Subjects -> PHYSICS (Total: 857 journals)
    - MECHANICS (22 journals)
    - NUCLEAR PHYSICS (53 journals)
    - OPTICS (92 journals)
    - PHYSICS (625 journals)
    - SOUND (25 journals)
    - THERMODYNAMICS (30 journals)

OPTICS (92 journals)

Showing 1 - 89 of 89 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Photonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Advanced Photonics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Photonics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Optics and Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Annual Review of Vision Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Applied Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Optics Express     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Photonics     Open Access  
Chinese Optics Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
EPJ Photovoltaics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Hybrid Imaging     Open Access  
Fiber and Integrated Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
High Power Laser Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Hindsight : The Journal of Optometry History     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Photonics Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
IEEE Photonics Technology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Optics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Optoelectronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Sustainable Lighting     Open Access  
Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Laser Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Mass Spectrometry and Advances in the Clinical Lab     Open Access  
Journal of Modern Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Nanoelectronics and Optoelectronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nonlinear Optical Physics & Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Optical Microsystem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Optical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Optics Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Photonics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Photonics for Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of the Optical Society of America A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of the Optical Society of America B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of the Optical Society of Korea     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Laser & Photonics Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Laser Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Lasers in Medical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
LEUKOS : The Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society     Hybrid Journal  
Materials Today Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microwave and Optical Technology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Nature Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Optica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Optical and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Optical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Optical Fiber Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Optical Materials : X     Open Access  
Optical Materials Express     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Optical Memory and Neural Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Optical Nanoscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Optical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Optics & Laser Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Optics and Lasers in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Optics and Photonics Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Optics and Photonics Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Optics and Photonics News     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Optics and Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Optics Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Optics Express     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Optics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Optik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Optik & Photonik     Open Access  
Optoelectronics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Photonic Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Photonics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Photonics Letters of Poland     Open Access  
Photonics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
PhotonicsViews     Hybrid Journal  
Progress in Optics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Results in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
SIAM Journal on Imaging Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Thin Solid Films     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Trends in Opto-Electro & Optical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Optics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.231
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 14  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-9384 - ISSN (Online) 1687-9392
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [339 journals]
  • Integrated Free-Space Optics and Fiber Optic Network Performance
           Enhancement for Sustaining 5G High Capacity Communications

    • Abstract: In this paper, the integrated free-space optics (FSO) and fiber optic model is evaluated using new radio (NR) sub-THz link to sustain next generation 5G capacity. The proposed integrated model effectively applies over 25 km single mode fiber, 0.5 m RF wireless, and 500 m optical wireless. In addition, four different sub-THz frequencies (125, 150, 175, and 200 GHz) are estimated on NR-based 5G FSO network, including 22 Gbps 64quadrature amplitude modulation-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (64QAM-OFDM) signal speed. The proposed FSO enabled fiber optic system is also measured mathematically to satisfy the data transmission accuracy. For confirmation, the theoretical approach of the presented FSO and fiber optic network is realized with an aggregate 342 Gbps speed . The performance metrics comprising forward error limit (FEL), bit error rate (BER), and error vector magnitude (EVM) are used for weighing simulation results. The outlets of an integrated fiber-FSO network show that by applying NR 5G sub-THz, a high data rate with multiple inputs and multiple outputs (MIMO) transmission capacity can be adjusted victoriously.
      PubDate: Fri, 13 Jan 2023 01:35:01 +000
  • Optimization and Numerical Modeling of TCO/SnO2/CdS/CdTe Solar Cells

    • Abstract: Due to the excellent performance of the CdTe solar cells, research is ongoing to increase the efficiency of these cells. The first purpose of this study is to increase the accuracy of the physical parameters of a solar cell in the electron ̶hole production rate equation. In previous studies, this section was neglected because of using only ready-made software. Simulations were performed using a one-dimensional diffusion model in MATLAB and Maple software. Then, in theory, we simulated cadmium telluride-based layered solar cells for the first time without using ready-made software and with coding in MATLAB and Maple software. We designed and optimized the thickness of the layers in solar cells in detail. Then we studied the effect of layer thickness on the short-circuit current (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (Voc), filling factor (FF), and its efficiency. It is found that the efficiency of solar cells layered with TCO/SnO2/CdS/CdTe layers is as follows: the thickness of the TCO layer is 0.1 μm, that of the SnO2 layer is equal to 0.1 μm, that of the CdS layer as the window layer is 0.1 μm and the thickness of the CdTe layer as the absorber layer is 3.9 μm. The efficiency of the solar cell with the TCO/SnO2/CdS/CdTe structure increases significantly and reaches a maximum value of more than 20%.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Jan 2023 08:50:01 +000
  • The Multiple Scattering of Laser Beam Propagation in Advection Fog and
           Radiation Fog

