Subjects -> EARTH SCIENCES (Total: 771 journals)
    - EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)
    - GEOLOGY (94 journals)
    - GEOPHYSICS (33 journals)
    - HYDROLOGY (29 journals)
    - OCEANOGRAPHY (88 journals)

OCEANOGRAPHY (88 journals)

Showing 1 - 79 of 79 Journals sorted by number of followers
Hydrobiology     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Limnology and Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Deep Sea Research Part I : Oceanographic Research Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Physical Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Frontiers in Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Marine Biology & Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Progress in Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Marine Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Oceanography and Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Maritime Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Fisheries Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Physical Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Open Journal of Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Limnology and Oceanography: Fluids and Environments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Oceanography and Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Oceanography : Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Limnology and Oceanography: Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Oceanology and Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ocean Yearbook Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Limnology and Oceanography Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Marine Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Marine Science and Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Oceanology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Operational Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Coastal Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencias Marinas     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ocean Engineering and Marine Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Limnology and Oceanography e-Lectures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Development and Applications of Oceanic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Regional Studies in Marine Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Limnology and Oceanography: Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Limnology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Ocean University of China (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Scientia Marina     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Technology Society Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ocean Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ocean Life     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Aquatica : Aquatic Sciences Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Systems & Ocean Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Marine Life Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Coastal Engineering Proceedings : Proceedings of the International Conference on Coastal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research     Open Access  
Thalassas : An International Journal of Marine Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Oceans     Open Access  
Aquatic Research     Open Access  
Jurnal Kelautan Tropis     Open Access  
Depik Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Perairan, Pesisir dan Perikanan     Open Access  
Journal of Agricultural and Marine Sciences     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Maritime and Marine Sciences     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências do Mar     Open Access  
Scientific Drilling     Open Access  
Jurnal Kelautan : Indonesian Journal of Marine Science and Technology     Open Access  
Oceanologia     Open Access  
Revista de Gestão Costeira Integrada     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Marinas y Costeras     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research     Open Access  
China Ocean Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía     Open Access  
Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research     Open Access  
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal  
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Oceans
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2673-1924
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Oceans, Vol. 5, Pages 150-165: Effects of Food Concentration and Light
           Intensity on the Growth of a Model Coral

    • Authors: Tung-Yung Fan, Yan-Leng Huang, Anderson Mayfield
      First page: 150
      Abstract: Since reef-building corals rely on both heterotrophy and endosymbiotic dinoflagellate autotrophy to meet their metabolic needs, it is necessary to consider both food supply and light levels, respectively, when optimizing their cultivation ex situ. Herein nubbins of the model reef coral Pocillopora acuta cultured in recirculating aquaculture systems at photosynthetically active radiation levels of 370 or 670 μmol quanta m−2 s−1 were fed Artemia nauplii at concentrations of either 33 or 78 individuals mL−1 in a separate feeding tank for 6 hr in the dark thrice weekly. A subset of nubbins was experimentally wounded at the outset of the 84-day experiment to assess recovery, and 100% fully healed within 2–4 weeks. All cultured corals survived, and unwounded corals (1) grew at a specific growth rate approaching 0.5% day−1 and (2) demonstrated a mean total linear extension of 0.2% day−1 (~6–8 cm year−1); these are far higher than growth rates normally documented in situ. In the feeding tank, corals tolerated nitrate levels up to 25 mg L−1, but once concentrations reached 50 mg L−1 by day 84, tissue necrosis began to occur in nubbins of one tank. This highlights the importance of feeding in separate tanks during long-term culture of corals, and bio-filtration could reduce the possibility of organic matter accumulation in future coral culture studies.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2024-03-25
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans5020009
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 5, Pages 166-180: Investigation of Spatiotemporal Patterns of
           Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) Strandings in Swedish Waters for
           Improved Monitoring and Management

    • Authors: Vigge Ulfsson, Hyeyoung Kim, Linnea Cervin, Anna Roos, Aleksija Neimanis
      First page: 166
      Abstract: Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) are the only cetacean residents found year-round in Swedish waters and they are exposed to numerous natural and anthropogenic threats. Since the in situ monitoring of cetaceans can be difficult, invasive and often expensive, investigation of stranding patterns and examination of stranded animals can be used as a cost-effective source of data to study these elusive animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the spatiotemporal patterns of harbour porpoise stranding reports and the possible underlying causes in Swedish waters over a ten-year period (2014–2023). Additionally, the Swedish stranding network plays a key role in the collection of stranded carcasses for health and disease surveillance, and geographic coverage of the network also was analysed. When making spatial comparisons, the ten-year period was divided into two five-year blocks. Data on 854 stranded harbour porpoises were analysed from the coasts of the Skagerrak, Kattegat, and Baltic Seas. Both significant spatial and temporal patterns could be identified. Strandings peaked in July through September and hotspots occurred along most of the Swedish west coast, with the most frequent hotspots located around Öresund and especially the area around the Kullen peninsula. The spatial patterns of strandings found in this study are consistent with data on porpoise abundance, prey abundance, and gillnet fisheries’ efforts. The latter is known to be one of the primary causes of porpoise mortality. Furthermore, the coverage of the Swedish stranding network increased between the two periods, likely reflecting an increased awareness of the carcass-based surveillance program, and gaps requiring network expansion efforts were identified. These results also provide baseline data to enable the continued monitoring of stranding trends, as changes may indicate changes in population distribution, size or mortality rates.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2024-03-29
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans5020010
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 5, Pages 181-195: The Effects of Tetrabromobisphenol A
           (TBBPA) on the Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis: A Multi-Biomarker
           Approach

    • Authors: Sandra Copeto, Sara Ganço, Inês João Ferreira, Marco Silva, Carla Motta, Mário Diniz
      First page: 181
      Abstract: Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a fire-retardant containing bromine, produced in large quantities worldwide and extensively used in several industrial products. This compound was identified as a potential contaminant of the environment, causing toxicity to organisms. However, its toxicity remains poorly understood in marine bivalves. The first objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of TBBPA on mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) exposed for 28 days to various concentrations of TBBPA (0, 1, 10, and 100 µg·L−1), by assessing stress biomarkers’ responses (Glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant capacity, total ubiquitin, caspase-3 and acetylcholinesterase). The results showed that lower concentrations (1 and 10 µg·L−1) were efficiently detoxified, as suggested by GST activities, which were supported by the responses of the other biomarkers. The most pronounced effects were observed in animals exposed to the highest concentration of TBBPA (100 µg·L−1), suggesting oxidative stress. Additionally, significant strong correlations were found between total antioxidant capacity and some biomarkers (superoxide dismutase and lipid peroxidation), showing that processes involved in oxidative stress fighting are working to avoid cell injury. In brief, mussels’ defense mechanisms were capable of dealing with exposure to the lower concentrations tested. Despite this, the risk of consuming shellfish or other fishery products contaminated with TBBPA should be a cause for concern.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2024-04-03
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans5020011
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 5, Pages 196-209: Widespread Coral Bleaching and Mass
           Mortality of Reef-Building Corals in Southern Mexican Pacific Reefs Due to
           2023 El Niño Warming

    • Authors: Andrés López-Pérez, Rebeca Granja-Fernández, Eduardo Ramírez-Chávez, Omar Valencia-Méndez, Fabián A. Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Tania González-Mendoza, Armando Martínez-Castro
      First page: 196
      Abstract: In May 2023, oceanic and atmospheric anomalies indicated El Niño conditions in the eastern Pacific, followed by coral bleaching in coral communities and reefs of Huatulco. We conducted surveys and sampled coral reef communities from late June to mid–August of 2023 to evaluate the intensity and extent of the changes associated with the warming event. From January of 2023, Huatulco experienced positive sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies; however, beginning in June, the high-temperature anomalies became extreme (>31 °C; ~2 °C above historical records). These high temperatures resulted in extensive coral bleaching in middle–late June and mortality from middle–late July (>50–93%). In addition, the area experienced significant reductions in echinoderm abundance and fish biomass. In 2023, severe bleaching affected coral systems in the Central Mexican Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and Mexican Caribbean, making this the most devastating marine heatwave event, simultaneously impacting coral reefs across Mexico’s Pacific and Atlantic coasts.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2024-04-04
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans5020012
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 5, Pages 210-226: Global Chlorophyll Concentration
           Distribution and Effects on Bottom Reflectance of Coral Reefs

