Subjects -> EARTH SCIENCES (Total: 771 journals)
    - EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)
    - GEOLOGY (94 journals)
    - GEOPHYSICS (33 journals)
    - HYDROLOGY (29 journals)
    - OCEANOGRAPHY (88 journals)

OCEANOGRAPHY (88 journals)

Showing 1 - 77 of 77 Journals sorted by number of followers
Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Deep Sea Research Part I : Oceanographic Research Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Limnology and Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Progress in Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Marine Biology & Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Physical Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Frontiers in Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Marine Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Oceanography and Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Maritime Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Fisheries Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Oceanography and Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Open Journal of Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Limnology and Oceanography: Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Operational Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Physical Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Limnology and Oceanography: Fluids and Environments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Ocean Yearbook Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Oceanology and Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Limnology and Oceanography Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Marine Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Oceanology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Limnology and Oceanography e-Lectures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Coastal Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencias Marinas     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Marine Science and Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ocean Engineering and Marine Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Tropical Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Regional Studies in Marine Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Limnology and Oceanography: Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Limnology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Development and Applications of Oceanic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Aquatica : Aquatic Sciences Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ocean Life     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Systems & Ocean Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Marine Life Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ocean University of China (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ocean Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coastal Engineering Proceedings : Proceedings of the International Conference on Coastal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Technology Society Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Scientia Marina     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research     Open Access  
Thalassas : An International Journal of Marine Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Oceans     Open Access  
Aquatic Research     Open Access  
Jurnal Kelautan Tropis     Open Access  
Depik Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Perairan, Pesisir dan Perikanan     Open Access  
Journal of Agricultural and Marine Sciences     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Maritime and Marine Sciences     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências do Mar     Open Access  
Scientific Drilling     Open Access  
Jurnal Kelautan : Indonesian Journal of Marine Science and Technology     Open Access  
Oceanologia     Open Access  
Revista de Gestão Costeira Integrada     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Marinas y Costeras     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research     Open Access  
China Ocean Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía     Open Access  
Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research     Open Access  
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal  
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ISSN (Online) 2673-1924
Published by MDPI Homepage  [249 journals]
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 27-48: Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile at Its
           Westernmost Biogeographical Limit (Northwestern Alboran Sea): Meadow
           Features and Plant Phenology

    • Authors: Ángel Mateo-Ramírez, Pablo Marina, Alejandro Martín-Arjona, Elena Bañares-España, José E. García Raso, José L. Rueda, Javier Urra
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Meadows of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica inhabit most infralittoral bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea and are considered one of the main climax stages of the infralittoral environment. This seagrass has its western distributional limit along the coast of the Alboran Sea. Taking into account the decline of P. oceanica meadows and the global scenario of ocean warming, it becomes essential to know the structure, temporal dynamics, sexual reproduction and conservation status of this seagrass, across its geographical distribution, including the distribution boundaries where the meadows withstand limiting environmental conditions. In the present work, we studied the structure, phenology and flowering events of four P. oceanica meadows located in the northwestern Alboran Sea (close to the Strait of Gibraltar). Results indicate a decreasing trend of patch size, bathymetric range and number of leaves per shoot towards the Strait (and the Atlantic Ocean), as well as an increasing trend of shoot density and leaf height. Phenological parameters of the northwestern Alboran Sea P. oceanica meadows presented temporal dynamics similar to meadows from other locations within the biogeographical distribution of this seagrass, with similar or even less annual variability in the former. Although most of the studied P. oceanica meadows seem to present a good health status (BiPo index ~0.6) with high shoot densities and some flowering events, some of them showed evidence of regression.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2023-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4010003
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 49-50: Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Oceans in

    • Authors: Oceans Editorial Office
      First page: 49
      Abstract: High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...]
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2023-01-13
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4010004
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 51-67: Bioerosion Research in the South China Sea:
           Scarce, Patchy and Unrepresentative

    • Authors: Yen-Huei Li, Barbara Calcinai, Jiayi Lim, Christine H. L. Schönberg
      First page: 51
      Abstract: Coral reefs are in decline globally, resulting in changed constructive and destructive processes. The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is of high biological importance, but also subjected to extreme local and global pressures. Yet, the regional calcium carbonate dynamics are not well understood, especially bioerosion. A literature search for research on bioerosion and bioeroders in the South China Sea found only 31 publications on bioerosion-related research and 22 biodiversity checklists that contained bioeroders, thus generating a paltry bibliography. Bioerosion research in the South China Sea is still undeveloped and reached only two publications per year over the last few years. Hong Kong is the hotspot of activities as measured in output and diversity of methods, but the research in Hong Kong and elsewhere was strongly favoring field surveys of sea urchins over other bioeroders. Overall, macroborers received almost equal attention as grazer-eroders, but interest in microborers was low. Almost 90% of the research was conducted by local workers, but 90% of the publications were still disseminated in English. Field surveys and laboratory analyses made up over 40% of the research, but experimental work was mostly missing and represents the largest, most important gap. A government initiative in Thailand generated much knowledge on the distribution of marine sponges; otherwise urchins were again prominent in diversity checklists. Comparatively, many checklists were produced for Vietnam from work by visiting scientists. Most studies investigated coastal habitats, but a fourth sampled at oceanic locations. About 36% of the checklist publications covered the entire South China Sea; the rest produced faunistic records for locations within single countries. Our efforts demonstrate that, while active bioerosion research and basic expertise exist in the South China Sea, research remained unrepresentative with respect to taxa, ecofunctional guilds, and especially to controlled experiments. The latter are urgently needed for prognoses, modelling and management in this populated and overused marine environment.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4010005
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 1-12: Effect of Substratum Structural Complexity of
           Coral Seedlings on the Settlement and Post-Settlement Survivorship of
           Coral Settlers

    • Authors: Shuichi Fujiwara, Daisuke Kezuka, Kazutaka Hagiwara, Hiroo Ishimori, Hideo Tabata
      First page: 1
      Abstract: The substratum structure is critical for facilitating settlement and increasing the survivorship of coral settlers. However, knowledge about its structural complexity is largely lacking. In this study, we examined the effect of complexity on the settlement and post-settlement survivorship of coral settlers using four types of structures: groove, using a CSD (Coral Settlement Device, 4.5 cm φ × 2.5 cm H, top-shaped ceramic); flat, using a CP (Ceramic Plate, 29.5 cm L × 3.1 cm W × 0.9 cm H, unglazed ceramic plate); linear, using a CN (Coral Net, mesh size 19 mm, biodegradable plastic net); and wrinkle, using a SS (Scallop Shell, 11.0 cm in shell length). The complexity was obtained from the ratio of the surface area to the vertically projected area of the substratum. The substratum sets were installed in the coral reef around the Ryukyu Islands every May from 2012 to 2014. After about 2 or 6 months of spawning, a certain number of substratum types were sampled, and the number of coral spats that settled on them was counted by taxa classified into Acropora, Pocilloporidae, Millepora, and Others. The larval settlement rate in the first set of samples and the survivorship of coral spats in the second set of samples were estimated. The mean settlement rate was, in order, the CSD; SS; CN; and CP, and the mean survivorship was, in order, the CSD; CP; SS; and CN, over three years. A positive correlation was found between the structural complexity, mean settlement rate, and mean survivorship. Our results show that the structural complexity of coral seedlings affects the settlement of coral larvae and the survivorship of coral spats.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-12-26
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4010001
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 4, Pages 13-26: Coral-Focused Climate Change Adaptation and
           Restoration Based on Accelerating Natural Processes: Launching the
           “Reefs of Hope” Paradigm