    • Abstract: The laser beams were scattered and attenuated when they propagate in fogs for laser communication, laser remote sensing detection. For different density and droplets distribution of fogs, the laser scatter and attenuation are different, the correspond mechanism need thorough investigation. The characteristics of laser beam scattering in different types of fogs are studied based on the droplet size characteristics of advection fog and radiation fog, the scattering coefficients of droplets with different laser wavelengths(0.86 μm, 0.91 μm, 1.06 μm, 1.3015, and 10.6 μm) are calculated, the multi scattering of laser beam is studied by the Monte Carlo method, the propagation path and scattering direction of photons is analyzed, relations between asymmetry factor, albedo of fog droplets, and the visibility are presented, and the forward scattering intensity and the backward scattering intensity versus scattering angle are gotten and discussed.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Jan 2023 09:05:01 +000
  • Parameter Study and Economic Efficiency Optimization for Laser Cladding
           with Wide-Band Fiber Laser

    • Abstract: With the aim of investigating the cladding geometry characteristics by a wide-band fiber laser with coaxial rectangular nozzle, and optimizing the powder efficiency and deposition speed for economy efficiency, Fe-based alloy powder was deposited on AISI 1045 substrate by a 3000 W fiber laser in this study. Laser power (P), scan speed (V), and powder feed rate (F) were selected for a factorial design. The effects of the three process parameters on the geometry characteristics and economic efficiency of single tracks were statistically analyzed, and a linear regression model was established between the combined parameters and the relevant characteristics (including track height, ratio of track width to height, powder efficiency, and deposition speed). A process map was developed with the track shape and key economic indexes as boundaries. A flat-top feature of the track profile was found and can be utilized to achieve good cladding evenness. The process map showed that the powder efficiency and deposition speed were higher than 50% and 20 mm3/s, respectively, when selecting process parameters in the as-built operation window.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Dec 2022 11:50:01 +000
  • Design and Analysis of Ultralow Voltage Graphene on the Silicon Rich
           Nitride Tunable Ring Resonator-Based Add-Drop Filter for DWDM Systems

    • Abstract: We propose and simulate a third-order 3D electro-optically highly tunable compact add-drop filter based on nonlinear microring resonators. The used tuning mechanism relies on enhanced Kerr nonlinearity in a graphene layer integrated on top of a two-photonabsorption-free and low loss silicon-rich nitride core material at telecommunication wavelengths. An ultrahigh tuning efficiency (150 pm/V) over a tuning range of 1.3 nm, ensuring ultralow voltage consumption, was achieved in this work. We used titanium oxide and silicon oxide as the upper-cladding and under-cladding materials, respectively, around the silicon-rich nitride core material, to come up with a polarization-insensitive, and the thermally resilient third-orderadd-drop optical filter in the L band (1565 nm–1625 nm) with a full wave at a half maximum bandwidth of 50 GHz (linewidth of 0.4 nm) around 1570 nm, a high-free spectral range of 18.5 nm, a quality factor of 2580, an extinction ratio of 60 dB, a finesse of 19, and a thermal stability of 0.3 pm/K. A three-dimensional multiphysics approach was used to simulate the propagation of transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarized waves through the filter, combining the electromagnetic features with thermo-optic and stress-optical effects. The contribution of this work to the existing literature is that the designed filter proposes a new and highly tunable material system compatible with the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor fabrication technology while combining high tunability, polarization insensitivity, and high thermal stability features for an ultracompact and energy-efficienton-chip integrated photonic tunable filter for dense wavelength division multiplexing systems in the less occupied L band.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Dec 2022 02:05:01 +000
  • In-Line and Off-Axis Hybrid Digital Holographic Imaging Method Based on
           Off-Axis Hologram Constraints

