the human-body model tester, and the field-induced charged-device model tester. The proposed ESD-event detector can efficiently perform the real-time ESD monitoring applications in the IC and semiconductor manufacturing factories.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Characterization and Modeling of Commercial ICs for System-Efficient ESD
           Design

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      Authors: Zhekun Peng;Yang Xu;Manje Yea;Sergej Bub;Steffen Holland;DongHyun Kim;David Pommerenke;Daryl G. Beetner;
      Pages: 1802 - 1811
      Abstract: Optimizing electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection strategies requires simulation models of both on- and off-die ESD devices, but detailed information about on-die ESD protection is rarely available. Methods are proposed in the following paper to characterize and model the on-chip ESD protection using only measurements, with minimal a priori information about how the protection is implemented. The characterization targets a three-terminal (rather than the traditional two-terminal) protection structure, including the I/O, Vdd, Vss pins, and allows for current to flow between multiple pins simultaneously. A previously-developed behavioral model for TVS devices is used to capture the ESD behavior of the integrated circuit (IC), including its linear, quasi-static, and transient nonlinear response. The approach is used to model the equivalent current that flows through the on-chip ESD protection of two commercial ICs. The model of the on-chip ESD protection is combined with a behavioral model of an off-chip transient voltage suppressor to demonstrate their combined performance in a system-efficient ESD design (SEED) simulation. The model is validated both when the IC is powered-off and powered-on. The SEED model was able to predict quasistatic and peak voltages and currents at the IC with less than a 10% error.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Modular Measurement System for System-Efficient ESD Design on System and
           Component Level

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      Authors: Lucas Speckbacher;Amin Pak;Mehdi Gholizadeh;Seyed Mostafa Mousavi;David Johannes Pommerenke;Harald Gossner;
      Pages: 1812 - 1819
      Abstract: For the electrostatic discharge (ESD) characterization of components or systems, complex measurements of voltages and currents are required. The measurements are then used to characterize, model, and verify simulations. Both physical damage and upset are expected; however, performing these experiments on evaluation boards is often not suitable since the required current and voltage ports are not integrated. Furthermore, repeatedly reworking the integrated circuit (IC) will quickly destroy the evaluation board. A new modular experimental platform was therefore developed to flexibly perform such complex measurements. The modularity greatly simplifies measurements and allows for replacement of damaged components. The system consists of injection modules, such as universal serial bus (USB) and sub miniature version A (SMA) connections, excitation modules, such as a transmission line pulse and an ESD generator, modules for voltage and current measurements for characterization of transient voltage suppressor diodes and ICs, modules carrying passive channels, and active modules for the ICs being characterized. As active parts, which serve as device under tests, a set of USB 3.1 repeaters, controller area network (CAN) bus, and radio frequency (RF) front-end ICs are added to individual modules. The modules themselves, their characterization, and usage are explained in this article.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Circuit-Aided Dummy Design for Human Body-Worn ESD Application

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      Authors: Guang-Xiao Luo;Ke Huang;David Pommerenke;
      Pages: 1820 - 1828
      Abstract: Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is considered for different postures of the body and for different positions of a device under test (DUT). These scenarios lead to large variations in peak discharge currents, and a traditional commercial ESD generator cannot test these satisfactorily. Instead of using actual humans, a full-size dummy has been designed for different body-worn ESD test scenarios, its discharge currents and fields are verified by comparing the measurement results with those taken from volunteers. A wearable DUT on the wrist, elbow, and waist is taken into consideration to compare the characteristics of the dummy to those of the real human body. Furthermore, a circuit model is proposed to aid in understanding the dummy design and the different body-worn scenarios. Finally, the effect of an external connection with different waist positions is analyzed and discussed in a more complex application scenario.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Closing the Gap-I: Analytical Methods to Predict the Electrical Effects of
           Spacecraft Discharges

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      Authors: Michael Bodeau;Nina Altshuler;
      Pages: 1829 - 1846
      Abstract: Results of a cross-industry survey on the maturity of spacecraft charging technology were recently published. The consensus opinion is that the technology for predicting when and how satellites discharge and how those discharges interact with satellite electronics is lacking and is the highest priority gap that industry needs to be addressed. This article reviews analysis models that illustrate the most significant features of the discharge process and its effects on nearby wiring and terminal circuits that have to be addressed in analytical or numerical modeling. Unfortunately, significant gaps still remain in our ability to model all of the effects of discharges. Recommendations for future article to close those gaps are given. In the meantime, defining the effects of discharges requires testing. Test methods intended to close that gap are reviewed in a companion paper.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Accurate and Efficient Computation of System-Level ESD Noise Waveforms in
           ISO 10605 Standard Using Decomposition Method and Split-Domain Approach

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      Authors: Byungjin Bae;Kyungjin Kwak;Joosung Hwang;Euihyuk Kim;Jingook Kim;
      Pages: 1847 - 1858
      Abstract: In this article, an accurate and efficient computational method of system-level electrostatic discharge (ESD) noise waveforms in a field-coupled ESD test of the ISO 10605 standard using a 3-D full-wave solver is proposed. To apply efficient computational methods to the ESD test simulation, the split-domain approach and decomposition method are first individually validated with a simple structure. Next, a method simultaneously using the decomposition method and split-domain approach is proposed and validated with the separately given field source data. Using the proposed method with the measured electromagnetic fields radiated from an ESD generator, the ESD noise waveforms in the ISO 10605 field-coupled ESD test are accurately and efficiently computed by considering not only the ESD current coupling but also the radiated coupling from the ESD generator.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • A Standalone Graph-Theory Based Tool for Full-Chip ESD Verification

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      Authors: Vlatko Galić;Aarnout Wieers;Renaud Gillon;Adrijan Barić;
      Pages: 1859 - 1870
      Abstract: In this article, a novel flow of the automatic electrostatic discharge (ESD) verification is presented. A basic overview of the most important methodology steps is shown, with more detailed explanation of breaking voltage (BV) model generation. Based on transmission line pulsing measurements, the BV models are used for modeling devices under ESD stress conditions. The principle behind the custom-made tool ESDh is disclosed. Being based on graph-theory algorithm, specifically the Floyd-Warshall algorithm, the tool detects and reconstructs current paths between any node-to-node pair of the integrated circuit (IC). In addition, ESDh can calculate the full current-voltage (IV curve) of any current path. Consequently, this approach is able to find failing paths, failing devices, and failing levels of tested IC. As the method in this work uses the full netlist, without dismissing the core circuitry, ESDh can be used for verifying the self-protection levels of the IC.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Closing the Gap-II: Test Approaches to Determine the Electrical Effects of
           Spacecraft Discharges

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      Authors: Michael Bodeau;Nina Altshuler;Robert Meloy;
      Pages: 1871 - 1882
      Abstract: Results of a cross-industry survey on the maturity of spacecraft charging technology were recently published. The consensus opinion is that the technology for predicting when and how satellites discharge and how those discharges interact with satellite electronics is lacking and is the highest priority gap that industry needs addressed. This article reviews test methods to measure the directly and indirectly induced discharge effects on electronic circuits. These methods are limited to test articles small enough to fit into existing chambers, which are smaller than typical spacecraft discharge sources and their potential victims. Complimentary analysis methods, reviewed in a companion paper, are required to scale the subscale test results to full size flight hardware. Comparisons of data sets will show that variations of geometry and size can have significant influence on some induced effects, which means that while tests can be definitive, the results cannot be readily generalized to other designs.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • System-Level ESD-Induced Voltage Fluctuation to the Power of Integrated
           Circuits on System Board