    • Authors: Austin Bowden-Kerby
      First page: 13
      Abstract: The widespread demise of coral reefs due to climate change is now a certainty, and investing in restoration without facing this stark reality risks failure. The 50 Reefs Initiative, the dominant adaptation model for coral reefs is examined, and a new coral-focused paradigm is proposed, based on helping coral reefs adapt to rising temperature, to ensure that as many coral species as possible survive locally over time. With pilot sites established in six Pacific Island nations, genebank nurseries of bleaching resistant corals are secured in cooler waters, to help prevent their demise as heat stress increases. Unbleached corals selected during bleaching events are included. From these nurseries corals are harvested to create nucleation patches of genetically diverse pre-adapted corals, which become reproductively, ecologically and biologically viable at reef scale, spreading out over time. This “Reefs of Hope” paradigm, modelled on tropical forest restoration, creates dense coral patches, using larger transplants or multiple small fragments elevated on structures, creates fish habitat immediately. The fish help increase coral and substratum health, which presumably will enhance natural larval-based recovery processes. We hypothesize that incoming coral recruits, attracted to the patch, are inoculated by heat adapted algal symbionts, facilitating adaptation of the wider reef. With global emissions out of control, the most we can hope for is to buy precious time for coral reefs by saving coral species and coral diversity that will not likely survive unassisted.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans4010002
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 439-463: Strandings in St Vincent Gulf Bioregion,
           South Australia: 12-Year Study Monitors Biology and Pathology of Cetaceans

    • Authors: Ikuko Tomo, Catherine M. Kemper
      First page: 439
      Abstract: The semi-enclosed environment of the St Vincent Gulf Bioregion and its fauna are impacted by many human activities. Long-term monitoring of cetaceans is vital. Records of collected specimens (173) and those not examined by the South Australian Museum (98 non-specimens) from 2009–2020 were analyzed. Necropsies were carried out on most carcasses using gross, histopathological, and diagnostic assessment of pathogens, organs, and skin lesions. The relative age and circumstance of death were assigned. Baleen whales (five species) and odontocetes (eight species) were studied. Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) and common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) were frequently recorded and analyzed in detail. Anthropogenic cases were prevalent (21%). Many dolphins (62%) were immature males. Disease (73%) was the most frequently recorded circumstance of death. The most common pathological change was inflammatory disease, including infectious pneumonia. In Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins, infectious disease was more prevalent in the greater St Vincent Gulf Bioregion than in the Adelaide Dolphin Sanctuary. Microbe testing confirmed 32 species of bacteria, 2 fungi, and 1 virus. Nematodes and trematodes were recorded throughout the study, sometimes in association with microbes. Toxoplasma gondii was observed in an Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin. Severe traumatic injury was recorded in many dolphins, including anthropogenic cases. A tumor (leiomyoma) was described from a single common dolphin. This study provides an important baseline for the future monitoring of emerging infectious and chronic diseases, and anthropogenic threats in the region.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3040030
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 464-479: Erythrocyte, Whole Blood, Plasma, and
           Blubber Fatty Acid Profiles in Oceanaria-Based versus Wild Alaskan Belugas
           (Delphinapterus leucas)

    • Authors: Todd L. Schmitt, Caroline E. C. Goertz, Roderick C. Hobbs, Steve Osborn, Stacy DiRocco, Heidi Bissell, William S. Harris
      First page: 464
      Abstract: This investigation compared the fatty acid (FA) levels found in erythrocyte (RBC) membranes, plasma, whole blood (WB), and blubber from wild Alaskan (Bristol Bay) belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) (BBB, n = 9) with oceanaria-based belugas (OBB, n = 14) fed a controlled diet consisting of primarily herring (Clupea harengus) and capelin (Mallotus villosus). FA patterns in RBCs, WB, and plasma varied considerably between BBB and OBB animals. Focusing on RBC FA levels of known dietary origin, the OBBs had markedly higher levels of 20:1n9,11 and 22:1n9,11. RBC levels of these fatty acids were 1% and 0.2% in the BBBs, but 8.2% and 4.5%, respectively, in the OBBs (p < 0.05 both). These long-chain mono-unsaturated FAs (LC-MUFAs) are rich in herring and capelin but not in the prey species (i.e., salmonids, smelt, cod, and shrimp) generally available to BBBs. As for the marine omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids [PUFAs; 20:5n3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) and 22:6n3 (docosahexaenoic acid)], the former was higher in the OBBs vs. BBBs (16% vs. 11%, p < 0.05), but the latter was low and similar in both (3.8% vs. 4%). Similar patterns were seen in the other sample types, except that DHA% was higher in BBB than OBB animals in both plasma (12.6% vs. 8.7%) and in blubber (12% vs. 4.9%) (p < 0.05). A physiologically important omega-6 PUFA, 20:4n6 (arachidonic acid) was approximately 2× higher in BBB than OBB within RBC (22% vs. 12%), WB (16% vs. 7%), plasma (11.5% vs. 4.6%) and blubber (4.6% vs. 2.4%), respectively. While blubber FAs have been evaluated historically and relatively easy to procure with biopsy darts in the field, this study proposes that blood-based FAs collected during health assessments or subsistence hunts, especially RBC or WB FAs, may be more convenient to handle using dried blood spot cards (DBS) with limited cold storage and simplifies shipping requirements, and may more accurately reflect tissue FA status.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3040031
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 480-493: Impact of Indian Ocean Dipole Events on
           Phytoplankton Size Classes Distribution in the Arabian Sea

    • Authors: Rebekah Shunmugapandi, Shirishkumar Gedam, Arun B. Inamdar
      First page: 480
      Abstract: Changes in the environmental condition associated with climatic events could potentially influence the PSC dynamics of the regional marine ecosystem. The Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) is one of the critical ocean–atmosphere interactions that affects the climate of the Arabian Sea, and it could be a potential factor influencing the regional PSC distribution. However, the relationship between PSC and IOD remains unclear and less explored. In this study, using the in-situ database acquired from the Arabian Sea, we reparametrized the three−component abundance−based phytoplankton size class model and applied it to reconstructed satellite−derived chlorophyll−a concentration to extract the fractional contribution of phytoplankton size classes to chlorophyll−a concentration. Further, we investigated the influence of IOD on the changes in the biological–physical properties in the Arabian Sea. The results showed that the biological–physical processes in the Arabian Sea are interlinked and the changes in the IOD mode control the physical variables like sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), and mixed layer depth (MLD), which influence the specific PSC abundance. Unprecedented changes in the PSC distribution and physical properties were observed during the extreme positive and negative IOD events, which clearly indicated the potential role of IOD in altering the PSC distribution in the Arabian Sea. This study highlights the impact of extreme climate events on PSC distribution and the need for a better understanding of the associated physical–biological–climate interactions.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-10-24
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3040032
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 494-508: Age and Sexual Maturity Estimation of
           Stranded Striped Dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, Infected with Brucella

    • Authors: Karol Roca-Monge, Rocío González-Barrientos, Marcela Suárez-Esquivel, José David Palacios-Alfaro, Laura Castro-Ramírez, Mauricio Jiménez-Soto, Minor Cordero-Chavarría, Daniel García-Párraga, Ashley Barratclough, Edgardo Moreno, Gabriela Hernández-Mora
      First page: 494
      Abstract: Age parameters in cetaceans allow examining conservation and studying individuals with growth affection. The age and sexual maturity of 51 stranded Stenella coeruleoalba striped dolphins from the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) of Costa Rica, most suffering brucellosis (95.6%), were assessed. In order to ascertain the dolphins’ ages, we measured the length and growth of dentin-layer group counts (GLGs) and assessed flipper bone radiography without (FBSA) and with a formula (FBF). Sexual maturity was determined through gonadal histology and sexual hormone serum levels. Compared with a model based on S. coeruleoalba ages estimations in other latitudes, the striped dolphin studied displayed deficient growth parameters, with considerable variability in length, teeth, and flippers bone development. Close to 43% (n = 15) of GLGs’ measurements were below the body length average ranges for the predicted age, suggesting developmental abnormalities. Likewise, 34.4% and 31.2% of the dolphins assessed by FBSA and FBF were also below the body length based on age prediction curves, also indicating developmental abnormalities. This information is supported by the poor correlation between GLGs, FBSA, and FBF. Inconsistencies between sexually mature males and females related to GLGs, FBSA, and FBF were evident. Although the different oceanic settings of the ETP, such as contamination, food access, diseases, and other parameters, may influence size variation, our data also suggest that long-lasting debilitating brucellosis may account for detrimental growth in the ETP striped dolphins. Our study highlights the possible deleterious consequences of chronic infectious diseases in the cetacean populations already confronting distressful conditions.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3040033
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 509-526: When and Where Did They Strand' The
           Spatio-Temporal Hotspot Patterns of Cetacean Stranding Events in Indonesia