    • Abstract: We put forward a novel hybrid iterative algorithm to improve the imaging quality of digital holography. An off-axis hologram is added to the iteration process via interference and inverse interference process and becomes part of the constraints. A frequency domain filter varying with the number of iterations is used to improve the competitive advantage of low frequency information in the early iterations, while retaining the high frequency information. In practical applications, an additional iterative process is used after averaging filtering to suppress the influence of the imperfect consistency between the reconstructed reference wave and the actual reference wave. Numerical simulations and experiments show that image reconstruction may be significantly improved compared to the conventional method.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Nov 2022 11:05:01 +000
  • The Effectual Spectrum Defragmentation Algorithm with Holding Time
           Sensitivity in Elastic Optical Network (EON)

    • Abstract: The elastic optical network (EON) fulfills the upcoming generation network requirements such as high-definition videos, high bandwidth demand services, and ultra-high-definition televisions. The key issues in EON are routing spectrum assignment and spectrum fragmentation for spectrum allocation. The spectrum fragmentation issues are resultant in poor consumption of spectrum resources and an increase in the new connection blocking. A flexible defragmentation algorithm must utilize more spectrum resources with a high transmission rate. This paper presents a new multiconstrained defragmentation algorithm (MCDFA) for elastic optical networks. The MCDFA addressed two key issues: spectrum allocation for new connections and then reconfiguring the existing connections in a nondisruptive manner. The first-last-exact fit spectrum allocation policy assigns the spectrum slots during the new connection request. It splits each light path request by disjoint/ nondisjoint and by efficiently handling the small fragmented slots in spectrum resources. The simulation results are evaluated using standard metrics such as bandwidth blocking probability, bandwidth fragmentation ratio, and spectrum utilization gain. The results also demonstrated that our proposed algorithm generates promised solution to EON’s routing, spectrum assessment, and fragmentation issues.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 08:35:01 +000
  • Terahertz Absorption Characteristics of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube
           Aqueous Dispersion Measured by Microfluidic Technique

    • Abstract: Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have excellent electronic, mechanical, and structural characteristics; however, their poor dispersion structure and large aggregates severely inhibit their function. A stable MWCNT dispersion in an aqueous solvent has been realized via ultrasonic dispersion and surfactant modification, providing a reference for improving MWCNT dispersion in various materials and solvents. In this study, a cyclic olefin copolymer with high transmittance to terahertz (THz) waves is used to prepare microfluidic chips. Then, the microfluidic and THz technologies are combined to study the THz absorption characteristics of MWCNT aqueous dispersion under different electric field (EF) intensities, magnetic field (MF) intensities, and MF action time. The results show that the THz spectral intensity of MWCNT aqueous dispersion decreases and the absorption coefficient increases with the increase of EF intensity, MF intensity, and MF action time. This phenomenon is explained from a microscopic perspective. The combination of microfluidic and THz technologies provides technical support for studying the characteristics of MWCNT aqueous dispersion and lays a foundation for elucidating the molecular microstructure of MWCNT aqueous dispersion.
      PubDate: Fri, 04 Nov 2022 10:20:01 +000
  • Fluorescence Radiation and Thermal Effect at the Edge of the Disk-Shaped
           Laser Crystal

    • Abstract: The fluorescence radiation property at the edge of the thin disk crystal is very important to the design of thin disk lasers. In order to study this effect, in this paper, we established a theoretical model to describe the edge fluorescence radiation process in thin disk lasers. Subsequently, we used a thin disk crystal with indium absorption cladding to quantitatively test the edge fluorescence intensity. The significant difference between measured and simulated data can be described as P (probability value) 
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Oct 2022 11:20:02 +000
  • Rod-Type Ce/Cr/Nd : YAG Ceramic Lasers with White-Light Pump

    • Abstract: Ceramic is promising for use as a solid-laser material pumped with solar or lamp light. We developed a Cr3+ ion doped Nd : YAG ceramic laser that converts white light into near-infrared laser light more efficiently. Investigation of its optical properties has revealed that large gain can be realized with excitation power that is one order of magnitude less than that in the case of Nd : YAG. Ce3+ ion doping also makes it possible to utilize the excitation light components with wavelengths of 350 nm or less, preventing generation of color centers. A rod-type Ce3+/Cr3+/Nd : YAG ceramic pumped by white light such as solar light or flash lamp light was developed. Fluorescence lifetime of ceramic was measured. Laser oscillations at free running mode were observed. Also, numerical calculation for output laser power and gain at lasing threshold was performed. Fluorescence lifetime increased as temperature rose, which was observed in Cr/Nd : YAG ceramic. This increase suggests the existence of a cross-relaxation effect. Maximum output laser energy of 73 mJ with the peak power of 330 W was obtained. Obtained output laser energy was around twice more than that in case of Cr3+/Nd : YAG ceramic with the same Nd and Cr ion concentration.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Sep 2022 10:35:03 +000
  • Advances in Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Biosensor Technologies for
           Cancer Cell Detection

