Subjects -> PHYSICS (Total: 857 journals)
    - ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM (10 journals)
    - MECHANICS (22 journals)
    - NUCLEAR PHYSICS (53 journals)
    - OPTICS (92 journals)
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    - SOUND (25 journals)
    - THERMODYNAMICS (30 journals)

SOUND (25 journals)

Showing 1 - 22 of 22 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Acoustics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Acoustics Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Acustica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Applied Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Archives of Acoustics     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Australasian Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine (AJUM)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioacoustics : The International Journal of Animal Sound and its Recording     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin de l'AFAS     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sound and Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161)
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
Journal of Ultrasonography     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Open Journal of Acoustics     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Phonica     Open Access  
Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Sonography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
SoundEffects - An Interdisciplinary Journal of Sound and Sound Experience     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ultrasound International Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.695
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 58  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0001-4966 - ISSN (Online) 1520-8524
Published by ASA Homepage  [2 journals]
  • Analytical solution for acoustic radiation force on a sphere near a planar
           boundary

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      Authors: Blake E. Simon, Mark F. Hamilton
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 627-642, January 2023.
      Acoustic radiation force on a sphere in an inviscid fluid near a planar boundary, which may be rigid or pressure release, is calculated using spherical wave functions to expand the total pressure field. The condition at the boundary is satisfied with the addition of a reflected wave and an image sphere. The total pressure field, which is exact in the linear approximation, is composed of the incident field, the reflected field, and the scattered fields due to the physical sphere and the image sphere. The expansion coefficients for the pressure field are used to evaluate the acoustic radiation force on the sphere using a known analytical expression obtained from integration of the radiation stress tensor. Calculations illustrate the influence of multiple scattering effects on the radiation force acting on the sphere. The model applies to compressible and elastic spheres and for any incident field structure. An approximation is introduced that extends the analytical model to other types of interfaces, including a fluid-fluid interface. The analytical model is validated by comparisons with an independent finite element model.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-27T01:55:02Z
       
  • The effect of visual speech information on linguistic release from masking

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      Authors: Brittany T. Williams, Navin Viswanathan, Susanne Brouwer
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 602-612, January 2023.
      Listeners often experience challenges understanding a person (target) in the presence of competing talkers (maskers). This difficulty reduces with the availability of visual speech information (VSI; lip movements, degree of mouth opening) and during linguistic release from masking (LRM; masking decreases with dissimilar language maskers). We investigate whether and how LRM occurs with VSI. We presented English targets with either Dutch or English maskers in audio-only and audiovisual conditions to 62 American English participants. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was easy at 0 audio-only and −8 dB audiovisual in Experiment 1 and hard at −8 and −16 dB in Experiment 2 to assess the effects of modality on LRM across the same and different SNRs. We found LRM in the audiovisual condition for all SNRs and in audio-only for −8 dB, demonstrating reliable LRM for audiovisual conditions. Results also revealed that LRM is modulated by modality with larger LRM in audio-only indicating that introducing VSI weakens LRM. Furthermore, participants showed higher performance for Dutch maskers compared to English maskers with and without VSI. This establishes that listeners use both VSI and dissimilar language maskers to overcome masking. Our study shows that LRM persists in the audiovisual modality and its strength depends on the modality.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-27T01:54:58Z
       
  • Graph-guided Bayesian matrix completion for ocean sound speed field
           reconstruction

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      Authors: Siyuan Li, Lei Cheng, Ting Zhang, Hangfang Zhao, Jianlong Li
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 689-710, January 2023.
      Reconstructing ocean sound speed field (SSF) from limited and noisy measurements/estimates is crucial for many ocean acoustic applications, including underwater tomography, target localization/tracking, and communications. Classical reconstruction methods include deterministic approaches (e.g., spline interpolation) and geostatistical methods (e.g., kriging). They exhibit a strong link to linear regression and Gaussian process regression in machine learning (ML) literature, by uniformly viewing them as supervised regression models that learn the mapping from the geographical locations to the sound speed outputs. From a unified ML perspective, theoretical analysis indicates that classical reconstruction methods have several drawbacks, such as the sensitivity to noises and high computational cost. To overcome these drawbacks, inspired by the recent thriving development of graph machine learning, we introduce graph-guided Bayesian low-rank matrix completions (LRMCs) for fine-scale and accurate ocean SSF reconstruction. In particular, a more general graph-guided LRMC model is proposed that encompasses the state-of-the-art one as a special case. The proposed model and the associated inference algorithm simultaneously exploit the global (low-rankness) and local (graph structure) information of ocean sound speed data, thus striking an outstanding balance of reconstruction accuracy and computational complexity. Numerical results using real-life ocean SSF data have demonstrated the encouraging performances of the proposed approaches.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-27T01:54:54Z
       
  • Characterizing the acoustic response of Thalassia testudinum leaves using
           resonator measurements and finite element modeling

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      Authors: Nicholas A. Torres, Megan S. Ballard, Kevin S. Lee, Preston S. Wilson, Christina J. Naify, Aytahn Ben-avi
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 678-688, January 2023.
      Seagrasses play an important role in coastal ecosystems and serve as important marine carbon stores. Acoustic monitoring techniques exploit the sensitivity of underwater sound to bubbles, which are produced as a byproduct of photosynthesis and present within the seagrass tissue. To make accurate assessments of seagrass biomass and productivity, a model is needed to describe acoustic propagation through the seagrass meadow that includes the effects of gas contained within the seagrass leaves. For this purpose, a new seagrass leaf model is described for Thalassia testudinum that consists of a comparatively rigid epidermis that composes the outer shell of the leaf and comparatively compliant aerenchyma that surrounds the gas channels on the interior of the leaf. With the bulk modulus and density of the seagrass tissue determined by previous work, this study focused on characterizing the shear moduli of the epidermis and aerenchyma. These properties were determined through a combination of dynamic mechanical analysis and acoustic resonator measurements coupled with microscopic imagery and finite element modeling. The shear moduli varied as a function of length along the leaves with values of 100 and 1.8 MPa at the basal end and 900 and 3.7 MPa at the apical end for the epidermis and aerenchyma, respectively.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-27T01:54:46Z
       
  • A simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation algorithm for
           broadband noise control

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      Authors: Shanjun Li, Guoyong Jin, Muyun Wu, Yukun Chen, Tiangui Ye
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 643-653, January 2023.
      Simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) algorithm, an algorithm without secondary path modeling, has been applied to active noise control by some researchers. Some extended versions of this algorithm have been also developed to improve its performance. However, these existing algorithms are mostly dedicated to controlling the periodic noise instead of the broadband noise. In particular, background noise is not taken into account when SPSA algorithms are applied to control broadband noise. In this paper, an algorithm combining the cost function with the SPSA algorithm to control broadband noise has been proposed. The suggested cost function is an inner product of the estimated cross-correlation function between a reference vector and the error signal. The elements of the reference vector are composed of the reference signals at different times. Moreover, the algorithm analysis is performed and the numerical simulations are carried out to demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm. The results illustrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce broadband noise when interference noise exists in the control system. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm has better convergence performance than other SPSA algorithms.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-27T01:54:44Z
       
  • An architecture for passive joint localization and structure learning in
           reverberant environments

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      Authors: Toros Arikan, Amir Weiss, Hari Vishnu, Grant B. Deane, Andrew C. Singer, Gregory W. Wornell
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 665-677, January 2023.
      Passive localization and tracking of a mobile emitter, and joint learning of its reverberant three-dimensional (3D) acoustic environment, where critical structural features are unknown, is a key open problem. Unaccounted-for occluders are potentially present, so that the emitter can lose line-of-sight to the receivers, and can only be observed through its reflected raypaths. The locations of reflective boundaries must therefore be jointly estimated with the emitter's position. A multistage global optimization and tracking architecture is developed to solve this problem with a relatively unconstrained model. Each stage of this architecture establishes domain knowledge such as synchronization and initial environment estimation, which are inputs for the following stages of more refined algorithms. This approach is generalizable to different physical scales and modalities and improves on methods that do not exploit the motion of the emitter. In one stage of this architecture, particle swarm optimization is used to simultaneously estimate the environment and the emitter location. In another stage, a Hough transform-inspired boundary localization algorithm is extended to 3D settings, to establish an initial estimate of the environment. The performance of this holistic approach is analyzed and its reliability is demonstrated in a reverberant watertank testbed, which models the shallow-water underwater acoustic setting.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-27T01:54:40Z
       
  • Effect of nodule size and stiffness on phonation threshold and collision
           pressures in a synthetic hemilaryngeal vocal fold model