    • Authors: Putu Liza Kusuma Mustika, Kathryn K. High, Mochamad Iqbal Herwata Putra, Achmad Sahri, I Made Jaya Ratha, Muhammad Offal Prinanda, Firdaus Agung, Februanty S. Purnomo, Danielle Kreb
      First page: 509
      Abstract: Analyses of the spatial and temporal patterns of 26 years of stranding events (1995–2011 and 2012–2021, n = 568) in Indonesia were conducted to improve the country’s stranding response. The Emerging Hot Spot Analysis was used to obtain the spatial and temporal hotspot patterns. A total of 92.4% events were single stranding, while the remaining were of mass stranding events. More stranding events were recorded between 2012 and 2021 in more dispersed locations compared to the previous period. Within the constraints of our sampling limitations, East Kalimantan and Bali were single stranding hotspots and consecutive hotspots. East Java and Sabu-Raijua in East Nusa Tenggara were mass stranding hotspots. Temporally, Raja Ampat (West Papua) experienced a significant increase in case numbers. The presence of active NGOs, individuals or government agencies in some locations might have inflated the numbers of reported cases compared to areas with less active institutions and/or individuals. However, our results still give a good understanding of the progression of Indonesia’s stranding responses and good guidance of resource allocation for the stranding network. Several locations in Indonesia that need more efforts (e.g., more training workshops on rescue and necropsies) have been identified in this paper. Suggestions to improve data collection (including georeferencing tips) have also been included.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3040034
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 527-545: Using Stable Isotope Analyses to Assess the
           Trophic Ecology of Scleractinian Corals

    • Authors: Michael P. Lesser, Marc Slattery, Keir J. Macartney
      First page: 527
      Abstract: Studies on the trophic ecology of scleractinian corals often include stable isotope analyses of tissue and symbiont carbon and nitrogen. These approaches have provided critical insights into the trophic sources and sinks that are essential to understanding larger-scale carbon and nitrogen budgets on coral reefs. While stable isotopes have identified most shallow water (<30 m) corals as mixotrophic, with variable dependencies on autotrophic versus heterotrophic resources, corals in the mesophotic zone (~30–150 m) transition to heterotrophy with increasing depth because of decreased photosynthetic productivity. Recently, these interpretations of the stable isotope data to distinguish between autotrophy and heterotrophy have been criticized because they are confounded by increased nutrients, reverse translocation of photosynthate, and changes in irradiance that do not influence photosynthate translocation. Here we critically examine the studies that support these criticisms and show that they are contextually not relevant to interpreting the transition to heterotrophy in corals from shallow to mesophotic depths. Additionally, new data and a re-analysis of previously published data show that additional information (e.g., skeletal isotopic analysis) improves the interpretation of bulk stable isotope data in determining when a transition from primary dependence on autotrophy to heterotrophy occurs in scleractinian corals.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-11-14
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3040035
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 547-556: Using Colour as a Marker for Coral
           ‘Health’: A Study on Hyperspectral Reflectance and
           Fluorescence Imaging of Thermally Induced Coral Bleaching

    • Authors: Jonathan Teague, Jack Willans, David A. Megson-Smith, John C. C. Day, Michael J. Allen, Thomas B. Scott
      First page: 547
      Abstract: Rising oceanic temperatures create more frequent coral bleaching events worldwide and as such there exists a need for rapid, non-destructive survey techniques to gather greater and higher definition information than that offered by traditional spectral based monitoring systems. Here, we examine thermally induced laboratory bleaching of Montipora capricornis and Montipora confusa samples, utilising hyperspectral data to gain an understanding of coral bleaching from a spectral standpoint. The data revealed several characteristic spectral peaks that can be used to make health determinations. The fluorescence peaks are attributed to fluorescent proteins (FPs) and Chlorophyll-a fluorescence. The reflectance peaks can be attributed to Chlorophyll absorption and accessory pigments such as Peridinin and Diadinoxanthin. Each characteristic spectral peak or ‘marker’ allows for observation of each aspect of coral health and hence, simultaneous monitoring of these markers using hyperspectral imaging techniques provides an opportunity to better understand the processes occurring during bleaching and the rates at which they occur relative to one another.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3040036
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 231-249: Temporal and Spatial Evaluation of
           Mono(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate (MEHP) Detection in Common Bottlenose
           Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA

    • Authors: Miranda K. Dziobak, Brian C. Balmer, Randall S. Wells, Emily C. Pisarski, Ed F. Wirth, Leslie B. Hart
      First page: 231
      Abstract: Phthalates are endocrine-disrupting chemicals added to plastics, personal care products, cleaning solutions, and pesticides. Extensive use has led to its exposure to wildlife, including common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA; however, there are gaps in knowledge regarding whether sample timing or geographic location influence exposure. Dolphins were evaluated for temporal and spatial variability in urinary mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) detection (2010–2019). Significant fluctuations in detectable MEHP concentrations were found across the dataset. All samples from 2014 and 2015 (n = 12) had detectable MEHP concentrations; thus, data were classified into cohorts to explore the significance of prevalent MEHP detection (“Cohort 1” (n = 10; 2010–2013), “Cohort 2” (2014–2015), and “Cohort 3” (n = 29; 2016–2019)). Compared to Cohorts 1 and 3, Cohort 2 had higher detectable MEHP concentrations (Dunn’s; p = 0.0065 and p = 0.0012, respectively) and a greater proportion of detectable MEHP concentrations (pairwise comparisons using Benjamini–Hochberg adjustments: p = 0.0016 and p = 0.0059, respectively). MEHP detection also varied across spatial scales. Dolphins with detectable MEHP concentrations had ranges primarily within enclosed embayments, while dolphins with nondetectable MEHP concentrations extended into open waters, potentially indicating geographically linked exposure risk. This study suggests that researchers and management agencies should consider a population’s ranging pattern, geographic habitat characteristics, and sample timing when assessing small cetacean health in relation to contaminant exposure.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3030017
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 250-267: Sowerby’s Beaked Whales (Mesoplodon
           bidens) in the Skagerrak and Adjacent Waters: Historical Records and
           Recent Post-Mortem Findings

    • Authors: Jasmine Stavenow, Anna Maria Roos, Erik Olof Ågren, Carl Kinze, William F. Englund, Aleksija Neimanis
      First page: 250
      Abstract: In contrast to sparse historical observational records, five Sowerby’s beaked whales (SBW) stranded and died in Swedish waters between 2015 and 2020. Here we summarize historical records of SBWs in the Skagerrak basin and adjacent waters. The three recent stranding events from Sweden are described, and the post-mortem findings, including diet analysis, from the five SBWs are presented. Of 30 historical records of SBWs observations since 1869, 13 (43%) were documented between 2010 and 2021, and records between July and November were the most frequent. The recent stranding events occurred in October 2015 (n = 1), August 2019 (n = 3) and July 2020 (n = 1). Four of the SBWs were examined through necropsy, and one was sampled in the field. They were all sub-adults and included a single female and four males. The causes of death were emaciation, euthanasia due to traumatic injury, and live stranding of undetermined cause. Two SBWs each had a focal bone lesion consistent with osteomyelitis. Other findings included pox-like dermatitis, trauma, focal granulomas in a lymph node and intestine, and ulceration of the stomach. CT scans were performed on the heads of two animals, with inconclusive results. Three SBWs had hard parts in the gastrointestinal tract that mainly consisted of otoliths from several fish species. An eDNA-analysis confirmed and supplemented the diet analysis, revealing 17 fish species in total, including species not previously described as prey for SBW, such as Pleuronectidae spp. The apparent increase in observational records since 2010 may indicate a shift in SBW distribution or changing threats to these animals. Our results support and expand theories on SBW movements and provide data on the biology and health of this poorly known species, which are valuable for conservation and legislation efforts.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3030018
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 268-288: 3D Structure of the Ras Al Hadd Oceanic

