Subjects -> PHYSICS (Total: 857 journals)
    - ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM (10 journals)
    - MECHANICS (22 journals)
    - NUCLEAR PHYSICS (53 journals)
    - OPTICS (92 journals)
    - PHYSICS (625 journals)
    - SOUND (25 journals)
    - THERMODYNAMICS (30 journals)

OPTICS (92 journals)

Showing 1 - 91 of 91 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Photonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Advanced Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Advanced Photonics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Photonics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Optics and Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Vision Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
APL : Organic Electronics and Photonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Optics Express     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Photonics     Open Access  
Chinese Optics Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
EPJ Photovoltaics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Hybrid Imaging     Open Access  
Fiber and Integrated Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
High Power Laser Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Hindsight : The Journal of Optometry History     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Photonics Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
IEEE Photonics Technology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Optics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Optoelectronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Sustainable Lighting     Open Access  
Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Laser Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Mass Spectrometry and Advances in the Clinical Lab     Open Access  
Journal of Modern Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Nanoelectronics and Optoelectronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nonlinear Optical Physics & Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Optical Microsystem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Optical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Optics Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Photonics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Photonics for Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of the Optical Society of America A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of the Optical Society of America B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of the Optical Society of Korea     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Laser & Photonics Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Laser Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Lasers in Medical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
LEUKOS : The Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society     Hybrid Journal  
Materials Today Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microwave and Optical Technology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Nature Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Optica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Optical and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Optical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Optical Fiber Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Optical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Optical Materials : X     Open Access  
Optical Materials Express     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Optical Memory and Neural Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Optical Nanoscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Optical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Optics & Laser Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Optics and Lasers in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Optics and Photonics Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Optics and Photonics Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Optics and Photonics News     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Optics and Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Optics Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Optics Express     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Optics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Optik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Optik & Photonik     Open Access  
Optoelectronics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Photochem     Open Access  
Photonic Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Photonics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Photonics Letters of Poland     Open Access  
Photonics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
PhotonicsViews     Hybrid Journal  
Progress in Optics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Results in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
SIAM Journal on Imaging Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Thin Solid Films     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Trends in Opto-Electro & Optical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Optoelectronics Letters
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.182
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1993-5013 - ISSN (Online) 1673-1905
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Multi-object tracking based on deep associated features for UAV
           applications

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      Abstract: Abstract Multi-object tracking (MOT) techniques have been increasingly applied in a diverse range of tasks. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is one of its typical application scenarios. Due to the scene complexity and the low resolution of moving targets in UAV applications, it is difficult to extract target features and identify them. In order to solve this problem, we propose a new re-identification (re-ID) network to extract association features for tracking in the association stage. Moreover, in order to reduce the complexity of detection model, we perform the lightweight optimization for it. Experimental results show that the proposed re-ID network can effectively reduce the number of identity switches, and surpass current state-of-the-art algorithms. In the meantime, the optimized detector can increase the speed by 27% owing to its lightweight design, which enables it to further meet the requirements of UAV tracking tasks.
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
       
  • A BLG1 neural model implements the unique looming selectivity to diving
           target

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      Abstract: Abstract The bistratified lobula giant type 1 (BLG1) neuron is an identified looming-sensitive neuron in crab’s visual brain that demonstrates special sensitivity to diving targets, or descending approaching motions. In this paper, a novel neural model is proposed to shape such unique selectivity through incorporating a bio-plausible feedforward contrast inhibition synapse and a radially extending spatial enhancement distribution. Herein the synaptic connections and neuronal functions of this model are placed within a framework for matching and describing underlying biological findings. The systematic and comparative experiments have validated the proposed computational model that reconciles with the characteristics of BLG1 neurons in crab.
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
       
  • Research on the design of metalens with achromatic and amplitude
           modulation