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      Authors: Mohsen Motie-Shirazi, Matías Zañartu, Sean D. Peterson, Daryush D. Mehta, Robert E. Hillman, Byron D. Erath
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 654-664, January 2023.
      Synthetic vocal fold (VF) replicas were used to explore the role of nodule size and stiffness on kinematic, aerodynamic, and acoustic measures of voiced speech production. Emphasis was placed on determining how changes in collision pressure may contribute to the development of phonotrauma. This was performed by adding spherical beads with different sizes and moduli of elasticity at the middle of the medial surface of synthetic silicone VF models, representing nodules of varying size and stiffness. The VF models were incorporated into a hemilaryngeal flow facility. For each case, self-sustained oscillations were investigated at the phonation threshold pressure. It was found that increasing the nodule diameter increased the open quotient, phonation threshold pressure, and phonation threshold flow rate. However, these values did not change considerably as a function of the modulus of elasticity of the nodule. Nevertheless, the ratio of collision pressure to subglottal pressure increased significantly for both increasing nodule size and stiffness. This suggests that over time, both growth in size and fibrosis of nodules will lead to an increasing cycle of compensatory vocal hyperfunction that accelerates phonotrauma.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-27T01:54:32Z
       
  • Communicative constraints affect oro-facial gestures and acoustics:
           Whispered vs normal speech

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      Authors: Marzena Żygis, Susanne Fuchs
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 613-626, January 2023.
      The present paper investigates a relationship between the acoustic signal and oro-facial expressions (gestures) when speakers (i) speak normally or whisper, (ii) do or do not see each other, and (iii) produce questions as opposed to statements. To this end, we conducted a motion capture experiment with 17 native speakers of German. The results provide partial support to the hypothesis that the most intensified oro-facial expressions occur when speakers whisper, do not see each other, and produce questions. The results are interpreted in terms of two hypotheses, i.e., the “hand-in-hand” and “trade-off” hypotheses. The relationship between acoustic properties and gestures does not provide straightforward support for one or the other hypothesis. Depending on the condition, speakers used more pronounced gestures and longer duration compensating for the lack of the fundamental frequency (supporting the trade-off hypothesis), but since the gestures were also enhanced when the listener was invisible, we conclude that they are not produced solely for the needs of the listener (supporting the hand-in-hand hypothesis), but rather they seem to help the speaker to achieve an overarching communicative goal.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-27T01:54:28Z
       
  • The effect of seafloor roughness on passive estimates of the seabed
           reflection coefficient

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      Authors: Derek R. Olson
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 586-601, January 2023.
      In this work, a model is developed for the effect of seafloor interface roughness on passive estimates of the reflection coefficient. The main result is an expression for the total intensity reflection coefficient, with separate coherent and incoherent contributions. Assumptions of this model include constant sound speed in the ocean, stationary and Gaussian seafloor roughness, and ambient noise. Numerical examples for the coherent, incoherent, and total contributions to the intensity reflection coefficient are presented for halfspace and layered environments—all using the small slope approximation. To illustrate the potential parameter errors that results from using a flat interface wave model when roughness is present, a geoacoustic inversion is performed using the proposed model as input data. A joint roughness-geoacoustic inversion of simulated data using the proposed model was also performed. It was found that the true roughness and geoacoustic parameters can be inverted using this model, but the sensitivity to the outer scale of the rough surface has the highest error compared to the other parameters.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-26T01:32:24Z
       
  • Fundamental frequency related parameters in Brazilians with COVID-19

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      Authors: Larissa Cristina Berti, Evelyn Alves Spazzapan, Marcelo Queiroz, Pedro Leyton Pereira, Flaviane Romani Fernandes-Svartman, Beatriz Raposo de Medeiros, Marcus Vinícius Moreira Martins, Letícia Santiago Ferreira, Ingrid Gandolfi Gomes da Silva, Ester Cerdeira Sabino, Anna Sara Levin, Marcelo Finger
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 576-585, January 2023.
      This study compares fundamental frequency (fo) and fundamental frequency standard deviation (foSD) of COVID-19 patients with the same parameters in the speech of subjects without COVID-19, and verifies whether there is an effect of age and sex in the patient group. Both groups, subjects with and without COVID-19, are formed by Brazilian Portuguese speakers. Speech samples were obtained from 100 patients with mild to severe symptoms of COVID-19, and 100 healthy subjects. A single 31-syllable Portuguese sentence was used as the elicitation material for all subjects. The recordings were divided into four age groups. The acoustic measures were semi-automatically extracted and analyzed by a series of analyses of variance. Patients with COVID-19 present vocal differences in fo-related parameters when compared to healthy subjects, that is, patient voices presented higher fo and foSD with respect to control voices. In addition, for patient voices, there was an age and sex effect on fo SD values. Vocal parameters of women and elderly subjects showed more marked differences in fo-related parameters, indicating that patient voices are higher-pitched and have a higher variation of fo SD. Consequently, fo-related parameters may be tested as vocal biomarkers in the screening of respiratory insufficiency by voice analysis, in patients with severe symptoms of COVID-19.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-26T01:32:23Z
       
  • Introduction to the Special Issue on COVID-19

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      Authors: James F. Lynch, Charles C. Church
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 573-575, January 2023.
      The COVID-19 pandemic has been a global event affecting all aspects of human life and society, including acoustic aspects. In this Special Issue on COVID-19 and acoustics, we present 48 papers discussing the acoustical impacts of the pandemic and how we deal with it. The papers are divided into seven categories which include: physical masking and speech production, speech perception, noise, the underwater soundscape, the urban soundscape, pathogen transmissibility, and medical diagnosis.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-26T01:32:16Z
       
  • Deep ocean long range underwater navigation with ocean circulation model
           corrections

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      Authors: Peter N. Mikhalevsky, Ganesh Gopalakrishnan, Bruce D. Cornuelle
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 548-559, January 2023.
      An underwater navigation algorithm that provides a “cold start” (CSA) geographic position, geo-position, underwater while submerged using travel times measured from a constellation of acoustic sources is described in Mikhalevsky, Sperry, Woolfe, Dzieciuch, and Worcester [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 147(4), 2365 – 2382 (2020)]. The CSA geo-position is used as the receive position in the ocean for acoustic modeling runs using an ocean general circulation model (GCM). A different geo-position is calculated using adjusted ranges from the travel time offsets between the data and modeled arrival times for each source. Because the CSA geo-position is close to the true position, the source to CSA position propagation model path and the source to true vehicle position data path of the acoustic arrivals are nearly coincident, enabling accurate measurement of travel time offsets. The cold start with model (CSAM) processing reduced the CSA geo-position errors from a mean of 58 to 25 m. A simulation is developed to estimate CSA and CSAM performances as a function of group speed variability between the source paths. The CSAM geolocation accuracy can be calculated from and is controlled by the accuracy of the GCM.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-25T01:21:15Z
       
  • Image reconstruction algorithm for laser-induced ultrasonic imaging: The
           single sensor scanning synthetic aperture focusing technique

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      Authors: Misael Ruiz-Veloz, Gerardo Gutiérrez-Juárez, Luis Polo-Parada, Francisco Cortalezzi, David D. Kline, Heather A. Dantzler, Lorena Cruz-Alvarez, Rigoberto Castro-Beltrán, Carlos Hidalgo-Valadez
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 560-572, January 2023.
      This paper aims to implement a laser-induced ultrasound imaging reconstruction method based on the delay-and-sum beamforming through the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) for a circular scanning, performed with a tomograph that had one acoustic sensor and a system that rotates the sample around a fixed axis. The proposed method, called the Single-sensor Scanning Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique, considers the size of the sensor and the detection procedure inside the SAFT's algebra. This image reconstruction method was evaluated numerically, using the Green function for the laser-induced ultrasound wave equation to generate a forward problem, and experimentally, using a solid object of polylactic acid, and a Sprague–Dawley rat heart located in a tissue-mimicking phantom. The resulting images were compared to those obtained from the time reversal and the conventional delay-and-sum reconstruction algorithms. The presented method removes the sidelobe artifacts and the comet tail sign, which produces a more distinguishable target on the image. In addition, the proposed method has a faster performance and lower computational load. The implementation of this method in photoacoustic microscopy techniques for image reconstruction is discussed.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-25T01:21:13Z
       
  • Experiments and simulations demonstrating the rapid ultrasonic rewarming
           of frozen tissue cryovials

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      Authors: Rui Xu, Bradley E Treeby, Eleanor Martin
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 517-528, January 2023.
      The development of methods to safely rewarm large cryopreserved biological samples remains a barrier to the widespread adoption of cryopreservation. Here, experiments and simulations were performed to demonstrate that ultrasound can increase rewarming rates relative to thermal conduction alone. An ultrasonic rewarming setup based on a custom 444 kHz tubular piezoelectric transducer was designed, characterized, and tested with 2 ml cryovials filled with frozen ground beef. Rewarming rates were characterized in the −20 °C to 5 °C range. Thermal conduction-based rewarming was compared to thermal conduction plus ultrasonic rewarming, demonstrating a tenfold increase in rewarming rate when ultrasound was applied. The maximum recorded rewarming rate with ultrasound was 57° C/min, approximately 2.5 times faster than with thermal conduction alone. Coupled acoustic and thermal simulations were developed and showed good agreement with the heating rates demonstrated experimentally and were also used to demonstrate spatial heating distributions with small (
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-24T01:29:28Z
       