    • Authors: Yassine Bennani, Adam Ayouche, Xavier Carton
      First page: 268
      Abstract: In the Arabian Sea, southeast of the Arabian peninsula, an oceanic dipole, named the Ras Al Hadd (RAH) dipole, is formed each year, lying near the Ras Al Hadd cape. The RAH dipole is the association of a cyclonic eddy (CE) to the northeast, with an anticyclonic eddy (AE) to the southwest. This dipole intensifies in the summer monsoon and disappears during the winter monsoon. This dipole has been described previously, but mostly for its surface expression, and for short time intervals. Here, we describe the 3D structure of this dipole over the 2000–2015 period, by combining colocalized ARGO float profiler data (a total of 7552 profiles inside and outside the RAH dipole) with angular momentum eddy detection and tracking algorithm (AMEDA) surface data. We show first the different water masses in and near the RAH dipole. The presence of the Persian Gulf water (PGW) below 200 m depth is confirmed in both eddies. Arabian Sea high salinity water (ASHSW) is found exclusively in the AE; a layer of fresh and cold water is observed above 100 m depth in both eddies. By analyzing the potential density structures, we show that the CE has a surface-intensified structure while the AE is subsurface-intensified. The sea level anomaly shows a 0.04 m elevation above the AE and a 0.2 m depression over the CE. The CE has a faster geostrophic velocity, (vertical velocity, respectively) 0.6 m s−1 than the AE, 0.15 m s−1 (respectively, 3 m day−1 for the CE and 0.6 m day−1 for the AE). After presenting the vertical structure of the dipole, we show the dominance of the nonlinear Ekman pumping in the CE over the linear pumping affecting the dipole. As a consequence, we explain the CE’s longer lifetime by its intensity and shallowness, and by its sensitivity to the interaction with the atmosphere (in particular the wind stress) and with neighboring eddies. We examined the possible (co)existence of symmetric, barotropic, and baroclinic instabilities in both eddies. These instabilities coexist near the surface in both eddies. They are intensified for the CE, which suggests that the CE is unstable and the AE is rather stable or may need a long time to be unstable.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3030019
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 289-302: Whale-Associated Microbial Communities
           Remain Remarkably Stable despite Massive Water Community Disruption in a
           Managed Artificial Marine Environment

    • Authors: William Van Bonn, Francis Oliaro, Lee Pinnell
      First page: 289
      Abstract: Highly managed and built environments such as zoos and aquaria provide a rich source of standardized environmental monitoring data over periods of years to decades. A fifty percent water change in an 11.4-million-liter indoor artificial sea water system housing three species of marine mammals was conducted over a two-month period. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the microbial community structure of the system water and three host sites (feces, skin, and exhaled breath “chuff”) of whales housed in the system were characterized. Diversity measures confirmed massive disruption to the water community structure as an expected result of the water change. Host site-associated communities remained remarkably stable. Improved understanding of host microbial community dynamics in response to environmental system perturbations allows for sound management decisions toward optimizing conditions for resident animals.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-07-06
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3030020
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 303-318: A Review of Northern Fur Seal (Callorhinus
           ursinus) Literature to Direct Future Health Monitoring Initiatives

    • Authors: Valerie Cortés, Kelly Patyk, Claire Simeone, Valerie Johnson, Johanna Vega, Kate Savage, Colleen Duncan
      First page: 303
      Abstract: Northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus, NFS) are a vulnerable species broadly distributed throughout the north Pacific. Although commercial hunting stopped in 1984, the population has continued to decline for unknown reasons. The goal of this scoping review was to synthesize and review 50 years of literature relevant to the health of NFS to inform the development of health surveillance recommendations. Search criteria were developed and applied to three databases, followed by title and abstract screening and full text review. Articles published between 1 January 1972 and 31 December 2021 were included. Articles were categorized by health determinant, and further as relating to ten subcategories of disease. Data were summarized descriptively. A total of 148 publications met the criteria for inclusion. Infectious disease reports were common, primarily relating to metazoan parasite presence. The presence of zoonotic pathogens such as Coxiella burnetii and Brucella spp. is of public health interest, although a failure to link disease research to individual animal or population health outcomes was consistent across the literature. A shift away from the single agent focus of disease programs toward more holistic, health-oriented perspectives will require broader interdisciplinary collaboration. These findings can inform stakeholders and help them to prioritize and strategize on future NFS health research efforts.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3030021
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 319-330: Entanglement of Steller Sea Lions in Marine
           Debris and Fishing Gear on the Central Oregon Coast from 2005–2009

    • Authors: Kimberly L. Raum-Suryan, Robert M. Suryan
      First page: 319
      Abstract: Entanglement in marine debris and fishing gear is an increasing problem for the world’s pinnipeds and a contributing factor in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) injury and mortality. From 2005–2009, we surveyed (n = 389 days) two haul-outs on the central Oregon coast containing a combined median of 402 animals (range 33–1240, or ca. 1–19% of the Oregon coast population). We recorded 72 individuals entangled in marine debris (n = 70) or with ingested salmon hook-and-line fishing gear (n = 2). Of the identifiable neck entanglements, black rubber bands were the most common neck-entangling material (62%), followed by plastic packing bands (36%), nets (1.2%), yellow rubber bands (0.4%), and a flying disc (0.4%). The estimated prevalence of entanglement for individuals in Oregon was 0.34%. Juveniles were the most frequently entangled age class (60%), followed by adult females (28%), and subadult males (12%). Supply chain and industry-based solutions are needed to prevent entangling debris from entering the ocean, along with eliminating, modifying, or cutting entangling loops of synthetic material.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3030022
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 331-339: Clinical Observations Associated with
           Phenobarbital Serum Monitoring to Manage Epilepsy in a California Sea Lion
           with Domoic Acid Toxicosis

    • Authors: Claire A. Simeone, Gregory Scott, Ryan A. Navarro, Diana Procter
      First page: 331
      Abstract: The marine algal toxin domoic acid is an important threat to marine mammal health, and exposure can lead to both acute neurologic signs and a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Phenobarbital has been used for several decades to manage seizures, although reports are limited correlating dosing, serum monitoring and clinical efficacy in this species. This report details serum monitoring over 33 months in an 8-year-old male sea lion. Seizure control was achieved when phenobarbital concentrations were above 18 μg/mL, and sedation and ataxia were noted when concentrations were above 35 μg/mL. There was no clinically significant difference between phenobarbital concentrations resulting from once-daily versus twice-daily dosing. Serum levels remained detectable as far as 101 days after administration, and remained stable during periods of prolonged anorexia, although dramatic decreases in serum concentrations were noted immediately after normal eating resumed. For this animal, a serum phenobarbital target range of 20–30 μg/mL was achievable with a dose of 1.5 mg/kg once daily followed by therapeutic monitoring, and this is a reasonable recommended concentration and initial dose for clinicians treating this species. Long-term seizure control may be difficult to achieve with anti-epileptic drugs such as phenobarbital alone, and further research is needed to make novel options useful for clinical management of biotoxin-related neurologic disease in this aquatic species.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3030023
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 340-363: Analysis and Modeling of Sunscreen
           Ingredients’ Behavior in an Aquatic Environment