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      Authors: Jian-Hsing Lee;Karuna Nidhi;Ming-Dou Ker;
      Pages: 1883 - 1889
      Abstract: Based on the voltage and current waveforms, the mechanism of the system-level electrostatic-discharge (ESD) induced the voltage fluctuation to the power of integrated circuits (ICs) on system board is studied. When a contact discharge ESD test is performed at a connector pin, which is terminated with an I/O pin of an IC, not all the current from the system-level ESD may flow through the IC to the ground of the system board. So, the remaining currents can only flow through the power line of the ICs and the connection wire into the power supply to the ground. The power supply has the feedback and pulsewidth modulation circuits to regulate its output voltage. Therefore, the output current of the power supply will interact with the remnant current from the ICs on system board, resulting in the current flowing through the connection wire in the microelectronics system back and forth. Hence, the power of system board will be pulled up and down by the connection wire based on L·(dI/dt), since it acts as an inductor during the alternating current. With the voltage swinging up and down, the p-n junctions in the power domain seems to be driven into the avalanche breakdown or forwarded to generate a lot of electrons and holes inside the ICs, leading to the latch-up event at the low latch-up immunity region.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Investigation of Frequency Models to Predict Dynamic Behavior of ESD
           Protection Networks

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      Authors: Fabrice Caignet;François Ruffat;Alexandre Boyer;Guillaume Mejecaze;Fabien Escudié;Fréderic Puybaret;
      Pages: 1890 - 1898
      Abstract: With the shrinking dimension of technologies and safety requirements, electrostatic discharge (ESD) protections play a more and more important role. Consequently, the prediction of the transient behavior's protection network is becoming difficult for system level designers in order to guarantee systems safety. A model reproducing the turn-on behavior is needed to obtain a precise simulation's protection strategy network, especially during the protection triggering. In this article, we propose a complete measurement and computation setup to access an equivalent frequency model of devices under strong pulse injections for a rapid model construction. Details of the measurement and data computation to obtain a frequency model using a transmission line pulse generator combined with time-domain reflectometry measurement will be provided. To validate our proposed frequency model, a comparison between the measurements and simulations is first performed on passive and linear components, and then on two protection devices (transient voltage suppressor). A simulation on a protection network, at the board level, will show that the combination of the frequency models could be done to predict its response to ESD pulse with an acceptable precision, without the tedious step of component modeling.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • A Comparison of State-of-the-Art Evaluation Criteria for Field Uniformity
           Assessment

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      Authors: Lijun Yao;Wenjian Lan;Dan Li;Man Luo;
      Pages: 1899 - 1905
      Abstract: Field uniformity is essential in guaranteeing the validity of test results for electromagnetic field facilities. And, its evaluation has attracted a great deal of attention in various electromagnetic compatibility test standards and researches. Thus, this leads to many different rules to assess the important performance, which inevitably prone to bring some inconvenience in understanding, application, calculation or evaluation, in particular, not much relative words could not be found in the context. In this article, the relationship and rationale of these criteria are clarified and elucidated by statistical analysis and comparison. The discussions and conclusions are advantageous to help evaluate the field uniformity more clearly and accurately.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Analysis of Higher-Order Mode Effects in the Resistively Loaded Monocone
           TEM Cell

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      Authors: Yijie Gu;Da Li;Hanzhi Ma;Yan Li;Ling Zhang;Ruifeng Li;Ning Jin;Ran Hao;Er-Ping Li;
      Pages: 1906 - 1914
      Abstract: This article proposes a method to obtain the analytic solution of electromagnetic field inside the practical finite monocone transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cell. The higher-order modes existing in a practical monocone TEM cell are solved and analyzed for the first time, which explains the field distortion corresponding to the ideal standard field. The proportionality factors of these modes are determined by comparison with simulation results. The calculation results (i.e., sum of modes) are consistent with simulation and experimentally validated. This work can be used for monocone design of eliminating higher-order modes and expanding the time window, and mode analysis for other kinds of TEM cells.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Efficient Computation of Electromagnetic Coupling From Various Types of
           Antennas Based on Reciprocity Theorem

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      Authors: Kyungjin Kwak;Hwansoo Moon;Cheolhan Kim;Jingook Kim;
      Pages: 1915 - 1926
      Abstract: In the design of complex electronic systems, such as electric vehicles, electromagnetic coupling between a specific component and an antenna should be quantitatively estimated according to the radiated emission (RE) and radiated immunity (RI) standards. However, full-wave electromagnetic simulations of complex systems and antennas in a large space take much time and effort. The decomposition method based on reciprocity and Huygens's principle, which enables the separate analysis of source and victim parts, has been previously proposed for efficient analysis of coupling to a lumped port of the victim antenna. In this article, the decomposition method along with the extraction of an S-parameter block is extended to handle the dominant transverse electric mode in a waveguide antenna. The proposed method removes the difficulty and uncertainty in the modeling process of a commercial waveguide antenna. Also, while applying the decomposition method, Huygens's principle is additionally applied to further reduce the full-wave simulation time of a large empty space. The proposed methods are validated with full-wave electromagnetic simulations, and also experimentally applied to RI estimation. The proposed time-efficient techniques can realize the full-wave computation of RE and RI for real complicated systems and commercial antennas.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • How Far Is the Far Field?

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      Authors: John S. Asvestas;
      Pages: 1927 - 1931
      Abstract: We present a set of formulas for determining the far-field region of a radiator, or scatterer, by examining the integral representation of the magnetic field scattered by a thin straight wire. These formulas are the result of bounding the errors in magnitude and phase of the approximation of the gradient of the free-space Green's function in the far field. Since the error requirements vary from one case to the next, the dependence on them shows that the far field is not a hard-wired parameter, but depends on the sensitivity of a specific case to magnitude and phase errors.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Prediction of Breakdown Voltage of Equipotential Live-Line Work Air Gaps
           in Transmission Lines: A Computational Discharge Model

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      Authors: Jiachen Gao;Linong Wang;Shaocheng Wu;Kai Liu;Yong Peng;Jianben Liu;Yan Liu;
      Pages: 1932 - 1940
      Abstract: Equipotential live-line work (EPLW) is an indispensable technology to ensure the power supply. Due to the huge risks of the strong electric field, the distance of the EPLW air gap should be greater than the minimum approach distance (MAD). MAD is determined by calculating the hazard probability according to the characteristics of the switching overvoltage and the 50% breakdown voltage of EPLW gaps. Currently, the 50% breakdown voltage is obtained by a great many actual-size discharge tests, which costs a large amount of time and workforce. In this article, a computational discharge model was presented to solve the problem. First, the discharge process of EPLW air gap was analyzed based on the test experience. Subsequently, according to each stage of the discharge process, a computational discharge model for predicting the 50% breakdown voltage of EPLW gaps was presented. Finally, the computational discharge model was applied to EPLW air gaps of ±800 kV UHVDC and 1000 kV UHVAC transmission lines. The calculated results agreed well with the test results, and the errors did not exceed 6%. This research can provide theoretical support for the transmission line design and lineman safety protection.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • A Novel Remote Visualization of Screen Images Against High-Resolution
           Display With Divided Screens Focusing on the Difference of Transfer
           Function of Multiple Emanations