  • Numerical and experimental investigation of a negative-curvature
           variable-shell flextensional transducer

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      Authors: Depeng Li, Yu Lan, Tianfang Zhou, Wei Lu
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 505-516, January 2023.
      Type IV flextensional transducers do not have broadband characteristics due to the deep valley between their first- and second-order response curves arising from the sound pressure cancellation produced by the vibration in different areas of the shell. In this paper, the cause of the deep valley is examined by analyzing the equivalent radiated sound field of the transducer. Simplifying the three-dimensional vibration equation to a two-dimensional equation shows that the vibration state of the shell is related to the positive and negative curvature. Therefore, a variable-shell flextensional transducer with a negative curvature is proposed, which changes the second-order vibration of the transducer by introducing a negative curvature structure. The transducer avoids acoustic pressure cancellation, achieves broadband characteristics, and has continuous high efficiency in the frequency band. After optimization, a prototype of the transducer is fabricated and a pool test is completed. The test results show that the transducer realizes the coupling of the first three vibration mode, forming a broad band with an in-band fluctuation of less than 8 dB at 1200–5600 Hz, and the efficiencies of the first to third resonance peaks are 30.2[math], 16.6[math], and 9.4[math], respectively.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-24T01:29:28Z
       
  • Dolphin conditioned hearing attenuation in response to repetitive tones
           with increasing level

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      Authors: James J. Finneran, Katelin Lally, Madelyn G. Strahan, Kyle Donohoe, Jason Mulsow, Dorian S. Houser
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 496-504, January 2023.
      All species of toothed whales studied to date can learn to reduce their hearing sensitivity when warned of an impending intense sound; however, the specific conditions under which animals will employ this technique are not well understood. The present study was focused on determining whether dolphins would reduce their hearing sensitivity in response to an intense tone presented at a fixed rate but increasing level, without an otherwise explicit warning. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to intermittent, 57-kHz tone bursts were continuously measured in two bottlenose dolphins as they were exposed to a series of 2-s, 40-kHz tones at fixed time intervals of 20, 25, or 29 s and at sound pressure levels (SPLs) increasing from 120 to 160 dB re 1 μPa. Results from one dolphin showed consistent ABR attenuation preceding intense tones when the SPL exceeded ∼140–150 dB re 1 μPa and the tone interval was 20 s. ABR attenuation with 25- or 29-s intense tone intervals was inconsistent. The second dolphin showed similar, but more subtle, effects. The results show dolphins can learn the timing of repetitive noise and may reduce their hearing sensitivity if the SPL is high enough, presumably to “self-mitigate” the noise effects.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-24T01:29:27Z
       
  • Nonintrusive wind blade fault detection using a deep learning approach by
           exploring acoustic information

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      Authors: Hongqing Liu, Wenbin Zhu, Yi Zhou, Liming Shi, Lu Gan
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 538-547, January 2023.
      Various physical characteristics, including ultrasonic waves, active acoustic emissions, vibrations, and thermal imaging, have been used for blade fault detection. In this work, we propose using the sound produced by spinning wind blades to identify faults. To the best of our knowledge, passive acoustic information has not yet been explored for this task. In particular, we develop three networks targeting different scenarios. The main contributions of this work are threefold. First, when normal and aberrant data are available for supervised learning, an attention-convolutional recurrent neural network is designed to show the feasibility of using passive sound information to conduct fault detection. Second, in the absence of abnormal training data, we build a normal-encoder network to learn the distributions of normal data through semisupervised learning, which avoids the requirement of abnormal training data. Third, when multiple devices are used to collect the data, due to different properties of devices, there is a domain mismatch issue. To overcome this, we create an adversarial domain adaptive network to close the gap between the source and target domains. Acoustic signal datasets of actual wind turbine operations are collected to evaluate our fault detection systems. The findings demonstrate that the proposed systems offer high classification accuracy and indicate the feasibility of passive acoustic signal-based wind turbine blade fault detection with one step close to automatic detection.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-24T01:29:27Z
       
  • Acoustic properties and shallow water propagation distances of Caribbean
           spiny lobster sounds (Panulirus argus)

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      Authors: Youenn Jézéquel, Nadège Aoki, T. Aran Mooney
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 529-537, January 2023.
      Marine crustaceans produce broadband sounds that are useful for passive acoustic monitoring to support conservation and management efforts. However, the propagation characteristics and detection ranges of their signals are poorly known, limiting our leveraging of these sounds. Here, we used a four-hydrophone linear array to measure source levels (SLs) and sound propagation from Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) of a wide range of sizes within a natural, shallow water habitat (3.3 m depth). Source level in peak-peak (SLpp) varied with body size; larger individuals produced SLpp up to 166 dB re 1 μPa. However, transmission losses (TL) were similar across all sizes, with a global fitted TL of 12.1 dB. Correspondingly, calculated detection ranges varied with body size, ranging between 14 and 364 m for small and large individuals (respectively). This increased up to 1612 m for large spiny lobsters when considering lower ambient noise levels. Despite the potential ease of tank studies, our results highlight the importance of empirical in situ sound propagation studies for marine crustaceans. Given the important ecological and economic role of spiny lobsters, these data are a key step to supporting remote monitoring of this species for fisheries management and efforts to acoustically quantify coral reefs' health.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-24T01:29:25Z
       
  • Acoustic source localization based on acoustic leaky-wave antenna with
           heterogeneous structure

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      Authors: Qi Wang, Jun Lan, Zhaoyu Deng, Yun Lai, Xiaozhou Liu
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 487-495, January 2023.
      In this study, an acoustic leaky-wave antenna (LWA) with heterogeneous structure is proposed and the functions of the spatial directional radiation and acoustic source localization are achieved via utilizing the presented antenna configuration. In the radiating mode, the designed antenna possesses peculiar frequency-scanning characteristics, which enable it to determine the directional radiation of sound waves with diverse incident frequencies. Considering the receiving mode, the antenna emerges with explicit directional frequency characteristics, which ensure its function of spatial acoustic source localization. Additionally, compared with the traditional acoustic LWA, the proposed antenna structure exhibits sharper directivity and has potential applications in high-precision acoustic source localization.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-24T01:29:24Z
       
  • Effect of telepractice on pediatric cochlear implant users and provider
           vowel space: A preliminary report

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      Authors: Maria V. Kondaurova, Qi Zheng, Cheryl W. Donaldson, Alan F. Smith
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 467-479, January 2023.
      Clear speaking styles are goal-oriented modifications in which talkers adapt acoustic-phonetic characteristics of speech to compensate for communication challenges. Do children with hearing loss and a clinical provider modify speech characteristics during telepractice to adjust for remote communication' The study examined the effect of telepractice (tele-) on vowel production in seven (mean age 4:11 years, SD 1:2 years) children with cochlear implants (CIs) and a provider. The first (F1) and second (F2) formant frequencies of /i/, /ɑ/, and /u/ vowels were measured in child and provider speech during one in-person and one tele-speech-language intervention, order counterbalanced. Child and provider vowel space areas (VSA) were calculated. The results demonstrated an increase in F2 formant frequency for /i/ vowel in child and provider speech and an increase in F1 formant frequency for /ɑ/ vowel in the provider speech during tele- compared to in-person intervention. An expansion of VSA was found in child and provider speech in tele- compared to in-person intervention. In children, the earlier age of CI activation was associated with larger VSA in both tele- and in-person intervention. The results suggest that the children and the provider adjust vowel articulation in response to remote communication during telepractice.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T01:20:33Z
       
  • Synthesizing coherence loss by atmospheric turbulence in virtual
           microphone array signals

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      Authors: Dorothea Lincke, Timo Schumacher, Reto Pieren
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 456-466, January 2023.
      Phased microphone array methods are increasingly used to localize and quantify noise sources of aircraft under flight condition. However, beamforming results suffer from loss of image resolution and corruption of sound levels due to atmospheric turbulence causing coherence loss between microphones. A synthesis method is presented that reproduces these effects in a virtual environment. Sound propagation through turbulent atmosphere is described by models by Ostashev and Wilson and by von Kármán turbulence spectra. Spatial coherence is calculated based on the parabolic equation for statistically inhomogeneous, isotropic turbulence. Decorrelation of signals is achieved by time-varying mixing of mutually independent signals with identical PSD based on coherence factors. The concept of auralization is employed to account for propagation delay, geometrical spreading, Doppler effect, air absorption, and ground effect. The application is demonstrated for a virtual 56 m aperture microphone array. The impact of different meteorological conditions on the beamforming and deconvoluted results are presented. For increasing turbulence strength, the results show decreasing sound levels and increasingly blurred images. The proposed method allows us to reproduce the effects of turbulence-induced coherence loss in phased microphone array measurements and to optimize array designs and algorithms in a virtual, controllable environment.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T01:20:31Z
       
  • THANK YOU TO OUR REVIEWERS

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      Authors: James F. Lynch
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 480-486, January 2023.