    • Abstract: Efforts have been made to enhance the surface sensitivity of the conventional surface plasmon resonance biosensor. To improve the sensitivity, a unique two-dimensional heterostructure layer of titanium disilicide and black phosphorus layer has been deposited over the metal surface. The titanium disilicide (TiSi2) nanosheet is placed in between silver (Ag) and black phosphorus (BP) films in the Kretschmann arrangement. This biosensor executes better over a wide range of refractive index variations, including biological cell distribution in individual blood. It may become a fast method of detecting cancerous cells and the several variants of corona and other viruses that become pandemic. Using the finite element method-based simulation technique, the sensitivity obtained as 195.4 degree/RIU, 167.6 degree/RIU, 212.4 degree/RIU, 168.4 degree/RIU, 212.4 degree/RIU, 186.6 degree/RIU, 218.6 degree/RIU, 195.4 degree/RIU, 203.6 degree/RIU, 202.6 degree/RIU 203.6 degree/RIU, and 202.6 for basal (skin cancer), basal (normal cell), HeLa (cervical cancer), MCF-7 (breast cancer), HeLa (normal cell), Jurkat (blood cancer), Jurkat (normal cell), PCI-2 (adrenal gland cancer), PCI-2 (normal cell), MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer), MDA-MB-231 (normal cell), MCF-7 (breast cancer), and MCF-7 (normal cell), respectively, and other performance parameters such as detection accuracy, figure of merit, and full width and half maximum (FWHM) are also evaluated.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Sep 2022 04:20:01 +000
  • Propagation of Partially Coherent Flat-Topped Vortex Hollow Beams in
           Anisotropic Turbulent Plasma

    • Abstract: The propagation properties of partially coherent circular flat-topped (FT) vortex hollow/nonvortex beams are studied in anisotropic turbulent plasma. The analytical expression of the optical intensity of these beams is obtained by employing the extended Huygens–Fresnel integral. The effects of the source and turbulent plasma parameters on the intensity distribution of partially coherent circular FT vortex hollow/nonvortex beams are analyzed numerically. The results show that partially coherent circular FT vortex hollow/nonvortex beams will finally converge into a Gaussian intensity profile at increasing propagation distances. The results also showed that the partially coherent FT vortex hollow/nonvortex beams with higher coherence are less affected by anisotropic turbulent plasma than the less coherent beams.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Sep 2022 04:05:01 +000
  • Performance Analysis of a Linear Gaussian- and tanh-Apodized FBG and
           Dispersion Compensating Fiber Design for Chromatic Dispersion Compensation
           in Long-haul Optical Communication Networks

    • Abstract: This paper investigates a novel compensation technique of dispersion effect mitigation using a combination of three- and four-stage-apodized fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) and dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) designs. Two designs using three-stage and four-stage FBG and DCF in combination have been proposed and compared for their performance in mitigating chromatic dispersion effects at 100 km SMF. The performance of each design has been evaluated using Q-factor results using linear Gaussian- and tanh-apodized fiber Bragg gratings. Each profile manifested different Q-factor results over a range of 5 dBm, 7.5 dBm, and 10 dBm of CW laser power over FBG grating lengths from 4 mm to 8 mm. The results obtained using the three-stage and four-stage FBG and DCF designs showed that an apodization profile using a tanh function can be used successfully with FBG lengths from 4 mm to 8 mm, regardless of the CW launched power. In contrast, the results using a Gaussian apodization profile for three- and four-stage FBG and DCF designs are applicable to FBG lengths from 5 mm to 8 mm. Designs using three-stage FBG and DCF generated higher Q-factor results than designs using only four-stage FBG and DCF, regardless of the launched power. The highest Q-factor of 18.58 was obtained for three-stage tanh-apodized FBG and DCF used in combination for an FBG length of 6 mm. The highest result obtained for a three-stage Gaussian-apodized FBG and DCF design was a Q factor of 17.13 using an FBG length of 8 mm. The proposed method was also compared to current similar works and can be successfully implemented in long-haul optical communication.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Sep 2022 07:50:00 +000
  • Comparison of Output Performance of Tunable Lasers with Two Different
           External Cavities