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      Authors: Taiki Kitazawa;Kimihiro Arai;Youngwoo Kim;Daisuke Fujimoto;Yuichi Hayashi;
      Pages: 1941 - 1948
      Abstract: Electromagnetic (EM) remote visualization of screen images attacks (RVSIAs) is among the most actively researched topics in hardware security. Target displays are being developed daily; for example, recently developed high-resolution displays have multiple divided areas on the screen, and each area transmits different pixel information. In this case, it is difficult to reconstruct the screen using the conventional methods because the target screen information is leaked by multiple lines at the same frequency and timing, and multiple screen information is mixed into the EM waves. By contrast, in this article, we propose a novel RVSIA method that focuses on the difference in the transfer functions of multiple emanations from a high-resolution display. Considering the structure and signal transmission method of recent high-resolution displays, the proposed attack method observes leaked EM waves from multiple observation positions and alters the receiving frequencies of the receiver. For the first time, we have been able to separate multiple screen information contained in leaked EM waves using an independent component analysis method. In the experiments, we applied the proposed method to an actual laptop PC that divides the screen into multiple areas. As a result, it was possible to reconstruct screen information using the proposed attack method. Thus, the proposed method enables successful attacks against recent high-resolution displays. Furthermore, the measurement equipment employed remains similar to those utilized in the conventional attacks.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Symbol Diversity as a Means to Make PAM-4 Modulation More Resilient in
           Harsh Electromagnetic Environments

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      Authors: Hassan Tirmizi;Dries Vanoost;Jonas Lannoo;Guy A. E. Vandenbosch;Davy Pissoort;
      Pages: 1949 - 1957
      Abstract: In this article, symbol diversity is presented for the pulse amplitude modulation PAM-4 encoding scheme. This technique is implemented in order to incorporate electromagnetic resilience in a triple modular redundant communication channel that is subjected to electromagnetic disturbances in reverberant environments. An in-depth numerical study is carried out in light of new electromagnetic disturbance condition monitoring definitions that provide a better insight into the actual state of the system. An explanation of the different fault mechanisms based on the new definitions is provided for the proposed PAM-4 symbol diversity setup and is compared with an undiverse PAM-4 system with a two-out-of-three majority voter. The results show that the proposed symbol diversity technique is quite an effective measure for incorporating fault tolerance in the system design.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Natural-Modes Expansion of Microwave Fields Emitted by Ultra-Short Pulse
           Laser Illumination of a Conducting Wire

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      Authors: Ra'id S. Awadallah;Brian B. Gibbons;Aram A. Vartanyan;Rajesh Thapa;Stefan R. Allen;Andy J. Goers;
      Pages: 1958 - 1968
      Abstract: We investigate microwave emissions caused by the neutralizing current (NC) induced in a metallic wire by ultrashort pulse laser (USPL) illumination at intensities below $sim !{10}^{14}mathrm{W}/mathrm{c}{mathrm{m}}^2$. The NC flows on the object to neutralize positive charge induced by electron ejection from the illuminated spot. The model employs the natural-mode expansion also known as the singularity expansion (SE) originally devised by C. Baum to expand the NC in terms of the natural current modes flowing on the wire. The SE technique generally applies to metallic and nonmetallic objects with general shapes. However, the application of this method to objects of general shapes and material composition requires the use of numerical methods, such as the moment method or the finite-element method, and can be computationally intensive. The objective of this article is to demonstrate that the NC current constitutes a main contribution to the USPL-induced microwave emissions, even at subrelativistic intensities and ambient conditions. To elucidate the physical phenomenon while sidestepping daunting numerical simulations, this demonstration is accomplished by applying the SE to the NC induced on a simple conducting wire where a quasi-closed form solution is available. As a model validation, we present comparisons between radiated fields predicted by the model and those measured by a laboratory.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Induced Electric Field in Learning-Based Head Models With Smooth
           Conductivity for Exposure to Uniform Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields

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      Authors: Yinliang Diao;Essam A. Rashed;Akimasa Hirata;
      Pages: 1969 - 1977
      Abstract: Computational human models generated from medical images have been widely used to assess induced electric field for exposure to electromagnetic field. Traditional methods to develop human models include tissue segmentation, which involves huge effort in identifying tissues from medical images. When such models are applied to low-frequency electromagnetic dosimetry, computational artifacts result in substantial error. Deep learning techniques have been utilized to map medical images directly to tissue electrical conductivity, generating human models with smooth transitions in tissue conductivity across tissue boundaries and even within the same tissue. In this study, eight head models with smoothed conductivities were generated using the deep learning network. The induced electric fields in the models were assessed for exposure to a uniform low-frequency magnetic field and were compared with traditional segmented models. Computational results showed that the induced electric field distributions in learning-based and segmented models were consistent, and the former was smoother. The differences in the 99th to 99.99th percentile values between nonuniform and segmented models were within 8% and 13% for gray and white matter, respectively. The staircasing errors were suppressed in the learning-based models because of the smooth transition of the conductivity values, especially at the tissue interface. The intersubject variation of the maximum electric fields was smaller for the nonuniform models than for the segmented models, with a relative standard deviation within 12% for nonuniform models and 22% for segmented models. This difference is much smaller than the reduction factor of 3 associated with the numerical uncertainty set in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection 2010 guidelines. Our findings could be helpful in deriving appropriate reduction factor in internati-nal guidelines, which is used for setting the limit from the threshold of adverse health effects.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • An Area-Averaged Conformal Technique for the Electromagnetic Simulations
           of Debye Medium

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      Authors: Wen Shi;Jian Wang;Ying Wang;Jian-Jian Huo;Wen-Yan Yin;
      Pages: 1978 - 1985
      Abstract: A novel area-averaged dielectric conformal technique combined with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method has been investigated in accuracy and efficiency for modeling curved dispersive medium objects in this article. The proposed method utilizes an effective average dielectric constant, which is derived by area averages of different dielectric regions in irregular cells cut by curved surfaces, to modify the magnetic field updating equations in auxiliary differential equation FDTD method. The accuracy and efficiency of the method are verified by comparing the radar cross section results produced by the method of moments and the FDTD method with very fine meshes, respectively. Numerical results show that good agreements can be achieved by using coarse mesh size (12 cells per wavelength). Further, the proposed method is devoted to analyzing the bio-electromagnetic effects of a dispersive human body in a vehicle platform to show its good ability in solving such complex problems.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Methods and Practices for In Situ Measurements of RF EMF Exposure From 5G
           Millimeter Wave Base Stations

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      Authors: Davide Colombi;Fatemeh Ghasemifard;Paramananda Joshi;Bo Xu;Carla Di Paola;Christer Törnevik;
      Pages: 1986 - 1993
      Abstract: In this article, a methodology for in situ measurements of the radio frequency electromagnetic fields exposure from 5G base stations (BSs) operating at millimeter wave (mmW) frequencies is presented. Measurements were performed in proximity of two BSs operating around 28 and 39 GHz. The measured power density from the BSs when extrapolated for the maximum transmit power was below 30 mW/m2 at a distance of about 10 m (i.e., below 1% of the ICNIRP limits). A systematic analysis of the challenges related to in situ measurements of 5G mmW exposure is conducted for the first time. It was found that exposure measurement procedures developed for frequencies below 6 GHz (such as those based on extrapolation of the synchronization signal block) are generally applicable also at mmW. When in line-of-sight, dual-polarized directional antennas can be used to accurately characterize the maximum exposure. The angular variation of the incident power density at the measurement location was studied by means of a motor-controlled panorama tilt unit. At the same time, a network counter was used to monitor the directional time-averaged power transmitted by the BS. The study is of importance to standardization committees addressing measurement techniques to assess exposure from mobile networks.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Model of Cumulation of Man-Made Radio Noise, Applied to Sources of
           Emissions Limited by EMC Standards, and Compared With Noise Measurements