      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T01:20:31Z
       
  • The middle ear muscle reflex: Current and future role in assessing
           noise-induced cochlear damage

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      Authors: Monica Trevino, Andie Zang, Edward Lobarinas
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 436-445, January 2023.
      The middle ear muscle reflex (MEMR) in humans is a bilateral contraction of the middle ear stapedial muscle in response to moderate-to-high intensity acoustic stimuli. Clinically, MEMR thresholds have been used for differential diagnosis of otopathologies for decades. More recently, changes in MEMR amplitude or threshold have been proposed as an assessment for noise-induced synaptopathy, a subclinical form of cochlear damage characterized by suprathreshold hearing problems that occur as a function of inner hair cell (IHC) synaptic loss, including hearing-in-noise deficits, tinnitus, and hyperacusis. In animal models, changes in wideband MEMR immittance have been correlated with noise-induced synaptopathy; however, studies in humans have shown more varied results. The discrepancies observed across studies could reflect the heterogeneity of synaptopathy in humans more than the effects of parametric differences or relative sensitivity of the measurement. Whereas the etiology and degree of synaptopathy can be carefully controlled in animal models, synaptopathy in humans likely stems from multiple etiologies and thus can vary greatly across the population. Here, we explore the evolving research evidence of the MEMR response in relation to subclinical noise-induced cochlear damage and the MEMR as an early correlate of suprathreshold deficits.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-20T01:02:13Z
       
  • On plane-wave reflection from a two-layer marine sediment: A surficial
           layer with linear sound speed profile overlying an iso-speed basement

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      Authors: Michael J. Buckingham
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 446-455, January 2023.
      An analysis of plane wave reflection is developed for a two-layer sediment, the top layer consisting of a fine-grained material (mud) with an upward refracting linear sound speed profile. Beneath is a homogeneous basement, and above is homogeneous seawater. A rather curious, exact analytical expression for the reflection coefficient is derived, involving easy to evaluate integrals over finite limits, of the modified Bessel functions of low-integer order. The expression is generally valid for any linear profile with positive gradient in the surficial mud layer and for any sound speed in the basement, either greater than or less than that in the seawater. For “fast” basements, a critical angle always exists that is independent of the sound speed in the mud layer. With a “slow” basement, a quasi-angle of intromission may exist, which depends only weakly on both frequency and the gradient of the profile in the mud, a conclusion that may be relevant to the conditions of the Seabed Characterization Experiment (2017) performed over the New England Mud Patch. With both types of basement, fast and slow, the reflection coefficient, as a function of grazing angle, exhibits fluctuations that are strongly frequency dependent, associated with resonances and anti-resonances in the mud layer.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-20T01:02:11Z
       
  • Tunable composite lattice structure for low-frequency and ultra-broadband
           underwater sound absorption

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      Authors: Botao Liu, Sibo Huang, Bo Zheng, Xuefeng Chen, Jia Zhao, Xinrui Qi, Yong Li, Shengchun Liu
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 415-422, January 2023.
      The underwater sound absorption technique in low-frequency and broadband has far-reaching prospects since it is essential for noise reduction of deep-sea operation requirements and evading advanced underwater target detection. Here, we propose an underwater sound-absorbing composite lattice with low-frequency and ultra-broadband characteristics. The composite lattice is constructed by regular spatially stacking cells with different sizes of metallic core spheres. All the core spheres are coated with silicon rubbers, and cells are embedded in the rubber matrix. In the composite lattice stereostructure, the lattice cells convert incident longitudinal waves into transverse waves through multiple local resonance coupling and multiple scattering. The energy is localized and dissipated in the composite lattice. We analyze the relationship among the corresponding absorption spectrums, the displacement clouds, and the resonance modes of lattice cells. Then, we construct a composite lattice and realize low-frequency broadband absorption from 693 to 1106 Hz with absorptance above 0.8. Further, our investigation demonstrates that the absorption bandwidth can be extended to ultra-broadband from 1077 to 10 000 Hz, where the thickness of the composite lattice is [math]. The proposed composite lattice provides a practical approach to designing ultrathin low-frequency and ultra-broadband acoustic absorption coating for underwater noise suppression.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-19T01:33:53Z
       
  • Pathological voice classification based on multi-domain features and deep
           hierarchical extreme learning machine

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      Authors: Junlang Wang, Huoyao Xu, Xiangyu Peng, Jie Liu, Chaoming He
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 423-435, January 2023.
      The intelligent data-driven screening of pathological voice signals is a non-invasive and real-time tool for computer-aided diagnosis that has attracted increasing attention from researchers and clinicians. In this paper, the authors propose multi-domain features and the hierarchical extreme learning machine (H-ELM) for the automatic identification of voice disorders. A sufficient number of sensitive features are first extracted from the original voice signal through multi-domain feature extraction (i.e., features of the time domain and the sample entropy based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition and gammatone frequency cepstral coefficients). To eliminate redundancy in high-dimensional features, neighborhood component analysis is then applied to filter out sensitive features from the high-dimensional feature vectors to improve the efficiency of network training and reduce overfitting. The sensitive features thus obtained are then used to train the H-ELM for pathological voice classification. The results of the experiments showed that the sensitivity, specificity, F1 score, and accuracy of the H-ELM were 99.37%, 98.61%, 99.37%, and 98.99%, respectively. Therefore, the proposed method is feasible for the initial classification of pathological voice signals.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-19T01:33:52Z
       
  • The Royal Tajo Opera Theatre of Lisbon: From architecture to acoustics

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      Authors: Lamberto Tronchin, Antonella Bevilacqua
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 400-414, January 2023.
      Throughout history, many buildings of significant cultural value have been lost due to natural disasters (e.g., earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, subsidence, etc.) as well as other human causes (e.g., fire, war destruction, etc.). The Tajo Opera theatre was hit by an earthquake that led to the collapse of the entire structure eight months after it was built. This paper deals with the revival of the acoustic characteristics of one of the masterpieces of the architect Giovanni Carlo Sicinio Galli Bibiena. The realization of a three-dimensional (3D) model that faithfully reproduces the architectural features of the Royal Tajo Opera theatre of Lisbon allows the authors to perform acoustic simulations that reveal the sound field representing the environment perceived by the audience during artistic performances in Lisbon in 1755. In addition, the simulated results have been compared with the values of the Teatro Comunale of Bologna, which has a similar bell-shaped plan layout and has already been studied by the authors. For the comparison of the two opera theatres, both the stalls and the balconies have been considered.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-19T01:33:52Z
       
  • Whistling in the clavichord

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      Authors: Jean-Théo Jiolat, Jean-Loic Le Carrou, Christophe d'Alessandro
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 338-347, January 2023.
      Sympathetic string vibration plays an essential role in the clavichord's sound quality and tonal identity. Sympathetic vibration comes from the undamped string segments between the bridge and tuning pins. Under some conditions, a specific note, a whistling tone, stands out of the reverberation halo due to sympathetic vibration. It is hypothesized that this whistling tone comes from resonance between played and sympathetic segments of strings that are coupled through the bridge. Vibratory measurements for three pairs of excited and sympathetic strings are conducted on a copy of a historical instrument built by Hubert in 1784. The influences of bridge mobility and tuning on sympathetic string frequency and damping are studied. The results show a significant increase in vibratory amplitude, frequency veering, and damping increase in the string segments when tuning approaches frequency coincidence. Numerical simulations of a reduced clavichord model corresponding to the experiments are conducted using the modal Udwadia–Kalaba formulation. Simulation gives a more accurate picture of the veering phenomenon. Simulation and experimental results are in good agreement, showing that whistling in the clavichord comes from string resonance. It is favored by frequency coincidence between excited and sympathetic string segments and by higher bridge mobility.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-19T01:33:51Z
       
  • Acoustic and structural differences between musically portrayed subtypes
           of fear

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      Authors: Caitlyn Trevor, Marina Renner, Sascha Frühholz
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 384-399, January 2023.
      Fear is a frequently studied emotion category in music and emotion research. However, research in music theory suggests that music can convey finer-grained subtypes of fear, such as terror and anxiety. Previous research on musically expressed emotions has neglected to investigate subtypes of fearful emotions. This study seeks to fill this gap in the literature. To that end, 99 participants rated the emotional impression of short excerpts of horror film music predicted to convey terror and anxiety, respectively. Then, the excerpts that most effectively conveyed these target emotions were analyzed descriptively and acoustically to demonstrate the sonic differences between musically conveyed terror and anxiety. The results support the hypothesis that music conveys terror and anxiety with markedly different musical structures and acoustic features. Terrifying music has a brighter, rougher, harsher timbre, is musically denser, and may be faster and louder than anxious music. Anxious music has a greater degree of loudness variability. Both types of fearful music tend towards minor modalities and are rhythmically unpredictable. These findings further support the application of emotional granularity in music and emotion research.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-19T01:33:50Z
       