    • Abstract: Based on the simplified model of the tunable fiber laser system, the tuning performance of the laser was analyzed. Two kinds of tunable setups were established, which are the configurations with an external cavity and the configuration of the Littrow cavity. The tuning output characteristics experimentally were analyzed by means of setups. The simulation gives the output efficiency of two tunable lasers as 40% and 30%. In the experiment, the measured slope efficiency of the two lasers was 24% and 18.3%, and the tunable range of the two lasers was 32 nm and 40 nm, respectively. Both lasers could achieve laser output with good beam quality.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Aug 2022 07:20:01 +000
  • Single-Pixel Compressive Digital Holographic Encryption System Based on
           Circular Harmonic Key and Parallel Phase Shifting Digital Holography

    • Abstract: An encryption system that combines compressive sensing (CS) and two-step parallel phase shifting digital holography (PPSDH) using double random phase encoding (DRPE) is presented in this paper. The two-step PPSDH is a linear inline holographic scheme and is much suitable for encrypting the 2D/3D information in a single exposure. The distribution of random phase mask (RPM) in the DRPE is implemented using circular harmonic key which increases the security of the encryption process. In this system, the keys used to encrypt are spatial positions of the planes, wavelength, and rotation of the circular harmonics in RPMs, and CS acts as an additional key that makes the system more secure than the conventional optical encryption methods. At the transmission end, two-step PPSDH is applied to encrypt the object information in single hologram. The digital mirror device (DMD) is placed between the object and a single-pixel detector for acquiring fewer hologram measurements. At the receiver end, the single digital hologram is numerically recovered by using a CS optimization problem. The original complex object field is decrypted from the CS recovered holograms by the inversion of two-step PPSDH process with the help of the correct keys. The numerical simulations are presented for complex 2D and 3D objects to test the feasibility of the proposed encryption and decryption system. The proposed method carried out intensity and phase reconstruction of the original object field using single-pixel compressive imaging. The computer simulation results demonstrated that the encrypted information is highly secured with the rotation of the circular harmonic key. The sensitivity of the decrypted intensity and phase images is also studied with variations of the encrypted keys. The obtained results show that the proposed encryption scheme is feasible and has better security performance and robustness.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jul 2022 09:05:03 +000
  • Atomic Marginal Distribution and Squeezing Phenomena of Correlated Two
           Modes Interacting with a Three-Level Atom in the Presence of an External
           Classical Field

    • Abstract: The influence of the external classical field on a correlated two-mode of the electromagnetic field interacting with a three-level atom in the structure is studied. A rotation of the atomic basis is used to remove the classical field terms. The time-dependent wave function is obtained by solving the Schrödinger equation. The influence of the classical field on the phenomenon of revival, collapse, squeezing, and marginal atomic distribution are discussed. In our analysis, the cavity field is prepared in the entangled pair coherent states and the atomic system in the upper state. The results showed that the occupation of the atomic level is significantly affected by the addition of the classical field. The presence of the classical field reduces the squeezing intervals and the extreme values of the atomic marginal distribution.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 09:50:02 +000
  • A New Highly Secure Optical Image Security Technique Using Gyrator
           Transform for Image Security-Related Applications

    • Abstract: New methods and apparatuses for information security have evolved as a result of the rapid expansion of optical information processing. Security is one of the major issues in digital image transmission because it can deliver very secret information to any corresponding agency such as the military, biomedical, and security agencies. Previously, various techniques are proposed to perform optical image encryption techniques using different transformation and pixel-level techniques. Each work has its advantages and disadvantages in terms of computational complexity, security level, flexibility, quality, and so on. To overcome the security issues present in the previous works, a novel optical image encryption standard is proposed in this paper. This work uses information hiding followed by image encryption using Gyrator Transform (GT) using mean gradient key-based block swapping techniques. The main advantage of this work is that the key generation is dynamic and it depends upon the pixel intensity of 8 × 8 blocks. Secret information hiding is performed in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain to protect the data against noise attacks. To analyze the performance, various evaluation metrics are used to measure the quality of the decrypted image under various distortions such as cropping and rotation. The robustness of information hiding is analyzed using a noise attack on the received image. This work achieved 45.6 dB of Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) and 0.965 of Structural Similarity Index (SSIM), which is the best when compared to the conventional image encryption standards.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jun 2022 09:50:02 +000
  • Corrigendum to “High-Accuracy and Real-Time Indoor Positioning System
           Based on Visible Light Communication and Mobile Robot”