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      Abstract: Abstract Metalenses are two-dimensional planar metamaterial lenses, which have the advantages of high efficiency and easy integration. However, most metalenses cannot modulate the light intensity, which limits their applications. To deal with it, taking advantage of flexible regulation of the beam amplitude and phase by the metalens, the geometric phase method is selected to design the dual-function metalens. It can effectively eliminate chromatic aberration in a visible light band from 535 nm to 600 nm and achieve amplitude modulation. After transmitting the metalens, the amplitudes of the beam respectively turn into 0.2 and 0.9. In this way, the amount of transmission of metalens in the preset band can be quantitatively controlled. According to the distribution characteristics of light diffraction intensity, the metalens designed can play a dual modulation role of achromatism and interference double-beam equilibrium in the paper, to meet the needs of miniaturization and integration of the optical system. The achromatic and amplitude-modulated metalens will have great application potential in optical holographic imaging and super-resolution focusing.
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
       
  • Decoding algorithm with multiple features based on optical camera
           communication system

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      Abstract: Abstract The performance of decoding algorithm is one of the important influential factors to determine the communication quality of optical camera communication (OCC) system. In this paper, we first propose a decoding algorithm with adaptive thresholding based on the captured pixel values under an ideal environment, and then we further propose a decoding algorithm with multiple features, which is more suitable under the existence of the interference of light sources. The algorithm firstly determines the light-emitting diode (LED) array profile information by removing the interfering light sources through geometric features, and then identifies the LED state by calculating two grayscale features, the average gray ratio (AGR) and the gradient radial inwardness (GRI) of the LEDs, and finally obtains the LED state matrix. The experimental results show that the bit error ratio (BER) of the decoding algorithm with multiple features decreases from 1×10−2 to 5×10−4 at 80 m.
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
       
  • TBNN: totally-binary neural network for image classification

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      Abstract: Abstract Most binary networks apply full precision convolution at the first layer. Changing the first layer to the binary convolution will result in a significant loss of accuracy. In this paper, we propose a new approach to solve this problem by widening the data channel to reduce the information loss of the first convolutional input through the sign function. In addition, widening the channel increases the computation of the first convolution layer, and the problem is solved by using group convolution. The experimental results show that the accuracy of applying this paper’s method to state-of-the-art (SOTA) binarization method is significantly improved, proving that this paper’s method is effective and feasible.
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
       
  • Terahertz dual-beam leaky-wave antenna based on composite spoof surface
           plasmon waveguide

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      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, we propose a single-port dual-beam leaky-wave antenna (LWA) in the terahertz (THz) band based on a composite spoof surface plasmon polariton (SSPP) waveguide. The antenna can generate three independent transmission channels by exciting two independent modes inherent to hole and groove structures, respectively. By periodic modulation of the hole and groove structures, we achieve dual-beam scanning through a broad radiation angle using only the -1st space harmonics of the two modes, hence avoiding the instability of the -2rd space harmonic. Within the operating frequency range of 0.62–0.85 THz, the gain ranges from 13.5 dBi to 17 dBi for the backward beam, and from 6 dBi to 11.8 dBi for the forward beam. The antenna can accomplish continuous backward beam through broadside to forward beam scanning with a total scanning range of 116° and an average efficiency of about 92%. The antenna exhibits a great potential in the design of multi-transceiver radar system in the THz band and multi-beam LWAs.
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
       
  • Combining urine surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with PCA-SVM algorithm
           

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      Abstract: Abstract Cancer staging detection is important for clinician to assess the patients’ status and make optimal therapy decision. In this study, the machine learning algorithm based on principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machine (SVM) was combined with urine surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy for improving the identification of colorectal cancer (CRC) at early and advanced stages. Two discriminant methods, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and SVM were compared, and the results indicated that the diagnostic accuracy of SVM (93.65%) was superior to that of LDA (80.95%). This exploratory study demonstrated the great promise of urine SERS spectra along with PCA-SVM for facilitating more accurate detection of CRC at different stages.
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
       
  • Study on enrichment characteristics of Chinese herbal medicine based on
           LIBS technology