  • Microphone array analysis for simultaneous condition detection,
           localization, and classification in a pipe

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      Authors: Yicheng Yu, Rob Worley, Sean Anderson, Kirill V. Horoshenkov
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 367-383, January 2023.
      An acoustic method for simultaneous condition detection, localization, and classification in air-filled pipes is proposed. The contribution of this work is threefold: (1) a microphone array is used to extend the usable acoustic frequency range to estimate the reflection coefficient from blockages and lateral connections; (2) a robust regularization method of sparse representation based on a wavelet basis function is adapted to reduce the background noise in acoustical data; and (3) the wavelet components are used to localize and classify the condition of the pipe. The microphone array and sparse representation method enhance the acoustical signal reflected from blockages and lateral connections and suppress unwanted higher-order modes. Based on the sparse representation results, higher-level wavelet functions representing the impulse response are used to localize the position of the sensor corresponding to a blockage or lateral connection with higher spatial resolution. It is shown that the wavelet components can be used to train and to test a support vector machine (SVM) classifier for the condition identification more accurately than with a time domain SVM classifier. This work paves the way for the development of simultaneous condition classification and localization methods to be deployed on autonomous robots working in buried pipes.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-19T01:33:50Z
       
  • Excitation mechanism and application of continuous-order mode for
           one-dimensional thickness vibration

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      Authors: Qing Hu, Yanfeng Xu
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 348-366, January 2023.
      The main method to expand the operating bandwidth of the transducer is by exciting multi-order vibration modes, which develop from the earliest excitation of odd-order modes to the excitation of multi-order continuous modes. However, no detailed theoretical characterization of the excitation mechanism and electroacoustic properties of continuous-order modes has been given. In this paper, the excitation mechanism of continuous-order modes for one-dimensional thickness vibration is studied in detail. From the perspective of analytical characterization, the mathematical and physical conditions of mode excitation are analyzed and extended to continuous-order modes. Partial 1–3 piezocomposite consists of two parts; one part is complete lead zirconate-titanate and the other part is 1–3 composite, which is helpful for exciting continuous-order modes. Based on the excitation mechanism of continuous-order modes, a design method of broadband transducer used of partial 1–3 piezocomposite is proposed, and large bandwidth and good pulse response are obtained. The excitation mechanism of continuous-order modes proposed in this paper provides an idea for the theoretical analysis and design of multi-resonant broadband transducers.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-19T01:33:49Z
       
  • Low dimensional measurement of vowels using machine perception

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      Authors: James Burridge, Bert Vaux
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 304-315, January 2023.
      A method is presented for combining the feature extraction power of neural networks with model based dimensionality reduction to produce linguistically motivated low dimensional measurements of sounds. This method works by first training a convolutional neural network (CNN) to predict linguistically relevant category labels from the spectrograms of sounds. Then, idealized models of these categories are defined as probability distributions in a low dimensional measurement space with locations chosen to reproduce, as far as possible, the perceptual characteristics of the CNN. To measure a sound, the point is found in the measurement space for which the posterior probability distribution over categories in the idealized model most closely matches the category probabilities output by the CNN for that sound. In this way, the feature learning power of the CNN is used to produce low dimensional measurements. This method is demonstrated using monophthongal vowel categories to train this CNN and produce measurements in two dimensions. It is also shown that the perceptual characteristics of this CNN are similar to those of human listeners.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-18T12:24:57Z
       
  • Development and validation of a Spanish-language spatial release from
           masking task in a Mexican population

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      Authors: E. Sebastian Lelo de Larrea-Mancera, Rodolfo Solís-Vivanco, Yolanda Sánchez-Jimenez, Laura Coco, Frederick J. Gallun, Aaron R. Seitz
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 316-327, January 2023.
      This study validates a new Spanish-language version of the Coordinate Response Measure (CRM) corpus using a well-established measure of spatial release from masking (SRM). Participants were 96 Spanish-speaking young adults without hearing complaints in Mexico City. To present the Spanish-language SRM test, we created new recordings of the CRM with Spanish-language Translations and updated the freely available app (PART; https://ucrbraingamecenter.github.io/PART_Utilities/) to present materials in Spanish. In addition to SRM, we collected baseline data on a battery of non-speech auditory assessments, including detection of frequency modulations, temporal gaps, and modulated broadband noise in the temporal, spectral, and spectrotemporal domains. Data demonstrate that the newly developed speech and non-speech tasks show similar reliability to an earlier report in English-speaking populations. This study demonstrates an approach by which auditory assessment for clinical and basic research can be extended to Spanish-speaking populations for whom testing platforms are not currently available.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-18T12:24:52Z
       
  • Performance on stochastic figure-ground perception varies with individual
           differences in speech-in-noise recognition and working memory capacity

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      Authors: Michael A. Johns, Regina C. Calloway, Ian Phillips, Valerie P. Karuzis, Kelsey Dutta, Ed Smith, Shihab A. Shamma, Matthew J. Goupell, Stefanie E. Kuchinsky
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 286-303, January 2023.
      Speech recognition in noisy environments can be challenging and requires listeners to accurately segregate a target speaker from irrelevant background noise. Stochastic figure-ground (SFG) tasks in which temporally coherent inharmonic pure-tones must be identified from a background have been used to probe the non-linguistic auditory stream segregation processes important for speech-in-noise processing. However, little is known about the relationship between performance on SFG tasks and speech-in-noise tasks nor the individual differences that may modulate such relationships. In this study, 37 younger normal-hearing adults performed an SFG task with target figure chords consisting of four, six, eight, or ten temporally coherent tones amongst a background of randomly varying tones. Stimuli were designed to be spectrally and temporally flat. An increased number of temporally coherent tones resulted in higher accuracy and faster reaction times (RTs). For ten target tones, faster RTs were associated with better scores on the Quick Speech-in-Noise task. Individual differences in working memory capacity and self-reported musicianship further modulated these relationships. Overall, results demonstrate that the SFG task could serve as an assessment of auditory stream segregation accuracy and RT that is sensitive to individual differences in cognitive and auditory abilities, even among younger normal-hearing adults.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-18T12:24:50Z
       
  • Effects of nonlinear internal gravity waves on normal-incident reflection
           measurements of seafloor sediments

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      Authors: Tzu-Ting Chen, Linus Y.-S. Chiu, Ying-Tsong Lin
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 328-337, January 2023.
      Sonar data acquired by sub-bottom profilers and echosounder systems are widely used to estimate geoacoustic properties of marine sediments. However, the uncertainty of the seabed property estimates caused by water-column variability may limit the application. In this paper, the acoustic focusing and defocusing effects of nonlinear internal gravity waves on normal-incident acoustic reflection measurements are studied. The experiment data were collected in the South China Sea from two transceiver moorings located at two different sites, one of which contained strong nonlinear internal waves (NIWs), while another site did not. The observed reflection intensity variation at the internal wave site varied up to 10 dB. On the other hand, the bottom reflections at the other site without internal waves were stable, and a seafloor sediment sample collected there was analyzed to validate the sediment type inferred from bottom loss. Numerical simulations using ray-tracing and parabolic equation models confirmed the cause of this intensity fluctuation by the acoustic focusing and defocusing of NIWs. This study eventually showed that NIWs may induce a significant bias for geoacoustic property estimates from seabed reflection coefficients.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-18T12:24:49Z
       
  • Cues to reduce modulation informational masking

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      Authors: Christopher Conroy, Emily Buss, Gerald Kidd
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 274-285, January 2023.
      The detectability of target amplitude modulation (AM) can be reduced by masker AM in the same carrier-frequency region. It can be reduced even further, however, if the masker-AM rate is uncertain [Conroy and Kidd, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 149, 3665–3673 (2021)]. This study examined the effectiveness of contextual cues in reducing this latter, uncertainty-related effect (modulation informational masking). Observers were tasked with detecting fixed-rate target sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM) in the presence of masker SAM applied simultaneously to the same broadband-noise carrier. A single-interval, two-alternative forced-choice detection procedure was used to measure sensitivity for the target SAM; masker-AM-rate uncertainty was created by randomly selecting the AM rate of the masker SAM on each trial. Relative to an uncued condition, a pretrial cue to the masker SAM significantly improved sensitivity for the target SAM; a cue to the target SAM, however, did not. The delay between the cue-interval offset and trial-interval onset did not affect the size of the masker-cue benefit, suggesting that adaptation of the masker SAM was not responsible. A simple model of within-AM-channel masking captured important trends in the psychophysical data, suggesting that reduced masker-AM-rate uncertainty may have played a relatively minor role in the masker-cue benefit.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-17T01:43:21Z
       
  • Ship detection and tracking from single ocean-bottom seismic and
           hydroacoustic stations