    • Authors: Ana G. Bonelli, Paulina Martin, Phillip Noel, Gregory P. Asner
      First page: 210
      Abstract: Despite the limited coverage of coral reefs in the world’s oceans, they play a crucial role in global marine biodiversity and providing essential ecosystem services. This study explores the influence of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration in the water column on the estimation of bottom reflectance (rb) in coral reefs monitored by the Allen Coral Atlas coral reef monitoring system, using satellite imagery from a Sentinel-2 MSI sensor. We conducted a comprehensive analysis, considering Chl-a global distribution and variability, and its combined effect with water column depth over rb calculation. Our results demonstrated that the impact of Chl-a on rb estimation becomes significant when the water column depth exceeds 3 m. While suggesting the optionality of using regional Chl-a values, our study highlights potential overestimations of Chl-a in optically complex environments, such as along the Brazilian coast. This research contributes to refining coral reef monitoring systems and underscores the importance of accurate Chl-a assessments for robust environmental evaluations.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2024-04-10
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans5020013
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 5, Pages 227-243: Energy Efficiency Analysis of a Deformable
           Wave Energy Converter Using Fully Coupled Dynamic Simulations

    • Authors: Chen Luo, Luofeng Huang
      First page: 227
      Abstract: Deformable wave energy converters have significant potential for application as flexible material that can mitigate structural issues, while how to design the dimensions and choose an optimal deployment location remain unclear. In this paper, fully coupled computational fluid dynamics and computational solid mechanics were used to simulate the dynamic interactions between ocean waves and a deformable wave energy converter. The simulation results showed that the relative length to wave, deployment depth and aspect ratio of the device have significant effects on the energy conversion efficiency. By calculating the energy captured per unit width of the device, the energy efficiency was found to be up to 138%. The optimal energy conversion efficiencies were achieved when the structure length was 0.25, 0.5 or 0.75 of the dominating wavelength and submerged at a corresponding suitable depth. The aspect ratio and maximum stress inside the wave energy converter showed a nonlinear trend, with potential optimal points revealed. The simulation approach and results support the future design and optimisation of flexiable wave energy converters or other marine structures with notable deformations.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2024-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans5020014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 5, Pages 1-20: Contribution to the Knowledge of Cetacean
           Strandings in Chile between 2015 and 2020

    • Authors: Mauricio Ulloa, Miguel A. Rivero, Antonio Fernández
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Strandings caused by anthropogenic factors are one of the most worrying threats in relation to the conservation of cetacean species, and in the case of Chile, due to its geography and large extension of the coastline, monitoring and access to these events is difficult, making their study more complex. Chile has a shortage of specialized scientific forensic research facilities for cetaceans; however, for this study, it was able to collect data recorded from official institutions and sporadic scientific biological sampling oriented to investigate the causes of death or stranding. According to the Chilean government official database, we described that the main causes of unusual mortality events (UME) and mass strandings from 2015 and 2016 were acute poisoning by biotoxins and strandings by multiple possible causes, respectively, while individual strandings would have their causes in anthropogenic activities, such as entanglements in fishing and aquaculture gears and collisions with vessels. The predominant species in mass strandings was the sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis). The geographical area of greatest prominence in mass strandings was the Aysén Region in the Central Patagonia of Chile, while the species mostly involved in individual strandings along the south-central, central, and northern coasts of Chile was the small porpoise (Phocoena spinipinnis). The most common gross pathological findings were advance decay of the carcasses and non-specific wounds of different natures.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2024-01-03
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans5010001
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 5, Pages 21-37: Herbivorous Reef Fish Interaction with the
           Habitat and Physicochemical Variables in Coral Ecosystems in the Mexican
           Tropical Pacific

    • Authors: Diana Morales-de-Anda, Amílcar Leví Cupul-Magaña, Consuelo María Aguilar-Betancourt, Gaspar González-Sansón, Fabián Alejandro Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Alma Paola Rodríguez-Troncoso
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Herbivorous fish can mediate spatial competition between algae and corals, which is crucial for coral ecosystems. However, in areas with limited coral coverage like the Mexican tropical Pacific (MTP), this dynamic is not fully understood. This study, using a functional trait approach and ordination analysis, explores whether herbivorous reef fish assemblage influences the benthic habitat components or if physicochemical factors define the habitat variability in the MTP’s Cleofas and Marietas insular systems. We analyzed if this relationship persisted across systems and over time, and identified species traits tied to habitat variability. Island comparison analyses between Cleofas and Marietas reveal that both herbivorous reef fish and physicochemical variables shape the habitat. Cleofas had larger mobile herbivorous fish that formed groups related mostly to macroalgae cover. In contrast, temporal analysis of Marietas shows that the habitat is primarily shaped by physicochemical variables with herbivorous fish being mainly small farmer species related to branching corals. Notably, these closely situated insular systems present varied ecosystem mediators, influenced by diverse drivers including fish traits and environmental factors. This study underscores the potential of employing a framework of ecological species traits combined with ordination methods to unravel the distinct site dynamics that contribute to the persistence of coral ecosystems within the MTP.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2024-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans5010002
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 5, Pages 38-47: Effects of Water Temperature and Structural
           Habitat Complexity on the Routine Swimming Speed and Escape Response of
           Post-Settlement Stage White Seabream

    • Authors: Patrícia Vicente, João Almeida, Laura Ribeiro, Sara Castanho, Ana Candeias-Mendes, Pedro Pousão-Ferreira, Ana Margarida Faria
      First page: 38
      Abstract: Coastal habitats are increasingly threatened by multiple anthropogenic-related activities, which include ocean warming and loss of structural habitat complexity. These two pressures have the potential to severely affect the structure and function of marine biodiversity. Early life stages of many fish species recruit to coastal habitats at the end of their pelagic phase, benefiting from access to food, shelter and protection. However, changes in temperature have been shown to influence ecologically relevant behaviours in post-settlement stage fish, and the loss of structural habitat complexity has been related to low recruitment and deleterious behaviours of fish in coastal habitats. Here, we evaluated the individual and interactive effects of prolonged exposure to increasing temperature and changed structural habitat complexity on routine swimming speed and escape response of post-settlement white seabream, Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus, 1758). Fish were reared under different temperatures (control 19 °C; high 22 °C) and structural habitat complexity (low and high) scenarios, in a cross-experimental design, and the routine swimming and escape responses were analyzed after 6 weeks of exposure. Change in temperature did not induce alterations at the behavioural level, but loss of structural habitat complexity increased speed and distance travelled during routine swimming, and responsiveness to a stimulus during the escape response behaviour. The interaction of the two factors did not influence performance. Determining how species are affected by changes in their environment, and the mechanisms that underlie these changes, will be critical to understanding the fish recruitment and populations’ fitness and survival.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2024-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans5010003
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 5, Pages 48-70: Baleen–Plastic Interactions Reveal High
           Risk to All Filter-Feeding Whales from Clogging, Ingestion, and
           Entanglement