    • PubDate: Mon, 06 Jun 2022 14:05:02 +000
  • Terahertz Spectral Characteristics of Konjac Gum Determined via
           Microfluidic Technology

    • Abstract: Terahertz radiation enables nondestructive testing of biological samples, but is challenged by its high absorption in aqueous samples, so microfluidic technology is introduced to reduce the absorption. In this study, we designed a special temperature control device and an electric field device for a microfluidic chip to examine the terahertz spectral characteristics of konjac gum at different temperatures, concentrations, and electric field exposure time using the terahertz time domain spectroscopy system. Results demonstrate that higher concentrations of konjac gum lead to higher transmission intensity of terahertz radiation and a lower absorption of the radiation. Higher temperatures of the konjac gum lead to lower terahertz transmittance, and longer exposure time in the electric field leads to a lower transmittance of terahertz radiation and its higher absorption by the konjac gum. At the same time, we explain this phenomenon from the perspective of micromolecules. This study provides technical guidance for the detection of konjac gum by terahertz technology.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Jun 2022 07:35:01 +000
  • Design and Bulk Sensitivity Analysis of a Silicon Nitride Photonic
           Biosensor for Cancer Cell Detection

    • Abstract: Bulk sensitivity is an important parameter to validate the efficiency of the photonic waveguide sensor. Due to recent advancements in point-of-care silicon photonic biosensing, the focus is to identify the effective way to improve sensitivity. Integrating polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channel in sensor architecture decreases the sensitivity due to leakage of molecules at edges. The silicon nitride (SiN4) Mach–Zehnder interferometer utilizes the refractive index of different cancer cells (1.39–1.401) to determine the bulk sensitivity. The proposed gradient step rib-slot structure of 970 nm wide and 400 nm thickness is designed to hold the liquid sample without any PDMS material. This novel waveguide exhibits high waveguide bulk sensitivity and device bulk sensitivity compared with the gradient rib waveguide. We achieved a waveguide bulk sensitivity of 2.0699 RIU/RIU and device sensitivity of 568 nm/RIU through finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) analysis.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 May 2022 12:05:01 +000
  • Automatic Classification of Red Blood Cell Morphology Based on
           Quantitative Phase Imaging

    • Abstract: Classification of the morphology of red blood cells (RBCs) plays an extremely important role in evaluating the quality of long-term stored blood, as RBC storage lesions such as transformation of discocytes to echinocytes and then to spherocytes may cause adverse clinical effects. Most RBC segmentation and classification methods, limited by interference of staining procedures and poor details, are based on traditional bright field microscopy. In the present study, quantitative phase imaging (QPI) technology was combined with deep learning for automatic classification of RBC morphology. QPI can be used to observe unstained RBCs with high spatial resolution and phase information. In deep learning based on phase information, boundary curvature is used to reduce inadequate learning for preliminary screening of the three shapes of unstained RBCs. The model accuracy was 97.3% for the stacked sparse autoencoder plus Softmax classifier. Compared with the traditional convolutional neural network, the developed method showed a lower misclassification rate and less processing time, especially for RBCs with more discocytes. This method has potential applications in automatically evaluating the quality of long-term stored blood and real-time diagnosis of RBC-related diseases.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Apr 2022 14:50:00 +000
  • Design and Numerical Analysis of a Single-Polarization Filter Based on PCF
           with Plasmonic Layers of Gold and Indium Tin Oxide

    • Abstract: This paper presents a single-polarization filter based on PCF with plasmonic layers of gold and indium tin oxide (ITO). The plasmonic materials are metallic gold and ITO coated on the inner walls of two extra-large vertically arranged air holes. The resonance effect is triggered by guided modes propagating through the silica core and coupling to the coating areas. The finite element method is used to analyze the properties of the filter for the two fundamental orthogonal polarizations. A filtering effect is achieved in the communication window by optimizing the structural factors as well as gold film and ITO deposition thicknesses. When the filter is 1 mm long, the obtained filtering effect is 1319.689 dB/cm for the y-polarization and 31.881 dB/cm for the x-polarization, thus efficiently attenuating the y-component at a communication window of 1.15 μm. With a filtering bandwidth of 602 nm, the proposed filter shows superior characteristics compared with previously reported results. Applications of the proposed plasmonic PCF-based filter can be found in polarization-maintaining and polarization-suppressing systems for optical sensing and broadband transmission.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Apr 2022 10:35:01 +000
  • Design, Simulation, and Optimization of Polarization-Independent Four-Port
           Optical Waveguide Circulator Based on a Ferrite Material