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      Authors: Alister Trabattoni, Guilhem Barruol, Richard Dréo, Abdel Boudraa
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 260-273, January 2023.
      We report in this study how ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) can be used as passive sonars to automatically detect, localize, and track moving acoustic sources at the ocean surface. We developed single-station methods based on direction of arrival and on multi-path interference measurements capable of handling continuous erratic signals emitted by ships. Based on a Bayesian mathematical framework, we developed an azimuthal detector and a radial detector and combined them into a fully automatic tracker. We tested the developed algorithm on seismic and hydroacoustic data recorded in the Indian Ocean by an OBS deployed at 4300 m depth, 200 km west of La Réunion Island. We quantified the performances using archives of commercial-vessel trajectories in the area provided by the Automatic Identification System. Detectors demonstrate capabilities in the detection range up to 100 km from the OBS with azimuthal accuracies of a few degrees and with distance accuracies of a few hundred of meters. We expect the method to be easily transposed to any other kind of sources (such as marine mammals).
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-17T01:43:19Z
       
  • Monitoring cavitation dynamics evolution in tissue mimicking hydrogels for
           repeated exposures via acoustic cavitation emissions

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      Authors: Scott C. Haskell, Ning Lu, Greyson E. Stocker, Zhen Xu, Jonathan R. Sukovich
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 237-247, January 2023.
      A 700 kHz histotripsy array is used to generate repeated cavitation events in agarose, gelatin, and polyacrylamide hydrogels. High-speed optical imaging, a broadband hydrophone, and the narrow-band receive elements of the histotripsy array are used to capture bubble dynamics and acoustic cavitation emissions. Bubble radii, lifespan, shockwave amplitudes are noted to be measured in close agreement between the different observation methods. These features also decrease with increasing hydrogel stiffness for all of the tested materials. However, the evolutions of these properties during the repeated irradiations vary significantly across the different material subjects. Bubble maximum radius initially increases, then plateaus, and finally decreases in agarose, but remains constant across exposures in gelatin and polyacrylamide. The bubble lifespan increases monotonically in agarose and gelatin but decreases in polyacrylamide. Collapse shockwave amplitudes were measured to have different-shaped evolutions between all three of the tested materials. Bubble maximum radii, lifespans, and collapse shockwave amplitudes were observed to express evolutions that are dependent on the structure and stiffness of the nucleation medium.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-13T01:02:48Z
       
  • Modeling individual head-related transfer functions from sparse
           measurements using a convolutional neural network

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      Authors: Ziran Jiang, Jinqiu Sang, Chengshi Zheng, Andong Li, Xiaodong Li
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 248-259, January 2023.
      Individual head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) are usually measured with high spatial resolution or modeled with anthropometric parameters. This study proposed an HRTF individualization method using only spatially sparse measurements using a convolutional neural network (CNN). The HRTFs were represented by two-dimensional images, in which the horizontal and vertical ordinates indicated direction and frequency, respectively. The CNN was trained by using the HRTF images measured at specific sparse directions as input and using the corresponding images with a high spatial resolution as output in a prior HRTF database. The HRTFs of a new subject can be recovered by the trained CNN with the sparsely measured HRTFs. Objective experiments showed that, when using 23 directions to recover individual HRTFs at 1250 directions, the spectral distortion (SD) is around 4.4 dB; when using 105 directions, the SD reduced to around 3.8 dB. Subjective experiments showed that the individualized HRTFs recovered from 105 directions had smaller discrimination proportion than the baseline method and were perceptually undistinguishable in many directions. This method combines the spectral and spatial characteristics of HRTF for individualization, which has potential for improving virtual reality experience.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-13T01:02:47Z
       
  • Erratum: Phase-shift expansions for approximate radiation forces on solid
           spheres in inviscid-acoustic standing waves (L) [J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
           142(6), 3358–3361 (2017)]

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      Authors: Philip L. Marston
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 236-236, January 2023.

      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-12T03:03:26Z
       
  • Transmission loss and directivity of sound transmitted through a slit on
           ground

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      Authors: Shuping Wang, Ziyi Yang, Jiancheng Tao, Xiaojun Qiu, Ian S. Burnett
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 224-235, January 2023.
      An analytical model is proposed for sound transmission through a slit on a rigid ground based on the modal superposition method to investigate the transmission loss (TL). A simple formula is derived for estimation of the TL for plane waves with and without the ground, which gives a more precise prediction than existing approaches. It is found that a larger slit height generally decreases the TL, except at the resonant frequencies of the slit. The slit width has little effect on the TL at high frequencies, and the slit depth affects the resonant frequencies significantly even though it has little effect on the overall TL. Compared with the same size slit in the free field, the rigid ground reduces the TL at most frequencies, and that reduction is a constant between 3 and 9 dB in the low frequency range. It is also found that the sound transmitted through the slit is almost omnidirectional at low frequencies, while most of the sound energy at high frequencies falls within the range where the long side of the slit is located. The experimental results demonstrate the validity of the analytical model and the findings in numerical simulations.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-12T03:03:25Z
       
  • Envelope following responses for hearing diagnosis: Robustness and
           methodological considerations

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      Authors: Heleen Van Der Biest, Sarineh Keshishzadeh, Hannah Keppler, Ingeborg Dhooge, Sarah Verhulst
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 191-208, January 2023.
      Recent studies have found that envelope following responses (EFRs) are a marker of age-related and noise- or ototoxic-induced cochlear synaptopathy (CS) in research animals. Whereas the cochlear injury can be well controlled in animal research studies, humans may have an unknown mixture of sensorineural hearing loss [SNHL; e.g., inner- or outer-hair-cell (OHC) damage or CS] that cannot be teased apart in a standard hearing evaluation. Hence, a direct translation of EFR markers of CS to a differential CS diagnosis in humans might be compromised by the influence of SNHL subtypes and differences in recording modalities between research animals and humans. To quantify the robustness of EFR markers for use in human studies, this study investigates the impact of methodological considerations related to electrode montage, stimulus characteristics, and presentation, as well as analysis method on human-recorded EFR markers. The main focus is on rectangularly modulated pure-tone stimuli to evoke the EFR based on a recent auditory modelling study that showed that the EFR was least affected by OHC damage and most sensitive to CS in this stimulus configuration. The outcomes of this study can help guide future clinical implementations of electroencephalography-based SNHL diagnostic tests.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-11T01:28:59Z
       
  • Multiple sources of acoustic variation affect speech processing efficiency

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      Authors: Alexandra M. Kapadia, Jessica A. A. Tin, Tyler K. Perrachione
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 209-223, January 2023.
      Phonetic variability across talkers imposes additional processing costs during speech perception, evident in performance decrements when listening to speech from multiple talkers. However, within-talker phonetic variation is a less well-understood source of variability in speech, and it is unknown how processing costs from within-talker variation compare to those from between-talker variation. Here, listeners performed a speeded word identification task in which three dimensions of variability were factorially manipulated: between-talker variability (single vs multiple talkers), within-talker variability (single vs multiple acoustically distinct recordings per word), and word-choice variability (two- vs six-word choices). All three sources of variability led to reduced speech processing efficiency. Between-talker variability affected both word-identification accuracy and response time, but within-talker variability affected only response time. Furthermore, between-talker variability, but not within-talker variability, had a greater impact when the target phonological contrasts were more similar. Together, these results suggest that natural between- and within-talker variability reflect two distinct magnitudes of common acoustic–phonetic variability: Both affect speech processing efficiency, but they appear to have qualitatively and quantitatively unique effects due to differences in their potential to obscure acoustic–phonemic correspondences across utterances.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-11T01:28:53Z
       
  • Investigating phoneme-dependencies of spherical voice directivity patterns
           II: Various groups of phonemes

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      Authors: Christoph Pörschmann, Johannes M. Arend
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 179-190, January 2023.
      The substantial variation between articulated phonemes is a fundamental feature of human voice production. However, while the spectral and temporal aspects of the phonemes have been extensively studied, few have investigated the spatial aspects and analyzed phoneme-dependent differences in voice directivity. This paper extends our previous research focusing on the directivity patterns of selected vowels and fricatives [Pörschmann and Arend, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 149(6), 4553–4564 (2021)] and examines different groups of phonemes, such as plosives, nasals, voiced alveolars, and additional fricatives. For this purpose, full-spherical voice directivity measurements were performed for 13 persons while they articulated the respective phonemes. The sound radiation was recorded simultaneously using a surrounding spherical microphone array with 32 microphones and then spatially upsampled to a dense sampling grid. Based on these upsampled datasets, the spherical voice directivity was studied, and phoneme-dependent variations were analyzed. The results show significant differences between the groups of phonemes. However, within three groups (plosives, nasals, and voiced alveolars), the differences are small, and the variations in the directivity index were statistically insignificant.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-10T01:00:54Z
       
  • Inverse problem to estimate lips parameters values of outward-striking
           trumpet model for successive playing registers