    • Authors: Alexander J. Werth, Shirel R. Kahane-Rapport, Jean Potvin, Jeremy A. Goldbogen, Matthew S. Savoca
      First page: 48
      Abstract: Baleen whales are ecosystem sentinels of microplastic pollution. Research indicates that they likely ingest millions of anthropogenic microparticles per day when feeding. Their immense prey consumption and filter-feeding behavior put them at risk. However, the role of baleen, the oral filtering structure of mysticete whales, in this process has not been adequately addressed. Using actual baleen tissue from four whale species (fin, humpback, minke, and North Atlantic right) in flow tank experiments, we tested the capture rate of plastics of varying size, shape, and polymer type, as well as chemical residues leached by degraded plastics, all of which accumulated in the baleen filter. Expanded polystyrene foam was the most readily captured type of plastic, followed by fragments, fibers, nurdles, and spherical microbeads. Nurdle and microbead pellets were captured most readily by right whale baleen, and fragments were captured by humpback baleen. Although not all differences between polymer types were statistically significant, buoyant polymers were most often trapped by baleen. Plastics were captured by baleen sections from all regions of a full baleen rack, but were more readily captured by baleen from dorsal and posterior regions. Baleen–plastic interactions underlie various risks to whales, including filter clogging and damage, which may impede feeding. We posit that plastics pose a higher risk to some whale species due to a combination of factors, including filter porosity, diet, habitat and geographic distribution, and foraging ecology and behavior. Certain whale species in specific marine regions are of the greatest concern due to plastic abundance. It is not feasible to remove all plastic from the sea; most of what is there will continue to break into ever-smaller pieces. We suggest that higher priorities be accorded to lessening humans’ dependence on plastics, restricting entry points of plastics into the ocean, and developing biodegradable alternatives.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2024-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans5010004
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 5, Pages 71-80: Artificial Reef Deployment Reduces Diving
           Pressure from Natural Reefs—The Case of Introductory Dives in Eilat,
           Red Sea

    • Authors: Nadav Shashar, Asa Oren, Re’em Neri, Omer Waizman, Natalie Chernihovsky, Jenny Tynyakov
      First page: 71
      Abstract: Artificial reefs have been suggested as alternative dive sites to mitigate human pressure on natural reefs. Despite the conceptual appeal of artificial reefs, there is a paucity of empirical evidence regarding their effectiveness in achieving this objective. Here, we report that a small artificial reef deployed adjacent to a local coral marine protected area caused a shift in the routes taken by introductory dives and nearly eliminated their visitations to the natural fringing reef within the MPA. This behavioral shift among divers persisted for more than a decade following the AR deployment. These findings underscore the efficacy of well-designed and appropriately located artificial reefs as valuable instruments in the conservation of coral reefs.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2024-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans5010005
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 5, Pages 81-108: Blueprint for Blue Carbon: Lessons from
           Seychelles for Small Island States

    • Authors: Michael Bennett, Antaya March, Jeremy Raguain, Pierre Failler
      First page: 81
      Abstract: Blue carbon has been proposed as a nature-based solution for climate change mitigation; however, a limited number of published works and data and knowledge gaps hinder the development of small island developing states’ (SIDS) national blue carbon resources globally. This paper reviews the blue carbon ecosystems of Seychelles as a case study in the context of SIDS, comparing estimations by the Blue Carbon Lab and recent blue carbon (mangrove and seagrass) evaluations submitted to the Seychelles national government. Mangroves (2195 ha, 80% in Aldabra Atoll) and seagrasses (142,065 ha) dominate in Seychelles, with coral reefs having the potential for carbon sequestration (169,000 ha). Seychelles is on track to protecting its blue carbon, but these systems are threatened by rising sea levels, coastal squeeze, erosion, severe storms, and human activities. The importance of carbon inventories, accounting institutions, and continuous monitoring of blue carbon systems is discussed. Blue accounting is necessary for accurate accounting of carbon sequestration and carbon storage, generating carbon credits, and representing impactful reductions in greenhouse gases for NDCs. Challenges and opportunities include policy legislation regarding ownership rights, accreditation and certification for carbon credits, sustainable financing mechanisms like natural asset companies and blue tokens, local engagement for long-term success, and carbon market dynamics following COP27. The restoration and regulation of blue carbon resources for optimal ecosystem services delivery, carbon inventories, and blue carbon policy are recommended development priorities. Blue carbon ecosystems have the potential to contribute to NDCs of SIDS while simultaneously offering sustainable development pathways for local communities through the multiple ecosystem services they provide.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans5010006
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 5, Pages 109-126: Continuous Zonal Gradients Characterize
           Epipelagic Plankton Assemblages and Hydrography in the Subtropical North
           Atlantic

    • Authors: Antonio Bode, María Ángeles Louro, Elena Rey, Angel F. Lamas
      First page: 109
      Abstract: The subtropical North Atlantic is a key region for understanding climate impact in the ocean. Plankton studies in this region have been generally framed in biogeographic provinces or focused on latitudinal gradients. In this study, we demonstrate the benefits of using empirically constructed continuous gradients versus the use of average values for biogeographical provinces to characterize plankton assemblages along a longitudinal transect at 24.5° N using an unprecedented array of stations including hydrographic observations, abundance of phytoplankton and zooplankton, and plankton size spectra in the epipelagic layer (0–200 m). In addition, the variability of zooplankton assemblages was analyzed using detailed taxonomic identification at selected stations. We found significant gradients in most hydrographic and plankton variables. The former, including surface temperature and salinity, the depth of the upper mixing layer, and the depth of the chlorophyll maximum, displayed non-linear gradients with maximum or minimum values near the center of the transect. In contrast, most plankton variables showed linear zonal gradients. Phytoplankton, microzooplankton (<100 µm), and the slope and the intercept of the size spectra increased (and Trichodesmium decreased) to the west. Total mesozooplankton (>200 µm) did not show any significant zonal pattern, but the taxonomic assemblages were characterized by a gradual replacement of large Calanoids by small-bodied Cyclopoid copepods from east to west. The use of continuous gradients provides more detailed information on the zonal structure of subtropical plankton than the classical approach using discrete areas.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans5010007
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 5, Pages 127-149: Field Test of an Autonomous Observing
           System Prototype for Measuring Oceanographic Parameters from Ships

    • Authors: Fernando P. Santos, Teresa L. Rosa, Miguel A. Hinostroza, Roberto Vettor, A. Miguel Piecho-Santos, C. Guedes Soares
      First page: 127
      Abstract: A prototype of an autonomous system for the retrieval of oceanographic, wave, and meteorologic data was installed and tested in May 2021 on a Portuguese research vessel navigating on the Atlantic Ocean. The system was designed to be installed in fishing vessels that could operate as a distributed network of ocean data collection. It consists of an automatic weather station, a ferrybox with a water pumping system, an inertial measurement unit, a GNSS unit, an onboard desktop computer, and a wave estimator algorithm for wave spectra estimation. Among several parameters collected by this system’s sensors are the air temperature, barometric pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction, sea water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, salinity, chlorophyll-a, roll, pitch, heave, true heading, and geolocation of the ship. This paper’s objectives are the following: (1) describe the autonomous prototype; and (2) present the data obtained during a full-scale trial; (3) discuss the results, advantages, and limitations of the system and future developments. Meteorologic measurements were validated by a second weather station onboard. The estimated wave parameters and wave spectra showed good agreement with forecasted data from the Copernicus database. The results are promising, and the system can be a cost-effective solution for voluntary observing ships.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2024-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans5010008
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 331-349: Spatial Distribution and Contamination
           Level Assessment of Marine Sediment of the Safi Bay (Moroccan Atlantic
           Coast)

    • Authors: Abdenaim Minoubi, Nezha Mejjad, Khalid El Khalidi, Mohammed Bouchkara, Ahmed Fadili, Mohamed Chaibi, Bendahhou Zourarah
      First page: 331
      Abstract: This study assesses the spatial distribution and contamination level of heavy metals in Safi Bay surface sediments. In this order, 28 surface sediment samples were retrieved from the study area and analyzed using the x-fluorescence method. To assess the contamination of the examined sediment, we used geo-ecological indices such as contamination factor (CF), degree of contamination (DC), geo accumulation index, and pollution load index (PLI). The results show that only Pb and Cd present moderate and considerable contamination in some sampling sites, while other elements (Cr, Cu, Zn, and Ni) indicate no contamination and low contamination by these elements. The inhomogeneous distribution of metal concentrations along the bay suggests different heavy metal sources. Given the ecological and socioeconomic importance of the study area, there is a need for a further analysis of both sediments and biological samples for a better understanding of the contamination levels and origin of metals, in addition to the sustainability of Safi Bay.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2023-10-23
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4040023
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 350-359: Evidence of Sexual Reproduction in
           Out-Planted Coral Colonies