    • Abstract: Optical circulators are used in optical devices such as multiplexers, demultiplexers, and optical routers. Usually, the magnetic material in the center of the circulator conducts light by interacting with the electromagnetic wave. In this research, a polarization-independent four-port optical waveguide circulator with the presence of a rhombus-shaped ferrimagnetic material has been designed, simulated, and optimized in the three-dimensional part of Comsol software. This designed circulator unlike the previous structures has four ports which use the transmission matrix method to conduct waves. By selecting the appropriate size and type of central ferrite, as well as the scale of input and output channels, the most optimal situation is obtained for power transmission with less than 1 dB loss when port 1 is input and port 2 is output.
      PubDate: Sun, 27 Mar 2022 11:20:03 +000
  • The Linear Fitting Method for Model of PIN Array Receiver in Space Optical

    • Abstract: We have proposed PIN array as receiver in space optical communication and adopted the double diode model, the widely accepted solar energy output theory, to study its characteristics of output current and voltage. In order to make the calculation simplified, the linear fitting method is put forward. Later, we adopt both the traditional method Newton-Raphson and the new linear fitting method to calculate the values of both maximum power and the corresponding voltage of 3 × 3 PIN array. The comparison result shows the calculated values with two methods are good consistent. It validates the feasibility of the new linear fitting method. In the next step, the experiment has been carried out. The experimental result validates the reasonability of adopting the double diode model to study PIN array. At the same time, it validates the feasibility of the new linear fitting method again.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Mar 2022 08:05:05 +000
  • Design of an Athermalizing Bonding Structure for Optical Components

    • Abstract: In this paper, an athermalizing connection method of the optical components of high-performance optical objectives that enables them to reduce the deterioration of their performance due to temperature instability is proposed. The optical components of the athermalizing connection structure consist of three parts arranged from the outside to the inside. The materials of the intermediate parts are different from those of the external and internal ones. The relationship between the parameters of the athermalizing connection structure is deduced based on the mechanics of materials. The surface errors of optical components at different temperatures are simulated for an exemplary structure. The simulation results show that the root mean square (RMS) of the optical component surface is approximately proportional to the temperature. When the temperature drops by 10 °C, the RMS changes by 0.66 nm as compared to its value measured at 20 °C. The temperature deflection test of the optical components carried out in the temperature range of 20 ± 5 °C provides the RMS values of the optical face of 0.019λ at 15 °C and 0.02λ at 25 °C. The change of RMS obtained in this test amounts to 0.63 nm for a temperature difference of 10 °C, which deviates from the respective simulated value by 4%. The experimental results show that the athermalizing connection method proposed in this paper ensures small deformations of optical components at large temperature changes. Therefore, it meets the requirements for the application of optical components and is suitable for the connection of high-precision components.
      PubDate: Sun, 20 Mar 2022 12:50:03 +000
  • Properties of the Rotation and Mergence of Twisted Gaussian Schell Model
           Array Beams Propagating in Turbulent Biological Tissues

    • Abstract: In this paper, an analytical expression for describing propagation properties of twisted Gaussian Schell model array (TGSMA) beams through turbulent biological tissues is derived based on the extended Huygens Fresnel integral. With the help of the formulae, properties of the rotation and mergence for the TGSMA beams in turbulent biological tissues are researched in detail. It is found that the TGSMA beams go through the distinct mergence period in the far field besides phenomena of abruption and rotation in the near field, and turbulent biological tissues play a dominated role in mergence of the TGSMA beams. These novel results may be helpful in optical trapping.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Mar 2022 11:50:03 +000
  • A Simplified Method of Microscopic Polarizability Tensor Differential of
           Hyper-Raman Spectroscopy Based on the Bond Additivity Model