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      Authors: J.-B. Doc, C. Vergez, J. Hannebicq
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 168-178, January 2023.
      The objective of this work is to estimate by inverse problem lip parameters values of trumpet model so that the oscillation thresholds for successive playing registers occur for the same blowing pressure as the one measured on several trumpet players. The lips vibration is modeled through an oscillator including unknown parameters such as resonance frequency, quality factor, surface mass, stiffness, and opening at rest of the lips. The oscillation threshold is calculated through linear stability analysis of the outward-striking model including the nonlinear coupling with the bore of the trumpet. It appears that many combinations of parameter values are suitable to obtain the same blowing pressure at threshold as in the experiments. According to the analysis of the possible parameter values, some hypotheses are formulated about the playing strategies used by the trumpeter to select the different registers of the instrument. In addition to the resonance frequency of the lips, controlling the lips opening at rest appears to be a viable strategy to match experimental oscillation thresholds in terms of blowing pressure. Numerical values for the lips parameters are given and through sound synthesis, allow the successive registers of the trumpet to be played.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-10T01:00:47Z
       
  • Computational reduction of the spectral division method for synthesizing
           moving sources by source trajectory approximation

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      Authors: Kentaro Matsui, Yo Sasaki
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 159-167, January 2023.
      This paper proposes a method to reduce the computational cost of the spectral division method that synthesizes moving sources. The proposed method consists of two approximations: that of the secondary source driving function and that of the trajectory of the moving sources. Combining these two approximations simplifies the integral calculations that traditionally appear in the driving functions, replacing them with a correction of the frequency magnitude and phase of the source signals. Numerical simulations and subjective experiments show that the computational cost can be reduced by a factor of 50–100 compared to the conventional method without significantly affecting the synthesized sound field and the sense of localization.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-09T12:02:54Z
       
  • Non-native talkers and listeners and the perceptual benefits of clear
           speech

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      Authors: Ye-Jee Jung, Olga Dmitrieva
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 137-148, January 2023.
      This study examined the intelligibility benefit of native and non-native clear speech for native and non-native listeners when the first language background of non-native talkers and listeners is matched. All four combinations of talkers and listeners were tested: native talker–native listener, non-native talker–native listener, native talker–non-native listener, and non-native talker–non-native listener. Listeners were presented with structurally simple but semantically anomalous English sentences produced clearly or casually and mixed with speech-shaped noise at 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio and asked to write down what they heard. Results showed that native English speech was more intelligible than non-native speech and that native English listeners recovered speech better than non-native listeners did. Clear speech was significantly more intelligible than casual speech. There were no interactions between speaking style and native language background indicating that clear speech intelligibility benefit was not significantly different across distinct combinations of talkers and listeners. In particular, shared first language background among non-native speakers and listeners did not provide an extra benefit in either the overall speech intelligibility or the intelligibility gains of clear speech.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-06T12:48:33Z
       
  • Multi-objective optimization for generation of personal sound zone

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      Authors: Jiazheng Cheng, Hao Gao, Keyu Pan, Xuelei Feng, Yong Shen
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 149-158, January 2023.
      Personal Sound Zone (PSZ) allows listeners to enjoy their individual sound without being disturbed by sound from other zones. Acoustic contrast, signal distortion, and array effort are the most frequently used metrics for measuring the performance of a PSZ system. However, usually, the three metrics cannot be optimized at the same time. A trade-off between the three metrics has to be made when designing a PSZ system. In this paper, two generalized methods based on multi-objective optimization are proposed for dealing with all possible trade-off problems between the three metrics in PSZ. Optimality analysis of the two proposed methods is taken, and the relationship between the two proposed methods is investigated. Numerical simulations are presented to validate the efficacy and flexibility of the two proposed methods.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-06T12:48:32Z
       
  • Self-localization of monaural microphone using dipole sound sources

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      Authors: Kazuyuki Arikawa, Keisuke Hasegawa, Takaaki Nara
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 105-118, January 2023.
      This paper introduces a method for indoor self-localization of a monaural microphone, which is required for various location-based services. By generating two pairs of dipole sound fields, localization is performed on each device, irrespective of the number of devices, based on orthogonal detection of observed signals and some simple operations that are feasible with limited computational resources. A method using multiple source frequencies for enhancing robustness against the effects of reflection and scattering is also proposed. The effectiveness of this method was evaluated by numerical simulations and experiments in an anechoic chamber and indoor environment, and the average errors for the azimuth and zenith angles were 4.8 and 1.9 deg, respectively, in the anechoic chamber and 21 and 11 deg, respectively, in the indoor environment.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-06T12:48:30Z
       
  • Rapid method for computing the mechanical resonances of irregular objects

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      Authors: Avi Shragai, Florian Theuss, Gaël Grissonnanche, B. J. Ramshaw
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 119-123, January 2023.
      A solid object's geometry, density, and elastic moduli completely determine its spectrum of normal modes. Solving the inverse problem—determining a material's elastic moduli given a set of resonance frequencies and sample geometry—relies on the ability to compute resonance spectra accurately and efficiently. Established methods for calculating these spectra are either fast but limited to simple geometries, or are applicable to arbitrarily shaped samples at the cost of being prohibitively slow. Here, we describe a method to rapidly compute the normal modes of irregularly shaped objects using entirely open-source software. Our method's accuracy compares favorably with existing methods for simple geometries and shows a significant improvement in speed over existing methods for irregular geometries.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-06T12:48:30Z
       
  • A steerable non-paraxial Gaussian beam expansion for a steerable
           parametric array loudspeaker

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      Authors: Tao Zhuang, Jiaxin Zhong, Feng Niu, Mahmoud Karimi, Ray Kirby, Jing Lu
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 124-136, January 2023.
      A steerable parametric array loudspeaker (PAL) aims to steer a highly directional audio beam without the need to mechanically rotate the source. The Gaussian beam expansion (GBE) method is often used to model PALs because it is a computationally efficient approach, however the method relies on a paraxial approximation that can result in significant inaccuracies at large steering angles. To address this limitation, a steerable non-paraxial GBE is proposed in this article, where the mainlobe of the steered ultrasonic beam is included in the calculation by rotating the coordinate system. A non-paraxial approximation is then used to improve the accuracy of the method when integrating the virtual audio sources. The numerical results obtained using the proposed method are compared against those using the conventional GBE, as well as an exact solution. For a typical configuration, it is shown that for a conventional GBE the prediction error can be more than 30 dB at large angles, whereas the proposed method reduces this to less than 1 dB. The advantage of the proposed method is more significant at large steering angles, low audio frequencies, and those locations outside of the paraxial region. This improvement in performance is achieved with a computational cost that remains the same as the conventional GBE.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-06T12:48:27Z
       
  • A lightweight metastructure for simultaneous low-frequency broadband sound
           absorption and vibration isolation

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      Authors: Tianyu Gu, Zhihui Wen, Liangshu He, Minle Yu, Yong Li, Yan Li, Yabin Jin
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 96-104, January 2023.
      We theoretically, numerically, and experimentally study a lightweight metastructure that can simultaneously reduce vibration and noise in a broad low-frequency range. We introduce spiral slits and micro-perforations in the panel and core plate of a face-centered cubic sandwich structure, respectively. A bottom-up acoustic impedance theory is developed to describe the impedance of a single unit cell. Broadband low-frequency sound absorption is achieved for a 3 × 3 supercell via reinforcement learning optimization. The resonant coupling of the upper spiral panel and the lower panel of the unit can form a wide hybridized bandgap for flexural waves, which is further validated for vibration isolation with a one-dimensional supercell. The proposed multifunctional metastructure provides a new route to design lightweight load-bearing structures with noise and vibration reduction performance for potential applications such as aerospace engineering and transportation vehicles, among others.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-05T02:16:19Z
       
  • Semi-blind source separation using convolutive transfer function for
           nonlinear acoustic echo cancellation

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      Authors: Guoliang Cheng, Lele Liao, Kai Chen, Yuxiang Hu, Changbao Zhu, Jing Lu
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 88-95, January 2023.
      The recently proposed semi-blind source separation (SBSS) method for nonlinear acoustic echo cancellation (NAEC) outperforms adaptive NAEC in attenuating the nonlinear acoustic echo. However, the multiplicative transfer function (MTF) approximation makes it unsuitable for real-time applications, especially in highly reverberant environments, and the natural gradient makes it hard to balance well between fast convergence speed and stability. In this paper, two more effective SBSS methods based on auxiliary-function-based independent vector analysis (AuxIVA) and independent low-rank matrix analysis (ILRMA) are proposed. The convolutive transfer function approximation is used instead of the MTF so that a long impulse response can be modeled with a short latency. The optimization schemes used in AuxIVA and ILRMA are carefully regularized according to the constrained demixing matrix of NAEC. The experimental results validate significantly better echo cancellation performances of the proposed methods.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-05T02:16:19Z
       
  • Intelligibility as a measure of speech perception: Current approaches,
           challenges, and recommendations

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      Authors: Melissa M. Baese-Berk, Susannah V. Levi, Kristin J. Van Engen
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 68-76, January 2023.
      Intelligibility measures, which assess the number of words or phonemes a listener correctly transcribes or repeats, are commonly used metrics for speech perception research. While these measures have many benefits for researchers, they also come with a number of limitations. By pointing out the strengths and limitations of this approach, including how it fails to capture aspects of perception such as listening effort, this article argues that the role of intelligibility measures must be reconsidered in fields such as linguistics, communication disorders, and psychology. Recommendations for future work in this area are presented.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-05T02:16:17Z
       