    • Authors: Violeta Martínez-Castillo, Alma Paola Rodríguez-Troncoso, Amílcar Leví Cupul-Magaña
      First page: 350
      Abstract: Intervention techniques to restore coral communities have become an important management tool to help recover and rehabilitate damaged reefs. The direct transplantation of healthy coral fragments is the most common method; however, there is controversy in the long-term success, as using coral clones may diminish the genetic diversity of the coral population. Genetic recombination can be achieved when the coral colony produces gametes and eventually reproduces; therefore, it is important to provide evidence that restored colonies produce gametes as their naturally recruited counterparts with similar colony size (age). Natural and restored Pocillopora coral colonies of the same size range (between 40 and 50 cm in diameter) were tagged and sampled during the rainy season to determine gamete maturation. Our results show no differences in the reproductive activity among colonies: natural and restored coral colonies matured gametes from June to October, with a peak in sexually active coral colonies in July. Also, gamete malformation was not observed. During the gamete production period, the area’s temperature ranged from 27.9 to 30.02 °C. The results’ evidence that coral colonies formed through active restoration contribute not only to the increase in live coral cover as seen in previous studies but potentially contribute in the medium term (>5 years after out-planting) to the production of larvae and local and subsidiary recruitment, since they exhibit the same reproductive patterns as their naturally formed counterparts and no differences in the reproductive activity among coral colonies. Therefore, long-term coral restoration projects contribute to maintaining the live coral cover and the genetic diversity in the region, eventually rehabilitating the coral community.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4040024
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 360-380: Oceanic Environmental Impact in Seaports

    • Authors: Nitin Agarwala, Cherdvong Saengsupavanich
      First page: 360
      Abstract: Seaports are gateways that connect a nation to the world economy. With trade by sea increasing due to globalization, the need for the improvement and development of seaports cannot be overlooked. While the development of ports is considered essential for the economic growth and prosperity of a nation, they also result in environmental deterioration that can hurt the future of humanity. The factors that cause such deterioration are many and have been discussed and studied in some detail over the years. Of these, however, studies associated with the environmental impacts of seaports emanating from the oceanfront are limited. It is with this understanding that the current work discusses the physical and biological impacts that occur due to the oceanic environment in seaports, the existing policy provisions, and the possible ways ahead to reduce environmental deterioration and allow their sustainable operation, by means of reviewing published works.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2023-11-26
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4040025
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 381-393: Stability of the Macrocyclic Gd-DOTA
           Contrast Agent (DOTAREM) under Different Estuarine Environmental
           Conditions

    • Authors: Ana Guerreiro, Pedro Brito
      First page: 381
      Abstract: Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCA) are complexes, highly stable in vivo, used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), administered in patients and then eliminated via the renal system, passing through wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) before being discarded in the receiving medium, without apparent removal. In this study, it was examined whether different exposure periods to several environmental parameters (solar radiation, different salinities, temperatures and pH) will influence the stability of these complexes, namely, the Gd-DOTA. Gd-DOTA solutions were processed in a seaFAST-pico saline matrix pre-concentration and elimination system, and Gd concentrations were determined using ICP-MS. The results showed that the complex remained stable in fresh, brackish and saline water environments, even when exposed to extreme temperatures (40 °C) or slightly acidic to basic conditions (6–10), for an exposure period of 96 h. A small increase in the free Gd concentration was observed after 18 days when exposed to pH < 4, in all tested salinities (0, 18 and 36 PSU), with a degradation increase of up to 29%, after 5 weeks of exposure in freshwater. When exposed to direct solar radiation, a low Gd-DOTA degradation (4%) was observed after 24 h at salinity 18 PSU and remained constant until the end of the exposure period (96 h), while the remaining salinities showed negligible values.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2023-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4040026
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 394-408: Size Effects on Pumping Rates in High
           Microbial versus Low Microbial Abundance Marine Sponges

    • Authors: Michael P. Lesser
      First page: 394
      Abstract: Sponges are increasingly recognized as ecologically important on coral reefs as scleractinian corals decline. Most sponge species can be divided into two symbiotic phenotypes which are characterized as high microbial abundance (HMA) or low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges. Sponge species of HMA or LMA symbiotic phenotypes differ not just in their microbiomes, but in other characteristics, including that LMA sponges actively pump at higher rates than HMA sponges based on a standard normalization to size. This dichotomy has recently been questioned because the size range of LMA sponges used to quantify pumping rates during studies on their trophic ecology were exceedingly small, often less than an order of magnitude. Here, both HMA and LMA sponges, across two to three orders of magnitude in sponge volume (mL) or mass (g) were assessed for allometric relationships between sponge size and pumping rates (Q = mL s−1). The scaling analysis of all data sets combined reveals that HMA sponges scale their pumping rates isometrically with size, while LMA sponges scale their pumping rate allometrically. When HMA species are examined separately, however, tropical HMA sponges scaled isometrically, while temperate HMA sponges scaled allometrically. From an ecological perspective, to quantify differences between HMA and LMA sponges for rate functions of interest (e.g., feeding) it is important to remove the effects of size as a covariate, and adjust the Q values of sponges to a standard volume or mass. For multiple species and geographic locations, this analysis shows that LMA sponges always maintain higher Q values. On tropical coral reefs, the differences between HMA and LMA sponges are intrinsic and constrained by strong evolutionary selection resulting in fixed differences in Q, regardless of sponge size.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4040027
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 409-422: Plastic, It’s What’s for
           Dinner: A Preliminary Comparison of Ingested Particles in Bottlenose
           Dolphins and Their Prey

    • Authors: Leslie B. Hart, Miranda Dziobak, Randall S. Wells, Elizabeth Berens McCabe, Eric Conger, Tita Curtin, Maggie Knight, John Weinstein
      First page: 409
      Abstract: Microplastic ingestion was reported for common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting Sarasota Bay, FL, USA, a community that also has prevalent exposure to plasticizers (i.e., phthalates) at concentrations higher than human reference populations. Exposure sources are currently unknown, but plastic-contaminated prey could be a vector. To explore the potential for trophic exposure, prey fish muscle and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) tissues and contents were screened for suspected microplastics, and particle properties (e.g., color, shape, surface texture) were compared with those observed in gastric samples from free-ranging dolphins. Twenty-nine fish across four species (hardhead catfish, Ariopsis felis; pigfish, Orthopristis chrysoptera; pinfish, Lagodon rhomboides; and Gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta) were collected from Sarasota Bay during September 2022. Overall, 97% of fish (n = 28) had suspected microplastics, and GIT abundance was higher than muscle. Fish and dolphin samples contained fibers and films; however, foams were common in dolphin samples and not observed in fish. Suspected tire wear particles (TWPs) were not in dolphin samples, but 23.1% and 32.0% of fish muscle and GIT samples, respectively, contained at least one suspected TWP. While some similarities in particles were shared between dolphins and fish, small sample sizes and incongruent findings for foams and TWPs suggest further investigation is warranted to understand trophic transfer potential.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2023-12-07
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4040028
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 423-439: Preliminary Studies on Site Fidelity,
           Residence Index, and Population Size of Irrawaddy Dolphins in West Penang,
           Malaysia