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      Abstract: Abstract To improve the accuracy of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) measurement and investigate the enrichment characteristics of trace elements in different parts of Chinese herbal medicine, the original spectral data of different Chinese herbal medicines were preprocessed by combining median absolute deviation (MAD), segmented feature extraction, and wavelet denoising, and the enrichment laws of trace elements in different parts of Chinese herbal medicine were studied based on the calibration free laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS). For these experimental samples, the contents of K, Ca, Mg, and Fe in chrysanthemum and its roots, stems, and leaves, Iris lactea roots and leaves, Salvia miltiorrhiza and corresponding planting soil were obtained by CF-LIBS. By calculating the element enrichment coefficient, it was found that chrysanthemum had strong enrichment ability of K element, and the enrichment ability of K element was flower > leaf > stem > root. The roots and leaves of Iris lactea showed strong enrichment of Ca and Mg. The enrichment ability for Ca is leaf > root, and for Mg is leaf > root. The enrichment coefficient of Ca and Mg in Salvia miltiorrhiza is higher. The results show that the combination of multiple data preprocessing methods can effectively improve the accuracy of LIBS measurement results. The calculation method of trace element enrichment law in different parts of Chinese herbal medicines provides guidance for the cultivation and fertilization of Chinese herbal medicines and the identification of high-quality Chinese herbal medicines.
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
       
  • Research and application of uniform material counting method based on
           machine vision

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      Abstract: Abstract Manufacturing and agricultural industries use manual methods to count materials. This leads to low accuracy and inefficiency. This paper proposes a secondary counting method that combines main and differential counting. The area-fill identification algorithm is applied to mark the counted materials. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed counting algorithm, numbers of countings are conducted for different materials, such as the screws, hole gaskets, beans, jujube, etc. The results show that the counting accuracy reaches 98% for materials with size of 2–20 mm. The method has delivered a high-efficiency and high-accuracy automatic intelligent counting, with a wide range of application prospects and reference value.
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
       
  • Research on modeling method of continuous spectrum water quality online
           detection based on random forest

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      Abstract: Abstract It’s common to use the method of continuous spectroscopy in water quality testing. But there’re some problems with it. For example, the scanning results have a large number of nonlinear signals, and the covariance between variables is serious, which can lead to a decrease in the model prediction accuracy. In this paper, the standard solutions of nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) and nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N) were used as the subject to be tested, and the data of the scanned waves and absorbance were obtained by use of spectral detector. The data were processed by noise reduction first and then the random forest (RF) algorithm was adopted to establish the regression relationship between concentration and absorbance. For comparison, partial least squares (PLS) and support vector machine (SVM) algorithm models were also established. For the same given data, the three reverse models can make the projection of the concentration respectively. The experimental results show that the RF algorithm predicts NO2-N concentrations significantly better than the SVM algorithm and PLS algorithm. This proves that the RF algorithm has good prediction ability in spectral water quality detection because of its high model accuracy and better adaptability, which could be a reference for similar research on continuous spectral water quality online detection.
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
       
  • Bidirectional intensity modulated/direct detection optical OFDM WDM-PON
           system

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      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, we have evaluated a bidirectional wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON) employing intensity modulated/direct detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (IM/DD-OFDM). The proposed system employs 100 Gbit/s 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) downstream and 5 Gbit/s on-off keying (OOK) upstream wavelengths, respectively. The proposed system is considered low-cost as non-coherent IM/DD OFDM technology and a simple reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) colorless transmitter are employed and no dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) is needed. Based on the bit error rate (BER) results of WDM signals, the proposed WDM-PON system can achieve up to 1.6 Tbit/s (100 Gbit/s/λ × 16 wavelengths) downstream transmission over a 30 km single mode fiber (SMF).
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
       
  • Tuning zinc doping content to optimize optical and structural properties
           of Cd1−xZnxS buffer layers