    • Authors: Gema Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Araceli Rodríguez-Romero, Antonio Tovar-Sánchez, Javier R. Viguri Fuente
      First page: 340
      Abstract: Sunscreens have become a product based on increasingly complex formulations that include, among many ingredients, a mixture of UV filters to provide optimal sun ultraviolet radiation protection. A significant group of scientific works deals with the impact of UV filters in aquatic media. However, the knowledge of the mechanism and kinetics of the compound’s direct release, fate, and its transformation and interaction with living organisms is necessary to assess its environmental occurrence and behavior and to predict potential and real impacts on the aquatic environment. This review outlines the existing analysis and modeling of the release and behavior of sunscreen’s ingredients in the marine environment, including aquatic organisms. The physical-chemical properties, photodegradation, and release kinetics of particles and chemicals into the water are studied by hydrodynamic and kinetic models. Direct photolysis of chemicals is modeled as pseudo-first-order kinetics, while the indirect pathway by the reaction of sunscreen with reactive oxygen species is described as second-order kinetics. The interaction of UV filters with marine biota is studied mainly by toxicokinetic models, which predict their bio-accumulation in the organisms’ tissues. These models consider the chemicals’ uptake and excretion, as well as their transfer between different internal animal organs, as a first-order kinetic process. The studies analyzed in the present work represent a driver of change for the beauty and personal care industry, in order to seek new ecological alternatives through the application of R&D tactics.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3030024
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 364-388: Investigation of Ocean Sub-Surface
           Processes in Tropical Cyclone Phailin Using a Coupled Modeling Framework:
           Sensitivity to Ocean Conditions

    • Authors: Tapajyoti Chakraborty, Sandeep Pattnaik, Himadri Baisya, Vijay Vishwakarma
      First page: 364
      Abstract: The present study is aimed to investigate sub-surface ocean processes and their contribution to the intensification of a tropical cyclone (TC) from a coupled-modeling perspective. The Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere–Wave–Sediment Transport (COAWST) model was employed to simulate TC Phailin, which originated over the Bay of Bengal and made landfall on the eastern coast of India in October 2013. Three sub-surface ocean condition datasets—viz., (a) the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) Ocean Reanalysis, (b) the Climate Forecast System Version 2 (CFSV2) Operational Analysis, and (c) the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) Reanalysis datasets—were used for the initial and boundary conditions for the oceanic component of the coupled model in three different simulations of TC Phailin. All the simulations showed a delay in intensification compared to the observation, and ECMWF simulated the most intensified TC. CFSV2 simulated a deeper mixed layer (ML) and higher mixing, which hindered the intensification. Furthermore, higher entrainment of cold water in the ML led to cold water reaching the surface and, consequently, decreased sea surface temperature, which acted as negative feedback in the intensification of the storm in the cases of CFSV2 and HYCOM. ECMWF realistically simulated the interactions of the TC with a cold-core eddy before landfall. A sudden increase in ML heat content, the addition of heat in the ML due to entrainment, and the prevention of cold water reaching the surface were indicative of the breaking of the barrier layer (BL) in ECMWF, which was further corroborated by the spatial distribution of BL thickness in the simulation. This acted as positive feedback in the intensification of the TC. The findings of this study strongly suggest that not only the incorporation of physical oceanic sub-surface processes in the modeling of TCs but also the proper representation of prevailing mesoscale features and ocean sub-surface temperature, salinity, and current profiles in datasets is essential for realistic simulations of TCs.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3030025
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 389-400: Increased Incidence of Entanglements and
           Ingested Marine Debris in Dutch Seals from 2010 to 2020

    • Authors: Anna Salazar-Casals, Koen de Reus, Nils Greskewitz, Jarco Havermans, Machteld Geut, Stella Villanueva, Ana Rubio-Garcia
      First page: 389
      Abstract: In recent decades, the amount of marine debris has increased in our oceans. As wildlife interactions with debris increase, so does the number of entangled animals, impairing normal behavior and potentially affecting the survival of these individuals. The current study summarizes data on two phocid species, harbor (Phoca vitulina) and gray seals (Halichoerus grypus), affected by marine debris in Dutch waters from 2010 to 2020. The findings indicate that the annual entanglement rate (13.2 entanglements/year) has quadrupled compared with previous studies. Young seals, particularly gray seals, are the most affected individuals, with most animals found or sighted with fishing nets wrapped around their necks. Interestingly, harbor seals showed a higher incidence of ingested debris. Species differences with regard to behavior, foraging strategies, and habitat preferences may explain these findings. The lack of consistency across reports suggests that it is important to standardize data collection from now on. Despite increased public awareness about the adverse environmental effects of marine debris, more initiatives and policies are needed to ensure the protection of the marine environment in the Netherlands.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3030026
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 401-418: Divergent Gene Expression Profiles in
           Alaskan Sea Otters: An Indicator of Chronic Domoic Acid Exposure'

    • Authors: Lizabeth Bowen, Susan Knowles, Kathi Lefebvre, Michelle St. Martin, Michael Murray, Kim Kloecker, Daniel Monson, Benjamin Weitzman, Brenda Ballachey, Heather Coletti, Shannon Waters, Caroline Cummings
      First page: 401
      Abstract: An opportunistic investigation into ecosystem instability in Kachemak Bay (KBay), Alaska, has led us to investigate exposure to toxic algae in sea otters. We used gene expression to explore the physiological health of sea otters sampled in KBay in May 2019. We found altered levels of gene transcripts in comparison with reference sea otters from clinically normal, oil-exposed, and nutritionally challenged populations sampled over the past decade. KBay sea otters were markedly divergent from the other groups for five genes, which indicated the involvement of neurological, cardiac, immune, and detoxification systems. Further, analyses of urine and fecal samples detected domoic acid in the KBay sea otters. In combination, these results may point to chronic, low-level exposure to an algal toxin, such as domoic acid. With a warming climate, the frequency and severity of harmful algal blooms in marine environments is anticipated to increase, and novel molecular technologies to detect sublethal or chronic exposure to algal toxins will help provide an early warning of threats to the stability of populations and ecosystems.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3030027
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 419-430: Local Ecological Knowledge Reveals Change
           in Seagrass Social–Ecological Systems

    • Authors: Benjamin L. H. Jones, Richard K. F. Unsworth, Lina M. Nordlund, Rohani Ambo-Rappe, Yayu A. La Nafie, Mary Rose Lopez, Susantha Udagedara, Leanne C. Cullen-Unsworth
      First page: 419
      Abstract: It is widely recognized that humanity is currently facing multiple planetary crises, including the widespread loss of biodiversity and a rapidly changing climate. The impacts of these crises are often far reaching and threaten food security (SDG goal two: zero hunger). Small-scale fisheries are estimated to provide livelihoods for over one hundred million people and sustenance for approximately one billion people but face a plethora of threats and challenges linked to planetary crises. In this multi-country assessment (150 coastal villages across five countries within the Indo-Pacific), household interviews revealed how seagrass meadows are important to small-scale fisheries, particularly as a place to find and collect a reliable source of food. Interviews also revealed that habitat loss and the over-exploitation of these resources are placing people and their food security at risk. This study exposed how dynamic local ecological knowledge can be, uncovering personal opinions and responsibilities that result in the hybridization of knowledge. Here, we demonstrate the importance of using local ecological knowledge to incorporate shared values into management but also highlight that an integrated approach, pairing local and conventional scientific knowledge, is needed urgently if we are to meet the needs of people while simultaneously conserving biodiversity.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3030028
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 431-438: Effectiveness of Moorings Constructed from
           Rope in Reducing Impacts to Seagrass