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      Authors: T.W.H. Koos Fockens;Frank Leferink;
      Pages: 1994 - 2004
      Abstract: In this article, a theoretical model on the cumulation of noise, generated by large numbers of man-made noise (MMN) sources in several types of residential environments, has been developed. The model is based on extensive propagation measurements and verified by earlier field strength measurements. From applying the model it appears that MMN sources, emitting powers that equals mains port conductive disturbance limits in the electromagnetic compatibility standards, do not explain the measured noise field strength values. In contrary, the model indicates that the average source power is significant higher than can be derived from the limit in the standards. That could mean that the average power at the mains port is substantial higher than what generally is assumed. But alternately, the power, delivered by other ports like the ports for dc power, for telecom and for other wiring, is much higher than thought and could indicate a disregarded aspect in the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) standards.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Switchable Polarization Insensitivity Radar Absorber/Reflector Based on
           Active Frequency Selective Surface

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      Authors: Min Zhu;Hang Yuan;Huangyan Li;Yi Wang;Qunsheng Cao;
      Pages: 2005 - 2014
      Abstract: In this article, a switchable polarization-insensitive lower thickness active frequency selective surfaces (AFSSs) absorber/reflector is proposed. The proposed structure consists of the top AFSS layer, which contains four patches and four pairs of PIN diodes in parallel with resistors, the upper substrate I, a metal ground, the bottom substrate II, and a simple bias network behind the bottom substrates that effectively reduce unnecessary disturb. The PIN diodes are controlled by the bias networks through the metalized via holes to obtain the switchable properties. The polarization-insensitive performance is realized by symmetrical structure. The resistors in parallel with PIN diodes load between every two patches to enlarge the resonant bandwidth. One remarkable feature of the structure exists in it can be switched in a variety of operating states to control the visibility of the target in radar systems. When it operates as an absorber, it has a stable absorptivity, which is more than 85% in the frequency range of 12.6–25 GHz with a small radar cross section. The equivalent circuit model, surface loss density, and surface circuit distribution are provided to assist in understanding the physical property of the entire design. A configuration of the structure is fabricated and the measurement results demonstrate a reasonable agreement with the simulate ones, thus confirming the proposed concept.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Effect of Shielding and Drain Wire on Lightning-Induced Currents in
           Rotorcraft Cables

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      Authors: Jaehyeon Jo;Yungon Kim;Donghyeon Kim;Hakjin Lee;Rho Shin Myong;
      Pages: 2015 - 2023
      Abstract: A strong electromagnetic field can be induced by lightning strikes on an aircraft and cause serious disturbances in electronic equipment and cables inside the aircraft. In this article, the performance of a cable protection system consisting of shielding and drain wire in an indirect lightning environment was analyzed using tests and computational simulations. The cable bundle test was conducted according to Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics DO-160 Section 22. The shielding and drain wire performance was quantitatively evaluated by monitoring the magnitude of the induced current generated in the cable bundle. First, it was generally found that shielding was more effective than drain wire for protecting cables from lightning. In the case of the drain wire, the drain wire with high electrical conductivity showed better performance. In addition, the protection performance of the shielding and drain wire was predicted by computational simulation using the software EMA3D. Finally, the performance of the shielding and drain wires on the inner cables of the EC-155B helicopter was analyzed using computational simulations.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Susceptibility of Static Energy Meters due to Amplifier Clipping Caused by
           a Rogowski Coil

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      Authors: Tom Hartman;Bas ten Have;Johan Dijkstra;Roelof Grootjans;Niek Moonen;Frank Leferink;
      Pages: 2024 - 2032
      Abstract: Static energy meters installed in households, used for billing purposes of the energy consumption, have shown errors due to conducted electromagnetic interference coming from appliances in household situations. This resulted in over- and underestimations of the energy bill, and even in a perceived energy generation. The currents causing interference are known to be nonlinear pulsed currents with fast slopes. This article shows that clipping of the amplifier, following the Rogowski coil, which is used as the current sensing element, results in distorted energy measurements. Due to the pulsed nature of the current, the output of the Rogowski coil exceeds the maximum input voltage of the amplifier, resulting in clipping at the output of the amplifier. This clipped signal is then integrated in the digital chain, resulting in an offset in the perceived current. Hence, causing a higher or lower energy calculation, depending on the phase firing angle and the fastest edge of the pulse. It is found that parameters, such as the slew rate, rise and fall times, and firing angle, are correlated to the interference on static energy meters.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Optimized Design of Illuminator With Nonuniform Loading

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      Authors: Qi Zhou;Zhongyuan Zhou;Yixing Gu;Mingjie Sheng;Peng Hu;Yang Xiao;
      Pages: 2033 - 2041
      Abstract: This article is aimed to optimize the loading configuration for the continuous-wave (CW) illuminator with horizontal polarization via the optimization algorithm. The working principle of the CW illuminator is introduced, with the difference between the illuminator with vertical polarization and that with horizontal polarization discussed. As the loading consisting of ferrite bead and resistance is analyzed and selected, the impedance with frequency of the loading is determined. Furthermore, the nonuniform loading configuration is studied. In this process, both the oscillators are divided into ten regions symmetrically, with each region loaded with different loading densities. Based on the dimension parameter of the loading, the upper limits for the loading density are determined. The loading configuration is optimized with the genetic algorithm and the particle swarm optimization algorithm. Then, the optimized design is verified by the self-built CW illuminator, and the deviation of the simulation and test is analyzed for the electromagnetic field of the illuminator.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • A Waveform Relaxation Solver for Transient Simulation of Large-Scale
           Nonlinearly Loaded Shielding Structures

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      Authors: Marco De Stefano;Torben Wendt;Cheng Yang;Stefano Grivet-Talocia;Christian Schuster;
      Pages: 2042 - 2054
      Abstract: This article introduces an algorithm for transient simulation of electromagnetic structures loaded by lumped nonlinear devices. The reference application is energy-selective shielding, which adopts clipping devices uniformly spread along shield apertures to achieve a shielding effectiveness that increases with the power of the incident field, thereby blocking high-power interference while allowing low-power communication. Transient simulation of such structures poses a number of challenges, related to their large-scale and low-loss nature. In this work, we propose a waveform relaxation (WR) scheme based on decoupling the linear electromagnetic structure from its nonlinear terminations. In a preprocessing stage, the electromagnetic subsystem is characterized in the frequency domain and converted into a behavioral rational macromodel. Transient simulation is performed by refining estimates of the port signals through iterations. The proposed scheme combines a time partitioning approach with an inexact Newton–Krylov solver. This combination provides fast convergence also in those cases where standard WR schemes fail due to a strong mismatch at the decoupling sections. Numerical results on several test cases of increasing complexity with up to 1024 ports show that the proposed approach proves as reliable as HSPICE in terms of accuracy, with a speedup ranging from one to three orders of magnitude.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Highly Angularly Stable Dual-Band Stop FSS for Blocking Satellite Downlink
           Frequencies