    • Authors: Nurul Filzati Ali, Leela Rajamani
      First page: 423
      Abstract: The Irrawaddy dolphin is found in the coastal and estuarine areas of West Penang, Malaysia. Studies were conducted to estimate the site fidelity, residence index, and population size of Irrawaddy dolphins in West Penang. Photo-identification studies were conducted using boat surveys from 2019 to 2021. Thirty-nine marked Irrawaddy dolphins were identified, with thirty-six newly identified individuals and three individuals observed in 2013. Resightings of four individuals indicated that they were found north of Sungai Burung and Sungai Pinang in West Penang. The majority of individuals had low sighting rates, ranging from 2.6 to 7.7%, with three individuals having medium sighting rates, the highest being 15.4%. The residence index was 0.01 for all 36 individuals, and the highest value of 0.36 was recorded for one individual. Using open population models and closed models, the population size was determined to be 64 or and 52, respectively. The results suggest that although there is a population present, it is probably open, as the residence index is low. The population size appeared to be stable from 2013 to 2021. This information will inform conservation managers of the best way forward for the conservation of Irrawaddy dolphins in Penang.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2023-12-12
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4040029
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 220-235: Environmental Conditions Affect Striped Red
           Mullet (Mullus surmuletus) Artisanal Fisheries

    • Authors: Francisco Leitão
      First page: 220
      Abstract: The influence of environmental variables (oceanographic and climatic) on the catch rates of striped red mullet (Mullus surmuletus) by artisanal fishery was investigated using different time series models (Dynamic Factorial Analyses; Min-Max Factorial Analyses and Generalized Least Square models). Climatic and oceanographic survey data were collected at different areas of the Portuguese coast (Northwestern, Southwestern and South-Algarve) with distinct oceanographic regimes. Time series analyses reveal an effect of fishing effort in catch rates in Southwestern areas. Variability in M. surmuletus catch rates was associated to regional environmental multi-controls. Upwelling and westerly winds were the main drivers of catch rates variability across the three areas but the type of relationship varied among them. A consistent relationship between catch rates and environment factors was identified during the peak period of seasonal recruitment (spring to summer) in Southwest and South-Algarve coast, with Upwelling-summer and Sea surface temperature-spring affecting short term (lag 2 years) catch rates. In South-Algarve the increase in SST in summer, during peak of spawning, was correlated with the catch rate increase with a lag of two years. Environmental effect on catch rates reveals that fisheries management needs to accommodate the regional effect of environment variables on species biology to better define future assessment plans (catch limits).
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2023-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4030015
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 236-241: Novel Interaction between a Rabbitfish and
           Black Corals

    • Authors: Erika Gress, Tom C. Bridge, Justin Fyfe, Gemma Galbraith
      First page: 236
      Abstract: Herbivorous fishes play important functional roles in coral reef ecosystems, and their influence on mediating competitive dynamics between corals and macroalgae is well studied. Nonetheless, direct interactions between herbivorous fishes and corals may also be relevant, although these are less studied. Here, we describe a series of observations of schools of the herbivorous streaked rabbitfish (Siganus javus) nibbling on black corals (order Antipatharia) at the SS Yongala wreck, within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. We provide a hypothesis that may explain this behaviour, which, if confirmed, would represent a mechanism influencing the health of the corals. Moreover, this interaction extends the typical coral–algae competition for space paradigm and furthers knowledge of complex relationships between coral reef organisms.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2023-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4030016
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 242-252: Seasonal Changes in Vertical Distribution
           and Population Structure of the Dominant Hydrozoan Aglantha digitale in
           the Western Subarctic Pacific

    • Authors: Tian Gao, Mari Aizawa, Atsushi Yamaguchi
      First page: 242
      Abstract: Hydrozoans are numerically dominant taxa in gelatinous zooplankton communities of the worldwide oceans and play an energy transfer role connecting primary producers and higher trophic level organisms. In the western subarctic Pacific, St. K2 has been established as a long-term time-series monitoring station. Various studies on zooplankton have been conducted, while hydrozoans have not been treated. This study presents the abundance, vertical distribution, and population structure of the dominant hydrozoan species (Aglantha digitale) at St. K2. Samples collected by vertical stratification samplings from eight layers of 0–1000 m both day and night during four seasons in one year. Hydrozoans occur throughout the year. The annual mean abundance of A. digitale was 198.4 ind. m−2 and composed of 91.9% of hydrozoans. The vertical distribution of A. digitale was concentrated for the epipelagic layer (0–200 m), both day and night of the most season. The bell height (BH) of A. digitale ranged between 2.4–18.9 mm. Most of the mature individuals, with gonad length larger than 10% of BH, occurred only in July. The BH of mature individuals ranged from 4.7 to 17.6 mm, with the BH of most mature individuals were larger than >10 mm. Through observation on BH at each sampling layer, small individuals with BH < 6 mm were distributed below 300 m depths throughout the seasons, expanding their vertical distribution to the deeper layers. Inter-region comparison of abundance, maturation body size, and generation length of A. digitale revealed that these parameters are varied with the region and depend on the marine ecosystem structures.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2023-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4030017
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 253-268: Vertical Distribution, Community and
           Population Structures of the Planktonic Chaetognatha in the Western
           Subarctic Pacific: Insights on the Eukrohnia Species Group

    • Authors: Haochen Zhang, Yuya Nakamura, Atsushi Yamaguchi
      First page: 253
      Abstract: In the oceans, Chaetognatha can contribute significantly to the total zooplankton biomass (up to 10–30%). The genus Eukrohnia, the dominant Chaetognath genus in the western subarctic Pacific, includes E. hamata and E. bathypelagica. Although it has been pointed out that there is no genetic difference between the two species, no study has been made that treats them as the same species group. In this study, we investigated vertical distribution based on the eight vertical stratification samplings down to 1000 m depths conducted day/night at four seasons covering one year, community structure, and population structure of the three dominant Chaetognath species: Parasagitta elegans, E. hamata, and E. bathypelagica in the western subarctic Pacific. The population densities of each species at 0–1000 m water column were 0.04–0.36 ind. m−3 for P. elegans, 0.14–1.60 ind. m−3 for E. hamata, 0.24–1.54 ind. m−3 for E. bathypelagica, and 1.37–2.62 ind. m−3 for Eukrohnia juveniles. The vertical distributions were consistent both day and night, and no diel changes were observed for all species throughout the seasons. The vertical distribution of Chaetognaths evaluated by the distribution center was 61–169 m for P. elegans, 143–206 m for Eukrohnia juveniles, 134–279 m for E. hamata, and 253–612 m for E. bathypelagica. The body length of P. elegans ranged from 4 to 34 mm, and one to three cohorts were identified at each sampling occasion. While the presence of the eight stages has been reported for Eukrohnia, only one to five stages occurred, and specimens belonging to six to eight stages were not observed in the samples throughout the year. The body length of the whole Eukrohnia species ranged from 2 to 14 mm. The body length histograms of the Eukrohnia species group, including E. hamata and E. bathypelagica, and their juveniles showed the presence of two to four cohorts at each sampling date. Within the Eukrohnia species group, vertical changes in body length were present, which were characterized by the smaller specimens occurring at shallower depths, followed by an increase in body length with increasing depths. From the vertical distribution and population structure of the Eukrohnia species group (Eukrohnia juvenile + E. hamata + E. bathypelagica) in this study, there was no difficulty in treating them as one species. It may suggest that E. hamata and E. bathypelagica in the western subarctic Pacific could be treated as one species group. To clarify this point, a detailed genetic analysis of the Eukrohnia species group will be needed for future studies.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2023-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4030018
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 269-285: Harbor Porpoise Aggregations in the Salish
           Sea

    • Authors: Dave Anderson, Laurie Shuster, Cindy R. Elliser, Katrina MacIver, Erin Johns Gless, Johannes Krieger, Anna Hall
      First page: 269
      Abstract: Harbor porpoises are typically seen in small groups of 1–3 individuals, with aggregations of 20+ individuals treated as rare events. Since the 1990s, the harbor porpoise population in the Salish Sea has seen a significant recovery, and an increased number of observed aggregations that exceed the more usual small group sizes has been observed in recent years. By combining the observational data of United States and Canadian research organizations, community scientists, and whale watch captains or naturalists, we demonstrate that harbor porpoise aggregations appear to be more common than previously known, with 160 aggregations documented in 2022 alone. Behavioral data also indicate that foraging behaviors are common and social behaviors, like mating, are seen more often during these encounters compared to small groups. Other behaviors that are considered to be rare or unknown were also observed during these encounters, including cooperative foraging and vessel approach. These aggregations are likely important foraging and social gatherings for harbor porpoises. This holistic approach integrating data from two countries and multiple sources provides a population level assessment that more effectively reflects the behavior of harbor porpoises in this region, which do not recognize the socio-political boundaries imposed upon the natural world.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4030019
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 286-300: A Demonstration of the Capability of
           Low-Cost Hyperspectral Imaging for the Characterisation of Coral Reefs