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      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, Cd1−xZnxS thin films were prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD), and the effects of different zinc doping content on the morphological structure and optical properties of Cd1−xZnxS buffer layers are systematically discussed. The experimental results show that in the deposition process of different substrates, the crystal structure of the film is all hexagonal, and when the concentration of zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) precursor is varied from 0 to 0.025 M, the films are uniform and dense. With the increase of zinc content, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) peak of the films shifted behind that of CdS film (002). It showed 70% to 90% transmittance in the visible region and the optical band gap increased gradually. The band gap value of the films obtained ranged from 2.43 eV to 3.01 eV. It shows the potential feasibility of its application to photovoltaic devices.
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
       
  • Numerical study on a frequency-tunable actively mode-locked fiber laser

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      Abstract: Abstract We have numerically presented an actively mode-locked fiber laser with tunable repetition rate based on phase modulator. By finely optimizing intra-cavity parameters, the ultrashort pulses with tunable repetitive frequency at giga hertz level can be easily generated due to the balance between dispersion and nonlinearity in the fiber laser cavity. When the pulse frequency is changed from 1.0 GHz to 4.2 GHz, the spectral width increases from ∼15.65 nm to ∼27.25 nm. In addition, the corresponding pulse duration decreases from ∼81.59 ps to ∼31.57 ps. Moreover, these output pulses with giga hertz repetitive rates and the picosecond widths can be further compressed by using the reasonable dispersion medium. For the pulse regime with repetition frequency at giga hertz level, the obtained smallest pulse duration is about ∼62 fs based on chirp pulse compression. We hope that these simulation results can promote further research and application in the ultrashort pulse lasers with high repetition rate.
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
       
  • 128 Gbit/s high speed optical interconnection networks in data centers by
           a 30 GHz Mach-Zehnder modulator

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      Abstract: Abstract A decision feedback equalization (DFE) algorithm is proposed by simplifying Volterra structure. The simplification principle and process of the proposed Volterra-based equalization algorithm are presented. With the support of this algorithm, the signal damage for four-level pulse amplitude modulation signal (PAM-4) is compensated, which is caused by device bandwidth limitation and dispersion during transmission in C-band intensity modulation direct detection (IM-DD) fiber system. Experiments have been carried out to demonstrate that PAM-4 signals can transmit over 2 km in standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) based on a 30 GHz Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM). The bit error rate (BER) can reach the threshold of hard decision-forward error correction (HD-FEC) (BER=3.8×10−3) and its sensitivity is reduced by 2 dBm compared with traditional feedforward equalization (FFE). Meanwhile, the algorithm complexity is greatly reduced by 55%, which provides an effective theoretical support for the commercial application of the algorithm.
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
       
  • Construction and performance analysis of variable weight zero cross
           

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      Abstract: Abstract The selection of appropriate codes for an optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) network, which determines the maximum number of users and bit error rate (BER) supported by the system, is crucial. This study proposed a variable weight zero cross-correlation Latin square (VW-ZLS) code for spectral amplitude coding (SAC)-OCDMA systems, which offers high autocorrelation and zero cross-correlation, while providing differentiated quality of service (QoS) features. Using direct detection (DD) technology, the data rate of the proposed VW-ZLS code reached 4.8 Gbit/s under the condition that BER does not exceed 10−9. This was 0.5 Gbit/s higher than that of zero cross-correlation magic square variable weight optical orthogonal code (ZMS-VWOOC) with the same cross-correlation characteristics. Further, simulation results showed that in SAC-OCDMA system, the VW-ZLS code was better than ZMS-VWOOC and exhibited excellent performance.
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
       
  • Computation and analysis of aero-optic imaging deviation of a blunt nosed
           aircraft with Mach number 0.5–3

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      Abstract: Abstract Aero-optic imaging is a kind of optical effect, which describes the imaging deviation on the imaging plane. In this paper, the effect of the change of Mach number of blunt aircraft on the aero-optic imaging deviation is studied. The imaging deviations of Mach number 0.5–3 are analyzed systematically. The results show that with the increase of Mach number, imaging deviation increases gradually, and the increase rate is gradually slow. Imaging deviation slope decreases gradually with the increase of Mach number, and gradually tends to be zero, suggesting that imaging deviation is not sensitive to the change of the larger Mach number. In other words, the Mach number of smaller changes can lead to larger imaging deviation. As the Mach number of the aircraft increases, the slope of the imaging offset tends to be closer and closer to 0. When the Mach number of the aircraft increases to a certain extent, the change of the imaging offset will not have much influence. Therefore, in order to reduce the impact of flight speed on imaging migration, the aircraft should fly at a higher Mach number.
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
       