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      Authors: Gundu Venkatesh;Muthiah Thottappan;Surya Pal Singh;
      Pages: 2055 - 2059
      Abstract: High angular stability dual-band (C- and X-band) stop frequency selective surface based spatial filter is proposed in this article for blocking the satellite downlink frequencies. The unit cell of the structure consists of vertical and horizontal dipoles having two folded arms. The transmission coefficient of the filter in the designated satellite frequency bands, i.e., 3.7–4.2 GHz and 7.25–7.75 GHz has been obtained less than −10 dB. The current distribution and the equivalent circuit model of the unit cell have been illustrated to explain the resonance behavior and response of the filter. The proposed structure gives a stable response up to 85° of oblique incidence for both TE and TM polarizations. A prototype of the proposed structure has been fabricated, experimentally tested, and validated with simulation results.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Design of a Compact Single-Layer Frequency Selective Surface With High
           Oblique Stability

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      Authors: Zain Ul Abidin;Qunsheng Cao;Gulab Shah;
      Pages: 2060 - 2066
      Abstract: In this article, a compact single layer band stop frequency selective surface (FSS) with superior resonant stability is presented. The proposed FSS unit comprises of a symmetrically modified square loop. The square loop has been modified in order to increase the perimeter. Moreover, modified square loop is arranged in C4 rotational symmetry to ensure the polarization independence. The designed FSS exhibits highly stable response for the incident angle variation from 0° to 86°. At the resonant frequency of 5.54 GHz, its miniaturized unit cell size is 0.09 λ0 × 0.09 λ0 and the thickness is only 0.007 λ0. The operating phenomenon of this FSS is explicated by analyzing the equivalent circuit model, electric field and surface current distributions at resonant frequency. A test sample of the designed FSS has been constructed for the validation purpose. The transmission coefficients response of the proposed FSS has been measured and found to be congruent with the simulated responses. The salient features that distinguish the proposed FSS design over others are low complexity, low thickness, compact unit cell and excellent angular stability.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Application of Probabilistic Models for Multitone Electromagnetic Immunity
           Analysis

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      Authors: Lokesh Devaraj;Qazi Mashaal Khan;Alastair R. Ruddle;Alistair P. Duffy;Richard Perdriau;Mohsen Koohestani;
      Pages: 2067 - 2079
      Abstract: The operational environment of modern electronic systems may include multiple frequency electromagnetic disturbances. However, immunity measurements usually employ single-frequency continuous waveforms (i.e., single-tones). The performances of two oscillator circuits with different topologies (one simulated and one measured) were used as case studies to investigate immunity to simultaneous single-tone disturbances (i.e., multitones) using probabilistic Bayesian network models. For the multitone analysis, the noisy-OR model was first used to identify the type of causal interactions between simultaneously occurring single-tones. Probabilistic theories derived from the recursive noisy-OR model, which inherits the independence assumptions of the noisy-OR and any known causal dependence between simultaneously occurring single-tones, were then used to predict the probability of higher order multitone failures. For the two case studies, the probability of three-tone failures was estimated using the single-tone and two-tone failure probability values. An improved adaptive recursive noisy-OR model was also proposed to overcome the practical difficulties of obtaining multitone failure probabilities, from either simulations or measurements.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Methodology for Blockwise Behavioral Modeling of ICs for Narrow-Band RF
           Interference Injection

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      Authors: Marko Magerl;Christian Stockreiter;Adrijan Baric;
      Pages: 2080 - 2093
      Abstract: A behavioral modeling methodology based on echo state networks for time-domain simulations of the conducted immunity of integrated circuits is proposed. The methodology is applied to a buffered voltage reference integrated circuit that is subjected to dc functional signals with superimposed radio-frequency (RF) interference signals. Behavioral models of three analog subcircuits of the buffered voltage reference are built that capture the RF behavior of the voltages and currents observed in the time-domain simulations of the narrow-band RF interference injection. The behavioral models are interchangeable with the transistor-level subcircuits and they ensure the correct nonlinear impedance toward the connected transistor-level circuits. The conditions for the stability of the resulting top-level circuit with different combinations of behavioral model and transistor-level subcircuits are derived, and the accuracy of the presented behavioral models in the circuit simulator is evaluated.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Sensitivity Analysis of Conductivity Models in Simulation of High-Altitude
           Electromagnetic Pulse

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      Authors: Ya Li;Jianguo Wang;Yinghong Zuo;Shengli Niu;Jinhui Zhu;Xiaoping Ouyang;
      Pages: 2094 - 2103
      Abstract: The reasonable conductivity model and parameters are important for the accurate simulation of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse. While in most public literature, the fitting formulas of the conductivity parameters are given directly without discussion of their physical meaning. In addition, few investigations were carried out in systematic analysis on the parameter sensitivity of the air conductivity model. In this article, the sensitivity of the parameters in the equilibrium ohmic model is analyzed, indicating that electron mobility is the most sensitive conductivity parameter. The law of the peak electric field with the electron mobility under different conditions of observation direction, burst height, yield, gamma energy, and gamma pulse waveform is systematically explored. It is concluded that a reasonable mobility fitting formula should consider the effects of air density, electric field intensity, and nonequilibrium effect, and the fitting result should be as close as possible to the credible measurement value.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • An Algorithm for Fast Simulation of CW Illuminator

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      Authors: Qi Zhou;Zhongyuan Zhou;Yixing Gu;Mingjie Sheng;Peng Hu;Yang Xiao;
      Pages: 2104 - 2112
      Abstract: The continuous wave (CW) illuminator is aimed to simulate high-altitude nuclear electromagnetic pulse. In this article, a simulation algorithm is proposed covering the method of moments and finite difference method (FDM), with the high-speed simulation of the CW illuminator with arbitrary ellipse size, arbitrary loading, and arbitrary polarization direction. Based on the surface electric field equation of the CW illuminator, the mathematical model is established with the vector potential equation and the boundary conditions. In this model, the pulse function and $delta$ function are set as the basis function and the weight function, respectively, for the establishment of the current equation, with the current distribution determined by the simplification equation with image theory and nonuniform FDM. Finally, as the field distribution is determined by the superposition theorem. The simulation algorithm is verified by the self-built CW illuminator.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Differences of Electric Field Parameters for Lightning Strikes on Tall
           Towers and Nonelevated Objects

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      Authors: Li Cai;Wei Liu;Mi Zhou;Jianguo Wang;Ruisheng Yan;Ruixin Tian;Yadong Fan;
      Pages: 2113 - 2121
      Abstract: In this article, we analyzed the far electric field parameters of cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning striking tall towers in Guangzhou at the distance of 20–70 km, and compared with lightning striking nonelevated objects from the same thunderstorm near the tall towers. By comparing the waveform characteristics, we found that the far-field waveform of tall tower exhibits the characteristics of early narrow undershoot, zero crossing, oscillation damping attenuation and there is a secondary peak after the opposite polarity peak, which is absent in the CG lightning. The GM values of 10%–90% rise time, fall time and zero-crossing time of lightning strikes on tall towers are 1.6, 2.0, and 8.4 μs which are far less than 2.5 (1.8 μs), 7.9 (6.4 μs), and 28.1 μs (28.7 μs) of the first return stroke (subsequent return stroke) of CG lightning. In addition, the initial electric field peak, the ratio of the opposite polarity overshoot amplitude to the initial peak, and the time interval between initial electric field peak and second peak of the lightning striking on tall tower are larger than those of the CG lightning.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • The Impact of Apparent Frequency-Dependent Soil Properties on Electrical
           Grounding Characteristics