    • Authors: Jonathan Teague, John C. C. Day, Michael J. Allen, Thomas B. Scott, Eric J. Hochberg, David Megson-Smith
      First page: 286
      Abstract: The use of hyperspectral imaging in marine applications is limited, largely due to the cost-prohibitive nature of the technology and the risk of submerging such expensive electronics. Here, we examine the use of low-cost (<5000 GBP) hyperspectral imaging as a potential addition to the marine monitoring toolbox. Using coral reefs in Bermuda as a case study and a trial for the technology, data was collected across two reef morphologies, representing fringing reefs and patch reefs. Hyperspectral data of various coral species, Montastraea cavernosa, Diploria labyrinthiformis, Pseudodiploria strigosa, and Plexaurella sp., were successfully captured and analyzed, indicating the practicality and suitability of underwater hyperspectral imaging for use in coral reef assessment. The spectral data was also used to demonstrate simple spectral classification to provide values of the percentage coverage of benthic habitat types. Finally, the raw image data was used to generate digital elevation models to measure the physical structure of corals, providing another data type able to be used in reef assessments. Future improvements were also suggested regarding how to improve the spectral data captured by the technique to account for the accurate application of correction algorithms.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2023-08-23
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4030020
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 301-314: How to Survive Intensive Harvesting: The
           High Recruitment Rates of the Precious Mediterranean Red Coral (Corallium
           rubrum L. 1758)

    • Authors: Maria Carla Benedetti, Lorenzo Bramanti, Giovanni Santangelo
      First page: 301
      Abstract: The recruitment process is a fundamental step in population life cycles that determines survival, population demographic structure, and dynamics. The success of recruitment events repeated over successive years greatly affects the survival of long-lived gorgonian populations. Here, we report the recruitment process of the precious, heavily harvested Mediterranean gorgonian Corallium rubrum (red coral) on both settlement tiles and natural substrates over different Mediterranean areas. Red coral is a gonochoric internal brooder that reproduces in early summer. Lecithotrophic planulae settle 15–30 days after release in semi-dark environments at depths between 15 and 800 m. In autumn, 0.58–0.68 mm-wide recruits can be observed on the vaults of small crevices and caves and on rocky cliffs and boulders. Owing to their small size, there is limited knowledge of C. rubrum recruitment in the field. In this study, we examined the recruitment density and distribution in Canadells (Banyuls sur Mer, France) and Calafuria (Livorno, Italy) and compared these findings with those collected over different Mediterranean areas. Red coral exhibited high recruitment values ranging from 0.43 to 13.19 recruits dm−2. The distribution pattern of recruits, examined at a small spatial scale via nearest-neighbor distance analysis, revealed a significantly higher patch frequency on the natural substrate than on settlement tiles, presumably because of the scarcely available spots of free space on the former substrate, which are crowded by competitor species.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2023-08-27
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4030021
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 315-330: Status of Coral Reef Communities on the
           Caribbean Coast of Costa Rica: Are We Talking about Corals or Macroalgae
           Reefs'

    • Authors: Fabio Quezada-Perez, Sebastián Mena, Cindy Fernández-García, Juan José Alvarado
      First page: 315
      Abstract: In the past decades, one of the most widely reported phenomena on Caribbean reefs is the general fall in coral cover and rise in macroalgae. Reefs with low coral cover and high macroalgal abundances are often presumed to provide poorer ecosystem functions and services. In this study, we assessed the condition of coral reefs on the Caribbean Coast of Costa Rica and determined how eight key ecosystem metrics varied in response to different coral and fleshy macroalgae covers. Most reefs surveyed had high fleshy macroalgae and low live coral covers, with an average (±SD) of 31 ± 28% and 14 ± 13% per site. The value of many of the ecosystem metrics estimated for coral reefs of the region appears to be lower than what has been reported for other areas in the Caribbean. We found that the rugosity, urchin density, fish richness, total fish biomass, large fish density, and the potential fishery value of the reef were higher in sites with low fleshy macroalgae covers (<10%). Our results concur with the prevailing paradigm that an increase in macroalgae abundance could reduce the ecosystem services provided by coral reefs.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2023-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4030022
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 132-150: Need for the Scuba Diving Industry to
           Interface with Science and Policy: A Case of SIDS Blue Workforce

    • Authors: Zahidah Afrin Nisa
      First page: 132
      Abstract: To achieve coral reef resilience under Agenda 2030, island governments need to institutionalise a competent blue workforce to expand their reef resilience initiatives across economic organisations and industries. The ability of island governments to shape new policies for sustainable island development relying on natural capital, such as coral reefs, has been hampered by structural and institutional deficiencies on both sides of the science-policy interface (SPI) at the UN. Using a qualitative research design, this article explores the science-policy interface (SPI) policy paper, Rebuilding Coral Reefs: A Decadal Grand Challenge and the role of this SPI in guiding UN coral reef financing for island states. This article uses the dive industry to investigate the needs of policymakers in island states via a conceptual framework for policy analysis. This article highlights the gaps of the SPI from the perspective of the global south and is beneficial for the islands selected under the Global Coral Reef Investment Plan. The article highlights the results of the SPI to island decision makers, which indicate that, without a policy framework that includes space for industrial policy within UN SPI, island governments will continue to fall into financial traps that constrain their efforts in operationalising their blue workforce. The study concludes that interlinked SDGs, such as SDG 9 and SDG 8, which focus on linking industrial innovation and infrastructure with decent work, as well as SDG 16 and 14.7, provide SIDS institutions with integrated policy approaches capable of bridging the divides between the scientific community, the diving industry, and island governments and that this needs to be further explored at all levels.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2023-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4020010
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 151-169: Volatile Organic Compounds Released by
           Oxyrrhis marina Grazing on Isochrysis galbana

    • Authors: Charel Wohl, Queralt Güell-Bujons, Yaiza M. Castillo, Albert Calbet, Rafel Simó
      First page: 151
      Abstract: A range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been found to be released during zooplankton grazing on microalgae cultivated for commercial purposes. However, production of grazing-derived VOCs from environmentally relevant species and their potential contribution to oceanic emissions to the atmosphere remains largely unexplored. Here, we aimed to qualitatively explore the suite of VOCs produced due to grazing using laboratory cultures of the marine microalga Isochrysis galbana and the herbivorous heterotrophic dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina with and without antibiotic treatment. The VOCs were measured using a Vocus proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer, coupled to a segmented flow coil equilibrator. We found alternative increases of dimethyl sulfide by up to 0.2 nmol dm−3 and methanethiol by up to 10 pmol dm−3 depending on the presence or absence of bacteria regulated by antibiotic treatment. Additionally, toluene and xylene increased by about 30 pmol dm−3 and 10 pmol dm−3, respectively during grazing only, supporting a biological source for these compounds. Overall, our results highlight that VOCs beyond dimethyl sulfide are released due to grazing, and prompt further quantification of this source in budgets and process-based understanding of VOC cycling in the surface ocean.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2023-04-04
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4020011
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 170-184: Seasonal Upwelling Conditions Modulate the
           Calcification Response of a Tropical Scleractinian Coral