    • Authors: Richard K. F. Unsworth, Leanne C. Cullen-Unsworth, James N. Hope, Benjamin L. H. Jones, Richard J. Lilley, Hanna K. Nuuttila, Beth Williams, Nicole E. Esteban
      First page: 431
      Abstract: Seagrass meadows commonly reside in shallow sheltered coastal environments which are typically safe havens for mooring boats. There is evidence from around the globe that the use of common swinging chain moorings leads to halos of bare sediment in otherwise productive seagrass. These halos reduce animal abundance and diversity and lead to a loss of the carbon stored within sediments. To protect and enhance seagrass ecosystem services, low-cost simple solutions are required that can solve the problems of boating-based disturbance. In the present novel study, we provide evidence that the simple replacement of mooring chains with rope can significantly reduce damage to sensitive benthic habitats such as seagrass. At three locations across a range of environmental conditions, we provide evidence that well-established moorings constructed from rope do not damage seagrass. Overall, there was a significant effect (F1,756 = 299.46, p < 0.001) of the mooring type and distance from the mooring base. This equates to a 44% increase in seagrass cover within areas around a rope mooring relative to a chain one. Most small boat mooring activity happens within the summer months, therefore large heavy-duty winter mooring systems are not required in many situations, opening opportunities for adapted systems that have a reduced environmental impact. The present study suggests that there is a ready-made, low-technology, low-cost solution already in existence for halting the widespread loss of seagrass from small boat mooring damage and allowing recovery and opportunity for restoration.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3030029
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 114-124: Hurricane-Induced Oceanic Carbon Changes in
           the Upper Ocean

    • Authors: Laura McGee, Ruoying He
      First page: 114
      Abstract: Changes in marine carbon cycling due to hurricanes with different intensity and translation speeds have not been systematically investigated. This study uses an idealized coupled physical-biogeochemical model and a suite of model sensitivity analyses to better quantify the relationship between hurricane characteristics and marine property changes, including variations in air-sea carbon flux and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in water (pCO2w). We find that strong (category 4–5), mid-speed (5–8 m/s) storms cause the most carbon flux from the atmosphere to the ocean, and that the relationship between air-sea carbon flux and hurricane properties is non-linear. Climate models that do not consider synoptic-scale, storm-induced physical-biogeochemical coupling may underestimate regional carbon sinks.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-03-25
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3020010
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 125-146: On the Seasonal Dynamics of Phytoplankton
           Chlorophyll-a Concentration in Nearshore and Offshore Waters of Plymouth,
           in the English Channel: Enlisting the Help of a Surfer

    • Authors: Elliot McCluskey, Robert J. W. Brewin, Quinten Vanhellemont, Oban Jones, Denise Cummings, Gavin Tilstone, Thomas Jackson, Claire Widdicombe, E. Malcolm S. Woodward, Carolyn Harris, Philip J. Bresnahan, Tyler Cyronak, Andreas J. Andersson
      First page: 125
      Abstract: The role of phytoplankton as ocean primary producers and their influence on global biogeochemical cycles makes them arguably the most important living organisms in the sea. Like plants on land, phytoplankton exhibit seasonal cycles that are controlled by physical, chemical, and biological processes. Nearshore coastal waters often contain the highest levels of phytoplankton biomass. Yet, owing to difficulties in sampling this dynamic region, less is known about the seasonality of phytoplankton in the nearshore (e.g., surf zone) compared to offshore coastal, shelf and open ocean waters. Here, we analyse an annual dataset of chlorophyll-a concentration—a proxy of phytoplankton biomass—and sea surface temperature (SST) collected by a surfer at Bovisand Beach in Plymouth, UK on a near weekly basis between September 2017 and September 2018. By comparing this dataset with a complementary in-situ dataset collected 7 km offshore from the coastline (11 km from Bovisand Beach) at Station L4 of the Western Channel Observatory, and guided by satellite observations of light availability, we investigated differences in phytoplankton seasonal cycles between nearshore and offshore coastal waters. Whereas similarities in phytoplankton biomass were observed in autumn, winter and spring, we observed significant differences between sites during the summer months of July and August. Offshore (Station L4) chlorophyll-a concentrations dropped dramatically, whereas chlorophyll-a concentrations in the nearshore (Bovsiand Beach) remained high. We found chlorophyll-a in the nearshore to be significantly positively correlated with SST and PAR over the seasonal cycle, but no significant correlations were observed at the offshore location. However, offshore correlation coefficients were found to be more consistent with those observed in the nearshore when summer data (June–August 2018) were removed. Analysis of physical (temperature and density) and chemical variables (nutrients) suggest that the offshore site (Station L4) becomes stratified and nutrient limited at the surface during the summer, in contrast to the nearshore. However, we acknowledge that additional experiments are needed to verify this hypothesis. Considering predicted changes in ocean stratification, our findings may help understand how the spatial distribution of phytoplankton phenology within temperate coastal seas could be impacted by climate change. Additionally, this study emphasises the potential for using marine citizen science as a platform for acquiring environmental data in otherwise challenging regions of the ocean, for understanding ecological indicators such as phytoplankton abundance and phenology. We discuss the limitations of our study and future work needed to explore nearshore phytoplankton dynamics.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3020011
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 147-171: The Condition of Four Coral Reefs in
           Timor-Leste before and after the 2016–2017 Marine Heatwave

    • Authors: Catherine J. S. Kim, Chris Roelfsema, Sophie Dove, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg
      First page: 147
      Abstract: El Niño Southern Oscillation global coral bleaching events are increasing in frequency, yet the severity of mass coral bleaching is not geographically uniform. Based in Timor-Leste, the present project had two major objectives: (1) assess the baseline of reefs and coral health at four sites and (2) explore water quality and climate-related changes in ocean temperatures on these understudied reef systems. The impacts of climate change were surveyed on coral reefs before and after the 2016–2017 global underwater heatwave, (principally by following coral mortality). Temperature loggers were also deployed between surveys, which were compared to Coral Reef Watch (CRW) experimental virtual station sea surface temperature (SST). CRW is an important and widely used tool; however, we found that the remotely sensed SST was significantly warmer (>1 °C) than in situ temperature during the austral summer accruing 5.79-degree heating weeks. In situ temperature showed no accumulation. There were significant differences in coral cover, coral diversity, and nutrient concentrations between sites and depths, as well as a low prevalence of disease recorded in both years. Change in coral cover between surveys was attributed to reef heterogeneity from natural sources and localized anthropogenic impacts. Timor-Leste has both pristine and impacted reefs where coral cover and community composition varied significantly by site. Degradation was indicative of impacts from fishing and gleaning. The comparison of in situ temperature and remotely sensed SST indicated that bleaching stress in Timor-Leste is potentially mitigated by seasonal coastal upwelling during the Northwest monsoon season. As a climate refugium, the immediate conservation priority lies in the mitigation of localized anthropogenic impacts on coral reefs through increasing the management of expanding human-related sedimentation and fishing.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3020012
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 172-188: Coastal Quarries as Relative Sea-Level
           Markers: A Methodological Approach Applied in the Apulia Region (Southern

    • Authors: Giovanni Scardino, Arcangelo Piscitelli, Giuseppe Locuratolo, Giovanni Scicchitano, Angela Rizzo
      First page: 172
      Abstract: The assessment of past sea-level positions requires a multidisciplinary approach that involves both scientific and historical humanistic fields. The use of a multidisciplinary approach allows us to obtain reliable information on the relative sea-level position, the determination of which requires the evaluation of the eustatic and steric components as well as an assessment of the vertical ground displacements, such as the isostatic adjustments and tectonic movements. In this context, coastal geoarchaeological markers play a fundamental role since their architectural height (generally defined as functional height) was relative to the sea level at the time of their construction. Thus, a comparison between the current elevation of geoarchaeological structures (or depth in the case they are currently submerged) with their estimated functional height allows us to obtain the relative sea-level variation. In this study, we applied a methodological procedure for the evaluation of the functional height of architectural elements using modern technologies (Terrestrial Laser Scanner and GPS-Real Time Kinematic) and detailed sea-level analysis. The proposed methodology was applied to coastal quarries located along the coast of Bari (Apulia region, southern Italy). The results allowed us to confirm the functional height of the detachment surface reported in the literature and to assess the sea-level position in the fifth and fourth centuries before Christ.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3020013
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 189-203: Pathological Studies and Postmortem
           Computed Tomography of Dolphins with Meningoencephalomyelitis and
           Osteoarthritis Caused by Brucella ceti