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      Authors: Dmitry Kuklin;
      Pages: 2122 - 2130
      Abstract: The purpose of this work is to estimate and reduce errors that can occur if apparent frequency-dependent soil properties are used for calculations of the grounding potential rise and exact inhomogeneous soil structure is neglected. Such estimation would help evaluate, which level of complexity is needed for measurement techniques when soil properties are used for grounding design. Simulations have shown that errors associated with the usage of apparent soil properties for electrical grounding characteristics can be avoided if the depth of investigation is chosen appropriately (except for specific cases). A measurement approach was proposed that takes into account which instruments are available for measurements. The approach was verified by measurements with inhomogeneous soils. In addition, it was found that to avoid the high-frequency effects in measurements of soil properties, it is convenient to limit the depth of investigation (rather than dipole size). It has also been demonstrated that soil inhomogeneities can lead to differences in apparent soil properties at higher frequencies (for the same low-frequency resistivity).
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Method of Line for Modeling of Grounding Electrodes Buried in Stratified
           Multilayer Soil

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      Authors: Hossein Zamani;Keyhan Sheshyekani;
      Pages: 2131 - 2140
      Abstract: An efficient full-wave semi-analytical method based on the method of line is developed for rigorous modeling of grounding electrodes buried in stratified multilayer soil. As compared to the existing full-wave modeling techniques, the proposed method is extremely computationally efficient while enables modeling of any number of vertical and/or horizontal soil layers. Furthermore, the proposed method is not prone to any stability or convergence numerical issue. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method is evaluated using the cases of horizontal and vertical grounding electrodes buried in vertically or horizontally stratified multilayer soil.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Computation of Effective Length of Enhancement for Vertical Electrode
           Under Lightning Transients

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      Authors: Senthil Kumar A;Krishnan Manickavasagam;
      Pages: 2141 - 2148
      Abstract: The performance of the grounding system is improved by adding enhancement conductors to the primary electrode as they result in low impulse impedance. This article proposes an optimized impulse impedance reduction approach to estimate the effective length of the enhancements of the primary electrode. The impedance of the enhanced primary electrode is computed by performing simulation experiments in a comprehensive dynamic circuit model. The enhancement's effective length is estimated from the correlation of the impedance with the enhancement length. From the relationship of the effective enhancement length with soil resistivity, impulse rise time, and current, an empirical expression to estimate the effective length of enhancement (ELEH) is obtained using numerical analysis. The obtained expression for ELEH is validated by field experiments.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Debye Representation of Frequency Dependent Ground for LEMP Analysis With
           RC-FDTD

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      Authors: Osman Kurnaz;Serkan Aksoy;
      Pages: 2149 - 2156
      Abstract: Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method combined with the recursive convolution technique is applied to compute lightning electromagnetic pulses (LEMP) for dispersive ground adopting Longmire and Smith (LS) model in two-dimensional cylindrical coordinates. The novelty of our study is that, to the best of our knowledge, the LEMP simulation has been realized in the time-domain for the first time by directly using the parameters of the LS dispersive soil model by treating the ground as a multipole Debye medium without using approximate techniques such as vector fitting. As a numerical example, the LEMP is simulated above and under the dispersive ground with buried rock formation, which is also modeled as the dispersive Debye medium. The performed simulations are compared at distances of 500 m, 5 km, and 50 km away from the lightning channel for both first stroke and subsequent stroke. The results show that the case of dispersive ground and the rock leads to a difference of up to 61.77% with respect to using constant electrical parameters.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Prediction of UAV Swarm Defeat With High-Power Radio Frequency Fields

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      Authors: Graham V. Weinberg;
      Pages: 2157 - 2162
      Abstract: Swarms of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can be used to disrupt air traffic and can also function as weapons, since they can either be equipped with improvised explosive devices or can be used for collision purposes. Hence, defensive measures against such threats are important from both a civilian as well as a military perspective. This article argues that high-power radio frequency (HPRF) directed energy weapons (DEWs) can provide a suitable defence against swarms of UAVs. Hence, it would be useful to be able to undertake a performance prediction assessment of the proposed HPRF DEW systems. Consequently, two models are introduced for this purpose and a single measure of performance is derived for each. To illustrate the way in which these models can be used for performance prediction, a particular example of an HPRF DEW is investigated, and its utility in terms of UAV swarm defeat is quantified.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Intentional Electromagnetic Interference Reception in 0.5--2.0 GHz

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      Authors: Ajay Kumar Bellamkonda;Patnam Hanumantha Rao;Saurabh Saxena;
      Pages: 2163 - 2169
      Abstract: Intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) in 0.5–2.0 GHz corrupts the electronic systems and wireless communication due to significant power transmitted in the said frequency range. We present the characteristics of IEMI at the receiver-end experimentally, when transmitted in office environments. Based on the observations, we successfully detected the ultrawideband (UWB) IEMI using multiband spectrum sensing techniques. We have implemented a system-level IEMI receiver by partitioning the frequency band into eight sub-bands and using ADRV9009 to downconvert and digitize each sub-band. A comparative study of receiving and combining the eight sub-bands simultaneously, in a time-interleaved manner, is presented.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • A Marching-on-in-Time Method of Moments for Transient Modeling of a
           Vertical Electrode Buried in a Lossy Medium

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      Authors: Mohamad Reza Alemi;Seyed Hossein Hesamedin Sadeghi;Hossein Askarian-Abyaneh;
      Pages: 2170 - 2178
      Abstract: This article proposes a full-wave time-domain method for analyzing the transient behavior of a grounding electrode buried vertically in a lossy soil. In this method, the electrode is first approximated by a thin wire, and the modified image theory is utilized to account for the soil–air interface. The governing electric field integral equation (EFIE) is then derived with the current distribution along the electrode being the unknown quantities. Finally, the EFIE is solved by the time-domain method of moments based on a marching-on-in-time (MOT) procedure. This is done by expanding the unknown currents in terms of a finite linear combination of products of appropriate spatial and temporal basis functions, and adopting the Galerkin method in space and the point matching method in time. The MOT procedure makes the proposed method more efficient computationally than its rival frequency-domain method of moments (FD-MoM). The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparing the lightning ground potential rise of various grounding electrodes with those obtained using the FD-MoM and a commercial numerical code.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Modified Numerical Inversion of Laplace Transform Methods for the
           Time-Domain Analysis of Retarded Partial Elements Equivalent Circuit
           Models

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      Authors: Fabrizio Loreto;Giuseppe Pettanice;Giulio Antonini;Emad Gad;Michel S. Nakhla;Ye Tao;Albert Ruehli;
      Pages: 2179 - 2188
      Abstract: This article presents a new method for the simulation of the retarded partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC), which is used to model the EM phenomena at the circuit level. The new method adapts a recently introduced approach for numerical inversion of the Laplace transform (NILT). The conventional NILT approach is equivalent to a high-order stable differential equation solver. Its application in the context of PEEC circuits eliminated late-time instability issues. However, the recent development in NILT (known as NILTn) further reduced the approximation error by several orders of magnitude for roughly the same computational cost as in the conventional NILT, thereby permitting a significant increase in the length of the time step with lower computational cost. The approach proposed in this article further develops the ideas in NILTn so that it can be applied to the simulation of PEEC circuits in the time-domain. The new approach, therefore, combines the desirable late-time stability of NILT with a reduced computational cost. Furthermore, this article also utilizes an interpolation approach to reproduce the desired circuit waveforms between the points evaluated by NILTn.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • A Time-Domain Three-Dimensional Numerical Method for Comprehensive
           Common-Mode Analysis of Electric Circuits in Inhomogeneous Media