    • Authors: Carlos E. Gómez, Andrés Acosta-Chaparro, Cesar A. Bernal, Diana I. Gómez-López, Raúl Navas-Camacho, David Alonso
      First page: 170
      Abstract: Natural processes such as upwelling of deeper-water masses change the physical-chemical conditions of the water column creating localized ocean acidification events that can have an impact on the natural communities. This study was performed in a coral reef system of an archetypical bay within the Tayrona National Natural Park (PNNT) (Colombia), and aimed to quantify net calcification rates of a foundational coral species within a temporal context (6 months) taking into account the dynamics of seasonal upwelling that influence the study area. Net calcification rates of coral fragments were obtained in situ by the alkalinity anomaly technique in short-term incubations (~2.5 h). We found a significant effect of the upwelling on net calcification rates (Gnet) (p < 0.05) with an 42% increase in CaCO3 accretion compared to non-upwelling season. We found an increase in total alkalinity (AT) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) with decreased aragonite saturation (Ωara) for the upwelling months, indicating an influence of the Subtropical Under Water mass (SAW) in the PNNT coral community. Significant negative correlations between net calcification with temperature and Ωara, which indicates a positive response of M. auretenra with the upwelling conditions, thus, acting as “enhancer” of resilience for coral calcification.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2023-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4020012
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 185-199: Microbiome of Sri Lankan Coral Reefs: An
           Indian Ocean Island Subjected to a Gradient of Natural and Anthropogenic
           Impacts

    • Authors: Mohamed F. M. Fairoz, Kevin T. Green, Kuwaja N. M. Sajith, Weerathunga A. S. Chamika, Amarasingha M. K. N. Kularathna, Saichetana Macherla, Douglas S. Naliboff, Ana Cobián-Güemes, Linda Wegley-Kelly, Forest Rohwer
      First page: 185
      Abstract: Coral reefs around Sri Lanka have coexisted with human communities for thousands of years and are a continual source of food, economic productivity, and tourism. Although these reef systems sustain nearby populations, little is known about the presence or functional role of microbial communities on reefs dominated by hard corals or fleshy algae. Coral reef benthos cover was recorded, and reef-associated water samples were collected, sequenced and analyzed from seven coral reefs around Sri Lanka. Microbial metagenomes were analyzed to reveal both the taxonomic and metabolic makeup of the microbial communities present at each site. A metagenomic analysis of microbial phyla showed that Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were most abundant, constituting up to 79.4% of microbial communities. At the order level, Rhodobacterales dominated the microbial communities across all sites, with the exception of the Paraviwella coral reef, where the order Alteromonadales dominated. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed using metagenomic sequence data to find the possible trends of interactions and drivers of taxonomic and metabolic community structure. This study is the first microbial metagenome dataset of coral reef associated water from the Indian Ocean continental island, Sri Lanka. These data further confirm the need for a comprehensive study of reefs in Sri Lanka aimed at elucidating the processes involved in microbial energy utilization.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2023-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4020013
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 200-219: Comparative Microbial Community Analysis of
           Fur Seals and Aquaculture Salmon Gut Microbiomes in Tasmania

    • Authors: Erin D’Agnese, Ryan J. McLaughlin, Mary-Anne Lea, Esteban Soto, Woutrina A. Smith, John P. Bowman
      First page: 200
      Abstract: In Tasmania, Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) regularly interact with Atlantic salmon (Salmo salmar L.) aquaculture lease operations and opportunistically consume fish. The microbial communities of seals and aquaculture salmon were analyzed for potential indicators of microbial sharing and to determine the potential effects of interactions on wild seal microbiome composition. The high-throughput sequencing of the V1–V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes from the gut microbial communities of 221 fur seals was performed: 41 males caught at farms, 50 adult scats from haul-outs near farms, 24 necropsied seals, and controls from Bass Strait breeding colonies, encompassing 56 adult scats and 50 pup swabs. QIIME2 and R Studio were used for analysis. Foraging at or near salmon farms significantly shifted seal microbiome biodiversity. Taxonomic analysis showed a greater divergence in Bacteroidota representatives in male seals captured at farms compared to all other groups. Pathogens were identified that could be monitoring targets. Potential indicator amplicon sequence variants were found across a variety of taxa and could be used as minimally invasive indicators for interactions at this interface. The diversity and taxonomic shifts in the microbial communities of seals indicate a need to further study this interface for broader ecological implications.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2023-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4020014
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 27-48: Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile at Its
           Westernmost Biogeographical Limit (Northwestern Alboran Sea): Meadow
           Features and Plant Phenology

    • Authors: Ángel Mateo-Ramírez, Pablo Marina, Alejandro Martín-Arjona, Elena Bañares-España, José E. García Raso, José L. Rueda, Javier Urra
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Meadows of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica inhabit most infralittoral bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea and are considered one of the main climax stages of the infralittoral environment. This seagrass has its western distributional limit along the coast of the Alboran Sea. Taking into account the decline of P. oceanica meadows and the global scenario of ocean warming, it becomes essential to know the structure, temporal dynamics, sexual reproduction and conservation status of this seagrass, across its geographical distribution, including the distribution boundaries where the meadows withstand limiting environmental conditions. In the present work, we studied the structure, phenology and flowering events of four P. oceanica meadows located in the northwestern Alboran Sea (close to the Strait of Gibraltar). Results indicate a decreasing trend of patch size, bathymetric range and number of leaves per shoot towards the Strait (and the Atlantic Ocean), as well as an increasing trend of shoot density and leaf height. Phenological parameters of the northwestern Alboran Sea P. oceanica meadows presented temporal dynamics similar to meadows from other locations within the biogeographical distribution of this seagrass, with similar or even less annual variability in the former. Although most of the studied P. oceanica meadows seem to present a good health status (BiPo index ~0.6) with high shoot densities and some flowering events, some of them showed evidence of regression.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2023-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4010003
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 49-50: Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Oceans in
           2022

    • Authors: Oceans Editorial Office
      First page: 49
      Abstract: High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...]
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2023-01-13
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4010004
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 51-67: Bioerosion Research in the South China Sea:
           Scarce, Patchy and Unrepresentative

    • Authors: Yen-Huei Li, Barbara Calcinai, Jiayi Lim, Christine H. L. Schönberg
      First page: 51
      Abstract: Coral reefs are in decline globally, resulting in changed constructive and destructive processes. The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is of high biological importance, but also subjected to extreme local and global pressures. Yet, the regional calcium carbonate dynamics are not well understood, especially bioerosion. A literature search for research on bioerosion and bioeroders in the South China Sea found only 31 publications on bioerosion-related research and 22 biodiversity checklists that contained bioeroders, thus generating a paltry bibliography. Bioerosion research in the South China Sea is still undeveloped and reached only two publications per year over the last few years. Hong Kong is the hotspot of activities as measured in output and diversity of methods, but the research in Hong Kong and elsewhere was strongly favoring field surveys of sea urchins over other bioeroders. Overall, macroborers received almost equal attention as grazer-eroders, but interest in microborers was low. Almost 90% of the research was conducted by local workers, but 90% of the publications were still disseminated in English. Field surveys and laboratory analyses made up over 40% of the research, but experimental work was mostly missing and represents the largest, most important gap. A government initiative in Thailand generated much knowledge on the distribution of marine sponges; otherwise urchins were again prominent in diversity checklists. Comparatively, many checklists were produced for Vietnam from work by visiting scientists. Most studies investigated coastal habitats, but a fourth sampled at oceanic locations. About 36% of the checklist publications covered the entire South China Sea; the rest produced faunistic records for locations within single countries. Our efforts demonstrate that, while active bioerosion research and basic expertise exist in the South China Sea, research remained unrepresentative with respect to taxa, ecofunctional guilds, and especially to controlled experiments. The latter are urgently needed for prognoses, modelling and management in this populated and overused marine environment.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4010005
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 68-79: Wanted Dead or Alive: Skeletal Structure
           Alteration of Cold-Water Coral Desmophyllum pertusum (Lophelia pertusa)
           from Anthropogenic Stressors