    • Authors: Andrés Granados-Zapata, María José Robles-Malagamba, Rocío González-Barrientos, Brian Chin-Wing Kot, Elías Barquero-Calvo, Minor Cordero-Chavaría, Marcela Suárez-Esquivel, Caterina Guzmán-Verri, Jose David Palacios-Alfaro, Connie Tien-Sung, Edgardo Moreno, Gabriela Hernández-Mora
      First page: 189
      Abstract: Cetacean neurobrucellosis is a common cause of strandings in Costa Rica diagnosed by serology, bacteriology, and histopathology. Pathological studies were performed on 18 dolphins. Twelve were scanned by postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) as a complementary tool for describing neurobrucellosis and osteoarticular alterations associated with Brucella ceti infections. The central nervous system (CNS) and the skeleton of five dolphins not infected with B ceti did not reveal alterations by PMCT scanning. Seven Brucella-infected dolphins showed at least bilateral ventriculomegaly associated with hydrocephalus and accumulation in CSF in the lateral ventricles. We performed semiquantitative grading of the inflammatory process in the different areas of the CNS and evaluated the thickness of the cellular infiltrate in the meninges and the perivascular cuffs. The results for the severity grading were graphed to provide an injury profile associated with each area of the CNS. Age is not a decisive factor regarding neurobrucellosis presentation. The severity of ventriculomegaly by PMCT does not directly correlate with the severity of the inflammatory index determined by histopathological parameters of the brain cortex and other CNS regions, suggesting that these processes, although linked, are multifactorial and need further characterization and validation to establish better cutoffs on the PMCT.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3020014
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 204-217: Reef Fish Assemblage in Two Insular Zones
           within the Mexican Central Pacific

    • Authors: Carlos Vladimir Pérez de-Silva, Amílcar Leví Cupul-Magaña, Alma Paola Rodríguez-Troncoso, Fabián Alejandro Rodríguez-Zaragoza
      First page: 204
      Abstract: Reefs fishes are sensitive to environmental changes, particularly in areas such as the Mexican Central Pacific (MCP), which has a high environmental variability favored by currents. This study assesses the temporal variation in ecological indicators of fishes in Marietas (MI) and Isabel islands (II) in the MCP during 2010–2017. Overall, 118 species were recorded at MI and 95 in II. The highest abundance was recorded in 2013 at MI, and in 2015 at II, with an observed sample coverage > 0.79 for all years. MI showed higher annual taxonomic distinctness and richness than II. Annual biomass and assemblages were different between years and islands. The changes in both islands’ community structure were influenced by ENSO events. A high proportion of the dissimilarity among years is represented in 10 species, and the difference among years for each island is given by rare species. Annually, community indicators (Δ+, q = 1, and q = 2) and physicochemical factors were not related except for q = 0 and the chlorophyll concentration; this is due to the inter-annual variation within the area. The variation in fish communities on both islands results from mesoscale phenomena that have a different effect on each island due to the characteristics of their shelf and oceanography.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3020015
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 218-230: Octocoral Distribution Patterns at the
           Equatorial Front (Tropical Eastern Pacific): Muricea and Leptogorgia

    • Authors: Rubén Abad, Karla B. Jaramillo, Divar Castro, Juan A. Sánchez, Jenny Rodríguez
      First page: 218
      Abstract: The Equatorial Front, in the southern part of the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) region, has been characterized as a hotspot of functional biodiversity due to the mixing of warm and cold waters. Nevertheless, the biogeographic patterns for some organisms, such as octocorals, remain unknown in some coastal regions. Therefore, we aimed to assess the distribution of two common octocoral genera in this area, Muricea and Leptogorgia, including 14 species based on museum specimen records, along the mainland coast of Ecuador. Statistical analyses were performed on the environmental and geographical patterns (Sea Surface Temperature (SST), bathymetry, chlorophyll (CHL-a), and Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR)) that influence the Equatorial Front, which is subdivided into five biogeographic regions. Our results showed two hotspots of octocoral biodiversity. The SST was found to be the main environmental factor related to octocoral distribution along the Equatorial Front. Finally, the highest abundance of Muricea over Leptogorgia suggests the former species’ higher resilience to thermal fluctuations. We discuss the possible role of substrates at suitable depths, active photosynthetic radiation, and temperature in the occurrence of octocorals in the two hotspots.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3020016
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 1-14: Correlation between Coral Reef Condition and
           the Diversity and Abundance of Fishes and Sea Urchins on an East African
           Coral Reef

    • Authors: Pia Ditzel, Sebastian König, Peter Musembi, Marcell K. Peters
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Coral reefs are one of the most diverse marine ecosystems, providing numerous ecosystem services. This present study investigated the relationship between coral reef condition and the diversity and abundance of fishes, on a heavily fished East African coral reef at Gazi Bay, Kenya. Underwater visual censuses were conducted on thirty 50 × 5 m belt transects to assess the abundance and diversity of fishes. In parallel, a 25-m length of each of the same transects was recorded with photo-quadrats to assess coral community structure and benthic characteristics. For statistical analyses, multi-model inference based on the Akaike Information Criterion was used to evaluate the support for potential predictor variables of coral reef and fish diversity. We found that coral genus richness was negatively correlated with the abundance of macroalgae, whereas coral cover was positively correlated with both the abundance of herbivorous invertebrates (sea urchins) and with fish family richness. Similarly, fish family richness appeared mainly correlated with coral cover and invertebrate abundance, although no correlates of fish abundance could be identified. Coral and fish diversity were very low, but it appears that, contrary to some locations on the same coast, sea urchin abundance was not high enough to be having a negative influence on coral and fish assemblages. Due to increasing threats to coral reefs, it is important to understand the relationship among the components of the coral reef ecosystem on overfished reefs such as that at Gazi Bay.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3010001
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 15-29: Environmentally-Driven Variation in the
           Physiology of a New Caledonian Reef Coral

    • Authors: Anderson B. Mayfield, Alexandra C. Dempsey
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Given the widespread threats to coral reefs, scientists have lost the opportunity to understand the basic biology of “pristine” corals whose physiologies have not been markedly perturbed by human activity. For instance, high temperature-induced bleaching has been occurring annually since 2014 in New Caledonia. Because most corals cannot withstand repeated years when bleaching occurs, an analysis was undertaken to showcase coral behavior in a period just before the onset of “annual severe bleaching” (ASB; November 2013) such that future generations might know how these corals functioned in their last bleaching-free year. Pocillopora damicornis colonies were sampled across a variety of environmental gradients, and a subset was sampled during both day and night to understand how their molecular biology changes upon cessation of dinoflagellate photosynthesis. Of the 13 environmental parameters tested, sampling time (i.e., light) most significantly affected coral molecular physiology, and expression levels of a number of both host and Symbiodiniaceae genes demonstrated significant diel variation; endosymbiont mRNA expression was more temporally variable than that of their anthozoan hosts. Furthermore, expression of all stress-targeted genes in both eukaryotic compartments of the holobiont was high, even in isolated, uninhabited, federally protected atolls of the country’s far northwest. Whether this degree of sub-cellular stress reflects cumulative climate change impacts or, instead, a stress-hardened phenotype, will be unveiled through assessing the fates of these corals in the wake of increasingly frequent marine heatwaves.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3010002
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 30-45: A Review of Current and New Optical
           Techniques for Coral Monitoring

    • Authors: Jonathan Teague, David A. Megson-Smith, Michael J. Allen, John C.C. Day, Thomas B. Scott
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Monitoring the health of coral reefs is essential to understanding the damaging impacts of anthropogenic climate change as such non-invasive methods to survey coral reefs are the most desirable. Optics-based surveys, ranging from simple photography to multispectral satellite imaging are well established. Herein, we review these techniques, focusing on their value for coral monitoring and health diagnosis. The techniques are broadly separated by the primary method in which data are collected: by divers and/or robots directly within the environment or by remote sensing where data are captured above the water’s surface by planes, drones, or satellites. The review outlines a new emerging technology, low-cost hyperspectral imagery, which is capable of simultaneously producing hyperspectral and photogrammetric outputs, thereby providing integrated information of the reef structure and physiology in a single data capture.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3010003
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 46-47: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Oceans in 2021