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      Authors: Souma Jinno;Shuji Kitora;Hiroshi Toki;Masayuki Abe;
      Pages: 2189 - 2197
      Abstract: This article presents a numerical method to treat comprehensive common-mode (CM) signals in the time domain, which are electromagnetic noise sources in electrical and electronic devices. Electromagnetic potentials are a better choice to quantify the CM signals because we can easily extend the full-wave analysis of a multiconductor system. We start with the Maxwell equations in inhomogeneous media, which include conductors and dielectrics, and express the wave equations of the electromagnetic potentials. We also introduce a numerical method for the wave equations with lumped-parameter circuits by using the leap-frog scheme based on the central difference method. We calculate normal-mode (NM) and CM voltages in differential circuits with discontinuity and nonuniformity and conduct experiments by using the time-domain reflectometry method. The numerical results of the proposed method are compared with results from the finite-difference time-domain method and experiments for validation, observing conversions and reflections of NM and CM at discontinuities and nonuniformity, and show good agreements among these results.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Analysis of the Shielding Effectiveness of Thin Wire Cages by a Hybrid
           DGTD-FDTD Method

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      Authors: Qian Yang;Bing Wei;Linqian Li;Debiao Ge;Deng Haochuan;
      Pages: 2198 - 2206
      Abstract: Thin wire simulation is a typical multiscale problem in time-domain computational electromagnetic methods. This article addresses the shielding effectiveness of thin wire cages, and such models can be attributed to complex thin wire structures with multiwire junctions. The discontinuous Galerkin time-domain method for Maxwell's equations is used in our study, and the one-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method is used to construct the iterative scheme for the thin wire. The thin wire is expressed by the modified telegrapher's equations proposed by Holland. In this article, the mesh size is determined by the wavelength of the electromagnetic wave to be analyzed without considering the radius of the thin wire. There is no physical presence of thin wires in our model, and thin wires are expressed by current elements. The proposed method supports the simulation of arbitrarily oriented thin wires, and the proposed method can easily handle complex wire structures. The calculation efficiency can be greatly improved after avoiding multiscale modeling.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • The Accuracy of the Gaussian Tail and Dual Dirac Model in Jitter Histogram
           and Probability Density Functions

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      Authors: George Soliman;
      Pages: 2207 - 2217
      Abstract: Jitter can be generally modeled as a superposition of an unbounded random component that follows a Gaussian distribution and a bounded deterministic component. It is usually assumed that the probability distribution of total jitter for very large values of jitter tends to a purely Gaussian distribution. The standard deviation of this Gaussian distribution is identical to the standard deviation of the random component and the mean value of the distribution is related to the deterministic component. A mathematical justification for this assumption is, however, lacking in the literature. In this work, a general asymptotic expression is derived for the tail of the total jitter distribution. It is shown that, to first order, the tail of the distribution can be expressed as a Gaussian function divided by a power function of jitter. Asymptotic expressions for the cumulative distribution function and the Q-scale are also derived. The implications of these results for the accuracy of broadly accepted tail fitting routines are discussed.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • An Efficient Stress Pattern Based on VMRQ-PRBS for DDR Training

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      Authors: Xiuqin Chu;Jun Wang;Kailin Li;Ruonan Wang;Yang Liu;
      Pages: 2218 - 2226
      Abstract: With increasing of clock rate and routing density, the problem of signal integrity in high-speed parallel links is becoming increasingly serious. Hence, the design of an effective input/output (IO) stress pattern is necessary in post-silicon testing and validation, which can identify circuit functional bugs quickly and provide adequate test coverage. In this article, an effective stress pattern based on the variable mark ratio quasi-pseudorandom bit sequence is proposed to train the center point of the received signal's eye diagram to obtain the best sampling timing and the reference voltage of double data rate memory. The stress pattern is divided into two parts, i.e., the stress pattern of the victim line that can excite the worst intersymbol interference (ISI) and the stress pattern of the aggressor line that can excite the worst cross talk. To validate the efficiency of the proposed stress pattern, it is compared to the victim–aggressor stress pattern based on pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS). The measurement comparison shows that the pressure degree of the proposed stress pattern becomes more serious than that of the victim–aggressor stress pattern with increasing data rate.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Crosstalk Analysis of Printed Circuit Board Traces With Right-Angled Bent
           Corners via Time Domain Hybrid Method

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      Authors: Zhihong Ye;Mengzu Ru;Xiaolin Wu;
      Pages: 2227 - 2237
      Abstract: Discontinuous impedance exists when bent corners are introduced into the traces of printed circuit board (PCB). By combining transmission line (TL) equations, higher order finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, state variable method, and Norton's theorem, an efficient time domain hybrid method is proposed to realize the fast crosstalk simulation of the traces with right-angled bent corners (RABCs) in this work. First, the whole structure of the traces is decomposed into a cascade network, which consists of multiple equal length parallel microstrip lines (EL-PMSLs) and the RABC structures. Then, the crosstalk responses on these EL-PMSLs can be quickly solved by applying TL equations combined with the higher order FDTD method. With the application of Norton's theorem, the equivalent circuit model of whole PCB traces is constructed. Finally, the equivalent circuits of the RABC structures are extracted, and the port voltages of these RABCs are calculated via state variable method and fed back to these EL-PMSLs as boundaries, thus the round-trip transmission of interference signals on the PCB traces is realized. Numerous crosstalk simulations of PCB traces with typical RABC structures, as well as extracted from a practical PCB, are presented and compared with the results of commercial software CST to verify the correctness and efficiency of the proposed method.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Prediction of Power Supply Induced Jitter With PDN Design Parameters

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      Authors: Yin Sun;Muqi Ouyang;Xinglin Sun;Chulsoon Hwang;
      Pages: 2238 - 2248
      Abstract: This article proposes a method to predict power supply induced jitter (PSIJ) at the inverter chain buffer output with the design parameters of power distribution network (PDN). The PDN is assumed to contain multiple decoupling capacitors with sufficiently different values for each branch. The relationship between PSIJ and PDN design parameters is derived analytically by convoluting the time-domain voltage ripple with the buffer time-domain PSIJ sensitivity, given the triangular noise current information. The analytical formula is validated through measurement by using an in-house designed CMOS buffer circuit and a controllable aggressor circuit based on 180 nm technology. The buffer output PSIJ under the operation of the aggressor circuit and the corresponding switching noise current are characterized. The R–L–C design parameters of PDN are extracted through impedance measurement. With the PDN parameters, the output jitter is calculated with the derived formulation. Compared with the measurements, the prediction error of the proposed method is within 8.1% when the voltage ripple amplitude is no larger than 10% of the supply voltage.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Comparative Analysis of Prior Knowledge-Based Machine Learning Metamodels
           for Modeling Hybrid Copper–Graphene On-Chip Interconnects