  • Fitting objects with implicit polynomials by deep neural network

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      Abstract: Abstract Implicit polynomials (IPs) are considered as a powerful tool for object curve fitting tasks due to their simplicity and fewer parameters. The traditional linear methods, such as 3L, MinVar, and MinMax, often achieve good performances in fitting simple objects, but usually work poorly or even fail to obtain closed curves of complex object contours. To handle the complex fitting issues, taking the advantages of deep neural networks, we designed a neural network model continuity-sparsity constrained network (CSC-Net) with encoder and decoder structure to learn the coefficients of IPs. Further, the continuity constraint is added to ensure the obtained curves are closed, and the sparseness constraint is added to reduce the spurious zero sets of the fitted curves. The experimental results show that better performances have been obtained on both simple and complex object fitting tasks.
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
       
  • Reflectivity measurement technology of special high reflective mirrors and
           uncertainty analysis of measurement results

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      Abstract: Abstract In order to meet the reflectivity measurement requirements of any incident angle at different points of the large size special high mirror, a rotating cavity ring-down spectroscopy high reflectivity measurement system was built, in which the rotation function of the resonant cavity was set, and the lifting and parallel travelling mechanism of the measured mirror was added. Furthermore, the uncertainty of the measurement results was analyzed and calculated. The results showed that the reflectivity of a high reflective mirror measured by the system was 99.979 5%, the measurement accuracy reached the order of 10−6, and the combined standard uncertainty of reflectivity measurement was 0.002 8%. Collectively, these results provide a detection guarantee for the maintenance of the large size special high mirror, and provide ideas and methods for the uncertainty analysis of measurement results of similar equipment parameters.
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
       
  • Extinction ratio tolerant filterless millimeter wave generation using
           single parallel MZM

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      Abstract: Abstract Enhancing the spectral quality of the signal without varying the extinction ratio is a challenge for millimeter (MM) wave generation. Here, we propose a novel extinction ratio tolerant frequency 8-tupling technique using two Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZMs) with optimal splitting ratio in parallel configuration. Although the proposed technique is not affected by extinction ratio, a high quality MM wave is still obtained with complete unwanted sideband suppression. Two non-ideal MZMs with π/2 and π phase shifter realize MZM with optimal splitting ratio, which acts as a high extinction ratio modulator. The 80 GHz MM wave with 62 dB optical sideband suppression ratio (OSSR) and 54 dB radio frequency sideband suppression ratio (RSSR) is generated from 10 GHz local oscillator signal at 2.403 6 modulation index (MI). Performance of the present work has been evaluated using various MIs, phase drifts and extinction ratios. Sideband suppression ratio (SSR) greater than 10 dB is reported in a wide MI ranging from 2.36 to 2.47. Further, both the SSRs are tolerant towards MZM extinction ratio. The work is ideal for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) applications due to its filterless characteristics.
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
       
  • PCF-multimode/endless fiber sensor for respiratory rate monitoring

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      Abstract: Abstract A respiratory monitoring system was proposed based on optical fiber. The sensor consists of photonic crystal fiber (PCF) spliced with multimode fiber (MMF) to fabricate Michelson interferometer. The sensor is inserted into an oxygen mask tube and then put on the nose and mouth to monitor the respiratory rate (RR) for different cases. The results showed that when breathing increased, the intensity of light decreased. The intensity of light in the sleeping case of breathing was more intense than that when the intensity of working sport was measured. The working sport case was a higher transmittance than that of sleeping. The sensitivity of the sensor was also measured to be 231.9 pm/RH.
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
       
 
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