    • Authors: Oceans Editorial Office Oceans Editorial Office
      First page: 46
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3010004
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 48-59: Coral Recovery in the Central Mexican Pacific
           20 Years after the 1997–1998 El Niño Event

    • Authors: Violeta Martínez-Castillo, Alma Paola Rodríguez-Troncoso, Anderson B. Mayfield, Fabián Alejandro Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Amílcar Leví Cupul-Magaña
      First page: 48
      Abstract: El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events are increasing globally in both frequency and strength, and they can elicit coral bleaching events. The 1997–1998 ENSO caused mass coral mortality with a 96% decline in live coral cover along the Central Mexican Pacific. However, in recent years, these sites have shown signs of recovery. We used data collected in 1997 and 2015–2017 to evaluate the coral recovery in this region and coral cover levels have now reached 50% of their pre-1997–1998 El Niño values. Furthermore, a strong 2015–2016 ENSO event did not significantly affect the live coral cover, potentially demonstrating that the local corals have acclimatized or even adapted to higher temperatures. Even though branching species remain the most abundant morphotype, a PERMANOVA revealed significant changes in the coral assemblage. Collectively, this dataset is testament to the fact that corals within this region are capable of resisting or at least partially recovering from thermal anomalies caused by ENSO events.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-02-17
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3010005
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 60-71: Private Capital to Improve Nature-Based
           Solutions for Coastal Protection: Time for a Boost

    • Authors: Angelique Brathwaite, Nicolas Pascal, Eric Clua
      First page: 60
      Abstract: Coastal protection, an important coral reef ecosystem service, is threatened by increasing coral mortality, exacerbated by global climate change. Nature-based solutions in the form of coral restoration, while not perfect, can assist in rebuilding reef structure and improving the flow of the service for some sites. With a financing gap existing between what is required for conservation and what is being accessed, private investors should be playing a larger role in such restoration activities. Especially so as coastal hoteliers in particular, benefit from stable beaches and also have additional income generating potential with healthy reefs. Blended finance solutions in particular, are especially suited to restoration that incorporates substrate addition, while payments for ecosystem services are more suited to coral gardening. Conservation and finance practitioners must engage further and understand each other’s worlds, in order for these private sources to be effectively sourced and utilized.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3010006
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 72-83: Evaluation of the HemoCue® WBC System as
           a Point of Care Diagnostic Tool for White Blood Cell Quantification in

    • Authors: Abby M. McClain, Emily R. Whitmer, Carlos Rios, Eric D. Jensen, Nicole I. Stacy, Shawn P. Johnson
      First page: 72
      Abstract: Point of care (POC) hematology testing can be valuable in triage and field settings. We assessed the accuracy between the HemoCue® WBC system and two comparative analyzers, as well as the precision of the HemoCue® WBC system in five different pinniped species: Zalophus californianus, Arctocephalus townsendi, Callorhinus urcinus, Phoca vitulina, and Mirounga angustirostris for white blood cell (WBC) quantification. In Zalophus (n = 164; 106 from U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program (Navy); 58 from The Marine Mammal Center (TMMC)), the HemoCue® was compared to two hematology analyzers, Sysmex Xe-5000 and Vet ABC Plus. In Phoca (n = 50; TMMC), Callorhinus (n = 29; TMMC), Arctocephalus (n = 17; TMMC), and Mirounga (n = 67; TMMC), the HemoCue® was compared to Vet ABC Plus only. Bland–Altman and Passing–Bablok agreement of HemoCue® with Sysmex Xe-5000 and Vet ABC Plus analyzers were good for Zalophus, Arctocephalus, Phoca, and Mirounga but marginal with Callorhinus; bias = 0.56 × 109/L (Zalophus; Navy), −2.13 × 109/L (Zalophus; TMMC), −1.59 × 109/L (Arctocephalus), −2.48 × 109/L 0.917 (Phoca), −0.01 × 109/L (Mirounga), and −6.05 × 109/L (Callorhinus). The coefficient of variation from triplicate runs of samples were within acceptable limits for all species (2.50% ± 1.63 (Zalophus; TMMC), 3.09% ± 2.14 (Arctocephalus), 2.47% ± 1.35 (Callorhinus), 2.88% ± 1.75 (Phoca), and 3.44% ± 2.53 (Mirounga)), respectively. The presence of nucleated red blood cells (nRBC; 1–37 nRBC/100 WBC) did not significantly interfere with WBC counts in Zalophus, Callorhinus, and Phoca at the population level, but their presence should be evaluated at the individual level. The HemoCue® provides an accurate method for WBC quantification with WBC counts up to 30 × 109/L (upper limit of linearity of the analyzer) in Zalophus, Arctocephalus, Phoca, and Mirounga, but is less accurate in Callorhinus, and showed good precision in all species.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3010007
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 84-93: Impact of Egg Exposure to UV Filter-Spiked
           Sediment on the Survival, Hatching Success, Cardiac Frequency, and
           Metabolic Scope of Zebrafish Embryos

    • Authors: Julie Lucas, Valentin Logeux, Alice Rodrigues, Didier Stien, Philippe Lebaron
      First page: 84
      Abstract: Chemical UV filters are increasingly used in cosmetics to protect skin from UV radiation. As a consequence, they are released into the aquatic environment via recreational activities and wastewaters. In aquatic ecosystems, fish eggs in contact with sediment can be affected by organic and lipophilic pollutants such as UV filters. The present study aims to evaluate the toxicity of six individual UV filters, diethylhexyl butamido triazone (DBT), diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate (DHHB), ethylhexyl triazone (ET), 2-ethylhexyl salicylate (ES), homosalate (HS), and octocrylene (OC), in the embryo-larval stages of zebrafish Danio rerio. Contamination of fish eggs and larvae with UV filters occurred through contact with spiked sediment for 96 h at a concentration of 10 μg g−1. Among the six UV filters tested, OC delayed hatching success, whereas ES significantly increased the heartbeat rate of embryo–larvae after sediment exposure, probably as a stress response.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3010008
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
  • Oceans, Vol. 3, Pages 94-113: Understanding Fish Larvae’s Feeding
           Biology to Improve Aquaculture Feeding Protocols

    • Authors: Laura Ribeiro, François Noel Hubert, Vera Rodrigues, Carlos Rojas-Garcia, Maria Teresa Dinis
      First page: 94
      Abstract: Knowing that food ingestion and digestion are processes under neuroendocrine regulation, it is important to understand how fish larvae regulate these processes, when the digestive system itself is under development. This study aimed to analyze how gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) larval feeding incidence and intensity were affected by time, light, and water temperature, through the analysis of gut content and how this affected cholecystokinin (CCK) content. Three short-term experiments were done: (A) 27 and 42 days post-hatch (DPH) larvae were analyzed at different intervals for 80 min, after feeding; (B) 38 and 48 DPH larvae were kept under different light intensities (0, 400, 1000 lux) for 30 min; (C) 41 DPH larvae were kept at 17, 19, 25 °C for 30 min. Feeding incidence below 100% was observed for 27 DPH larvae, and for 38 DPH larvae fed at 0 lux. Feeding intensity was several fold higher at older ages. However, the number of prey in the gut was lower at 0 lux, and higher at 25 °C. Overall, no clear pattern was observed for CCK, but at older ages increasing gut content resulted in higher CCK content. In conclusion, until 38 DPH light is important for gilthead sea bream larval feeding ability, and maturing functionality of CCK was only observed at later stages.
      Citation: Oceans
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/oceans3010009
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
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Heriot-Watt University
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