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      Authors: Suyash Kushwaha;Nastaran Soleimani;Felipe Treviso;Rahul Kumar;Riccardo Trinchero;Flavio G. Canavero;Sourajeet Roy;Rohit Sharma;
      Pages: 2249 - 2260
      Abstract: In this article, machine learning (ML) metamodels have been developed in order to predict the per-unit-length parameters of hybrid copper–graphene on-chip interconnects based on their structural geometry and layout. ML metamodels within the context of this article include artificial neural networks, support vector machines (SVMs), and least-square SVMs. The salient feature of all these ML metamodels is that they exploit the prior knowledge of the p.u.l. parameters of the interconnects obtained from cheap empirical models to reduce the number of expensive full-wave electromagnetic (EM) simulations required to extract the training data. Thus, the proposed ML metamodels are referred to as prior knowledge-based machine learning (PKBML) metamodels. The PKBML metamodels offer the same accuracy as conventional ML metamodels trained exclusively by full-wave EM solver data, but at the expense of far smaller training time costs. In this article, detailed comparative analysis of the proposed PKBML metamodels have been performed using multiple numerical examples.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • An Efficient Model of High-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Coupling to
           Multiconductor Transmission Lines With the Presence of the Lossy Ground

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      Authors: Jun Guo;Wei-Chen Xie;Yan-Zhao Xie;Sergey V. Tkachenko;
      Pages: 2261 - 2272
      Abstract: The modeling of the high-frequency electromagnetic field coupling to multiconductor transmission lines (MTLs) is the essential subject for the protection of power lines. When the wavelength of the electromagnetic wave is smaller than the cross sections between MTLs, the response of MTLs cannot be evaluated by the classical transmission line approximation. Even though the full-wave method can deal with this problem, it is time consuming to evaluate the response of long MTLs. This article presents a theory and an efficient method to solve the problem of the high-frequency electromagnetic field coupling to MTLs with the presence of the lossy ground. The asymptotic method, adopted for its high computational efficiency, is extended to obtain the solutions of MTLs above the lossy ground. The problem is solved semianalytically using the proposed method, which is much more computationally efficient in dealing with long MTLs. Several numerical examples are presented to validate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Influence of Lossy Ground on High-Frequency Induced Voltages on
           Aboveground Pipelines by Nearby Overhead Transmission Lines

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      Authors: Amauri G. Martins-Britto;Theofilos A. Papadopoulos;Zacharias G. Datsios;Andreas I. Chrysochos;Grigoris K. Papagiannis;
      Pages: 2273 - 2282
      Abstract: The electromagnetic interference (EMI) of overhead transmission lines (OHLs) to aboveground pipelines sharing the same right-of-ways has been a research topic for many years. Most studies focus on investigations of the induced currents and voltages at the mains frequency (50/60 Hz). However, significant voltage levels can also be induced, when the pipeline is subject to high-frequency excitation. The representation of earth conduction effects is very important to estimate accurately the level of the EMI. This article presents a detailed high-frequency analysis of OHL/pipeline configurations taking into consideration the frequency-dependent (FD) soil properties. Wise's earth formulation is adopted for the calculation of the earth return impedances and shunt admittances. Propagation characteristics, frequency-domain, and transient responses are calculated by using both the FD soil models and constant soil properties, as well as the classical transmission line approach of Carson. Frequency-domain responses calculated with Wise's formulation are compared against those obtained using the MoM-SO method of EMTP software.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Immunity of CAN, CAN FD and Automotive Ethernet 100/1000BASE-T1 to
           Crosstalk From Power Electronic Systems

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      Authors: Carina Austermann;Stephan Frei;
      Pages: 2283 - 2291
      Abstract: Reliable and fast data exchange is essential for many vehicle functions. For this purpose, special communication systems were introduced during the last years, e.g., LIN, CAN, or Automotive Ethernet. At the same time, more and more power electronic systems are integrated, e.g., for electric driving, causing electromagnetic disturbances. Because of the extended cable harness and short distances between the cables as well as the electrical devices, electromagnetic coupling between power electronic systems and communication systems is more likely. It may affect the reliability of data transmission. This article analyzes and compares the robustness of the automotive communication systems CAN, CAN FD, and Automotive Ethernet (100BASE-T1 and 1000BASE-T1) against common and differential mode disturbances from cable and PCB coupling. Simulations and measurements are shown to identify critical coupling configurations. The EMC performance of the different bus systems is discussed.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Assessment of Frequency-Dependent Parameters of Stratified Soils for
           Lightning Response of Earth Electrodes

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      Authors: Raphael Batista;Rafael Alipio;Rodolfo A. R. Moura;Marco Aurélio O. Schroeder;
      Pages: 2292 - 2295
      Abstract: Typically, the frequency dependence of soil parameters is predicted by models or formulas that assume a uniform soil, although it usually presents a stratified structure. This work develops analytical expressions that allow to evaluating of the errors associated with the uniform soil hypothesis, in comparison with the hypothesis of a two-layered soil, taking as reference a field methodology for measuring the variation of soil parameters with frequency. The results suggest that in the case of a stratified soil, the frequency dependence of its parameters can be considered individually for each layer.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Response of a Surge Arrester With a Series Gap for 6.6-kV Distribution
           Lines to Steep-Front Transients

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      Authors: Ryota Mori;Akiyoshi Tatematsu;
      Pages: 2296 - 2300
      Abstract: Surge arresters with a series gap are commonly installed in distribution lines to effectively protect insulators, transformers, and other equipment from lightning threats in Japan. On the other hand, it has been well known that the high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) at an early stage, called E1 HEMP, may extensively cause overvoltage on distribution lines, and the rise time of the E1 HEMP is as short as a few nanoseconds, which is much shorter than that of lightning electromagnetic pulses. To evaluate the effectiveness of surge arresters with a series gap against overvoltage induced by the E1 HEMP, it is necessary to evaluate the effect of a discharge delay due to the series gap on the protection level of surge arresters for steep-front transients. In this work, using a pulse current injection system, we apply a high voltage to a surge arrester with a series gap widely used for 6.6-kV distribution lines in Japan and measure the response of the surge arrester to steep-front transients. From the measured results, we obtain the voltage–time characteristics of the surge arrester with a series gap and residual voltages, which are compared with the results for lightning impulse voltage.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Static Magnetic Shielding of a Perfectly Electric Conducting Circular
           Disk: Exact Analytical Solution Considering Radius of Emitting Loop

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      Authors: Chongqing Jiao;Dingyu Qin;Jing Xie;Tilu Zhang;Xiaochen Yang;Lei Qi;
      Pages: 2301 - 2305
      Abstract: This letter proposes an accurate analytical formulation for the shielding problem of a perfectly electric conducting disk against the static magnetic field of a circular current loop placed coaxially with the disk. The key is to convert this problem into an electric field problem: the circular disk is grounded and is excited by nonuniform line charges distributed on the loop. The latter can be solved through the known Green function. Then, we obtain the accurate solution in integral form for magnetic vector potential at any field point and the accurate analytical solution for the magnetic field on the central axis of the disk. Also, the solution for the magnetic field is extended to the whole space when the loop radius is approaching zero.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility Call for Papers Special
           Issue - “Advances of computational electromagnetics for EMC“

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      Pages: 2306 - 2306
      Abstract: Prospective authors are requested to submit new, unpublished manuscripts for inclusion in the upcoming event described in this call for papers.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Techrxiv: Share Your Preprint Research with the World!

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      Pages: 2307 - 2307
      Abstract: Prospective authors are requested to submit new, unpublished manuscripts for inclusion in the upcoming event described in this call for papers.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Introducing IEEE Collabratec

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      Pages: 2308 - 2308
      Abstract: Advertisement.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2022)
       
 
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