    • Abstract: Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and Ccherent anti-Stokes hyper-Raman spectroscopy (CAHRS), as other high-order nonlinear spectroscopy techniques, are widely exploited in many research fields, such as dynamic processes, gene expression spectrum screening, high-resolution spectroscopy, and nonlinear high-resolution imaging. However, it is difficult to make a quantitative analysis of the spectral signals that involve a large number of high-order micropolarizability tensors. It is reported that the CARS and CAHRS microscopic hyperpolarizability tensor elements can be decomposed into the product of the differentiation of Raman microscopic polarizability tensor α′i′j′ and hyper-Raman microscopic polarizability tensor β′i′j′k′ so that the high-order spectra can be simplified to the analysis of low-order spectra. In this paper, we use the bond additivity model (BAM) combined with experimental corrections to address the carbon dioxide (CO2) molecule and present the simplified scheme for differentiation of hyper-Raman microscopic polarizability tensor elements β′i′j′k′. Taking advantage of this approach, combined with the experimental correction, the differentiation of Hyper-Raman microscopic polarizability tensor elements β′i′j′k′ of the CO2 is obtained and the expressions of β′i′j′k′ for antisymmetric vibrations of CO2 are deduced. Finally, substituting the differentiation of Raman microscopic polarizability tensor elements α′i′j′ reported in the literature into the ratio above can obtain the proportional relationship between the microscopic polarizability tensor elements of CARS and CAHRS of the CO2. This method can provide the basis for the quantitative analysis of high-order nonlinear spectral profiles.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Mar 2022 11:50:02 +000
  • Simulation and Optimization of Temperature Effect in Solar Cells CdTe with
           Back Connection Cu2O

    • Abstract: One of the least studied and most important parameters that are ignored in the simulation and construction of solar cells is temperature. The effect of temperature is complex, and the solar cell is a very temperature-sensitive device. Constructing high-efficient solar cells is an essential task. In this paper, we simulated and studied the effect of temperature on the characteristics of FTO/SnO2/CdS/CdTe/Cu2O solar cells using MATLAB and Maple software. For this purpose, first, the transport and Poisson equations, the continuity of the current, and the transfer of the carrier were solved by the drift-diffusion method and then they were discretized. We examined the cell temperature in the range of 200 to 400 Kelvin. The results showed that increasing temperature from 200 to 400 Kelvin open-circuit voltage decreases the short-circuit current. Furthermore, the filling factor first increases and then decreases. The efficiency of the solar cell also decreases sharply with increasing temperature. The results showed that, by decreasing the temperature of the solar cell, an efficiency of more than 32% can be achieved in cadmium telluride solar cells with FTO/SnO2/CdS/CdTe/Cu2O structure.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Feb 2022 16:20:00 +000
  • Design of a Highly Efficient Subwavelength Antireflective Structure for
           Solar Cells

    • Abstract: An efficient optical antireflective (AR) structure plays a vital role in high-performance thin-film solar cells. Here, we design a surface relief AR structure consisting of a two-dimensional (2D) array of a subwavelength ring and pillar-shaped feature, capable of suppressing optical reflection over a wide spectral window of the solar spectrum. Our simulations show that the weighted average reflectance of the subwavelength AR structure is as low as 4.2% in the 400–1100 nm spectral range in the normal incidence condition and almost 10-fold reduction compared with a bare silicon surface. When placed on the front side of a simple Si thin-film photovoltaic solar cell, this subwavelength AR structure leads to an improved light absorption with simulated results showing an increase of 53% short-circuit current compared to a flat solar cell. Besides, our simulations show that this AR structure could, in principle, perform well against reasonable fabrication errors.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Feb 2022 12:35:01 +000
  • Nonlinear Extended Kalman Filter for Attitude Estimation of the Fixed-Wing

    • Abstract: Flying vehicle’s navigation, direction, and control in real-time results in the design of a strap-down inertial navigation system (INS). The strategy results in low accuracy, performance with correctness. Aiming at the attitude estimation problem, many data fusion or filtering methods had been applied, which fail in many cases, which attains the nonlinear measurement model, process dynamics, and high navigation range. The main problem in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and flying vehicles is the determination of attitude angles. A novel attitude estimation algorithm is proposed in this study for the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). This research article designs two filtering algorithms for fixed-wing UAVs which are nonlinear for the attitude estimation. The filters are based on Kalman filters. The unscented Kalman filter (UKF) and cubature Kalman filter (CKF) were designed with different parameterizations of attitude, i.e., Euler angle (EA) and INS/unit quaternion (UQ) simultaneously. These filters, EA-UKF and INS-CKF, use the nonlinear process and measurement model. The computational results show that among both filters, the CKF attains a high accuracy, robustness, and estimation for the attitude estimation of the fixed-wing UAV.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Feb 2022 05:50:01 +000
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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