  • Crucial 3-D viscous hydrodynamic contributions to the theoretical modeling
           of the cochlear response

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      Authors: Renata Sisto, Daniele Belardinelli, Alessandro Altoè, Christopher A. Shera, Arturo Moleti
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 77-86, January 2023.
      This study uses a 3-D representation of the cochlear fluid to extend the results of a recent paper [Sisto, Belardinelli, and Moleti (2021b). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 150, 4283–4296] in which two hydrodynamic effects, pressure focusing and viscous damping of the BM motion, both associated with the sharp increase in the wavenumber in the peak region, were analyzed for a 2-D fluid, coupled to a standard 1-D transmission-line WKB approach to cochlear modeling. The propagation equation is obtained from a 3-D fluid volume conservation equation, yielding the focusing effect, and the effect of viscosity is represented as a correction to the local 1-D admittance. In particular, pressure focusing amplifies the BM response without modifying the peak admittance, and viscous damping determines the position of the response peak counteracting focusing, as sharp gradients of the velocity field develop. The full 3-D WKB formalism is necessary to represent satisfactorily the behavior of the fluid velocity field near the BM-fluid interface, strictly related to viscous losses. As in finite element models, a thin layer of fluid is effectively attached to the BM due to viscosity, and the viscous force associated with the vertical gradient of the fluid vertical velocity acts on the BM through this layer.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-05T02:16:16Z
       
  • Sample size matters in calculating Pillai scores

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      Authors: Joseph A. Stanley, Betsy Sneller
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 54-67, January 2023.
      Since their introduction to sociolinguistics by Hay, Warren, and Drager [(2006). J. Phon. (Modell. Sociophon. Var.) 34(4), 458–484], Pillai scores have become a standard metric for quantifying vowel overlap. However, there is no established threshold value for determining whether two vowels are merged, leading to conflicting ad hoc measures. Furthermore, as a parametric measure, Pillai scores are sensitive to sample size. In this paper, we use generated data from a simulated pair of underlyingly merged vowels to demonstrate (1) larger sample sizes yield reliably more accurate Pillai scores, (2) unequal group sizes across the two vowel classes are irrelevant in the calculation of Pillai scores, and (3) it takes many more data than many sociolinguistic studies typically analyze to return a reliably low Pillai score for underlyingly merged data. We provide some recommendations for maximizing reliability in the use of Pillai scores and provide a formula to assist researchers in determining a reasonable threshold to use as an indicator of merged status given their sample size. We demonstrate these recommendations in action with a case study.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-05T02:16:15Z
       
  • Erratum: A porous medium model for mud [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 149(1),
           629–644 (2021)]

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      Authors: Nicholas P. Chotiros
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 87-87, January 2023.

      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-05T02:16:14Z
       
  • ACOUSTICAL NEWS

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      Authors: Elaine Moran
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 52-53, January 2023.
      Editor's Note: Readers of this journal are encouraged to submit news items on awards, appointments, and other activities about themselves or their colleagues. Deadline dates for news and notices are 2 months prior to publication.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-04T12:38:16Z
       
  • Acoustic characterization of nanofibers for optimization with porous
           substrate

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      Authors: Victor Chen, Ignacio Perez Pablos, Jer-Ming Chen
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 40-49, January 2023.
      Nanofiber-porous systems comprising a porous substrate overlaid with nanofiber weave offer the potential for higher acoustic absorption than the substrate alone with negligible increase in thickness. The characterization of nanofibers from acoustic measurements is investigated in this work, and a regression model for predicting their acoustic properties from a single physical parameter is proposed to enable the design of nanofiber-porous systems directly from fabrication parameters. Characterization as a resistive screen via Johnson–Champoux–Allard and lumped element models for transfer matrix computations of absorption coefficient for nanofiber-porous systems exhibited good agreement with the measured spectra. The lumped element model was chosen as it was defined by fewer parameters and did not require nanofiber layer thickness measurements, eliminating the associated uncertainty. A regression model for lumped element parameters vs areal density established a design tool based on a single, easily measured physical property for optimized absorption at target frequencies without prior acoustic characterization of the nanofiber layer, enabling the analysis of complex acoustic networks incorporating nanofiber-porous systems. Practical considerations of applying adhesives at the nanofiber-porous interface were studied to evaluate possible enhancement of acoustic performance. For comparison with prior work by others, flow resistances from physical measurement and acoustic characterization were compared.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-04T12:38:13Z
       
  • Erratum: Personal attenuation ratings versus derated noise reduction
           ratings for hearing protection devices [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 152(2),
           1074–1089 (2022)]

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      Authors: William J. Murphy, Wei Gong, Stephanie J. Karch, Jeremy Federman, Theresa Y. Schulz
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 50-51, January 2023.

      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-04T12:38:11Z
       
  • REVIEWS OF ACOUSTICAL PATENTS

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      Authors: Sean A. Fulop
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 1-6, January 2023.
      The purpose of these acoustical patent reviews is to provide enough information for a Journal reader to decide whether to seek more information from the patent itself. Any opinions expressed here are those of the reviewers as individuals and are not legal opinions. Patents are available via the internet at the USPTO website.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-03T01:38:48Z
       
  • Foam gratings as an alternative to customized acoustic lenses

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      Authors: Luke A. Richards, Eleanor Stride, Robin O. Cleveland
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 17-25, January 2023.
      This article describes a method of manipulating acoustic fields using transmission through foam gratings. The approach is investigated with an analytical model, a numerical model simulating full wave ultrasound propagation through the gratings, and experimental measurements. A grating is demonstrated that mimics a conventional ultrasound lens, modulating the phase of transmitted ultrasound while maximizing the transmitted amplitude. The performance of a foam grating is compared to a lens made of polydimethylsiloxane or three-dimensional printed resin. Using two gratings, independent control of amplitude and phase is demonstrated, with increased insertion loss. The primary advantages of this technique over conventional lenses are very rapid manufacture (
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-03T01:38:46Z
       
  • Magnetic prestressing for a d32-mode single crystal ultrasonic transducer

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      Authors: Scott D. Moss, Jess D. Flicker, David J. Munk, Matthew J. Schipper, Joel Smithard, George Jung, Zane Hills, Jianfu Hou, John E. Daniels, Peter Finkel
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 7-16, January 2023.
      This work describes a 35.9 kHz ultrasonic transducer that incorporates a magnetic arrangement to apply a static-compressive prestress to a d32-mode relaxor ferroelectric single crystal drive-element. The magnetic arrangement produces a 22.5 N static-compressive force, inducing a static compression of ∼630 nm on the drive-element. Operating in air with a continuous-wave 10 V peak drive at ∼35.9 kHz, the measured resonant peak displacement of the transducers head-mass was 127 nm. This is well within the predicted static compression, thus, the drive-element is protected from damaging tensile stress. Under the same drive conditions and at an axial distance of 10 mm from the face of the head-mass, the measured acoustic pressure was ∼12 Pa. Analytical and finite element model predictions and the measured behaviour of a prototype device are presented and show good correlation, demonstrating that magnetic prestressing of the drive-element can be a viable alternative to the traditional bolt-clamp.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-03T01:38:46Z
       
  • Time machine in ocean acoustics

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      Authors: Hee-Chun Song, W. A. Kuperman
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page R1-R2, January 2023.
      The Reflections series takes a look back on historical articles from The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America that have had a significant impact on the science and practice of acoustics.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-03T01:38:40Z
       
  • Boothless audiometry: Ambient noise considerations

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      Authors: Deanna K. Meinke, William Hal Martin
      Abstract: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 153, Issue 1, Page 26-39, January 2023.
      Ambient noise in the test environment will impact signal detection during hearing threshold measurements due to psychoacoustic masking effects. Technical standards specify the maximum permissible ambient noise levels (MPANLs) for use during audiometric testing. MPANLs are dependent on several factors, including transducer characteristics (supra-aural, circumaural, type of ear cushions or earphone enclosures, and insert earphones), the nature of the hearing test being performed (air conduction vs bone conduction and threshold test vs screen at a suprathreshold level), and measurement instrumentation. The nature of the ambient noise (spectrum and constant vs variable) at the test site must be determined and continually accounted for during the boothless hearing test procedure. Ambient noise monitoring procedures are reviewed and examples of ambient noise characteristics in real-world settings, where hearing testing might be performed outside of a sound-treated environment, are provided. Practical considerations are presented, including examples of available tools for ambient noise monitoring, selection of test locations, and transducer attenuation. These are discussed in the context of calculating MPANLs and how best to ensure that ambient noise levels are not negatively impacting the validity of hearing thresholds.
      Citation: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
      PubDate: 2023-01-03T01:38:39Z
       
 
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