    • Authors: Erica Terese Krueger, Janina V. Büscher, David A. Hoey, David Taylor, Peter J. O’Reilly, Quentin G. Crowley
      First page: 68
      Abstract: Ocean acidification (OA) has provoked changes in the carbonate saturation state that may alter the formation and structural biomineralisation of calcium carbonate exoskeletons for marine organisms. Biomineral production in organisms such as cold-water corals (CWC) rely on available carbonate in the water column and the ability of the organism to sequester ions from seawater or nutrients for the formation and growth of a skeletal structure. As an important habitat structuring species, it is essential to examine the impact that anthropogenic stressors (i.e., OA and rising seawater temperatures) have on living corals and the structural properties of dead coral skeletons; these are important contributors to the entire reef structure and the stability of CWC mounds. In this study, dead coral skeletons in seawater were exposed to various levels of pCO2 and different temperatures over a 12-month period. Nanoindentation was subsequently conducted to assess the structural properties of coral samples’ elasticity (E) and hardness (H), whereas the amount of dissolution was assessed through scanning electron microscopy. Overall, CWC samples exposed to elevated pCO2 and temperature show changes in properties which leave them more susceptible to breakage and may in turn negatively impact the formation and stability of CWC mound development.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2023-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4010006
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 80-91: Spatiotemporal Variation in Environmental Key
           Parameters within Fleshy Red Algae Mats in the Mediterranean Sea

    • Authors: Alice G. Bianchi, Christian Wild, Monica Montefalcone, Enzo Benincasa, Yusuf C. El-Khaled
      First page: 80
      Abstract: In the Mediterranean, the fleshy, mat-forming red alga Phyllophora crispa creates high-biodiversity habitats that influence light availability, water movement, and temperature. However, knowledge about its influence on other key environmental parameters, such as oxygen availability, chlorophyll, and turbidity, is missing. Therefore, we conducted an in situ study in the Western Mediterranean Sea using multiparameter probes that were placed multiple times on algal P. crispa mats, in adjacent Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows, and on bare hard bottoms. We acquired a total of 17 full diel measurements for dissolved oxygen (DO), chlorophyll, and turbidity in September and October 2019. Results showed that P. crispa mats influence the investigated parameters differently when compared to P. oceanica meadows and that a monthly effect was observed. In September, general DO patterns measured for P. crispa mats and P. oceanica meadows follow the daily cycle depending on light availability, with the measured DO being lower in the P. oceanica meadows compared to the P. crispa mats and the hard-bottom habitats. In October, however, no significant difference in DO concentrations was observed between P. crispa mats and P. oceanica meadows. Results of this study corroborate that P. crispa mats can be viewed as an ecosystem engineering species, influencing environmental parameters and, hence, providing a habitat for outstanding associated biodiversity.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2023-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4010007
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 92-113: Sensitivity of the Wave Field to High
           Time-Space Resolution Winds during a Tropical Cyclone

    • Authors: Laura Pérez-Sampablo, Pedro Osuna, Bernardo Esquivel-Trava, Nicolas Rascle, Francisco J. Ocampo-Torres
      First page: 92
      Abstract: The impact of the high space-temporal variability of the wind field during the moderate and intense storm stages of a tropical cyclone on the wave field as computed by the numerical model WaveWatch III is investigated in this work. The realistic wind fields are generated by a high-resolution implementation of the HWRF model in the Gulf of Mexico and stored over 15 min intervals. The spatial structure of the wind field computed by HWRF is highly variable in space and time, although its mean structure is very similar to that described for parametric hurricanes already specified in the previous studies. The resulting storm-generated wave fields have a persistent structure, with wave maxima present in the forward quadrants of the storm and in the rear quadrant II. This structure is determined by the strong winds and the extended fetch condition in quadrants I and II, as well as by the translation speed of the storm. When a shorter time interval is analyzed (e.g., a 3 h period, when the storm becomes a category 1 hurricane), the structure of the mean wind field may differ greatly from the mean field calculated with a sufficiently longer period; however, the spatial distribution of the wave field around the hurricane tends to maintain its typical spatial structure. The use of wind fields with reduced time variability (e.g., with a 3 h moving average) does not change the structure of the mean wave field, but reduces the mean wave height values by up to 10%.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2023-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4010008
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 114-131: Marine Biodegradability and Ecotoxicity of
           MWool® Recycled Wool Fibers: A Circular-Economy-Based Material

    • Authors: Serena Anselmi, Francesca Provenza, Tecla Bentivoglio, Giuseppe Picerno, Andrea Cavallo, Monia Renzi
      First page: 114
      Abstract: Pollution of the marine environment by microfibers is considered a problem for ecosystem conservation. The amount of microplastic, localization of sources, and associated ecotoxicity are well known in the literature. Wastewater from washing machines is the main source of microplastic fibers in the aquatic environment, and fabrics made from recycled plastic are widely reused. The circular economy also promotes recycling of dyed natural wool materials as a basis for making new clothing, but in this case, less research has been conducted on the behaviour and effects of recycled wool microfibers in marine ecosystems. MWool® (MW) and MWool® carded (MWc) products made from recycled wool fibers were tested in mesocosms to investigate the biodegradation of wool fibers over a 260-day period and the effects of this process on marine ecosystems in terms of microfiber inputs and the ecotoxicological effects of by-products and chemicals released during degradation. The early degradation process was associated with the loss of artificial pigments from the dyed wool, particularly pink and red, which occurred within 30–90 days of exposure. Mean release of microparticles into contact water is significantly different from control (T0, p < 0.01) at 90 days MWc (36.6 mg/L) and 180 days MW (42.9 mg/L). The biodegradation process is accompanied by swelling of wool fibers, which is associated with a significant increase in mean wool thickness (p < 0.05, 18.8 ± 2.1 µm at T0 vs. 24.0 ± 7.1 µm). In both cases, the contact water was not associated with signs of ecotoxicity for the marine species tested in this study (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Brachionus plicatilis, and Paracentrotus lividus).
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2023-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4010009
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
       
 
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  Subjects -> EARTH SCIENCES (Total: 771 journals)
    - EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)
    - GEOLOGY (94 journals)
    - GEOPHYSICS (33 journals)
    - HYDROLOGY (29 journals)
    - OCEANOGRAPHY (88 journals)

OCEANOGRAPHY (88 journals)

Showing 1 - 79 of 79 Journals sorted by number of followers
Hydrobiology     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Limnology and Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Deep Sea Research Part I : Oceanographic Research Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Physical Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Frontiers in Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Marine Biology & Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Progress in Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Marine Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Oceanography and Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Maritime Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Fisheries Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Physical Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Open Journal of Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Limnology and Oceanography: Fluids and Environments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Oceanography and Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Oceanography : Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Limnology and Oceanography: Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Oceanology and Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ocean Yearbook Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Limnology and Oceanography Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Marine Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Marine Science and Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Oceanology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Operational Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Coastal Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencias Marinas     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ocean Engineering and Marine Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Limnology and Oceanography e-Lectures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Development and Applications of Oceanic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Regional Studies in Marine Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Limnology and Oceanography: Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Limnology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Ocean University of China (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Scientia Marina     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Technology Society Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ocean Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ocean Life     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Aquatica : Aquatic Sciences Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Systems & Ocean Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Marine Life Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Coastal Engineering Proceedings : Proceedings of the International Conference on Coastal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research     Open Access  
Thalassas : An International Journal of Marine Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Oceans     Open Access  
Aquatic Research     Open Access  
Jurnal Kelautan Tropis     Open Access  
Depik Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Perairan, Pesisir dan Perikanan     Open Access  
Journal of Agricultural and Marine Sciences     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Maritime and Marine Sciences     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências do Mar     Open Access  
Scientific Drilling     Open Access  
Jurnal Kelautan : Indonesian Journal of Marine Science and Technology     Open Access  
Oceanologia     Open Access  
Revista de Gestão Costeira Integrada     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Marinas y Costeras     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research     Open Access  
China Ocean Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía     Open Access  
Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research     Open Access  
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal  
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Heriot-Watt University
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